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Sample records for cornus colla deer

  1. Pollen morphology of Cornus mas L. and Cornus sanguinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlıoğlu Kılıç, Nurgül; Tuttu, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Pollen morphology of Cornus mas L. and Cornus sanguinea L.Abstract: The pollen morphology of 2 species of the genus Cornus L. distributed in Turkey was studied with light and scanning electron microscope. The pollen of genus Cornus is 3-colporate. Pollen of the Cornus mas is spheroidal and Cornus sanguinea is subprolate. Size varies of Cornus mas pollen with the polar axis ranging from 21.54 to 27.36 μm and equatorial axis from 21.31 to 26.72 μm. Size varies of Cornus sanguinea pollen with po...

  2. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.

  3. Preliminary studies concerning chromosome constitution of some Cornus mas L. genotypes (Bacau district)

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Truta; Gabriela Capraru; Craita-Maria Rosu; Stefania Surdu; Gogu Giorghita; Viorel Ionel Rati

    2009-01-01

    : The cytogenetic characterization is necessary to decipher the controversies on biogeography, taxonomy and evolution of the genus, evolution of chromosome number. Some of Cornus species have the following diploid chromosome numbers: Cornus suecica L. 2n=22, Cornus mas L. 2n=18, 54, Cornus sanguinea L. 2n=22, Cornus sericea L. 2n=22, Cornus alba 2n=22. Our preliminary observations performed on Cornus mas genotypes (Bacau district) confirmed the existence of 2n=18 chromosomes. Kary...

  4. Ah lo previdi - Arien von Mozart, Cocchi, Colla und Paisiello

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Milada

    -, - (2008), s. 75-86. ISBN 9783761821107. ISSN 1861-9053. [Der junge Mozart 1756-1780. Philologie – Analyse – Rezeption. Salzburg, 01.12.2005-4.12.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS900580552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Ah lo previdi * Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart * G. Cocchi * G. Colla * G. Paisiello Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Deer Velvet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deer velvet is used as a tonic for children with “failure to thrive,” mental retardation, learning disabilities, slow growth, or bone problems including rickets. In herbal combinations, deer velvet is used to ...

  6. Rasprostranjenost i značaj roda Cornus u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović Purgar, Dubravka; Duralija, Boris; Mešić, Aleksandar; Vokurka, Aleš; Rubeša, Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Na području Hrvatske samoniklo rastu četiri vrste iz roda Cornus: Cornus alba, C. hungarica, C. mas i C. sanguinea. Vrste C. mas i C. sanguinea zabilježene su u sve tri geografsko-klimatske regije Hrvatske. Vrsta C. hungarica zabilježena je na području nizinske Hrvatske i na sjeveru sredozemne Hrvatske, a C. alba zabilježena je unutar urbanih sredina. Od navedenih vrsta jedino C. mas - drijen pripada u skupinu samoniklih voćnih vrsta. To je ujedno voćna vrsta koja zbog svoje velike prehramben...

  7. Valorization and Miscellaneous Prospects of Waste Musa balbisiana Colla Pseudostem

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    Krishna Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resourceful utilization of the enormous quantum of agrowastes generated via agricultural practices can be supportive in waste management, environmental upgradation, and subsequent material and energy recovery. In this regard, the present study aimed at highlighting waste banana (Musa balbisiana Colla pseudostem (an agrowaste as a potential bio-based feedstock with miscellaneous applications. The pseudostem was characterized by carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen (CHN analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGDTA, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were estimated as a part of biochemical characterization. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were carried out as a part of antioxidant characterization. The waste banana pseudostem biomass (WBPB was also tried successfully as a natural filler in polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer composite. Thermal properties and water uptake test of the WBPB polymer composite were accessed as a part of composite characterization. The pseudostem had calorific value (15.22 MJ/kg, high holocellulose (58.67%, high free radical scavenging potential (69.9%, and a low ash content (6.8%. Additionally, the WBPB polymer composite showed improved water resistance and thermostability. The study suggests feasibility of WBPB as a prospective bioenergy feedstock, primary antioxidant source, and reinforcing agent in polymer composites.

  8. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for Cornus sanguinea (Cornaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadl, Phillip A; Hatmaker, E Anne; Fussi, Barbara; Scheffler, Brian E; Trigiano, Robert N

    2013-09-01

    To facilitate genetic and conservation research of Cornus sanguinea, microsatellite loci were isolated and 29 individuals from 11 German populations were genotyped. • Sixteen microsatellite loci were characterized from an enriched small insert genomic library. The number of alleles detected ranged from five to 11 per locus, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.65 to 0.90, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.59 to 0.88. • The markers described in the study will allow further investigation of population dynamics and the degree of clonal reproduction within populations of C. sanguinea.

  9. Cretaceous origin of dogwoods: an anatomically preserved Cornus (Cornaceae fruit from the Campanian of Vancouver Island

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    Brian A. Atkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cornaceae consists of 58 species, all within the genus Cornus. The Cenozoic record of Cornus is extensive and well documented. Molecular divergence-time studies suggest that crown-group Cornus may have originated by the Late Cretaceous. However, there has been no formal report of Cornus from Cretaceous deposits. Here, we characterize a permineralized fossil fruit assignable to Cornus subg. Cornus from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Shelter Point locality of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Serial sections of the specimen were made using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Peels were mounted onto microscope slides and studied by light microscopy. Results The fossil fruit consists of a tri-locular woody endocarp with dorsal germination valves. The locules are sub-triangular to ellipsoidal in transverse section and are separated by thin septa. Endocarp tissue consists of elongated and isodiametric sclereids and secretory cavities. Internal vascular tissue was not observed, but is interpreted to have been located along the outer periphery of the septa for some length, common in many cornalean taxa. There is one seed in each locule, one of which was found to have endosperm and a dicotyledonous embryo. Discussion Woody endocarps with germination valves, without central vascular bundles, and with one seed per locule are characteristic of several families within the order Cornales. The interpreted vascular pattern and presence of secretory cavities indicates that the fossil fruit is assignable to Cornus subg. Cornus. Comparative analysis suggests that the fossil is most similar to Cornus piggae, a species described from the Paleocene of North Dakota. This fossil is the first evidence of crown-group Cornaceae from the Cretaceous and sheds light on both the plesiomorphic fruit characters and the timing of the initial diversification of the family and basal asterid lineage, Cornales.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguinea (Cornaceae

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    Phillip A. Wadl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: To facilitate genetic and conservation research of Cornus sanguinea, microsatellite loci were isolated and 29 individuals from 11 German populations were genotyped. Methods and Results: Sixteen microsatellite loci were characterized from an enriched small insert genomic library. The number of alleles detected ranged from five to 11 per locus, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.65 to 0.90, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.59 to 0.88. Conclusions: The markers described in the study will allow further investigation of population dynamics and the degree of clonal reproduction within populations of C. sanguinea.

  11. Geographic variability of selected phenolic compounds in fresh berries of two Cornus species

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Bajić-Ljubičić, Jasna; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srđan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical variability of Cornus mas and Cornus sanguinea on the basis of the content of six selected phenolic compounds in fruit extracts. Fruits were sampled at the time of full ripening, mid-September, from two localities that differed in terms of orographic and environmental conditions. Fresh fruit extracts were analyzed by LC–MS/MS to determine the presence and contents of neochlorogenic acid, quercitrin, isoquercetin, hyperoside, rutoside and q...

  12. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  13. Quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to powdery mildew in cornus florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) caused by Erysiphe pulchra is one of the most destructive diseases in nursery production of flowering dogwood throughout the southeastern U.S. Since the mid-1990s, efforts to breed for resistance to the disease have been undertaken, but to-date on...

  14. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguniea (Cornaceae) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Cornus sanguinea and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results: A microsatellite-enriched library was used to develop 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for C. sanguinea. The loci amplified 5-11 allel...

  15. Deer health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the most significant diseases of farmed deer which have emerged over the last 30 or so years. It describes their characteristic signs, how control measures have evolved, their current status and gives an indication of future diagnostic and control measures. Overall, it shows that wild deer brought into a farming environment have developed some of the production limiting diseases which affect sheep and cattle, such as parasitism and trace element deficiencies. In addition, farmed deer are susceptible to potentially fatal diseases such as tuberculosis, malignant catarrhal fever and yersiniosis. A disease which has recently emerged and has the potential to be more serious than any of the above is Johne's disease. In North America, Chronic Wasting Disease occurs in captive and wild deer in only two states but has the potential to be a serious threat to wild and farmed deer elsewhere if it spreads. The zoonotic risks of diseases affecting deer are discussed, as well as stress, welfare and deer restraint. The productivity of farmed deer can be maximised by using a well-designed deer health programme integrated with good management and feeding.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguinea (Cornaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip A. Wadl; E. Anne Hatmaker; Barbara Fussi; Brian E. Scheffler; Robert N. Trigiano

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: To facilitate genetic and conservation research of Cornus sanguinea, microsatellite loci were isolated and 29 individuals from 11 German populations were genotyped. Methods and Results: Sixteen microsatellite loci were characterized from an enriched small insert genomic library. The number of alleles detected ranged from five to 11 per locus, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.65 to 0.90, and polymorphic information...

  17. DW-DEERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of data from the DoD Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) used for USCG member and reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence...

  18. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  19. Penggunaan Daun Pisang Batu (Musa Balbisiana Colla) Sebagai Adsorben Untuk Menyerap Logam Crom (Cr) Dan Nikel (Ni)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanim, Ulfa

    2011-01-01

    A research for the using of batu banana leaves (Musa Balbisiana Colla) as adsorbent of chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni), has been done. The sample of dried batu banana leaves that had be powdered in the size of 50 mesh and mixed with NaOH 20% activated by using HCl 1 N solution. In this research, the pH is measured on the chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni) using pH meter and the measurement of chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni) content in the sample of dried batu banana leaves before activation and after activa...

  20. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

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    Shixin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity.

  1. Tracking population loss in Cornus florida since discovery of Discula destructiva, causal agent of dogwood anthracnose, in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Jones; William D. Smith; Daniel B. Twardus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation monitoring project was to document the losses of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida (L.), an important ornamental and wildlife tree that grows across much of Eastern North America. The project was prompted in 2001 by the apparent abundance of flowering dogwoods along roadsides in the Morgantown, WV, area, despite a...

  2. A two-generation analysis of pollen pool genetic structure in flowering dogwood Cornus florida (Cornaceae), in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria L. Sork; Peter E. Smouse; Victoria J. Apsit; Rodney J. Dyer; Robert D. Westfall

    2005-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can disrupt gene flow. As part of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project, this study examined whether silvicultural practices influence pollen-mediated gene movement in the insect-pollinated species, Cornus florida L., by comparing pollen pool structure (ΦST) among clear-cutting,...

  3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for Cornus sanguinea (Cornaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadl, Phillip A.; Hatmaker, E. Anne; Fussi, Barbara; Scheffler, Brian E.; Trigiano, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: To facilitate genetic and conservation research of Cornus sanguinea, microsatellite loci were isolated and 29 individuals from 11 German populations were genotyped. • Methods and Results: Sixteen microsatellite loci were characterized from an enriched small insert genomic library. The number of alleles detected ranged from five to 11 per locus, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.65 to 0.90, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.59 to 0.88. • Conclusions: The markers described in the study will allow further investigation of population dynamics and the degree of clonal reproduction within populations of C. sanguinea. PMID:25202583

  4. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  5. DEER BELIEF AND DEER SACRIFICE AROUND STEPPE CULTURE

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    Aslı KAHRAMAN ÇINAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkish people have spreaded on a large area historically. They have left a mark on all the places they reach. The history of Turks begun in Central Asian Steppes. In reaction to the steppe culture, the human communities of Turks are hunter-nomad communities. The hunter-nomad comminuties make a living from stockfarming and apiculture. The deer is one of the essential animals for t he hunter-nomad communities in the daily life. In the steppe, the deer is seen in all area of social life. Further, the deer motives are commonly used in political, military, financial, the most religious areas. The hunter-nomad comminuties benefit by the meat, milk, leather, horns, nails, etc of the deer. In this study, we dwell on the deer with regard to its intended purposes and usage areas according to steppe culture. The references of this study are references are inscriptions, mythologic stories and archeological datas.

  6. Whole-genome duplication and molecular evolution in Cornus L. (Cornaceae - Insights from transcriptome sequences.

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    Yan Yu

    Full Text Available The pattern and rate of genome evolution have profound consequences in organismal evolution. Whole-genome duplication (WGD, or polyploidy, has been recognized as an important evolutionary mechanism of plant diversification. However, in non-model plants the molecular signals of genome duplications have remained largely unexplored. High-throughput transcriptome data from next-generation sequencing have set the stage for novel investigations of genome evolution using new bioinformatic and methodological tools in a phylogenetic framework. Here we compare ten de novo-assembled transcriptomes representing the major lineages of the angiosperm genus Cornus (dogwood and relevant outgroups using a customized pipeline for analyses. Using three distinct approaches, molecular dating of orthologous genes, analyses of the distribution of synonymous substitutions between paralogous genes, and examination of substitution rates through time, we detected a shared WGD event in the late Cretaceous across all taxa sampled. The inferred doubling event coincides temporally with the paleoclimatic changes associated with the initial divergence of the genus into three major lineages. Analyses also showed an acceleration of rates of molecular evolution after WGD. The highest rates of molecular evolution were observed in the transcriptome of the herbaceous lineage, C. canadensis, a species commonly found at higher latitudes, including the Arctic. Our study demonstrates the value of transcriptome data for understanding genome evolution in closely related species. The results suggest dramatic increase in sea surface temperature in the late Cretaceous may have contributed to the evolution and diversification of flowering plants.

  7. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

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    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  8. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

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    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  9. Paper production from wild dogwood (Cornus australis L. and the effect of bark on paper properties

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    Ayhan Gençer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally bark has a negative effect pulp and paper properties. In this study, paper pulp and hand sheets were produced from Wild dogwood (Cornus australis L. using Kraft method. The cooking have been different conditions, chip / solution ratio 1/5, cooking temperature 170±2 °C by taking constant. Kraft method with the Na2S/NaOH, 18/20, 18/15, 18/10, 18/5 performed. Samples were used with and without bark in order to identify the negative impacts of the bark on pulp and paper production. In addition, it has been investigated whether the time of reaching the maximum temperature of K2 cooking is reduced from 120 minutes to 90 minutes, and the time and energy saving can be made. For all of the mechanical properties that were measured and pulp yield, the bark had a negative effect. But, this effect had not significant on mechanical properties at 95% significant level. On the other hand the bark had a negative effect on brightness and positive effects on opacity. These effects had significant at 95% significant level.

  10. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswalt, Ch.M.; Oswalt, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  11. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

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    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  12. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

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    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  13. Morphology, development, and transplant potential of Prunus avium and Cornus sanguinea seedlings growing under different LED lights

    OpenAIRE

    BANTIS, Filippos; RADOGLOU, KALLIOPI

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the morphological and developmental characteristics of wild cherry (Prunus avium) and common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The LEDs used were L20AP67 (moderate blue, red and far-red, high green), AP673L (moderate blue, high red), G2 (low blue, high red and far-red), AP67 (moderate blue, red and far-red), and NS1 (high blue and green, low red, high red:far-red, 1% ultraviolet). Fluorescent ligh...

  14. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation cytotoxic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Chinese herbal Cornus officinalis via environment friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yangqing; Li, Xing; Wang, Ju; Yang, Qian; Yao, Binghua; Zhao, Yingjuan; Zhao, Aiming; Sun, Wenxing; Zhang, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Cornus officinalis has been widely used as a precious herb and as the tonic food to improve kidney function in China. Its fruits have been used in many traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions to treat kidney diseases, diabetes, cancer and shock. In this study, a new eco-friendly approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using the fruits of Cornus officinalis aqueous extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The so-synthesized AgNPs showed quasi-spherical in shape with uniform dispersal and an average mean size of 11.7nm. Water soluble biomolecules such as flavonoids and/or anthocyanins from the extract played important roles in the nanoparticles formation. The AgNPs displayed distinctive cytotoxicity activities against human prostate cancer (PC-3) and human liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. The results provided a low cost, nontoxic and eco-friendly approach for synthesizing metal nanoparticles to explore alternative anticancer agents on the way fighting against cancer in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  17. Antibacterial Effects of Afzelin Isolated from Cornus macrophylla on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, A Leading Cause of Illness in Immunocompromised Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yeol Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cornus macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin. The structure was determined based on evaluation of its spectroscopic (UV, MS, and NMR data. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of afzelin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 31 µg/mL. In addition, the results indicated that a hydroxyl group at C3 of the C-ring of the flavone skeleton and the rhamnose group may act as a negative factor and an enhancing factor, respectively, in the antibacterial activities of afzelin.

  18. Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Fruits of Different Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Spontaneous Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia-Constantina CORNESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on six local cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes, grown in Turceni town (Gorj county and Baita village (Hunedoara county, in Romania. Several morphological and biochemical characteristics of cultivars were determined. Fruit weight and fruit flesh ratio of the analyzed genotypes ranged from 1.33 to 2.31 g and 61.53 to 78.58% respectively. Soluble solid contents were determined, the lowest noted as 10% and the highest as 25.5%. Results have shown that there was a high diversity in cornelian cherry populations within different ecological areas. Differences were exhibited in terms of fruit size and biochemical characteristics. The results of the study are useful for attempting to select superior genotypes of cornelian cherry for culture.

  19. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reindeer is the only deer species in which the females also sport antlers but these are much .... bone with density optimized in the direction of mechanical stress (not shown). Ultimately in mature bone ... by a thin spongy bone layer and the mechanical stress is borne by the compact bone that has the structure shown in F ...

  20. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics, typically occurring only in males, and are func- tional only during the rutting (mating) season. The reindeer is the only deer species in which the females also sport antlers but these are much less impressive than those of the males. The horns of the giraffe are protuberaw;es of the skull covered by matted hair.

  1. Deer Mice As Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Charlotte P.; Myrick, Lisa C.; Crossland, Janet P.; Dawson, Wallace D.

    1998-09-01

    Although laboratory mice (Mus) and rats (Rattus) are the most widely used research rodents, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and their congeneric species are favored as nontraditional alternatives for some purposes. Mice of the native genus Peromyscus are the most abundant and widely distributed rodents in North America. They occur in a great diversity of habitats and play a significant role in natural ecosystems. Because of their abundance, peromyscines are commonly hosts for larva of ticks that transmit Lyme disease bacteria, and they are implicated in several other vector-borne diseases. Deer mice also are the principal carriers of the virus that causes hantaviral pulmonary syndrome, or "Four Corners disease." Deer mice are useful as laboratory models for a variety of other types of pure and applied research. They are easily maintained and bred in captivity using the husbandry protocols developed for other small laboratory rodent species. The Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center at the University of South Carolina maintains more than 50 laboratory-bred, well-characterized stocks of deer mice and other peromyscine species for research and educational use.

  2. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Deer Antlers - Rapid Growing Calcified Tissue. A Rajaram. General Article Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 50-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/07/0050-0063. Keywords.

  3. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their feces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of irradiated deer feces into transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing cervid PrP revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 fecal samples collected from 5 deer at 7–11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer feces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the disease terminus, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in feces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in brain tissue. Prolonged fecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds 3,4,9, as well as prion transmission between susceptible deer species. PMID:19741608

  4. Deer hunting and television: are tv shows creating expectations among deer hunters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua D. Agee; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the past two decades new media outlets emphasizing trophy deer hunting have come to dominate hunting culture. Using data collected through a mail survey of Illinois deer hunters (n = 2,683, 78.5-percent response), we tested two hypotheses to determine factors that contribute to preference for hunting trophy deer. In particular, we examined the relationship...

  5. Methodology for Estimating Deer Browsing Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Timothy G.; deCalesta, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Because there were no reliable indicators of deer browsing on tree seedling regeneration, we developed methodology that can be used to measure deer browsing impact. We compared 11 years (2002 to 2012) of annual estimates of deer density with coarse (percent-plots-no-regeneration, percent-plots-no-impact) and fine (3 levels of impact on 6 indicator seedling species) indicators within a 29,642-ha study area in northwestern Pennsylvania. Coarse and fine measures met established criteria for indi...

  6. Lions and prions and deer demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cohort study design, we found that prion infection dramatically lowered survival of free-ranging adult (>2-year-old mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus: estimated average life expectancy was 5.2 additional years for uninfected deer but only 1.6 additional years for infected deer. Prion infection also increased nearly fourfold the rate of mountain lions (Puma concolor preying on deer, suggesting that epidemics may alter predator-prey dynamics by facilitating hunting success. Despite selective predation, about one fourth of the adult deer we sampled were infected. High prevalence and low survival of infected deer provided a plausible explanation for the marked decline in this deer population since the 1980s. CONCLUSION: Remarkably high infection rates sustained in the face of intense predation show that even seemingly complete ecosystems may offer little resistance to the spread and persistence of contagious prion diseases. Moreover, the depression of infected populations may lead to local imbalances in food webs and nutrient cycling in ecosystems in which deer are important herbivores.

  7. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2009-09-24

    Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids.

  8. Chemical immobilization of North American mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Robert E.; Nielsen, Leon; Haigh, Jerry C.; Fowler, Murray E.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of agents for chemical immobilization of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a problem with a simple and effective solution, in my opinion. I recommend combinations of etorphine hydrochloride (M199©) and xylazine hydrochloride (Rompun©) administered intravenously and reversed intravenously. I have used this combination on hundreds of mule deer and have supervised its use on hundreds more. It is a forgiving combination in terms of safety to the deer. I have never seen a mortality in mule deer that I could blame on this combination of drugs, which, in my experience, has performed well under a wide variety of environmental, physiological and organizational conditions.

  9. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  10. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  11. Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized with a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas Fruits: Effects on Human Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perde-Schrepler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were obtained by green synthesis with an extract from Cornus mas fruits (GNPs-CM, characterized by several methods, and their biologic effects were evaluated on two cell lines: HaCaT, normal keratinocytes, and A431, epidermoid carcinoma. GNPs were spherical with sizes between 2 and 24 nm. Their optical spectra had a dominant plasmonic band centered at 525 nm; zeta potential distribution was narrow, centered at −19.7 mV, and the mean hydrodynamic diameter was 58 nm. GNPs were visualized in both cell types entering the cells by endocytosis. The amount of gold uptaken by the cells was dose and time dependent. The intracellular concentration of Au ions was higher in HaCaT compared to A431 cells. The toxicity of GNPs-CM was dose dependent being significant only when the highest concentrations were employed. A431 cells were less affected compared to HaCaT cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. ROS production was not significant, except in HaCaT cells at the highest concentration. The comet assay revealed no significant supplementary DNA lesions, while the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by the presence of GNPs only when the cells were additionally irradiated with UVB. These results recommend GNPs-CM for further testing and possible dermatological applications.

  12. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; R?he, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that acc...

  13. White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta; Bartoš, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 283-293 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet analysis * fallow deer * red deer * roe deer Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/3/283_293.pdf

  14. Avoidance of fallow deer by roe deer may not be habitat-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Francesco; Sforzi, Andrea; Lovari, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Information is scarce on behavioural interference between wild ungulates. In particular, data are lacking on relationships between interference and habitat use. We analysed habitat correlates of behavioural interactions between fallow deer Dama dama and roe deer Capreolus capreolus at feeding, in a Mediterranean area. Previous research has shown that behavioural interference between these deer, with the former dominant over the latter, occurred also through direct aggression. Here we show tha...

  15. White-tailed deer in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA FS

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of the nonyarding white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States. Range appraisal, habitat, harvest regulation, and population control are included.

  16. Oestrosis in red deer from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno de la Fuente, Lourdes; Moreno, Virginia; Pérez, Jesús M.; Ruiz-Martínez, Isidoro; Soriguer, Ramón C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were lo...

  17. Radiocesium contamination of roe-deers kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulchre-De Bie, C.; Collin, B.; Ronneau, C.; Cara, J.

    1988-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) have been measured in kidneys of 48 roe-deers shot in November 1986 on several Belgian game reserves. A large variability of the contamination levels was observed from one site to another due to significant differences in radioactive deposits after the Chernobyl accident. As direct deposit measurements are lacking, the radioactivity accumulated in bramble leaves could be a good indicator of internal roe-deer contamination. (Author)

  18. Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models.

  19. Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of 137 Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models

  20. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamg?ney, G?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 ? scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 ? are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5?8 , the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in ...

  1. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, G; Miller, MW; Wolfe, LL; Sirochman, TM; Glidden, DV; Palmer, C; Lemus, A; Dearmond, SJ; Prusiner, SB

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseasesĝ€"scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer familyĝ€" are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces...

  2. Correlation of TBE incidence with red deer and roe deer abundance in Slovenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Knap

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE.

  3. Correlation of TBE Incidence with Red Deer and Roe Deer Abundance in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, Nataša; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE. PMID:23776668

  4. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  5. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-08-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer.

  6. A Common Parvovirus in Deer from California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Woods, Leslie; Gerstenberg, Greg; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2016-10-01

    We characterize the genome of the first reported deer parvovirus, Ungulate tetraparvovirus 5, which we detected by PCR in multiple tissues from 2/9 California mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus californicus) with hair loss syndrome (HLS) and in 4/12 deer without HLS, suggesting this common infection does not cause HLS.

  7. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; G. R. Moorhead; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    Forestry and deer affect each other's welfare. Forestry and other land-use practices, particularly farming, affect deer chiefly by modifying the supplies of available food and protective cover. On the other side, an overabundance of deer can overbrowse and eliminate the most palatable and nutritious food species. If these are trees that could be valuable for...

  8. Structuring Effects of Deer in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeve D. Côté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifying the structure of the vegetation. Here we review the results of a research program on overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in the boreal forest of Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada aimed at identifying deer densities compatible with forest regeneration. Various silvicultural systems and treatments failed to regenerate deer habitat at high deer densities, but planting size-adapted seedlings could be effective at moderate densities. Using a controlled deer density experiment, we found vegetation recovery at deer densities ≤ 15 deer/km2. The same experiment revealed that other groups of organisms such as insects and birds responded favorably to a reduction of deer density. We also found that alternative successional trajectories may occur after a certain period of heavy browsing during early succession. We conclude that one of the most important remaining research gaps is the need to identify habitat-specific threshold densities at which deer impacts occur and then to design effective wildlife and forest management strategies to limit deer impacts and sustain ecosystem integrity.

  9. Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olivieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989 and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

  10. Physiological effects of hunting red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, P; Bradshaw, E L

    1997-01-01

    When red deer (Cervus elaphus) were hunted by humans with hounds the average distance travelled was at least 19 km. This study of 64 hunted red deer provides the first empirical evidence on their state at the time of death. Blood and muscle samples obtained from hunted deer after death were compared with samples from 50 non-hunted red deer that had been cleanly shot with rifles. The effects on deer of long hunts were (i) depletion of carbohydrate resources for powering muscles, (ii) disruptio...

  11. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  12. Assessment of regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets augmented using xenograft (CollaPlugTN Zimmer in comparison with the normal healing on the contralateral side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone resorption is a significant clinical problem. Bone loss in third molar region following extraction or surgical removal not only leads to periodontal problems in second molar region but also it may lead to some serious problems like increased incidence of angle fractures. In order to reduce the risks following third molar surgery, the socket should be augmented with bone grafts. In recent days guided tissue regeneration is the most accepted and successful technique followed many authors and its efficacy has been proved. Materials and Methods: Based upon our clinical experience, the use of bio absorbable collagen wound dressing such as CollaPlugTN has achieved quick healing and more primary wound coverage. Amongst the graft materials collagen is preferable due to its high biocompatibility and hemostatic ability. This study was done to assess the regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets using xenograft (CollaPlugTN-Zimmer which was compared with the normal healing on the contra lateral side. The assessment was done to analyze post-operative healing complications and to compare the bone density formed between control site and implant site radiologically. Conclusion: On this basis of this study, the use of collaplugTN appears to be beneficial to the patient in postoperative wound healing and also for better bone formation. The use of this material was advantageous because of its simplicity of application cost effectiveness and availability. There is enhanced wound healing and early bone formation.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. © L. Witkowski et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  15. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  16. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  17. Immunohistochemical study on roe deer haemal nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaydın Bozkurt, Yeşim; Karadağ Sarı, Ebru; Kabak, Murat

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical characteristics of the haemal nodes located in the abdominal and the thoracal cavity in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). In this study, two adult male and two adult female roe deers in addition to two roe deer foetuses at the late fetal stages were used. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique was applied to anti-CD3, anti-CD79αcy, anti-macrophage, anti-S100 primary antibodies. Positive results were gained for all the antibodies used. Many CD3 positive T lymphocytes were seen in the lymphoid tissue areas of the fetal haemal nodes, in the germinal center of the lymph follicles of the adult haemal nodes and in their lymphatic cords. CD79αcy positive cells were less in number while S-100 protein was positive in both lymph follicles and in sinuses of the adult haemal nodes. In fetal haemal nodes, positive reacting cells for S-100 protein were more in number in the sinuses. For the MAC387 primary antibody, there were positive macrophages seen in the capsule and trabecules of the haemal nodes, located denser in males. Macrophage cells in the lymphoid structures and granulocytes in the sinuses of the haemal nodes of both adults and fetuses reacted positive for MAC387. This study is the first one to define the detailed structural features immunohistochemically in the haemal nodes of the roe deer. Even it's concluded that the results were similar with the other ruminants, it's also pointed out that there are certain differences among the fetal, adult male and female haemal nodes of the roe deer.

  18. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T G; Kaandorp, Manon Y; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  19. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  20. Two European Cornus L. feeding leafmining moths, Antispila petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. and A. treitschkiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843) (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae): an unjustified synonymy and overlooked range expansion

    OpenAIRE

    van Nieukerken,Erik; Lees,David C.; Doorenweerd,Camiel; Koster,Sjaak; Bryner,Rudolf; Schreurs,Arnold; Timmermans,Martijn; Sattler,Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843) and A. petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. were regarded as synonymous since 1978, but are shown to be two clearly separated species with different hostplants, life histories, DNA barcodes and morphology. Antispila treitschkiella feeds on Cornus mas L., is bivoltine, and has, by following its ornamentally planted host, greatly expanded its range in north-western Europe. In contrast A. petryi feeds on the widespread native C. sanguinea L., is...

  1. Health evaluation of Columbian white-tailed deer on Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Glaser, Linda C.

    1999-01-01

    The Columbian white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) was designated an endangered species in 1968. At that time the estimated population along the lower Columbia River of Washington and Oregon was 300 to 400 deer (Gavin, 1984). The Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer was established in 1972 to protect Columbian white-tailed deer and associated habitat Currently, an estimated 600 deer are present in several separate populations. The total refuge population is estimated at 200 animals. Of those, the mainland population consists of approximately 60 animals while the largest refuge island (Tenasillahe.Island) supports about 120 animals. The remaining 420 deer are present on private lands near the refuge (AI Clark, pers. com.).

  2. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

  3. Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-de la Fuente, M L; Moreno, V; Peréz, J M; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C

    1998-10-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species.

  4. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  5. Iodine-129 in man, cow and deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Tan, S.H.; Johnson, J.E.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Manuel, O.K.

    1978-01-01

    Concentrations of 129 I and values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio have been measured in over forty individual thyroids of human, cow and deer from Missouri. Deer thyroids show an average value of 129 I/ 127 I = 1.8 x 10 -8 and 129 I concentrations of 3 x 10 -3 pCi per g of thyroid (wet weight). Thyroids of cow and human show successively lower values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio and for the 129 I content due to dilution of 129 I from the natural geochemical cycle with mineral iodine in their diets. Analyses on a few thyroids from other areas are also reported. (author)

  6. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

  7. Optimal Tikhonov regularization for DEER spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas H.; Stoll, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Tikhonov regularization is the most commonly used method for extracting distance distributions from experimental double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy data. This method requires the selection of a regularization parameter, α , and a regularization operator, L. We analyze the performance of a large set of α selection methods and several regularization operators, using a test set of over half a million synthetic noisy DEER traces. These are generated from distance distributions obtained from in silico double labeling of a protein crystal structure of T4 lysozyme with the spin label MTSSL. We compare the methods and operators based on their ability to recover the model distance distributions from the noisy time traces. The results indicate that several α selection methods perform quite well, among them the Akaike information criterion and the generalized cross validation method with either the first- or second-derivative operator. They perform significantly better than currently utilized L-curve methods.

  8. Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry), an important European and Asian traditional food and medicine: Ethnomedicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology for its commercial utilization in drug industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Biswanath; Kyriakopoulos, Anthony M; Dinda, Subhajit; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Velegraki, Aristea; Markopoulos, Charlambos; Dinda, Manikarna

    2016-12-04

    Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine. This review is based on available literature on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical, pharmacological, toxicity and clinical studies on Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits and other organs that was collected from electronic (SciFinder, PubMed, Science Direct and ACS among others) and library searches of books and journals. Versatile ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in different European and Asian countries have been reported. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of this plant have resulted in the identification of 101 compounds, among which anthocyanins, flavonoids and iridoids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts of fruits and other parts of the plant and their pure isolates exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, cyto-, hepato-, neuro- and renalprotective, antiplatelet and antiglaucomic activities. Anthocyanins, flavonoids, iridoids and vitamin C are the major bioactive constituents of the fruits. Fruits are non-toxic and safe food on acute toxicity studies in rat and human models. Clinical trials in diabetic type2 and hyperlipidemic patients showed significant trends of amelioration in sugar level, insulin secretion in diabetic patients and amelioration of lipid

  9. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  10. Proposed strategic management of fallow deer to conserve endemic red deer in the Mesola forest, Ferrara, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, M.; Ferraresi, M.; Gelati, A.; Vitturi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mesola Forest (1,058 ha), located in the Ferrara province in the north of Italy, is completely enclosed and is home to a small group of endemic red deer (Cervus elaphus) that used to be widespread across all of North Italy. The Forest also contains a large population of fallow deer (Dama dama) reintroduced in the 1950s-1960s. Since 1982, the fallow deer have been managed by shooting however the population has continued to increase. Therefore shooting of the fallow deer is not only ineffec...

  11. Deer Browse Production: Rapid Sampling and Computer-aided Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest W. Stearns; Dennis L. Schweitzer; William A. Creed

    1968-01-01

    Describes field techniques by which winter deer-browse production can be sampled with reasonable accuracy and moderate effort; and expedites the tabulation of the browse data. The method will be useful to both land managers and scientists doing research on the habitat of the white-tailed deer.

  12. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  13. Biochemical and histopathological study of the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Najafi, Somayeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-06-01

    Anthocyanins are phytochemicals with a multitude of pharmacological actions including anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L., CM) fruits - that are rich in anthocyanins and known to have medicinal properties- in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven animals each: non-diabetic control, diabetic control, glibenclamide-treated (0.6 mg/kg/day; 4 weeks) and CM fruit-treated (2 g/day; 4 weeks) group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low- (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured at the end of study period. Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of serum glucose, LDL-C, TG, AST, ALP and ALT and decreased levels of HDL-C compared to the non-diabetic group (pdiabetic control group (pfruits effectively prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hepatic inflammation in alloxan-induced diabetes.

  14. Social organization in deer: Implications for localized management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William F.; Mathews, Nancy E.; Underwood, H. Brian; Sage, Richard W.; Behrend, Donald F.

    1991-11-01

    Populations of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting many state and national parks and suburban areas have grown to the point that they conflict with human activities. Conflicts range from destruction of vegetation through browsing to public perception that diseases carried by deer pose threats to human health. Traditional modes of hunting to control populations are inappropriate in many of these areas because of intense human development and activity. This article explores an alternative approach for population reduction based on deer social organization. Female white-tailed deer are highly philopatric and female offspring remain near their dams for life. This suggests that a population expands slowly as a series of overlapping home ranges in a form analogous to the petals on a rose. Incorporating the rose petal concept into a model of population growth shows that removal of deer by family unit can potentially alleviate conflicts in localized areas for as many as 10 15 yr.

  15. Reliability and precision of pellet-group counts for estimating landscape-level deer density

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. deCalesta

    2013-01-01

    This study provides hitherto unavailable methodology for reliably and precisely estimating deer density within forested landscapes, enabling quantitative rather than qualitative deer management. Reliability and precision of the deer pellet-group technique were evaluated in 1 small and 2 large forested landscapes. Density estimates, adjusted to reflect deer harvest and...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Roe Deer Picobirnavirus Strain PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Urska; Vengust, Gorazd; Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in feces from various animal species and humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014 strain, which is the first PBV detected in roe deer, providing additional knowledge about the high diversity and host range of PBVs.

  17. Flight distance in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama as related to hunting and other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.Y.; Breukelen, van L.; Hootsmans, M.J.M.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Flight distances in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama with respect to a human observer on foot were measured in four nature reserves in the Netherlands: two dune reserves in the western part (the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes (AWD) and Kennemerduinen (KD)) and two forested areas

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Roe Deer Picobirnavirus Strain PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Urska; Vengust, Gorazd; Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska

    2017-12-14

    Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in feces from various animal species and humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014 strain, which is the first PBV detected in roe deer, providing additional knowledge about the high diversity and host range of PBVs. Copyright © 2017 Kuhar et al.

  19. Cryopreservation of Sambar deer semen in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongpralub, Thevin; Chinchiyanond, Wittaya; Hongkuntod, Pornchai; Sanchaisuriya, Pitcharat; Liangpaiboon, Sanan; Thongprayoon, Areeya; Somphol, Noppadon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the different freezing and thawing techniques for post-thaw survival of spermatozoa in Sambar deer. So, this study determined the effect of seminal plasma, egg yolk and glycerol extenders and their concentrations, plus cooling, freezing, and thawing protocols on the post-thaw quality of their semen. Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four Thai Sambar deer stags (Cervus unicolor equinus). As evaluated by post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity removal of seminal plasma was beneficial; Tris-egg yolk was the most efficient extender; a 20% egg yolk concentration was better than the 0%, 10%, or 30%; and a 3% glycerol concentration was better than 5%, 7%, or 9%. Using the optimum dilution techniques, semen was loaded in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Cooling times from ambient temperature to 5°C in 3 hr resulted in higher post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity than 1, 2, or 4 hr. Suspending the straws 4 cm above the surface for 15 min before plunging into liquid nitrogen was better than suspending at 2 or 6 cm. For thawing frozen semen, an intermediate thawing (50°C, 8 sec) protocol was more effective than the slower (37°C, 10 sec) or faster (70°C, 5 sec) thawing rates. Timed insemination following estrus synchronization of 10 hinds resulted in six confirmed pregnancies at 60 days. Five hinds delivered live fawns. This study provides an effective approach for semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI), which should be valuable to scientists for genetics and reproductive management of Sambar deer in developing countries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sarcocystis spp. in red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama, and pudu (Pudu pudu in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Reyes Lobão-Tello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Worldwinde, cervids are considered an important source of infection and dissemination of a wide variety of pathogens, both for farm animals and humans. Among this diseases is sarcosporidiosis, which is a parasitic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa. Most frequent clinical signs are hemolytic anemia, weakness, weight loss and decrease of growth and some species of Sarcocystis might cause abortions. The clinical disease in ruminants is fairly rare but the infection is very frequent. Infections are accumulative and the parasite does not generate immunity in any of the hosts. Ovine sarcosporidiosis is a serious issue in the some regions of Chile due to the macrocysts located in the muscle which means condemnation of the whole carcass. Sarcocystis spp. has been widely reported in red deer and other cervid species but in Chile the situation remains unknown. Nowadays there is little to no evidence of Sarcocystis in foreign deer in Chile and there is only one report of the parasite on pudu. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer in Chile, and confirm the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in pudu. All cervid cases from 1994 to 2013 of the Institute of Animal Pathology of the Universidad Austral de Chile were reviewed. The animals selected were those in which a myocardium sample was taken. From the histopathological samples observed, it was found that 5 of the 9 red deer, 1 of the 4 fallow deer and in 11 of the 23 pudu there were Sarcocystis cysts in the myocardium. This study represents the first record for Chile of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer. Stablishing the red deer, fallow deer and pudu as hosts of Sarcocystis aids to have a better understanding of the parasite epidemiology in Chile and the role of wild and captive cervids in the maintenance and spread of these parasites.

  1. Expansion of Ashworthius sidemi in red deer and roe deer from the Lower Silesian Wilderness and its impact on infection with other gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Merta, Dorota; Kobielski, Janusz; Filip, Katarzyna J; Pyziel, Anna M

    2017-12-20

    Nematodes Ashworthius sidemi are typical parasites of Asiatic cervids, mostly sika deer (Cervus nippon). Migrating red deer have probably introduced this parasite to the area of Poland from neighbouring countries. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence and intensity of infection of red deer and roe deer from the Lower Silesian Wilderness with A. sidemi after one year from previous studies and to examine the influence of these parasites on other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. 31 abomasa of red deer and 3 abomasa of roe deer from Forest Dictrict of Ruszów have been examined on the presence of parasites. In comparison with previous studies, red deer showed significant, over triple increase of prevalence of A. sidemi and over fivefold increase of mean intensity of infection. Maximum intensity of infection has increased over 24 times. These results indicate on dynamic spread of this new aswortiosis foci. Apart from previously registered parasite species, four new nematodes have been found in examined red deer and roe deer during this year studies. Red deer have been infected with Spiculopteragia assymmetrica, typical for fallow deer and Haemonchus placei - typical for bovine, whereas roe deer have been infected with Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus capricola, parasites of sheep, goats and bovine. Prevalence of red deer infection with nematodes S. boehmi and Ostertagia leptospicularis was lower than two years ago while prevalence of infection with S. mathevossiani and O. kolchida was higher. Intensity of infection with these nematodes has increased.

  2. Managing white-tailed deer: eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates (<3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest of adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  3. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  4. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

  5. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelle Brian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFNγ, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGFβ1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

  6. "Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P

    1999-12-01

    Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species.

  7. Alterations of CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression correlate with major evolutionary shifts of inflorescence architecture in Cornus (Cornaceae) - a proposed model for variation of closed inflorescence forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; Liu, Xiang; Franks, Robert G; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny

    2017-10-01

    TFL1-, AP1- and LFY-like genes are known to be key regulators of inflorescence development. However, it remains to be tested whether the evolutionary modifications of inflorescence morphology result from shifts in their expression patterns. We compared the spatiotemporal expression patterns of CorTFL1, CorAP1 and CorLFY in six closely related Cornus species that display four types of closed inflorescence morphology using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization. Character mapping on the phylogeny was conducted to identify evolutionary changes and to assess the correlation between changes in gene expression and inflorescence morphology. Results demonstrated variation of gene expression patterns among species and a strong correlation between CorTFL1 expression and the branch index of the inflorescence type. Evolutionary changes in CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression co-occurred on the phylogeny with the morphological changes underpinning inflorescence divergence. The study found a clear correlation between the expression patterns of CorTFL1 and CorAP1 and the inflorescence architecture in a natural system displaying closed inflorescences. The results suggest a role for the alteration in CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression during the evolutionary modification of inflorescences in Cornus. We propose that a TFL1-like and AP1-like gene-based model may explain variation of closed inflorescences in Cornus and other lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. A regional assessment of white-tailed deer effects on plant invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averill, Kristine M. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Plant Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Mortensen, David A. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Plant Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Smithwick, Erica A. H. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Kalisz, Susan [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, USA; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, USA; Parker, John D. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA; Royo, Alejandro A. [United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Irvine, PA, USA; Abrams, Marc D. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Apsley, David K. [Department of Extension, The Ohio State University, Jackson, OH, USA; Blossey, Bernd [Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Boucher, Douglas H. [Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD, USA; Caraher, Kai L. [Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD, USA; DiTommaso, Antonio [Soil and Crop Sciences Section, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Johnson, Sarah E. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Masson, Robert [National Park Service, Morristown National Historical Park, Morristown, NJ, USA; Nuzzo, Victoria A. [Natural Area Consultants, Richford, NY, USA

    2017-12-07

    Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g., white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual researchers typically test for the impact of deer on plant invasion at a few sites, the overarching influence of deer on plant invasion across regional scales is unclear. We tested the effects of deer on the abundance and diversity of introduced and native herbaceous and woody plants across 23 white-tailed deer research sites distributed across the east central and northeastern United States and representing a wide range of deer densities and invasive plant abundance and identity. Deer access/exclusion or deer population density did not affect introduced plant richness or community-level abundance. Native and total plant species richness, abundance (cover and stem density), and Shannon diversity were lower in deer-access vs. deer-exclusion plots. Among deer access plots, native species richness, native and total cover, and Shannon diversity (cover) declined as deer density increased. Deer access increased the proportion of introduced species cover (but not of species richness or stem density). As deer density increased, the proportion of introduced species richness, cover, and stem density all increased. Because absolute abundance of introduced plants was unaffected by deer, the increase in proportion of introduced plant abundance is likely an indirect effect of deer reducing native cover. Indicator species analysis revealed that deer access favored three introduced plant species, including Alliaria petiolata and Microstegium vimineum, as well as four native plant species. In contrast, deer exclusion favored three introduced plant species, including Lonicera japonica and Rosa multiflora, and fifteen native plant species. Overall

  9. LIPOPTENA CERVI (DIPTERA: HIPPOBOSCIDAE IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest flies, also known as deer keds (Lipoptena cervi, are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites that infest cervids (Cervidae in Europe, Siberia, China and North America. These flies are vectors of potential zoonotic bacterium Bartonella schoenbuchensis. The aim of this study was to determine the species of ectoparasites found on one male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus shot during hunting season 2011 in the area of Bihać municipality. Using the morphological keys, all adult keds were identified as Lipoptena cervi Linnaeus, 1761. Key words: Lipoptena cervi, roe deer, Bihać municipality

  10. Transmission of Elk and Deer Prions to Transgenic Mice†

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Bouzamondo-Bernstein, Essia; Bosque, Patrick J.; Miller, Michael W.; Safar, Jiri; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. Unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. To facilitate studies of the biology of CWD prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing prion protein (PrP) from Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted Tg(ElkPrP), and two lines of Tg mice expressing PrP common to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), den...

  11. The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; González, Susana; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2008-10-01

    To clarify the systematic relationships and evolutionary history of South American deer, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis using representative species of all of the genera of Neotropical deer. Our results revealed high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of morphologically similar species of brockets (Mazama), and suggest a polyphyletic origin. At least eight ancestral forms of deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene (2.5-3 MYA), and members of the red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species.

  12. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  13. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  14. Simulation of potential habitat overlap between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding species distribution, especially areas of overlapping habitat between sympatric species, is essential for informing conservation through natural habitat protection. New protection strategies should simultaneously consider conservation efforts for multiple species that exist within the same landscape, which requires studies that include habitat overlap analysis. Methods. We estimated the potential habitat of cervids, which are typical ungulates in northern China, using the present locations of red deer (Cervus elaphus; N = 90) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; N = 106) in a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model. Our study area was a human-dominated landscape in the Tieli Forestry Bureau located at the southern slope of the Lesser Xing'an Mountains. We grouped 17 environmental predictor variables into five predictor classes (terrain, habitat accessibility, land cover, vegetation feature, and interference), which were used to build habitat suitability models. Results. Habitat accessibility and human interferences were found to have the strongest influence on habitat suitability among the five variable classes. Among the environmental factors, distance to farmland (26.8%), distance to bush-grass land (14.6%), elevation (13.5%), and distance to water source (12.2%) were most important for red deer, distance to farmland (22.9%), distance to settlement (21.4%), elevation (11.6%), and coverage of shrub-grass (8%) were most important for roe deer. Model accuracy was high for both species (mean area under the curve (AUC) = 0.936 for red deer and 0.924 for roe deer). The overlapping habitat comprised 89.93 km(2) within the study area, which occupied 94% of potentially suitable habitat for red deer and 27% for roe deer. Conclusions. In terms of habitat suitability, roe deer showed greater selectivity than red deer. The overlapping habitat was mostly located in the eastern mountains. The southwestern plain was not a suitable habitat for deer because it was

  15. Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; David A. Marquis

    1983-01-01

    Deer browsing and interference from forest weeds, particularly hayscented fem (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore), New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis L.), and short husk grass (Brachyelytrnm erectum Schreb.), influence the establishment of Allegheny hardwood reproduction. We determined the...

  16. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    OpenAIRE

    Boadella, Mariana; Carta, Tania; Oleaga, ?lvaro; Pajares, Gerardo; Mu?oz, Marta; Gort?zar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT) virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP), and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. ...

  17. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oko, Lauren; Aduddell-Swope, Bethany; Willis, Derall; Hamor, Robyn; Coons, Teresa A; Hjelle, Brian; Schountz, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infec...

  18. Deer - a bioindicator for environmental pollution from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibilities, the preconditions and limitations of using roe deer as biological indicators for the monitoring of anthropogenic and geogenic airborne materials as well as undesirable persistent materials. A practical example is introduced: Determination of the regional distribution of the radioactive cesium fallout in Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident and the fate of these radioisotopes in the roe deer game. The introduction of an ecological half-life for the radioisotopes of cesium is suggested. (orig.) [de

  19. Method for artificially raising mule deer fawns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Eighteen captive Rocky Mountain mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), nine hand-raised and nine dam-raised, were used to evaluate an artificial rearing procedure. Hand-raised fawns were fed whole cow's milk supplemented with a daily addition of pediatric vitamins. Feeding intervals and quantities fed increased with increasing age of fawns. Blood values, body weight and mortality were used to determine nutritional and physiological status of fawns. Dam-raised fawns had significantly higher (P < 0.05) hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and cholesterol levels than hand-raised fawns. Mean body weight and growth rate were also significantly higher (P < 0.001) in dam-raised fawns. High mortality, 67%, occurred in dam-raised fawns as compared to 33% in hand-raised fawns. Resultant tameness in hand-raised fawns facilitated treatment of disease and handling of animals in experimental situations.

  20. Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdoğan, S

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  2. Haematological values of young male rusa deer (Cervus timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, N W; Jonsson, N N

    2005-08-01

    To measure haematological values of clinical significance for rusa deer and provide reference data for farmed animals. Blood samples were collected regularly from eight male rusa deer from 14 days to 27 months old. Blood samples, collected by venipuncture, were analysed within 6 hours of collection for red cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, plasma glucose, white cell count and differentials. Haemoglobin concentrations appeared to increase with age and ranged from 6.0 to 20.9 g/dL. Packed cell volume and plasma glucose concentration did not appear to vary with age. White cell counts ranged from 6.3 to 7.0 x 10(9)/L and differential counts indicated neutrophils > lymphocytes > monocytes > eosinophils > basophils. In general, the values for packed cell volume, red cell count, mean cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were within ranges previously reported for captive or sedated rusa deer. Physical restraint and resultant stress was sufficient to generate some of the effects previously reported for physically immobilised or agitated deer. The values reported here do not differ greatly from those previously reported for rusa deer and can be used as reference values for clinically healthy young farmed male rusa deer.

  3. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  4. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Melanie; Rehbein, Steffen; Hamel, Dietmar; Lutz, Walburga; Heddergott, Mike; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2017-02-01

    Infections with the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. can cause febrile disease in several mammalian species, including humans. Wild ruminants in Europe are suggested to serve as reservoir hosts for particular strains or species of these pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon orientalis) in Germany, and the diversity and host association of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia species. From 2009 to 2010, 364 spleen samples from 153 roe deer, 43 fallow deer and 168 mouflon from 13 locations in Germany were tested for DNA of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. by real-time PCR or conventional PCR, respectively. Variants of A. phagocytophilum were investigated with a nested PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA gene, and species of piroplasms were identified by sequencing. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in 303 (83.2%) samples: roe deer, 96.1% (147/153); fallow deer, 72.1% (31/43); and mouflon, 74.4% (125/168). Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA-PCR products revealed the presence of nine different genetic variants. DNA of Babesia spp. was found in 113 (31.0%) samples: roe deer, 62.8% (96/153); fallow deer, 16.3% (6/43); and mouflon, 6.5% (11/168). Babesia capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1 (referred to also as B. venatorum), B. odocoilei-like and a Theileria species were identified. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. were detected in 30.0% of the animals which were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and/or Babesia spp. Roe deer had a significantly higher percentage of co-infections (60.8%), followed by fallow deer (14.0%) and mouflon (6.5%). Thus, the results suggest that roe deer plays a key role in the endemic cycles of the pathogens investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two European Cornus L. feeding leafmining moths, Antispila petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. and A. treitschkiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843 (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae: an unjustified synonymy and overlooked range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. van Nieukerken

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843 and A. petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. were regarded as synonymous since 1978, but are shown to be two clearly separated species with different hostplants, life histories, DNA barcodes and morphology. Antispila treitschkiella feeds on Cornus mas L., is bivoltine, and has, by following its ornamentally planted host, greatly expanded its range in north-western Europe. In contrast A. petryi feeds on the widespread native C. sanguinea L., is univoltine, and is one of only two Antispila species previously resident in the British Isles, the Netherlands and northern Europe. Consequently, the increase in abundance of A. treitschkiella in the Netherlands since the early 1990s and in Great Britain in recent years must be regarded as part of a recent expansion into north-western Europe, whereas the native A. petryi is hardly expanding and less abundant. In Britain, detailed surveys of parks and living collections confirmed the monophagy of these two species. A search of British herbarium samples provided no evidence for an earlier date of establishment. Information on recognition of all stages, including DNA barcodes, and distribution is provided, and these two species are compared with the third European Cornus L. leafminer, A. metallella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775.

  7. 78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain that level. Donation... through the use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce deer...

  8. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  9. Coprophagy by Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin P. Ranade; Vibhu Prakash

    2015-01-01

    A Barking Deer was seen feeding on Asian Elephant’s dung containing partly digested fruits of Dillenia indica at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal. This case of coprophagy appears to be opportunistic frugivore selection by the deer

  10. First occurrence of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Ivan; Savić, Božidar; Ivanović, Snežana; Ćirović, Duško

    2012-04-01

    Paramphistomum parasites identified by histology as Paramphistomum microbothrium were found in 18 of 34 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) intestines from central Serbia, examined between 1998 and 2004. This represents the first record of P. microbothrium in roe deer in Serbia.

  11. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  12. Forage selection by mule deer: does niche breadth increase with population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Nicholson; R.T. Bowyer; J.G. Kie

    2006-01-01

    Effects of population density of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus on forage selection were investigated by comparing diet characteristics of two subpopulations of deer in southern California, USA, that differed in population density during winter. Quality of diet for deer, as indexed by faecal crude protein, was higher at the low-density site than at...

  13. Canopy gap replacement failure in a Pennsylvania forest preserve subject to extreme deer herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian S. Pedersen; Angela M. Wallis

    2003-01-01

    While research has demonstrated the adverse effects of deer herbivory on forest regeneration in forests managed for timber production, less study has been devoted to the long term effects of deer on the dynamics of forests set aside as natural areas. At sufficiently high population densities, deer could interrupt the typical cycle of canopy gap formation and...

  14. 76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island National Seashore, New York. SUMMARY: Pursuant... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2031-A154-422] Deer and Vegetation Management...

  15. Seasonal food selection and digestibility by tame white-tailed deer in central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlette S. Crawford

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal food selection and digestibility by tame white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied in the white pine (Pinus strobus)–Canada hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and lowland conifer types, areas representative of important deer habitat in the northeastern United States. Deer selected highly...

  16. Cranial suture complexity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Christopher W; Vaders, Mark J

    2006-07-01

    Neurocranial expansion and mastication are commonly implicated as the two major biomechanical factors affecting suture morphology. In deer the antlers provide an additional source of biomechanical stress acting on the skull. Equivalent stresses are not found in females, who lack antlers. We analyzed the complexity and interdigitation of the interfrontal and coronal sutures that surround the antler-bearing frontal bones of (n = 67) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to 1) evaluate changes in suture morphology throughout ontogeny, and 2) test the hypothesis that male deer have more complex sutures than females. Two methods were used to quantify suture morphology: fractal analysis and length-ratios (actual suture length divided by direct straightline length). Both techniques produced similar results, although the two methods cannot be considered equivalent. Suture complexity increases markedly throughout ontogeny, but appears to level off after animals have reached adulthood. Cranial size in males, but not females, continues to increase in adults. No significant increase in suture complexity with age in the adult cohort was detected. While deer are highly dimorphic in size and the presence of antlers, no significant differences existed between males and females for any measure of suture complexity. No consistent patterns emerged between suture complexity and skull size or antler characteristics. The presence of antlers appears to have a minimal effect on suture complexity in white-tailed deer. Factors that may contribute to the lack of dimorphism in suture complexity are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mejía Salazar

    Full Text Available Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus from a chronic wasting disease (CWD endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013, we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  18. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  19. Wolf predation risk associated with white-tailed deer movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The survival of 159 yearling and adult deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored by telemetry during 282 spring and 219 fall individual migrations to winter deeryards in northeastern Minnesota. A disproportionate number of deer were killed by wolves (Canis lupus) during fall migration relative to the short time they spent migrating, but not during spring migration. Predation was also significantly greater for male and female yearlings and adult females outside deeryards during winter. Survival of 79 yearlings dispersing from natal ranges was high (1.00). It appears that changing climatic conditions combined with unfamiliar terrain and undetermined factors predispose migratory deer to wolf predation during fall. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that winter yarding is an antipredator strategy.

  20. Hypoderma actaeon: an emerging myiasis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, R; Varas, G; Pajares, G; Markina, F; López, C; Díaz, P; Pérez-Creo, A; Prieto, A; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, P

    2017-03-01

    Subcutaneous larvae of Hypoderma spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) were detected in the dorsal region in 10 roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), hunted in central Spain between January and March 2016. All larvae were found in the inner side of the hide during the skinning of the animals. The study of the morphological features of eight larvae of different stages collected from two animals allowed the identification of Hypoderma actaeon Brauer. The small size (4-5 mm) of some of the first instars suggests that the internal lifecycle of H. actaeon may be exclusively subcutaneous. This is the first confirmation of H. actaeon in roe deer; however, further studies to assess the spread of the parasite and to follow the evolution of this myiasis in roe deer are needed. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E S; Young, S

    1980-01-01

    In the past 12 years (1967-79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in Colorado and more recently in Wyoming. Clinical signs were seen in adult deer and included behavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2 weeks to 8 months. Gross necropsy findings included emaciation and excess rumen fluid admixed with sand and gravel. Consistent histopathologic change was limited to the central nervous system and characterized by widespread spongiform transformation of the neuropil, single of multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles in neuronal perikaryons and intense astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Presented is a clinical characterization of chronic wasting disease and pathologic evidence supporting the conclusion that the disease is a specific spontaneously occurring form of spongiform encephalopathy.

  2. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  3. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  4. Dominance of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype BEB6 in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) in China and a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Jianguang; Yang, Ziyin; Liu, Aiqin

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans and is also found in a wide range of animals. It is considered to be an important but neglected zoonotic pathogen. With the development of deer bred in captivity, the number of deer has been increasing in recent years in China and there are more people involved in this work. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus), and to assess their potential zoonotic transmission. A total of 122 fecal specimens were collected from 104 red deer and 18 roe deer from three deer farms in Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, China. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected and genotyped by PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. The average infection rate was 8.2% (10/122), with 7.7% (8/104) for red deer and 11.1% (2/18) for roe deer. Two genotypes were identified: a known genotype BEB6 (n = 9) and a novel genotype named HLJD-VI (n = 1). This is the first report of E. bieneusi infection in Siberian roe deer. The fact that genotype BEB6 was detected previously in one human case of microsporidiosis, and that genotype HLJD-VI fell into zoonotic group 1, suggest the possibility of transmission to humans. A brief review of E. bieneusi genotypes in deer worldwide shows that 40 genotypes have been found in seven deer species, with genotype BEB6 being predominant. © W. Zhao et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  5. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer

    OpenAIRE

    Carreón, Diana; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Canales, Mario; Ruiz Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Fuente, José de la

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence whil...

  6. White-tailed Deer as a Taphonomic Agent: Photographic Evidence of White-tailed Deer Gnawing on Human Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Lauren A; McDaneld, Chloe P; Wescott, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Ungulate gnawing on bone has been reported in the taphonomic and zooarchaeological literature, but there are no known reports of ungulates altering human remains. Herein, we report on the first known photographic evidence of deer gnawing human remains. As described in nonhuman scavenging literature, forking of the bone characterizes the taphonomic effect of deer gnawing in this case, which is distinct from the effect caused by other scavengers. This type of osteophagia during the winter season is consistent with previously documented behavior of deer gnawing on nonhuman bone, possibly to obtain minerals absent in their diet. In this study, we briefly discuss the distinguishing features of ungulate gnawing, the reasons for this behavior, and possible confusion with other common types of scavenging and modification. This report contributes to taphonomic literature covering the range of animal interactions with human skeletal remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. The Effects of Treatments on Batu Banana Flour and Percentage of Wheat Substitution on The Resistant Starch, In Vitro Starch Digestibility Content and Palatability of Cookies Made with Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Rustanti, N.; Arifan, F.; Afifah, DN

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. Resistant starch is polysaccharide that is recommended for DM patient diets. One of the staple crops containing resistant starch is banana. It is the fourth most important staple crop in the world and critical for food security, best suited plant in warm, frost-free, and coastal climates area. Among banana varieties, Batu bananas (Musa balbisiana Colla) had the highest content of resistant starch (~39%), but its use as a food ingredient is limited. Inclusion of Batu banana flour into cookies manufacturing would both increase the economic value of Batu bananas and provide alternative snacks for DM patients. Here we sought to examine whether cookies made with modified Batu banana flour would be a suitable snack for DM patients. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors: substitution of Batu banana flour (25%, 50%,75%) for wheat-based flour and Batu banana flour treatment methods (no treatment, autoclaving-cooling, autoclaving-cooling-spontaneous fermentation). The resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility levels were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test, whereas the acceptance level was analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The content of resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of the different treatments ranged from 3.10 to 15.79% and 16.03 to 52.59%, respectively. Both factors differed significantly (p0.05). Meanwhile, palatability in terms of color, aroma, texture, and flavor differed significantly among the different treatments and starch contents (p<0.05). Together these results show that Batu banana flour could be a promising ingredient for the production of snacks suitable for consumption by DM patients. Keywords: Batu banana, cookies, resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility

  8. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km/sup 2/. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years.

  9. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsatellite variation in Dutch roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.; Hooft, van W.F.; Wieren, van S.E.; Breukelen, van L.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated microsatellite variation in Dutch roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations. We used 65 tissue samples from culled animals from three populations (Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen, National Park Zuid-Kennemerland and Flevopolder). The first two are dune populations and

  11. Abiotic factors influencing deer browsing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Richard H. Odom; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of woody browse availability and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use among clearcut interiors, skidder trail edges, and mature forest and an evaluation of the relative importance of aboitic factors in predicting browsing pressure within regenerating clearcuts in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. We sampled...

  12. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  13. Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca M. Shuman; Michael J. Cherry; Taylor N. Simoneaux; Elizabeth A. Dutoit; John C. Kilgo; Michael J. Chamberlain; Karl V. Miller

    2017-01-01

    Changing predator communities have potential to complicate management focused on ensuring sustainable white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations. Recent research reported that predation on neonates by coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) can limit recruitment. However, no research has been conducted in areas of the southeastern United States...

  14. Spatial and temporal interactions of elk, mule deer, and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscilla K. Coe; Bruce K. Johnson; Kelley M. Stewart; John G. Kie

    2004-01-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle share millions of acres of public and private forests and rangelands across the western United States and Canada. These three species have important social, ecological and economic values. Understanding their interspecific interactions may clarify two recurring...

  15. Diseases of white-tailed deer. Chapter 5. Neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, G. E.; Satterfield, L. D.; Nettles, V. F.

    1977-01-01

    Data on the occurrence and etiology of neoplasms in native populations of white-tailed deer are reviewed. Cutaneous fibromas, non-progressive lesions considered to be of viral etiology, are discussed in detail. The clinical signs associated with other benign and malignant neoplasms are discussed briefly. 30 references.

  16. Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma in a gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoupira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lidianne N; Salgado, Breno S; Grandi, Fabrizio; Fernandes, Thaís R; Miranda, Bruna S; Teixeira, Carlos R; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2011-05-01

    An ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is described in a gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoupira). The tumor was histologically characterized by the presence of cysts and proliferation of papillae, both lined by single- or multi-layered pleomorphic epithelial cells that contained alcian blue-positive mucins. © 2011 The Author(s)

  17. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek... purpose of the EIS was to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western interconnection...

  18. An Experimental Test of Factors Attracting Deer Mice into Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Deer mice use a wide variety of habitats including peridomestic settings in and around human dwellings, their presence in and around homes has been implicated as a risk factor for acquiring Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Deer mice are believed to enter buildings in order to gain access to a variety of resources including food, bedding material, and better thermal microclimates. However, no one has experimentally tested which factors influence mice use of buildings. We conducted experiments using small simulated buildings to determine the effects of two factors, i.e., food and bedding material, on mouse activity in these buildings. We also examined if these effects varied with time of year. We found that deer mice entered our buildings regardless of the presence or absence of food or bedding. However, the amount of activity in buildings was affected by what they contained. We found significantly higher indices of activity in buildings containing food compared to both empty buildings (control) and buildings containing bedding material. Time of year did not affect activity in buildings.

  19. Fallow deer (Dama dama Linnaeus, 1758) in the province of Rieti (central Italy): origin and first data on the competition with native red deer and roe deer

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, M.; Adriani, S.; Cecchini, C.; Morbidelli, M.; Amici, A.

    2011-01-01

    The most recent literature describing the distribution and abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in Italy does not indicate the presence of this species in the province of Rieti. Some reports indicate the presence of the species in the middle valley of the river Velino. To test the reliability of those reports a field study was undertaken using three different techniques: fixed points census, line transects, and snow tracking. The area investigated was about 3,500 hectares. Given the topograph...

  20. Cryopreservation of captive roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pablos, M T; Sánchez-Calabuig, M J; Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Ortmann, S; Eder, S; Santiago-Moreno, J; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J

    2016-08-01

    To address the need to preserve current genetic diversity before it is lost forever; further studies to adapt assisted reproductive technologies to various endangered species are needed, among other things. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), an over abundant wild deer, can serve as model species to develop or improve sperm cryopreservation of threatened or endangered deer species. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of three diluents (Berliner Cryomedium [BC]; Tris, citric acid, glucose [TCG]; TES, Tris, glucose) to support chilling, cryopreservation (with 5% glycerol; G) and postthaw incubation (at 22 °C and 37 °C) of roe deer spermatozoa collected by electroejaculation. Berliner Cryomedium was the diluent that better preserved roe deer spermatozoa during refrigeration, able to maintain motility for at least 14 days, longer than the other extenders. BC + G was the extender of choice for cryopreservation, showing higher viability compared with TCG + G (66.7 ± 3.4 vs. 54.5 ± 6.5; P < 0.05) and higher level of acrosome integrity compared with TES, Tris, glucose + G (79.4 ± 3.4 vs. 67.9 ± 5.0; P < 0.05). Maintaining the samples at 22 °C after thawing presented higher values in various parameters compared with 37 °C. The knowledge gained through this study can potentially act as a preliminary step toward development of new protocols to help increase the reproductive success of biologically similar, yet endangered, wild species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of atypical Chlamydiaceae in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Verheyden, Hélène; Picot, Denis; Bertin, Claire; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-12-31

    Investigations on fecal samples, vaginal swabs and sera from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in south-western France led to the detection of a non-classified Chlamydiaceae strain. A total of 85 vaginal swabs were sampled from roe deer that had been captured in 2012 (n=42) and 2013 (n=43). Using a Chlamydiaceae family-specific real-time PCR, only one vaginal swab out of the 42 samples done in 2012 tested positive and was subsequently identified as Chlamydia (C.) psittaci. In contrast, 6/43 vaginal swab samples were positive in 2013. Four of these positive samples came from a single group of roe deer, captured in the Fabas plain. Fecal samples from this group of 9 females were subsequently analyzed, with 6 of them testing positive with the Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. All positive samples collected in 2013 were negative when re-tested with C. abortus-, C. pecorum- and C. suis-specific real-time PCR assays. Sera from this group of 9 females were analyzed with two immunoassays (recomLine and ELISA). Whereas intense positive reactions with C. pneumoniae antigens were observed for all sera when tested with the recomLine test, none was positive with the C. abortus specific ELISA test. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S, 23S rRNA and ompA gene sequences from 3 animals, as well as the MLST analysis from 2 animals, showed that this roe deer group likely harbored the same bacterium related to members of the family Chlamydiaceae. Notably, the roe deer strain formed a separate entity different from the currently recognized chlamydial species, with C. trachomatis, C. suis and C. muridarum appearing as its closest relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary characteristics of 9 captive, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Urinary sodium (na) and potassium (K) were diminished in fasted deer after 2 and 4 weeks. Renal excretion of Na and K were lower, whereas urinary phosphorus (P) was higher in fasted deer compared to deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) diets. Urinary P excretion of the fasted deer was also greater than in a low protein-high energy (LPHE)-fed group. Urinary area excretion of fasted deer was similar to that of deer fed low and high protein diets. One fasted deer died during the study and exhibited notably high excretion of urea, Na, K, and calcium (Ca). No effects of the 2 levels of dietary protein on urinary characteristics were detected. Urinary Na:C and K:C ratios wer significantly correlated with Na and K intake. Urinalysis has potential as a sensitive means of monitoring the nutritional status of white-tailed deer. Data are presented as reference values for interpretation of data from deer under less controlled circumstances.

  3. Diversity of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase genes in the rumens of roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Henderson, Gemma; Yang, Yahan; Li, Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Reductive acetogenesis by homoacetogens represents an alternative pathway to methanogenesis to remove metabolic hydrogen during rumen fermentation. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of homoacetogen in the rumens of pasture-fed roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed either oak-leaf-based (tannin-rich, 100 mg/kg dried matter), corn-stover-based, or corn-silage-based diets, by using formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene sequences as a marker. The diversity and richness of FTHFS sequences was lowest in animals fed oak leaf, indicating that tannin-containing plants may affect rumen homoacetogen diversity. FTHFS amino acid sequences in the rumen of roe deer significantly differed from those of sika deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that 44.8% of sequences in pasture-fed roe deer, and 72.1%, 81.1%, and 37.5% of sequences in sika deer fed oak-leaf-, corn-stover-, and corn-silage-based diets, respectively, may represent novel bacteria that have not yet been cultured. These results demonstrate that the rumens of roe deer and sika deer harbor potentially novel homoacetogens and that diet may influence homoacetogen community structure.

  4. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) in northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  5. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus in northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Olano-Marin

    Full Text Available We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus. No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  6. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  7. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-06-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Woodland features determining home range size of roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovari, Sandro; Serrao, Giulia; Mori, Emiliano

    2017-07-01

    Use of ecotones by ungulates may be mediated by their movements between main feeding areas and woodland, where they locate their shelter. The roe deer Capreolus capreolus has been termed as a woodland species, although we suggest that it did not evolve as a forest ungulate, but depending on forest glades. Roe deer feed on a wide range of vegetal species, although their diet is mainly dominated by woody plants. Our study was carried out in a fragmented area covered with small forest patches of Mediterranean "macchia" scrubwood, interspersed in an agricultural matrix. Aim of our study has been to test how ranging movements of roe deer are influenced by landscape heterogeneity and to evaluate which features of woodland affect home range size. Radio-locations of 22 female and 12 male adult roe deer, monitored for three years, were used to assess home range size. A linear mixed model was fitted to investigate variation in home range size according to eleven spatial parameters estimated to describe home range size and composition. Throughout the year, no significant difference was found between home range sizes of males (median: 16.70ha, Q 1 -Q 3 : 13.20-31.60ha) and females (median: 23.52ha, Q 1 -Q 3 : 13.30-44.00ha: lme: F=0.9; P=0.35). Habitat density, edge density, percentage of woodland within home range and woodland structure determined home range size. Home ranges with few habitat types and a small amount of wood were large, while roe deer occupied small home ranges when habitat density was high and when a high proportion of wood was concentrated in a single large patch. Woodland covered a mean±SE of 36.2±17.9% in each home range. In conclusion, roe deer seem to be particularly well adapted to live in human transformed, peripheral habitats, e.g. farmlands, as long as a minimum quantity of woodland is included within their HR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut micro...

  10. Different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in Brazilian deer species

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Munar, D. S. F. [UNESP; Sarria-Perea, J. A. [UNESP; Duarte, J. M. B. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    The tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus Mazama). We tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, Mazama gouazoubira, M. americana and M. nana, compared to the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. Doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 mu g/mL, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were s...

  11. Musk Deer (Moschus moschiferus ) Population Density Based on Pellet Group Count Method in Sikhote-Alin

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimova, Dariya; Seryodkin, Ivan; Zaitsev, Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    As a component of a complex program studying musk deer ecology in the Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve, a survey of the musk deer population density, based on pellet group count method, was carried out at stationary posts from 2012 to 2014. The use of this method in the snowless season provides a means of surveying the most hard-to-reach areas of the musk deer habitat.

  12. Independent Effects of Invasive Shrubs and Deer Herbivory on Plant Community Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Ward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both invasive species and deer herbivory are recognized as locally important drivers of plant community dynamics. However, few studies have examined whether their effects are synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. At three study areas in southern New England, we examined the interaction of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann herbivory and three levels of invasive shrub control over seven growing seasons on the dynamics of nine herbaceous and shrub guilds. Although evidence of synergistic interactions was minimal, the separate effects of invasive shrub control and deer herbivory on plant community composition and dynamics were profound. Plant communities remained relatively unchanged where invasive shrubs were not treated, regardless if deer herbivory was excluded or not. With increasing intensity of invasive shrub control, native shrubs and forbs became more dominant where deer herbivory was excluded, and native graminoids became progressively more dominant where deer herbivory remained severe. While deer exclusion and intensive invasive shrub control increased native shrubs and forbs, it also increased invasive vines. Restoring native plant communities in areas with both established invasive shrub thickets and severe deer browsing will require an integrated management plan to eliminate recalcitrant invasive shrubs, reduce deer browsing intensity, and quickly treat other opportunistic invasive species.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  15. Studies on the biological half-life of caesium in roe deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Aarle, J. van; Merklin, A.; Jäckel, B.; Westmeier, W.; Patzelt, P.

    1987-01-01

    Using over 100 samples of roe deer venison taken largely from the Rural District of Marburg-Biedenkopf and adjoining areas, a biological half-life of 21.9±2.2 days was established for caesium in roe deer. Since the radioactive contamination of the environment after Chernobyl and, therefore, the intake of radioactivity by the animals lasted for only a very short period of time, no significant contamination levels are expected through the consumption of newly killed roe deer. After 120 days, the radioactivity of caesium in a live roe deer has subsided again to less than 1/40 of its initial value [de

  16. Ontogenesis of the omasum: a comparative analysis of the Merino sheep and Iberian red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, E; Masot, J; García, A; Franco, A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the omasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). A total of 50 embryos and fetuses of Merino sheep and 50 Iberian deer were used, from the first stages of prenatal life until birth. For the study, the animals were divided into five experimental groups according to the most relevant histological characteristics. The appearance of the omasum from the primitive gastric tube was earlier in sheep (22% gestation, 33 days) than in deer (25% gestation, 66 days). In both cases it displayed a primitive epithelium of a stratified, cylindrical, non-ciliary type. The appearance of four laminae of different sizes was always earlier in sheep than deer. At around 36% gestation in sheep (53 days) and 36% (97 days) in deer, the omasum consisted of 4 clearly-differentiated layers: mucosa (with epithelial layer and lamina propria), submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The temporal order of appearance of the four order laminae and omasal papillae was always earlier in sheep than deer. The tegumentary mucosa of the omasum was without secretion capability in the first embryonic phases. From 67 days (26% gestation) the neutral mucopolysaccharides appeared in deer and at 46 days (30% gestation) in sheep. In both cases they continued to decrease until birth, this decrease being more pronounced in deer. Finally, the presence of neuroendocrine and glial cells was detected in deer at earlier stages than in sheep.

  17. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-05

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  18. Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Rands

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

  19. Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat

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    Mirian, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M. is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus and wild goats (Capra ibex clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnosed Treatment was ineffective on one red deer and one wild goat. Necropsy findings of dead animals were included: hyperemia, petechial hemorrhage in pericardium and heart muscle, pale foci of leg and heart muscles and red brown urine in bladder. This case report represents the attention to Capture myopathy in wild animals and particular caution that should be exercised in capturing and handling of these animals.

  20. Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

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    Kureljušić Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

  1. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

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    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  2. Adaptive Lévy walks in foraging fallow deer.

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    Stefano Focardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lévy flights are random walks, the step lengths of which come from probability distributions with heavy power-law tails, such that clusters of short steps are connected by rare long steps. Lévy walks maximise search efficiency of mobile foragers. Recently, several studies raised some concerns about the reliability of the statistical analysis used in previous analyses. Further, it is unclear whether Lévy walks represent adaptive strategies or emergent properties determined by the interaction between foragers and resource distribution. Thus two fundamental questions still need to be addressed: the presence of Lévy walks in the wild and whether or not they represent a form of adaptive behaviour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 235 paths of solitary and clustered (i.e. foraging in group fallow deer (Dama dama, exploiting the same pasture. We used maximum likelihood estimation for discriminating between a power-tailed distribution and the exponential alternative and rank/frequency plots to discriminate between Lévy walks and composite Brownian walks. We showed that solitary deer perform Lévy searches, while clustered animals did not adopt that strategy. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our demonstration of the presence of Lévy walks is, at our knowledge, the first available which adopts up-to-date statistical methodologies in a terrestrial mammal. Comparing solitary and clustered deer, we concluded that the Lévy walks of solitary deer represent an adaptation maximising encounter rates with forage resources and not an epiphenomenon induced by a peculiar food distribution.

  3. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  4. Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

  5. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

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    Oleaga Álvaro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.

  6. Proximate influences on female dispersal in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Ultimate causes of animal dispersal have been hypothesized to benefit the dispersing individual because dispersal reduces competition for local resources, potential for inbreeding, and competition for breeding partners. However, proximate cues influence important features of dispersal behavior, including when dispersal occurs, how long it lasts, and direction, straightness, and distance of the dispersal path. Therefore, proximate cues that affect dispersal influence ecological processes (e.g., population dynamics, disease transmission, gene flow). We captured and radio-marked 277 juvenile female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), of which 27 dispersed, to evaluate dispersal behavior and to determine proximate cues that may influence dispersal behavior. Female dispersal largely occurred at 1 year of age and coincided with the fawning season. Dispersal paths varied but generally were non-linear and prolonged. Physical landscape features (i.e., roadways, rivers, residential areas) influenced dispersal path direction and where dispersal terminated. Additionally, forays outside of the natal range that did not result in dispersal occurred among 52% of global positioning system (GPS)-collared deer (n = 25) during the dispersal period. Our results suggest intra-specific social interactions and physical landscape features influence dispersal behavior in female deer. Female dispersal behavior, particularly the lack of directionality, the semi-permeable nature of physical barriers, and the frequency of forays outside of the natal range, should be considered in regard to population management and controlling the spread of disease.

  7. Babesia capreoli infections in alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. Rupicapra), roe deer (Capreolus c. Capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoby, Stefan; Mathis, Alexander; Doherr, Marcus G; Robert, Nadia; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Five cases of fatal babesiosis in free-ranging chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) attributed to infections with Babesia capreoli were recently recorded in two regions of the Swiss Alps. To investigate the ecologic factors that possibly lead to those fatal B. capreoli infections in chamois, blood, ticks, and demographic data of 46 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 48 chamois, and nine red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 2006 and 2007 in both affected regions. Whereas no parasitic inclusions were found by microscopical examination of blood smears, B. capreoli was identified by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing in blood of 12 roe deer (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.3-41.1), one chamois (2%, CI: 0-6.1), and one red deer (11%, CI: 0.3-48.2). Prevalence of B. capreoli was significantly higher in roe deer compared with chamois (P<0.001). All 214 ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, and significantly more roe deer (63%, CI: 47.5-76.8) were infested compared with chamois (21%, CI: 10.5-35.0, P<0.001). Overall, prevalences of both tick infestation and Babesia infection increased significantly (P<0.001) with decreasing altitude, and Babesia-positive samples were detected significantly more often from animals with tick infestation compared with animals without ticks (P = 0.040). Our results indicate that roe deer may play an important reservoir role for B. capreoli. It is hypothesized that the expansion of the presumed vector I. ricinus to higher elevations and its increased abundance in overlapping habitats of roe deer and chamois may favor the spillover of B. capreoli from roe deer to chamois.

  8. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

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    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  9. Do Père David's deer lose memories of their ancestral predators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunwang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators), and of lions (potential naïve predator) to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat.

  10. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

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    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  11. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

  12. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  13. Do Père David's deer lose memories of their ancestral predators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunwang Li

    Full Text Available Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators, of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators, and of lions (potential naïve predator to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat.

  14. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

  15. Country, Cover or Protection: What Shapes the Distribution of Red Deer and Roe Deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heurich, M.; Brand, T. T. G.; Kaandrop, M. Y.; Šustr, Pavel; Muller, J.; Reineking, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), e0120960 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-26561S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : caproelus deer * sitka spruce plantatio * national park * wildlife management * habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  16. Infectious Prions in Pre-Clinical Deer and Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Solely by Environmental Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Hays, Sheila A.; Powers, Jenny; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Langenberg, Julia; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Key to understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is determining the mode of transmission from one individual to another. We have previously reported that saliva and blood from CWD-infected deer contain sufficient infectious prions to transmit disease upon passage into naïve deer. Here we again use bioassays in deer to show that blood and saliva of pre-symptomatic deer contain infectious prions capable of infecting na...

  17. Contrasting origin of B chromosomes in two cervids (Siberian roe deer and grey brocket deer) unravelled by chromosome-specific DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makunin, Alexey I; Kichigin, Ilya G; Larkin, Denis M; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Proskuryakova, Anastasiya A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina N; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Trifonov, Vladimir A

    2016-08-11

    B chromosomes are dispensable and variable karyotypic elements found in some species of animals, plants and fungi. They often originate from duplications and translocations of host genomic regions or result from hybridization. In most species, little is known about their DNA content. Here we perform high-throughput sequencing and analysis of B chromosomes of roe deer and brocket deer, the only representatives of Cetartiodactyla known to have B chromosomes. In this study we developed an approach to identify genomic regions present on chromosomes by high-throughput sequencing of DNA generated from flow-sorted chromosomes using degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR. Application of this method on small cattle autosomes revealed a previously described KIT gene region translocation associated with colour sidedness. Implementing this approach to B chromosomes from two cervid species, Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira), revealed dramatically different genetic content: roe deer B chromosomes consisted of two duplicated genomic regions (a total of 1.42-1.98 Mbp) involving three genes, while grey brocket deer B chromosomes contained 26 duplicated regions (a total of 8.28-9.31 Mbp) with 34 complete and 21 partial genes, including KIT and RET protooncogenes, previously found on supernumerary chromosomes in canids. Sequence variation analysis of roe deer B chromosomes revealed a high frequency of mutations and increased heterozygosity due to either amplification within B chromosomes or divergence between different Bs. In contrast, grey brocket deer B chromosomes were found to be more homogeneous and resembled autosomes in patterns of sequence variation. Similar tendencies were observed in repetitive DNA composition. Our data demonstrate independent origins of B chromosomes in the grey brocket and roe deer. We hypothesize that the B chromosomes of these two cervid species represent different stages of B chromosome sequences evolution

  18. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  19. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Alternative C would include reduction of the deer herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach used in limited circumstances... would include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to quickly reduce...

  20. Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymond, G.J.; Olsen, E.A.; Lee, K.S.; Raymond, L.D.; Bryant, P.K.; Baron, G.S.; Caughey, W.S.; Kocisko, D.A.; McHolland, L.E.; Favara, C.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Mayer, R.T.; Miller, M.W.; Williams, E.S.; Caughey, B.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected

  1. Effects of forest disturbance and soil depth on digestible energy for moose and white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlette S. Crawford; R. A. Lautenschlager; Martin R. Stokes; Timothy L. Stone

    1993-01-01

    Spruce budworm defoliation, clearcutting for salvage, and prescribed burning of clearcut areas on deep and shallow soils influenced deer and moose foraging in eastern Maine spruce-fir forests from 1980 to 1984. Plant standing crop biomass, seasonal plant selection by tractable moose and white-tailed deer, and digestible energy for deer and moose were determined for...

  2. Genetic population structure and relatedness of Colorado mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and incidence of chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of farmed and free ranging mule deer, white tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, and moose in some areas of the United States. The disease is enzootic in herds of free ranging mule deer in the Rocky Mountain National ...

  3. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a fenced nature reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; De Barba, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend...

  4. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  5. Systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Woods, L.W.; Swift, P.K.; Barr, B.C.; Nordhausen, R.W.; Stillian, M.H.; Patton, J.F.; Oliver, M.N.; Jones, K.R.; Maclachlan, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen counties in northern California experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. Thirteen deer submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System as part of this natural die-off had systemic

  6. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  7. Topographic home ranges of white-tailed deer in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller

    2004-01-01

    Planimetric comparisons of home range sizes of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) from across their range may not be appropriate due to regional differences in topography. We compare seasonal topographic diversity between male and female white-tailed deer home ranges in the central Appalachians using percent increase from...

  8. The legacy of deer overabundance: long-term delays in herbaceous understory recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendergast; Shane M. Hanlon; Zachary M. Long; Alex Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2016-01-01

    Decades of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) overpopulation have dramatically homogenized forests across much of the eastern United States, creating depauperate forest understory communities. The rate at which these communities recover once deer browsing has been reduced remains an open question. We evaluate overbrowsing...

  9. Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melia T DeVivo

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces shirasi in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ. Mule deer were captured from 2010-2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ = 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

  10. Immunization with synthetic peptide vaccine fails to protect mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer and elk. The disorder is characterized by accumulation of an abnormally folded isoform of the normal cellular prion protein. Disease prevalence in farmed herds of white tailed deer can exceed 80%. Attempts to control ...

  11. Relationship between diet and liver carcinomas in roe deer in Kielder Forest and Galloway Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.B.; Wieren, van S.E.; Gill, R.M.A.; Munro, R.

    2004-01-01

    The winter diets of roe deer culled from Kielder Forest, in north-east England, where the incidence of liver carcinomas in roe deer is high, and Galloway Forest, in south-west Scotland, where the incidence of liver carcinomas is low, were compared by microhistological analysis of faeces. Both areas

  12. Association of Moraxella ovis with keratoconjunctivitis in mule deer and moose in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, S A; Williams, E S; Mills, K; Boerger-Fields, A M

    2000-04-01

    Six cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and moose (Alces alces) in Wyoming (USA) were investigated during fall and winter of 1995 and 1996. Excessive lacrimation, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal opacity were observed in mule deer. Moose had severe mucopurulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal ulceration. Hemolytic, non-piliated Moraxella ovis was isolated from two mule deer and two moose. We attempted to reproduce IKC in three mule deer fawns using an isolate of M. ovis from a clinically affected mule deer. These fawns did not develop clinical signs of infection and the bacterium was not reisolated from inoculated deer. Inoculated deer may not have developed clinical signs because deer were not exposed to ultraviolet light or mechanical insult before inoculation. In addition, the isolate used for inoculation may have lost virulence factors through passage, or M. ovis may not have been the primary pathogen responsible for clinical disease in the natural cases of IKC we investigated. The etiology of IKC in free-ranging wild ruminants remains poorly understood.

  13. Estimating willingness to pay for protection of eastern black walnut from deer damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Godsey; John P. Dwyer

    2008-01-01

    For many landowners willing to plant trees, one of the biggest establishment and maintenance costs is protecting those young trees from deer browse damage. In some cases, the method of protection used can cost two to three times as much as the cost of planting. Deer damage such as nipping off terminal buds and buck rub penetrating the bark and cambial tissue can kill...

  14. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  15. Genetic structuring of Coues white-tailed deer in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy G. Lopez

    2006-01-01

    The manuscripts in this thesis examine different aspects of white-tailed deer. In the first manuscript I used microsatellite DNA markers in the form of multilocus genotype data and microsatellite allele frequencies to examine spatial patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona and New Mexico...

  16. Effectiveness of electric deer fences to protect planted seedlings in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. George; T.W. Bowersox; L.H. McCormick

    1991-01-01

    Electric fences are used in Pennsylvania following a timber harvest to reduce deer browse on natural regeneration. In 1984, five-strand electric deer fences were constructed around two central Pennsylvania clearcuts. Northern red oak, white ash, white pine, and yellow-poplar seedlings were planted inside each fenced clearcut area in 1984 and 1985. One-half of the 1280...

  17. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

  18. Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

  19. Effects of Prescribed Burning and Cattle Grazing on Deer Diets in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. Thill; Alton Martin; Hershel F. Morris; Austin T. Harrel

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted on the dietary and nutritional effects of cattle grazing and rotational prescribed burning on the diets of three to five captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) bluestem (Andropogon spp. and Schizachyriumspp.) sites in central Louisiana from October 1980 through February 1987. Deer diets were...

  20. Coprophagy by Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin P. Ranade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Barking Deer was seen feeding on Asian Elephant’s dung containing partly digested fruits of Dillenia indica at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal. This case of coprophagy appears to be opportunistic frugivore selection by the deer

  1. Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: We previously demonstrated that scrapie has a 100% attack rate in white-tailed deer after either intracranial or oral inoculation. Samples from deer that developed scrapie had two different western blot patterns: samples derived from cerebrum had a banding pattern similar to the scrapie inocu...

  2. Human perceptions before and after a 50% reduction in an urban deer herd's density

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Henderson; Robert J. Warren; David H. Newman; J. Michael Bowker; Jennifer S. Cromwell; Jeffrey J. Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in urban and suburban areas can be controversial because of potential damage to landscape vegetation, deer-vehicle collisions, and fear over transmission of tick-borne diseases. Herd reduction is often proposed to solve these problems; however, the ability of human residents to...

  3. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Gino J. D' Angelo; Travis C. Glenn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial...

  4. Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, E.

    1984-05-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage

  5. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus in pigs, wild boars, roe deer, red deer and moose in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spancerniene, Ugne; Grigas, Juozas; Buitkuviene, Jurate; Zymantiene, Judita; Juozaitiene, Vida; Stankeviciute, Milda; Razukevicius, Dainius; Zienius, Dainius; Stankevicius, Arunas

    2018-02-23

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 has been associated with domestic pigs and wild boar. Controversial data are available on the circulation of the virus in animals that are used for human consumption, and to date, no gold standard has yet been defined for the diagnosis of HEV-associated hepatitis. To investigate the current HEV infection status in Lithuanian pigs and wild ungulates, the presence of viral RNA was analyzed by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) in randomly selected samples, and the viral RNA was subsequently genotyped. In total, 32.98 and 22.55% of the domestic pig samples were HEV-positive using RT-nPCR targeting the ORF1 and ORF2 fragments, respectively. Among ungulates, 25.94% of the wild boar samples, 22.58% of the roe deer samples, 6.67% of the red deer samples and 7.69% of the moose samples were positive for HEV RNA using primers targeting the ORF1 fragment. Using primers targeting the ORF2 fragment of the HEV genome, viral RNA was only detected in 17.03% of the wild boar samples and 12.90% of the roe deer samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 348-nucleotide-long region of the HEV ORF2 showed that all obtained sequences detected in Lithuanian domestic pigs and wildlife belonged to genotype 3. In this study, the sequences identified from pigs, wild boars and roe deer clustered within the 3i subtype reference sequences from the GenBank database. The sequences obtained from pig farms located in two different counties of Lithuania were of the HEV 3f subtype. The wild boar sequences clustered within subtypes 3i and 3h, clearly indicating that wild boars can harbor additional subtypes of HEV. For the first time, the ORF2 nucleotide sequences obtained from roe deer proved that HEV subtype 3i can be found in a novel host. The results of the viral prevalence and phylogenetic analyses clearly demonstrated

  6. Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Mauro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

  7. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  8. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. is widely distributed among wild deer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yumi; Sato, Kozue; Taylor, Kyle R; Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Imaoka, Koichi; Morikawa, Shigeru; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2017-12-28

    A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. was detected from the blood of wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. The Borrelia sp. was distributed nationwide among deer with an overall prevalence of 26% in blood samples. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in fawns (48.4%) compared to adult deer (23.6%). Sequencing analysis reveals that this Borrelia sp. belongs to the hard tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, and that it forms a single lineage based on sequences of the flagellin and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase genes. Borrelial genome copy number was estimated at 8.8 × 10 3 genome copies/μl of blood. Other hard tick-borne relapsing fever borrelia (e.g. Borrelia miyamotoi) were not detected in deer blood in this study. These findings suggest that wild deer may act as reservoirs for this Borrelia sp. in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of Sika deer on vegetation in Japan: setting management priorities on a national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

    2014-09-01

    Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

  10. Using GPS telemetry to determine roadways most susceptible to deer-vehicle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David W.; Prebyl, Thomas J.; Stickles, James H.; Osborn, David A.; Irwin, Brian J.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Warren, Robert J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2016-01-01

    More than 1 million wildlife-vehicle collisions occur annually in the United States. The majority of these accidents involve white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and result in >US $4.6 billion in damage and >200 human fatalities. Prior research has used collision locations to assess sitespecific as well as landscape features that contribute to risk of deer-vehicle collisions. As an alternative approach, we calculated road-crossing locations from 25 GPS-instrumented white-tailed deer near Madison, Georgia (n=154,131 hourly locations). We identified crossing locations by creating movement paths between subsequent GPS points and then intersecting the paths with road locations. Using AIC model selection, we determined whether 10 local and landscape variables were successful at identifying areas where higher frequencies of deer crossings were likely to occur. Our findings indicate that traffic volume, distance to riparian areas, and the amount of forested area influenced the frequency of road crossings. Roadways that were predominately located in wooded landscapes and 200–300 m from riparian areas were crossed frequently. Additionally, we found that areas of low traffic volume (e.g., county roads) had the highest frequencies of deer crossings. Analyses utilizing only records of deer-vehicle collision locations cannot separate the relative contribution of deer crossing rates and traffic volume. Increased frequency of road crossings by deer in low-traffic, forested areas may lead to a greater risk of deer-vehicle collision than suggested by evaluations of deer-vehicle collision frequency alone.

  11. Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Modelling and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Moreno, R.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarises and discusses results of modelling and experimental studies of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies were conducted in two forested areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl deposition. One area is 40 km north west of Uppsala, in central Sweden and the other is in the Bryansk region of Russia. Experimental studies in Sweden are based on measurements of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose carried out during 1988-1997. Issues addressed were: reasons for seasonal variations of radiocesium levels in roe deer, between years variations and long-term dynamics, correlation between radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose and role of fungi for radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies in Bryansk focused on calibration and validation of models developed during the study. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer increase in up to 5 times in summer and autumn due to mushrooms ingestion and remain almost constant the rest of the year. Mushrooms ingestion explained quantitatively between years variations in radiocesium levels in roe deer and 70 % of the variations in moose. The 137 Cs levels of in roe deer and moose will decrease at a rate close to 137 Cs physical half-life. The radiocesium levels were 2-2.5 times higher in roe deer than in moose. A conceptual model of radiocesium migration and transfer in a forest ecosystem is presented as an interaction matrix. This matrix can be used to study migration pathways and cause-effect relationships and to present status of knowledge. A model of radiocesium transfer in forest ecosystems was developed, which simulates well seasonal and long-term dynamics of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose. A process level model of radiocesium transfer from soil to understorey plants is used to derive equations relating soil-to-plant concentration ratios with soil characteristics

  12. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Rhodococcus equi in wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Cisek, Agata Anna; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Kita, Jerzy

    2015-05-22

    Rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. Strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover R. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe deer and red deer. Samples were collected from 936 animals and 27 R. equi strains were isolated, from 5.1 % of wild boars (23/452), 0.7 % of red deer (2/272) and 0.9 % of roe deer (2/212). Genetic diversity of all 27 isolates was studied using VspI-PFGE method, resulting in the detection of 25 PFGE patterns and four PFGE clusters. PFGE patterns of the isolates were compared with virulence plasmid types and no concordance was observed. R. equi was present in wild animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of R. equi infection for humans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of R. equi prevalence in tissues of roe deer and red deer. However, risk associated with wild ruminant consumption seems marginal. Investigation of R. equi transmission between animals and humans based exclusively on types of virulence plasmids seems to be insufficient to identify sources of R. equi infection for people.

  13. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.

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    Davin M Henderson

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3% diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%. In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1% of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination.

  14. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  15. Systemic Besnoitiosis in a Juvenile Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, M C; Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Martínez-Durán, D; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Revilla, M; Fernández de Luco, D; Jiménez-Meléndez, A; Ortega-Mora, L M; Álvarez-García, G

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we report the first incidence of systemic besnoitiosis in a male juvenile roe deer Capreolus capreolus. The animal was found dead in an area where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic and showed cachexia and multiple skin erosions in the metacarpal and metatarsal areas. Moreover, round and elevated white structures suggestive of Besnoitia spp. tissue cysts were also present. Twenty-eight tissue samples from different anatomical locations were collected for microscopic lesion and parasite detection through histopathology and PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm Besnoitia-positive reaction in the tissue cysts. In addition, the identity of Besnoitia spp. in PCR-positive tissue samples was also investigated using microsatellite (MS) markers, and the comparison of protein disulphide isomerase gene sequences (BbPDI) of B. besnoiti and B. tarandi isolated from cattle and reindeer, respectively. Besnoitia cysts were detected in the skin (several parts), respiratory and upper digestive tracts, eyes, kidney, liver, testicle, cardiac muscle and lymphoid tissue. Remarkably, the presence of tissue cysts in the brain confirmed the capacity of Besnoitia spp. to form tissue cysts in the central nervous system (CNS). Finally, the Besnoitia species detected showed the same MS genotype as B. besnoiti, and BbPDI sequences from roe deer and two B. besnoiti isolates were genetically identical throughout multiple sequence alignment. Thus, for the first time, there is evidence that roe deer might act as an intermediate host of B. besnoiti. Further molecular analyses and parasite isolations are needed to corroborate these findings. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported

  17. Sex-related macrostructural organization of the deer's brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, S R; Gonçalves, A F N; de Castro Sasahara, T H; Fioretto, E T; Gerbasi, S H; Machado, M R F; Guimarães, G C; Ribeiro, A A C M

    2007-08-01

    We describe the morphological organization of the deer brachial plexus in order to supply data to veterinary neuroclinics and anaesthesiology. The deer (Mazama gouazoubira) brachial plexus is composed of four roots: three cervical (C6, C7 and C8) and one thoracic (T1). Within each sex group, no variations are observed between the left and the right brachial plexus, though sex-related differences are seen especially in its origin. The origin of axillary and radial nerves was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 in males and C8-T1 (radial nerve) and C7, C8 and T1 (axillary nerve) in females; musculocutaneous nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C8-T1 (females); median and ulnar nerves was: C8-T1 (males) and T1 (females); long thoracic nerve was: C7 (males) and T1 (females); lateral thoracic nerve was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 (males) and T1 (females); thoracodorsal nerve was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 (males) and C8-T1 (females); suprascapular nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C6 (females) and subscapular nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C7 (females). This study suggests that in male deer the origin of the brachial plexus is more cranial than in females and the origin of the brachial plexus is slightly more complex in males, i.e. there is an additional number of roots (from one to three). This sexual dimorphism may be related to specific biomechanical functions of the thoracic limb and electrophysiological studies may be needed to shed light on this morphological feature.

  18. Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Ferraz de Melo, A; de Souza, W Machado; Rodrigues, R Felipe; Alves, F Ribeiro; Rici, R Eli Graci; Guerra, R Romão; Favaron, P Oliveira; Miglino, M Angélica; Di Dio, L John Aphonso

    2011-08-01

    With 2 figures The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Ophthalmic patterns of captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Bianca C; Oriá, Arianne P; Souza, Ana L G; Campos, Carla F; Almeida, Denise E; Duarte, Roberta A; Soares, Christiane P; Zuanon, José A S; Neto, Carlos B; Duarte, José M B; Schocken-Iturrino, Rubén P; Laus, José L

    2007-12-01

    Captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) were manually restrained to assess tear production by the Schirmer tear test I to measure intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, to examine ocular conjunctival epithelial cells via cytologic and histologic samples, and to survey ocular conjunctival microflora by microbiologic culture. The mean value for the Schirmer tear test I was 8.9 +/- 1.8 mm/min, and the mean intraocular pressure was 15.3 +/- 3.1 mm Hg. Conjunctival epithelium contained stratified pavimentous layers of cells, and the microflora consisted of predominantly gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  1. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

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    Robert B Allen

    Full Text Available Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species. Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut, we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011 to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  2. Can managers compensate for coyote predation of white-tailed deer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates (<3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest of adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  3. Iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtDNA but nuclear markers support its genetic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Salinas, María; de Andrés, Damián; Pérez-González, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Red deer populations in the Iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western Europe. However, the phylogenetic history of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern European populations remain uncertain. Here, we study DNA sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with STR markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in Spain and other west European areas. Our results from mitochondrial and genomic DNA show contrasting patterns, likely related to the nature of these types of DNA markers and their specific processes of change over time. The results, taken together, bring support to two distinct, cryptic maternal lineages for Iberian red deer that predated the last glacial maximum and that have maintained geographically well differentiated until present. Haplotype relationships show that only one of them contributed to the northern postglacial recolonization. However, allele frequencies of nuclear markers evidenced one main differentiation between Iberian and northern European subspecies although also supported the structure of both matrilines within Iberia. Thus, our findings reveal a paraphyletic nature for Iberian red deer but also its genetic identity and differentiation with respect to northern subspecies. Finally, we suggest that maintaining the singularity of Iberian red deer requires preventing not only restocking practices with red deer specimens belonging to other European populations but also translocations between both Iberian lineages.

  4. POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF ROE DEER, Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758. IN THE HUNTING GROUND "CREPOLJSKO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enad Korjenić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field research of population and reproductive growth of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758. in the hunting ground "Crepoljsko" lasted from January to December 2009. In the studied hunting ground two habitats (sites of roe deer Nahorevo and Bukovik have been registered with the estimated area of 1900 ha. Nahorevo covers, approximately 800 ha, and Bukovik 1100 ha. The total number of roe deer individuals in the "Crepoljsko" estimated to 103 individuals. In hunting ground Nahorevo 42 individual of roe deer of various age structure have been documented. Absolute reproductive growth of deer in this study area was six individuals or 45% of the expected (theoretical reproductive growth (60%. In hunting ground Bukovik 61 individuals have been found. Absolute reproductive growth was 9 individuals which makes 49% of theoretical reproductive growth. On the basis these results it could be concluded that the investigated habitats (sites have suitable conditions for this attractive hunting deer, as wall as for the development of hunting tourism and education. Key words: deer, population, reproduction, habitat

  5. Quality indicators of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. venison from two different Czech regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on differences in the monitored quality indicators of roe deer venison depending on the region of the Czech Republic where roe deer are hunted. Quality of roe deer venison was evaluated based on pH values, colour (CIEL*a*b* system and chemical composition (content of haem pigments, dry matter, pure protein, collagen and fat. Samples of muscle from the leg (m. gluteus medius were taken from 22 female roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. from two hunting regions (Liberec and South Moravia in the Czech Republic. In roe deer from Liberec, higher pH value (5.65, P P P -1 were found. Muscles from roe deer from South Moravia contained higher amounts of dry matter (29.52%, P P < 0.001 and total collagen (0.86%, and lower amounts of intramuscular fat (0.48%. These results may provide an important source of information for consumers of roe deer meat because several differences in the quality (chemical composition of muscles from South Moravian region and Liberec region were found. Presumably, the differences between muscles from animals living in two different Czech regions were due to the diet, form of land use (more agricultural land in Southern Moravia, and forests and mountains in Liberec and climatic conditions (Liberec lies in the northern part of the Czech Republic. It is the first study of this topic in the Czech Republic.

  6. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes.

  7. Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, M.G.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W.; Leslie, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 1998.

  8. The role of landscape characteristics for forage maturation and nutritional benefits of migration in red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Vike, Brit Karen; Meisingset, Erling L; Rivrud, Inger Maren

    2017-06-01

    Large herbivores gain nutritional benefits from following the sequential flush of newly emergent, high-quality forage along environmental gradients in the landscape, termed green wave surfing. Which landscape characteristics underlie the environmental gradient causing the green wave and to what extent landscape characteristics alone explain individual variation in nutritional benefits remain unresolved questions. Here, we combine GPS data from 346 red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) from four partially migratory populations in Norway with the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), an index of plant phenology. We quantify whether migratory deer had access to higher quality forage than resident deer, how landscape characteristics within summer home ranges affected nutritional benefits, and whether differences in landscape characteristics could explain differences in nutritional gain between migratory and resident deer. We found that migratory red deer gained access to higher quality forage than resident deer but that this difference persisted even after controlling for landscape characteristics within the summer home ranges. There was a positive effect of elevation on access to high-quality forage, but only for migratory deer. We discuss how the landscape an ungulate inhabits may determine its responses to plant phenology and also highlight how individual behavior may influence nutritional gain beyond the effect of landscape.

  9. Comparative analysis of the merino sheep and Iberian red deer abomasum during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonio; Masot, Javier; Redondo, Eloy

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the abomasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of the sheep and 50 red deer from the first prenatal stages until birth. To compare similar periods of gestation in both species, we calculate the percentages of gestation. The appearance of the abomasum was earlier in the red deer (22% gestation) than in the sheep (25% gestation). Throughout development the epithelium happened sequentially, being of the types pseudostratified to simple cylindrical. This important modification was earlier in the red deer than the sheep. At 46% gestation in red deer and 50% in sheep, gastric pits were observed on the surface of abomasal folds. Our studies suggest a close link between the initial formation of these pseudoglandular structures and the clear separation of lamina propria and submucosa separated by de muscularis mucosae. At 54% gestation in red deer and at 60% in sheep, in the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands were distinguishable. Finally, the presence of neuroendocrine and glial cells were detected in deer at earlier stages than in sheep. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Roberson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  11. Chronic wasting disease drives population decline of white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant; Lindzey, Frederick G.; Cook, Walter; Kreeger, Terry J.; Grogan, Ronald; Cornish, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859–0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.

  12. Does small-perimeter fencing inhibit mule deer or pronghorn use of water developments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Robinson, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife water development can be an important habitat management strategy in western North America for many species, including both pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In many areas, water developments are fenced (often with small-perimeter fencing) to exclude domestic livestock and feral horses. Small-perimeter exclosures could limit wild ungulate use of fenced water sources, as exclosures present a barrier pronghorn and mule deer must negotiate to gain access to fenced drinking water. To evaluate the hypothesis that exclosures limit wild ungulate access to water sources, we compared use (photo counts) of fenced versus unfenced water sources for both pronghorn and mule deer between June and October 2002-2008 in western Utah. We used model selection to identify an adequate distribution and best approximating model. We selected a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution for both pronghorn and mule deer photo counts. Both pronghorn and mule deer photo counts were positively associated with sampling time and average daily maximum temperature in top models. A fence effect was present in top models for both pronghorn and mule deer, but mule deer response to small-perimeter fencing was much more pronounced than pronghorn response. For mule deer, we estimated that presence of a fence around water developments reduced photo counts by a factor of 0.25. We suggest eliminating fencing of water developments whenever possible or fencing a big enough area around water sources to avoid inhibiting mule deer. More generally, our results provide additional evidence that water development design and placement influence wildlife use. Failure to account for species-specific preferences will limit effectiveness of management actions and could compromise research results. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W E; Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Taylor, S K; Anderson, S

    2001-07-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an approved brucellosis vaccine for use in cattle that may have potential as an oral vaccine for use in elk (Cervus elaphus) and/or bison (Bison bison). This study was designed to determine effects of strain RB51 on deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), a nontarget species that could have access to treated baits in a field situation. In February 1994, 90 mice were orally dosed or intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(8) colony forming units strain RB51 and 77 controls were similarly dosed with sterile saline. At weekly intervals through early April 1994, 4 to 6 mice from each group were euthanized, gross necropsies performed, spleens and uteruses cultured, and tissues examined histologically. All orally inoculated mice cleared the infection by 6 wk post-inoculation (PI). While most of the injected mice cleared the infection by 7 wk PI, a few required 9 wk. There were minimal adverse effects attributable to strain RB51. Apparently, strain RB51 would not negatively impact P. maniculatus populations if it were used in a field situation. Also, deer mice appear to be able to clear the vaccine in 6 to 9 wk, thus the probability of these mice transmitting the vaccine to other animals is low.

  14. Experimental trichinellosis in fallow-deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivora can play a very important role in spreading trichinellosis, as showed by the massive epidemics in man, caused by the consumption of horse meat in the last years. In this context, the present study has been undertaken to verify, through an experimental infection, the susceptibility, together with other biological parameters, of fallow-deer to Trichinella infection. The four animals, 8-9 months of age and 18-25 Kg body weight, were orally infected with low doses of Trichinella britovi and T. pseudospiralis (2,000 larvae/animal. After day 30 p.i,, the animals were necropsied and, using artificial digestion methods, larval burden of Trichinella in muscle tissues was determined. Histopathological, serological (lgG monoclonal blocking ELISA and biochemical data were assessed during the experiment. The results showed the susceptibility of fallow-deer to T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis infection; under the same inoculum size, the number of larvae/g was higher in group infected with T. britovi. The animals showed a higher immunological response to T. pseudospiralis infection. The results are discussed.

  15. Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

  16. Sin Nombre hantavirus decreases survival of male deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D; Douglass, Richard J; Hudson, Peter J; Mills, James N; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2012-06-01

    How pathogens affect their hosts is a key question in infectious disease ecology, and it can have important influences on the spread and persistence of the pathogen. Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. A better understanding of SNV in its reservoir host, the deer mouse, could lead to improved predictions of the circulation and persistence of the virus in the mouse reservoir, and could help identify the factors that lead to increased human risk of HPS. Using mark-recapture statistical modeling on longitudinal data collected over 15 years, we found a 13.4% decrease in the survival of male deer mice with antibodies to SNV compared to uninfected mice (both male and female). There was also an additive effect of breeding condition, with a 21.3% decrease in survival for infected mice in breeding condition compared to uninfected, non-breeding mice. The data identified that transmission was consistent with density-dependent transmission, implying that there may be a critical host density below which SNV cannot persist. The notion of a critical host density coupled with the previously overlooked disease-induced mortality reported here contribute to a better understanding of why SNV often goes extinct locally and only seems to persist at the metapopulation scale, and why human spillover is episodic and hard to predict.

  17. Movement and habitat use of Sika and White-tailed Deer on Assateague Island national seashore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Christensen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    This research project was conducted to describe habitat use of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and possibly attribute the effects of ungulate herbivory to specific deer species, if spatial separation in habitat use could be identified. Sturm (2007) conducted an exclosure study to document the effect of feral horse (Equus caballus) herbivory, deer herbivory, and horse and deer herbivory combined on plant communities. Sturm (2007) found that ungulate herbivory reduced plant species richness, evenness, and diversity in the maritime forest and affected species composition in all habitats studied. Sturm (2007) also found that herbivory on some species could be directly attributable to either horse or deer. However, the effects of sika and white-tailed deer herbivory could not be separated via an exclosure study design because of the difficulty of passively excluding one deer species but not the other. We captured white-tailed deer and sika deer in January–March of 2006 and 2007 throughout the Maryland portion of Assateague Island. Deer were fitted with radio-collars and their survival and locations monitored via ground telemetry. Up to four locations were acquired per deer each week during early (May–June) and late (August–September) growth periods for vegetation on the island. Also, we estimated deer locations during a dormant vegetation period (November– December 2006). We used these data to estimate survival and harvest rates, document movements, and model habitat use. We captured and fitted 50 deer with radio-collars over the course of the study. Of these 50 deer, 36 were sika and 14 were white-tailed deer. Of the 36 sika deer, 10 were harvested, three were likely killed by hunters but not recovered, and one died of natural causes while giving birth. Of the 14 white-tailed deer, three were harvested, one was illegally killed, and two were censored because of study-related mortality. Annual survival was 0.48 (95% CI

  18. Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosiuk, Maciej; Borkowska, Anetta; Świsłocka, Magdalena; Mirski, Paweł; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil; Danilkin, Aleksey A; Zvychaynaya, Elena Y; Saveljev, Alexander P; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon which may lead to increased allelic variation at selective neutral loci and to transfer of fitness-related traits to introgressed lineages. We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8). Analyses of CR mtDNA sequences from 452 individuals indicated widespread introgression of Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) mtDNA in the European roe deer genome, 2000 km from the current distribution range of C. pygargus. Introgressed individuals constituted 16.6% of the deer studied. Nearly 75% of them possessed haplotypes belonging to the group which arose 23 kyr ago and have not been detected within the natural range of Siberian roe deer, indicating that majority of present introgression has ancient origin. Unlike the mtDNA results, sex-specific markers did not show signs of introgression. Species distribution modelling analyses suggested that C. pygargus could have extended its range as far west as Central Europe after last glacial maximum. The main hybridization event was probably associated with range expansion of the most abundant European roe deer lineage from western refugia and took place in Central Europe after the Younger Dryas (10.8-10.0 ka BP). Initially, introgressed mtDNA variants could have spread out on the wave of expansion through the mechanism of gene surfing, reaching high frequencies in European roe deer populations and leading to observed asymmetrical gene flow. Human-mediated introductions of C. pygargus had minimal effect on the extent of mtDNA introgression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) populations from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Markov, Nickolay; Voloshina, Inna; Argunov, Alexander; Bayarlkhagva, Damdingiin; Oh, Jang Geun; Park, Yong-Su; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2015-08-18

    The roe deer, Capreolus sp., is one of the most widespread meso-mammals of Palearctic distribution, and includes two species, the European roe deer, C. capreolus inhabiting mainly Europe, and the Siberian roe deer, C. pygargus, distributed throughout continental Asia. Although there are a number of genetic studies concerning European roe deer, the Siberian roe deer has been studied less, and none of these studies use microsatellite markers. Natural processes have led to genetic structuring in wild populations. To understand how these factors have affected genetic structure and connectivity of Siberian roe deer, we investigated variability at 12 microsatellite loci for Siberian roe deer from ten localities in Asia. Moderate levels of genetic diversity (H(E) = 0.522 to 0.628) were found in all populations except in Jeju Island, South Korea, where the diversity was lowest (H(E) = 0.386). Western populations showed relatively low genetic diversity and higher degrees of genetic differentiation compared with eastern populations (mean Ar = 3.54 (east), 2.81 (west), mean F(ST) = 0.122). Bayesian-based clustering analysis revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (clusters) for Siberian roe deer, which comprise of the Southeastern group (Mainland Korea, Russian Far East, Trans-Baikal region and Northern part of Mongolia), Northwestern group (Western Siberia and Ural in Russia) and Jeju Island population. Genetic analyses including AMOVA (F(RT) = 0.200), Barrier and PCA also supported genetic differentiation among regions separated primarily by major mountain ridges, suggesting that mountains played a role in the genetic differentiation of Siberian roe deer. On the other hand, genetic evidence also suggests an ongoing migration that may facilitate genetic admixture at the border areas between two groups. Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an

  20. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  1. Detection of sub-clinical CWD infection in conventional test-negative deer long after oral exposure to urine and feces from CWD+ deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Haley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD of cervids is a prion disease distinguished by high levels of transmissibility, wherein bodily fluids and excretions are thought to play an important role. Using cervid bioassay and established CWD detection methods, we have previously identified infectious prions in saliva and blood but not urine or feces of CWD+ donors. More recently, we identified very low concentrations of CWD prions in urine of deer by cervid PrP transgenic (Tg[CerPrP] mouse bioassay and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA. This finding led us to examine further our initial cervid bioassay experiments using sPMCA.We sought to investigate whether conventional test-negative deer, previously exposed orally to urine and feces from CWD+ sources, may be harboring low level CWD infection not evident in the 19 month observation period. We further attempted to determine the peripheral PrP(CWD distribution in these animals.Various neural and lymphoid tissues from conventional test-negative deer were reanalyzed for CWD prions by sPMCA and cervid transgenic mouse bioassay in parallel with appropriate tissue-matched positive and negative controls.PrP(CWD was detected in the tissues of orally exposed deer by both sPMCA and Tg[CerPrP] mouse bioassay; each assay revealed very low levels of CWD prions previously undetectable by western blot, ELISA, or IHC. Serial PMCA analysis of individual tissues identified that obex alone was positive in 4 of 5 urine/feces exposed deer. PrP(CWD was amplified from both lymphoid and neural tissues of positive control deer but not from identical tissues of negative control deer.Detection of subclinical infection in deer orally exposed to urine and feces (1 suggests that a prolonged subclinical state can exist, necessitating observation periods in excess of two years to detect CWD infection, and (2 illustrates the sensitive and specific application of sPMCA in the diagnosis of low-level prion infection. Based on

  2. [The incidence of bacterial CNS infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Simone; Gallien, Peter; Bauer, Johann

    2005-01-01

    Brain samples of 849 wild ruminants (654 roe deer, 189 red deer and 6 chamois) from Bavaria were examined for the occurrence of encephalopathies caused by bacteria, using cultural, serological and genetic methods. In addition, 87 brain samples were investigated histologically for clarification of the pathogenetic relevance of specific microorganisms. Using conventional bacteriological methods, 464 different bacteria were isolated. 229 of them could be differentiated to the genus level and 235 to the species level. Totally, 35 different bacteria species were isolated, most frequently Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and E. coli. Listeria spp. were detected in 43 brain samples (37 from roe deer, 5 from red deer and 1 from chamois). Sixteen strains were identified as L. innocua, 14 as L. monocytogenes, 9 as L. seeligeri and 4 as L. grayi. Serological investigations of L. monocytogenes showed that 9 strains belong to serotype 1/2a and five to 4b. Analysis of the geographical distribution of the Listeria findings indicate a statistically significant (p<0.011) regional aggregation in Unterfranken (prevalence for roe deer: 12.2%, versus 4.5% in Oberbayern-Schwaben, 6.1% in Niederbayern-Oberpfalz and 0% in Oberfranken-Mittelfranken). The histological investigation (HE staining) of 87 tissue samples contaminated with encephalitis relevant bacteria showed inflammation of different severity (mild meningitis and choroiditis (n = 26) to moderate (meningo)encephalitis (n = 13)) in 41 cases.

  3. Detection of a novel gammaherpesvirus (genus Rhadinovirus) in wild muntjac deer in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, John; Hogg, Kayleigh; Lagan, Paula; Ball, Cheryl; Doherty, Simon; Reid, Neil; Collins, Lisa; Dick, Jaimie T A

    2017-06-01

    This study represents the initial part of an investigation into the potential for non-native, wild, free-living muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to carry viruses that could be a threat to livestock. A degenerate PCR assay was used to screen a range of tissues from muntjac deer culled in Northern Ireland for the presence of herpesviral nucleic acids. This was followed by sequencing of PCR amplicons and phylogenetic analysis. We report the detection of a novel gammaherpesvirus most closely related to a type 2 ruminant rhadinovirus from mule deer. It remains to be determined if this new virus is pathogenic to deer or presents a risk to food security through the susceptibility of domestic livestock.

  4. Home range and habitat use of reintroduced Javan Deer in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Javan deer which inhabit Panaitan Island (± 175 Km2 were reintroduced from Peucang Island (± 4.5 Km2 during 1978–1982 (3 males: 13 females. The information of home range and habitat use of these animals were needed for wildlife habitat management especially in the small island habitat. We measured the home range size and habitat use of Javan deer in Peucang Island and Panaitan Island and compared them. The home range size was measured using Minimum Convex Polygon and then the polygon of home ranges were used to measure the habitat use. The results showed that in general the home range size in all age class of Javan deer between both islands did not differ significantly, only subadult males in Peucang Island which have a larger home range size than subadult males in Panaitan Island. Javan deer in Panaitan Island have found suitable conditions.

  5. Identification of a novel Mannheimia granulomatis lineage from pathological lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested...... that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer...... isolates form a monophyletic group within M. granulomatis. The lktA genotype was present in all roe deer isolates based on Southern blot analysis, whereas the corresponding beta-hemolytic phenotype was absent in one of these isolates....

  6. Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.; Klemt, E.; Strebl, F.; Tataruch, F.; Zibold, G.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical data on the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137 Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137 Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

  7. Branching patterns of the aortic arch in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangyun; Sim, Jeong-Ha; Kim, Jong-Teak; Oh, Hong-Shik; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

    2018-02-02

    This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6, 25.7 and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB. These results suggest that the Siberian roe deer in the Korean peninsula has various AA branching patterns, which differs from other ruminants.

  8. Bacteria and nematodes in the conjunctiva of mule deer from Wyoming and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, S A; Williams, E S; Mills, K; Boerger-Fields, A M

    2000-10-01

    Swabs of conjunctiva were collected from 44 live and 226 hunter-harvested mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Wyoming and Utah (USA). We identified 29 gram negative and 22 gram positive bacterial taxonomic categories, but many isolates from hunter-harvested animals were environmental contaminants. Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. were the most common gram positive bacteria isolated, and Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. were common gram negative bacteria isolated. Thelazia californiensis were found in 15% of hunter-harvested deer in Utah in 1994 and in 8% in 1995. Nematodes were found in 40% of live deer in 1995 and 66% in 1996. Three live animals showed clinical signs of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in 1996, but pathogenic bacteria were not isolated from these individuals. Hemolytic, non-piliated Moraxella ovis was isolated from two clinically normal live deer in 1996 and isolates were similar to those cultured from IKC cases from Wyoming and Utah.

  9. Different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in Brazilian deer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Munar, D S F; Sarria-Perea, J A; Duarte, J M B

    2010-08-10

    The tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus Mazama). We tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, Mazama gouazoubira, M. americana and M. nana, compared to the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. Doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 microg/mL, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were seen in M. gouazoubira; they were lowest in B. dichotomus and intermediate in M. americana and M. nana. These results were expected based on previous karyotypic studies, but they failed to explain the higher sensitivity seen in M. gouazoubira. This may be because not all the aberrations and fragile sites are related to chromosome evolution in brocket deer; other factors, such as environmental influences, may be involved in chromosome fragility.

  10. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  11. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  12. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  13. Performance of immunochromatographic and ELISA tests for detecting fallow deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Diaz-Sanchez, S; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Gortazar, C

    2012-04-01

    Fallow deer (Dama dama) are widely distributed as natural or naturalised populations, as well as in game parks and deer farms. We used 157 fallow deer sampled in populations considered to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) free and 73 Mycobacterium bovis-infected fallow deer confirmed postmortem by culture to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two tests for the detection of anti-mycobacterial antibodies: the dual path platform (DPP) VetTB assay and the bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) ELISA. We also compared their sensitivity with that of the skin test, analyzed the effect of haemolysis degree on the antibody detection and described the relationship between the test readings and presence/absence of gross tuberculosis (TB) compatible lesions. Sensitivity of bPPD ELISA was 51% at a specificity of 96%. Depending on the cut-off value selected, the sensitivity of DPP VetTB ranged from 62 to 71%, while its specificity was 88-95%. In the subgroup of M. bovis-infected deer for which the skin test data were available (33 of 73); this method detected 76% of culture-positive animals, although the specificity of the intradermal test was not determined in this study. When the DPP VetTB and skin test data were combined, the resulting sensitivity obtained in this sub-group of M. bovis-infected deer increased to 97%. Gross pathology identified TB compatible lesions (TBL) in 89% culture-confirmed fallow deer. The infected animals with visible lesions had significantly higher readings in the DPP VetTB, but not in the bPPD ELISA. Only high levels of haemolysis decreased antibody test sensitivity and this effect was more evident for the bPPD ELISA. The results allowed inferring a number of management recommendations for rapid detection of MTC infection in live fallow deer and in surveys on hunter-harvested cervids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Of elephants and blind men: Deer management in the U.S. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    Overabundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are becoming common in the eastern United States. Faced with burgeoning deer populations in eastern parks, the National Park Service (NPS) formulated policy based on its long experience with ungulate management in western parks. That the NPS failed to find a management solution acceptable to its many constituencies was inevitable. Like blind men touching different parts of an elephant and disagreeing about its form, those engaged in the debate about deer management in parks are viewing different parts of the ecological system. None has seen the entire system, and consequently, there is neither common agreement on the nature of the problem nor on the solutions. We explore the quandary of deer management in eastern parks by addressing three questions: (1) Can the National Park Service reconcile its management goals with those of its neighbors? (2) Can thresholds be identified for determining when to intervene in natural processes? (3) Is there a scientific foundation for proceeding with effective management of deer? We argue that reconciling the NPS management with that of state conservation agencies is not possible because management policy guides these agencies in opposite directions: the NPS is charged with limiting human impact on ecological processes, and state agencies are charged with exerting human control over population abundance. Questions about thresholds and a scientific basis for management arise from concern that irrupting deer populations are a manifestation of disrupted natural processes. Several population growth paradigms are at the heart of this ecological question. The science provides no consensus about which of these paradigms are appropriate to deer in eastern ecosystems. Thus, it is premature to expect science to identify if or when natural processes have been disrupted. While the NPS cannot effectively achieve its goals without better science, neither can it wait for

  15. Living on the edge: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) density in the margins of its geographical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana M; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, João P; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area--LNHA, Serra de Montesinho--SM and Serra da Nogueira--SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26-5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions.

  16. Living on the edge: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus density in the margins of its geographical range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Valente

    Full Text Available Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area--LNHA, Serra de Montesinho--SM and Serra da Nogueira--SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park. The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26-5.45. This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions.

  17. Chromosome polymorphism in the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer, Mazama nana (Mammalia, Cervidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abril,Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte,José Maurício Barbanti

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana) is the smallest deer species in Brazil and is considered threatened due to the reduction and alteration of its habitat, the Atlantic Rainforest. Moreover, previous work suggested the presence of intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms which may contribute to further population instability because of the reduced fertility arising from the deleterious effects of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis. We used G- and C-banding, and nucleolus organi...

  18. Pre-orbital gland opening in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) during stressful handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, J; Bartoš, L; Kotrba, R; Ceacero, F

    2012-09-01

    Stressful manipulation by humans has been previously shown to result in opening the pre-orbital gland of the newborn red deer. We hypothesized that exposure of red deer to stressful handling would result in opening the pre-orbital gland. Further, we tested the potential factors associated with pre-orbital opening, including season, sex, age and struggling behavior. Pre-orbital gland status was observed in 76 red deer (48 males, 28 females) during 281 handling events with the animal isolated and fixed in a mechanical restraint cradle (crush) within 3 consecutive years. The deer age ranged from 1 to 5 yr in males, and from 1 to 11 yr in females at the beginning of observations. The proportion of handling events with an open gland was considerably greater during than before handling (27.76 vs. 0%, respectively, P deer that struggled or stiffened revealed 2-fold greater incidence of pre-orbital opening (P stress. The probability that the animal opens its pre-orbitals during handling sharply increased at the beginning of the rut (mating season, P Deer that threatened the handler (10% out of 215 observations) opened their pre-orbitals 30 times more often than nonthreatening ones. These effects indicate that other motivations are likely involved in the opening of pre-orbitals, in addition to the perception of a stressful event. Incidence of pre-orbital opening decreased with age in both sexes (P stressful handling in sub-adult and adult red deer, although repeated human handling did not elicit such incidence of pre-orbital opening as found in newborn red deer calves. Our results support multifactorial origins of pre-orbital opening and prompt the necessity of further research to distinguish between different motivations that might have been involved in opening of pre-orbitals.

  19. Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

    1998-12-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

  20. Living on the Edge: Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) Density in the Margins of Its Geographical Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana M.; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, João P.; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area - LNHA, Serra de Montesinho – SM and Serra da Nogueira – SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26–5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions. PMID:24533091

  1. Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivo, Melia T.; Edmunds, David R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant A.; Binfet, Justin; Kreeger, Terry J.; Richards, Bryan J.; Schatzl, Hermann M.; Cornish, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ). Mule deer were captured from 2010–2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old) deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ= 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

  2. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark

    2018-01-01

    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  3. Carotid artery exteriorization in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) for an experimental study of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munerato, Marina Salles; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Marques, José Antônio

    2009-09-01

    This report evaluates the carotid artery exteriorization technique to allow repeated percutaneous artery catheterization in six brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Repeated percutaneous catheterization of the carotid artery was possible for periods of 3 mo to obtain arterial blood and monitor arterial blood pressure of deer without risk of arterial rupture. The artery pulse was easily palpable for periods up to 15 mo. Postoperative complication and/or arterial damage was not observed.

  4. Ontogenesis of the rumen: a comparative analysis of the Merino sheep and Iberian red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonio; Masot, Javier; Redondo, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the rumen in the sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). A total of 50 embryos and fetuses of Merino sheep and 50 of Iberian deer were used, from the first stages of prenatal life until birth. For the study, the animals were divided into five experimental groups according to the most relevant histological characteristics. The appearance of the rumen from the primitive gastric tube was earlier in the sheep (22% gestation, 33 days) than in the deer (25% gestation, 66 days). In both cases it displayed a primitive epithelium of a stratified, cylindrical, non-ciliary type. At around 28% gestation in the sheep (42 days) and 26% (67 days) in the deer, the rumen was configured of three clearly-differentiated layers: internal or mucosal, middle or muscular and external or serosal. In both species the stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by modifications in its structure with the appearance of the ruminal pillars and papillae. The pillars appeared before the papillae and the appearance of both structures was always earlier in the deer (pillars: 70 days, 27% gestation; papillae: 97 days, 36% gestation) than in the sheep (pillars: 42 days, 28% gestation; papillae: 57 days, 38% gestation). The outlines of the ruminal papillae appeared as evaginations of the basal zone toward the ruminal lumen, dragging in their formation the basal membrane, the lamina propria and the submucosa. The tegumentary mucosa of the rumen was without secretion capability in the first embryonic phases. From 67 days (26% gestation) the neutral mucopolysaccharides appeared in the deer and at 46 days (30% gestation) in the sheep. In both cases they continued to decrease until birth, this diminution being more pronounced in the deer. Finally, the presence of neuroendocrine and glial cells was detected in the deer at earlier stages than in the sheep. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese

  5. Haematological and renal biochemistry values in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus peruvianus) reared in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lovera P., Erick; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Lí E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Falcón P., Néstor; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Dirección actual: Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Ríos M., Patricia; Patronato Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barrera, PATPAL, Lima

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the normal hematological values and renal biochemistry of the adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) reared in captivity. Blood samples were collected in 25 animals. The deers were anesthetized with two chemical methods of restraint (ketamina 7 mg/kg; ketamina 4 mg/kg and xilacina 1 mg/ kg) without significant difference between both methods in relation to hematological and biochemistry values. In the erythrocytic series, the numbe...

  6. A UAV-BASED ROE DEER FAWN DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  7. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  8. Delayed acute capture myopathy in three roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montané, J; Marco, I; Manteca, X; López, J; Lavín, S

    2002-03-01

    Delayed acute capture myopathy is the term used to describe the clinical syndrome observed in three roe deer captured by drive-nets and transported to an enclosure for scientific purposes. The animals died 48 h, 60 h and 8 days after being captured. The simultaneous deaths coincided with a previous episode of deliberate human disturbance. The histopathological findings were indicative of acute myopathy and myoglobinaemic nephrosis. These could be related to an ataxic myoglobinuric syndrome brought on by capture and transport operations. The lack of clinical signs and negative prognosis indicators in the period between capture and just before death. the absence of gross muscular lesions in the animal that died after 8 days post-capture, the simultaneous deaths of animals captured at different times and the evidence of deliberate human disturbance in the enclosure are suggestive of death triggered by a second stress episode.

  9. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr−1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr−1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering

  10. Connectivity , Corridors and S tepping S tones: Conservation Implications of Roe Deer Distribution on the Eastern S teppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Olson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Information was collected on roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus distribution on the Eastern S teppe of Mongolia from 2000 to 2003. During this period, 65 roe deer were observed. Roe Deer were distributed throughout the Eastern S teppe region, but all sightings occurred in or adjacent to small woodland patches or riparian woodland. These woodland patches and riparian woodlands are likely to be critical roe deer habitat on the otherwise open grasslands of eastern Mongolia. From a management perspective, roe deer can function as an ecological focal species for preservation of these habitats, and conservation of roe deer and their woodlands can conserve a suite of other species also dependent upon this habitat and thus help conserve the biodiversity of Mongolia’ s Eastern S teppe.

  11. Capture-recapture of white-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellet-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.

  12. DEFECATION RATE IN CAPTIVE DEER IN “LOS CAPOMOS”, MUNICIPALITY OF El FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gibrán Ochoa-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of white-tailed deer in Mexico can only be performed in Management Units for the Conservation of Wildlife (UMA , for its acronym in Spanish , based on a management plan for legal operation. Among the methods for population estimate harvest rates, highlights fecal count groups, depending on the frequency at which a deer excretes daily, and whose values are estimated from captive specimens and tolerant observer, but considering subspecies and different from the northern Sinaloa conditions. Using these rates of defecation can lead to overharvesting. This research was conducted in the farmed deer of the indigenous ejido (Mayo-Yoreme ethnic group called “Los Capomos”, in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, between October 2011 and May 2012, to estimate the rate of defecation counts from fecal groups, obtained from a confined deer population and in apparent equilibrium with its environment through adjustments to the model of Eberhardt and Van Etten. It was found that the lowest rate published defecation (12.7 deer fecal groups per day, the estimated population accounted for half of the known population, which would prevent excessive use of native deer in the wild. However, the pattern of random grouping of excreta in confinement, makes it advisable that it be used in conditions of freedom, since it presupposes the mathematical model used aggregate grouping patterns.

  13. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The 137 Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137 Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137 Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40 K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137 Cs

  14. Effects of crowding and sex on fecal cortisol levels of captive forest musk deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Restricted space and close contact with conspecifics in captivity may be stressful for musk deer, as they are highly territorial and solitary in the wild. So we tested the effects of crowding on stress of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii in heterosexual groups, using fecal cortisol analysis as a non-invasive method. 32 healthy adults during non-breeding seasons were chose as our experimental objects. Group 1 was defined as higher crowding condition, with 10-15 m²/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂; group 2 was defined as lower crowding condition, with 23-33 m²/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂. Every enclosure contained 1 male and 3 female. These patterns had been existed for years. RESULTS: The results showed that females in lower crowding condition (217.1 ± 9.5 ug/g had significantly higher fecal cortisol levels than those in higher crowding condition (177.2 ± 12.1 ug/g. Interestingly, crowding seemed have no effect on male fecal cortisol levels (148.1 ± 9.1 ug/g and 140.5 ± 13.3 ug/g, respectively. At both groups, cortisol was significantly lower in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that chronic crowding may affect stress status of captive forest musk deer. The captive environment should consider the space need for musk deer.

  15. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Francisco J; Panadero, Rosario; Vázquez, Luis; López, Ceferino M; Díaz, Pablo; Vázquez, Esther; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer in relation to different parameters in northwestern Spain was investigated. A total of 154 roe deer hunted between April 2007 and October 2008 from different localities of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined. From each animal, a blood sample and all attached ticks found were collected. All the specimens for tick stages (larva, nymph, and adult) were speciated based on reference keys. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (titer > or = 1:64). The percentage of roe deer seropositive for B. burgdorferi was 68.8% (106/ 154), of which 88.7% (94/106) were parasitized by ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the only species identified and was detected in 83.1% of roe deer with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) intensity of 46 +/- 47 ticks. Individual host characteristics such as age or sex did not have any effect on the prevalence of B. burgdorferi, but significant seasonal variation was observed, with higher prevalences in April-July than in August-October. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were related to the presence of ticks. When analyzing all the factors together, the total number of ticks parasitizing roe deer was found as the most influential factor on B. burgdorferi prevalence. The results of this study have shown that roe deer in the northwest of Spain are highly exposed to B. burgdorferi and that exposure is related to the presence of I. ricinus.

  16. Determinants of tick-borne encephalitis virus antibody presence in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Vor, T; Hagedorn, P; Niedrig, M; Rühe, F

    2012-03-01

    In order to identify variables associated with the presence of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, we conducted a serological survey of roe deer [Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae, Linnaeus 1758)] in three forest districts of southern Hesse, Germany. Overall, 24 out of 105 (22.9%) of the sera were positive (≥1 : 10 plaque reduction neutralization test). Using a logistic regression approach, we found that unexplained spatial variation, indexed roe deer density (positive correlation), hind foot length of the tested roe deer (positive correlation) and infestation with female Ixodes spp. ticks (negative correlation) predicted the probability of TBE virus antibody presence in individual roe deer sera. Spring temperature increase and host sex were rejected as explanatory variables. We found considerable differences in TBE virus antibody seroprevalence (50.0% vs. 17.6%) between two forest districts located in the same county; this finding questions the current county-resolution of public health recordings. Given the high seroprevalence of roe deer and the considerable explanatory power of our model, our approach appears suitable to delineate science-based risk maps at a smaller spatial scale and to abandon the current human incidence per county criterion. Importantly, using roe deer as sentinels would eliminate the inherent bias of risk maps based on human incidence (varying levels of immunization and exposure of humans). © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Molecular detection of Babesia capreoli and Babesia venatorum in wild Swedish roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Bergvall, Ulrika A; Chirico, Jan; Christensson, Madeleine; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Nordström, Jonas; Kjellander, Petter

    2016-04-19

    The epidemiology of the zoonotic tick-transmitted parasite Babesia spp. and its occurrence in wild reservoir hosts in Sweden is unclear. In European deer, several parasite species, including Babesia capreoli and the zoonotic B. venatorum and B. divergens has been reported previously. The European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, is an important and common part of the indigenous fauna in Europe, as well as an important host for Ixodes ricinus ticks, the vector of several Babesia spp. in Europe. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of Babesia spp. in roe deer in Sweden. Roe deer (n = 77) were caught and sampled for blood. Babesia spp. was detected with a PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was 52%, and two species were detected; B. capreoli and B. venatorum in 44 and 7.8% of the individuals, respectively. Infection occurred both in summer and winter. We showed that roe deer in Sweden, close to the edge of their northern inland distributional range, are infected with Babesia spp. The occurrence of B. venatorum in roe deer imply that it is established in Sweden and the zoonotic implication of this finding should be regarded to a greater extent in future.

  18. Effects of crowding and sex on fecal cortisol levels of captive forest musk deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Wang, Wen-Xia; Li, Lin-Hai; Liu, Bao-Qing; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shu-Qiang; Qi, Lei; Hu, De-Fu

    2014-09-29

    Restricted space and close contact with conspecifics in captivity may be stressful for musk deer, as they are highly territorial and solitary in the wild. So we tested the effects of crowding on stress of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in heterosexual groups, using fecal cortisol analysis as a non-invasive method. 32 healthy adults during non-breeding seasons were chose as our experimental objects. Group 1 was defined as higher crowding condition, with 10-15 m2/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂); group 2 was defined as lower crowding condition, with 23-33 m2/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂). Every enclosure contained 1 male and 3 female. These patterns had been existed for years. The results showed that females in lower crowding condition (217.1 ± 9.5 ug/g) had significantly higher fecal cortisol levels than those in higher crowding condition (177.2 ± 12.1 ug/g). Interestingly, crowding seemed have no effect on male fecal cortisol levels (148.1 ± 9.1 ug/g and 140.5 ± 13.3 ug/g, respectively). At both groups, cortisol was significantly lower in males than in females. These results showed that chronic crowding may affect stress status of captive forest musk deer. The captive environment should consider the space need for musk deer.

  19. Ecology and management of white-tailed deer in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, William J

    2012-02-01

    Due to chronic high densities and preferential browsing, white-tailed deer have significant impacts on woody and herbaceous plants. These impacts have ramifications for animals that share resources and across trophic levels. High deer densities result from an absence of predators or high plant productivity, often due to human habitat modifications, and from the desires of stakeholders that set deer management goals based on cultural, rather than biological, carrying capacity. Success at maintaining forest ecosystems require regulating deer below biological carrying capacity, as measured by ecological impacts. Control methods limit reproduction through modifications in habitat productivity or increase mortality through increasing predators or hunting. Hunting is the primary deer management tool and relies on active participation of citizens. Hunters are capable of reducing deer densities but struggle with creating densities sufficiently low to ensure the persistence of rare species. Alternative management models may be necessary to achieve densities sufficiently below biological carrying capacity. Regardless of the population control adopted, success should be measured by ecological benchmarks and not solely by cultural acceptance. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, B

    1980-04-01

    Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) were conducted to determine host specificity of various stages of the parasite. Sporocysts were not passed by four dogs or four cats fed infected skeletal muscle from deer mice. Seven white mice (Mus musculus) and 34 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts following oral inoculation with S. idahoensis sporocysts; however, excystation of sporocysts occurred in two white-footed mice killed four hours post inoculation (PI). A gopher snake orally inoculated with sporocysts remained negative for coccidia for two months PI. Three deer mice orally inoculated and three intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with tachyzoites from liver meronts developed sarcocysts in their skeletal muscles similar to those seen in deer mice orally inoculated with sporocysts. Liver meronts were not found. Ten deer mice orally inoculated and 10 deer mice inoculated IP with bradyzoites from S. idahoensis sarcocysts remained negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts at necropsy 17 days PI.

  1. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  2. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E; Cross, P C; Beneria, M; Ficapal, A; Curia, J; Marco, X; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-10-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  3. Disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Villarroel, Richard; Uhart, Marcela M; Karesh, William B

    2004-01-01

    Samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia, were collected during June-August 1999. All 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. Gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus and four Leptospira interrogans serovars, with questionable results for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 and 2. No antibodies were detected to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Babesia odocoilei, bluetongue virus (serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17), bovine viral diarrhea virus, Brucella abortus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and parainfluenza-3 virus. Sixty-four percent (7/11) of the deer had endoparasites. Amblyomma spp. ticks were found on seven deer, flies of the family Hippoboscidae on six deer, and lice on six deer.

  4. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  5. 129I in deer thyroids from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.; Geary, L.; Johns, P.

    1994-01-01

    129 I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added ∼0.37 TBq of 129 I to the ∼1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq 129 I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured 129 I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq 129 I/g. The storage and release of 129 I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of 129 I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of 129 I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g -1 thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq 129 I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq 129 I/g. 129 I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product

  6. Movement and habitat use of Sika and White-tailed Deer on Assateague Island national seashore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Christensen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    This research project was conducted to describe habitat use of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and possibly attribute the effects of ungulate herbivory to specific deer species, if spatial separation in habitat use could be identified. Sturm (2007) conducted an exclosure study to document the effect of feral horse (Equus caballus) herbivory, deer herbivory, and horse and deer herbivory combined on plant communities. Sturm (2007) found that ungulate herbivory reduced plant species richness, evenness, and diversity in the maritime forest and affected species composition in all habitats studied. Sturm (2007) also found that herbivory on some species could be directly attributable to either horse or deer. However, the effects of sika and white-tailed deer herbivory could not be separated via an exclosure study design because of the difficulty of passively excluding one deer species but not the other. We captured white-tailed deer and sika deer in January–March of 2006 and 2007 throughout the Maryland portion of Assateague Island. Deer were fitted with radio-collars and their survival and locations monitored via ground telemetry. Up to four locations were acquired per deer each week during early (May–June) and late (August–September) growth periods for vegetation on the island. Also, we estimated deer locations during a dormant vegetation period (November– December 2006). We used these data to estimate survival and harvest rates, document movements, and model habitat use. We captured and fitted 50 deer with radio-collars over the course of the study. Of these 50 deer, 36 were sika and 14 were white-tailed deer. Of the 36 sika deer, 10 were harvested, three were likely killed by hunters but not recovered, and one died of natural causes while giving birth. Of the 14 white-tailed deer, three were harvested, one was illegally killed, and two were censored because of study-related mortality. Annual survival was 0.48 (95% CI

  7. Papillomavirus infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic and fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc, and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Jiří; Banďouchová, Hana; Brichta, Jiří; Kovacova, Veronika; Ondráček, Karel; Osičková, Jitka; Hrubá, Hana; Hutařová, Zdeňka; Komínková, Markéta; Cernei, Natalia Vladimirovna; Konečná, Marie; Tmejová, Kateřina; Zítka, Ondřej; Adam, Vojtěch; Kízek, René

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at the aetiological diagnosis of skin tumours of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Czech Republic. A total of 33 roe deer specimens showing skin masses were sampled for histopathology, virus detection and identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and deoxyribonucleic acid sequence (DNA) analysis, and to investigate fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc and oxidative stress in 2012 and 2013. Ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and deer keds (Lipopt...

  8. Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S

    2010-06-01

    The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  10. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  11. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  12. Polymorphic integrations of an endogenous gammaretrovirus in the mule deer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Daniel; Kim, Oekyung; Padhi, Abinash; Bankert, Jason G; Simeonov, Ivan; Schuster, Stephan C; Wittekindt, Nicola E; Motameny, Susanne; Poss, Mary

    2012-03-01

    Endogenous retroviruses constitute a significant genomic fraction in all mammalian species. Typically they are evolutionarily old and fixed in the host species population. Here we report on a novel endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ; for cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus) in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that is insertionally polymorphic among individuals from the same geographical location, suggesting that it has a more recent evolutionary origin. Using PCR-based methods, we identified seven CrERVγ proviruses and demonstrated that they show various levels of insertional polymorphism in mule deer individuals. One CrERVγ provirus was detected in all mule deer sampled but was absent from white-tailed deer, indicating that this virus originally integrated after the split of the two species, which occurred approximately one million years ago. There are, on average, 100 CrERVγ copies in the mule deer genome based on quantitative PCR analysis. A CrERVγ provirus was sequenced and contained intact open reading frames (ORFs) for three virus genes. Transcripts were identified covering the entire provirus. CrERVγ forms a distinct branch of the gammaretrovirus phylogeny, with the closest relatives of CrERVγ being endogenous gammaretroviruses from sheep and pig. We demonstrated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) DNA contain proviruses that are closely related to mule deer CrERVγ in a conserved region of pol; more distantly related sequences can be identified in the genome of another member of the Cervidae, the muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak). The discovery of a novel transcriptionally active and insertionally polymorphic retrovirus in mammals could provide a useful model system to study the dynamic interaction between the host genome and an invading retrovirus.

  13. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  14. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation.

  15. Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus

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    Farrell Regina M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases.

  16. An evaluation of a mitigation strategy for deer-vehicle collisions

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    Bissonette, John A.; Rosa, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    High mule deer Odocoileus hemionus mortality in southwestern Utah led to the establishment of a mitigation strategy with two major objectives: 1) reduction of wildlife-vehicle collisions and 2) restoration of landscape connectivity to facilitate wildlife movement across the roaded landscape. During our study, we assessed the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in reducing mule deer mortality in the following ways: 1) we compared the number of deer-vehicle collisions in the newly fenced area with a control area without fencing; 2) we analyzed the ‘end-of-the-fence’ problem, defined here as increased mortality of mule deer at the ends of the 2.4-m high exclusion fences; and 3) we evaluated the frequency of animal crossings of the new underpasses using remotely-sensed cameras and compared them with crossing frequency rates for a 20-year-old control underpass. We compared six years of pre-construction mortality (during 1998-2003) with two years of post-construction data on mortality (during 2005-2006) and found a 98.5% decline in deer mortalities in the treatment (i.e. fenced, jump-outs and underpasses) vs a 2.9% decline in the control (i.e. no fences, no jump-outs and no underpasses). We detected no end-of-the-fence problems related to deer mortality. Migratory movements during fall and spring were clearly reflected in the use of underpass. Overall results demonstrated that the mitigation strategy was effective and reduced the number of deer-vehicle accidents, while allowing wildlife movement across the landscape.

  17. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

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    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  18. Papillomavirus infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic and fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc, and oxidative stress

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    Jiří Král

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the aetiological diagnosis of skin tumours of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the Czech Republic. A total of 33 roe deer specimens showing skin masses were sampled for histopathology, virus detection and identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and deoxyribonucleic acid sequence (DNA analysis, and to investigate fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc and oxidative stress in 2012 and 2013. Ticks (Ixodes ricinus and deer keds (Lipoptena cervi were also collected and pooled from sampled game specimens. Ticks found on dogs in hunting grounds under study were pooled into another sample. Skin tumours, ranging from 2 to 10 per inspected specimen and 2 to 5 cm in size, were classified as fibropapillomas by histopathology. All 33 viral-infection-suspected skin samples from roe deer in South Moravia and South Bohemia were PCR positive. The nucleotide sequences of PCR products were 100% homologous to the Western roe deer papillomavirus 1 isolate CcPV-1. Ticks and deer keds from positive roe deer and ticks from dogs were PCR and DNA sequence positive for the roe deer papillomavirus. Viral DNA was also demonstrated in one blood sample from a roe deer female. Differences in metallothionein, zinc, taurine and electrochemical index among samples from lesions and normal skin of affected roe deer and negative controls from papillomavirus-non-infected animals were non-significant. While we have demonstrated circulation of specific roe deer papillomavirus in the Czech Republic that results in multiple fibropapillomatous skin tumours, many ecological and epidemiological issues of this wildlife disease still remain unanswered.

  19. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

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    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation.

  20. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: can adaptive management and local stakeholder engagement sustain reduced impact of ungulate browsers in forest systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Alejandro A. Royo; David S. deCalesta; Kevin McAleese; James C. Finley

    2013-01-01

    The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) was established in 2000 to test new approaches to stewardship of white-tailed deer and forest habitat on a 30 000 hectare landscape in northwest Pennsylvania, USA. Partners included land managers, scientists, educators, tourism promoters,and hunters. KQDC goals were adaptive management of the deer herd, improved habitat...

  2. Conserving migratory mule deer through the umbrella of sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, H. E.; Sawyer, H.; Monteith, K. L.; Naugle, D.E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Graf, N.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving migratory ungulates in increasingly human-dominated landscapes presents a difficult challenge to land managers and conservation practitioners. Nevertheless, ungulates may receive ancillary benefits from conservation actions designed to protect species of greater conservation priority where their ranges are sympatric. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocerus urophasianus), for example, have been proposed as an umbrella species for other sagebrush (Artemesia spp.)-dependent fauna. We examined a landscape where conservation efforts for sage-grouse overlap spatially with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to determine whether sage-grouse conservation measures also might protect important mule deer migration routes and seasonal ranges. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine what proportion of migration routes, stopover areas, and winter ranges used by mule deer were located in areas managed for sage-grouse conservation. Conservation measures overlapped with 66–70% of migration corridors, 74–75% of stopovers, and 52–91% of wintering areas for two mule deer populations in the upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. Of those proportions, conservation actions targeted towards sage-grouse accounted for approximately half of the overlap in corridors and stopover areas, and nearly all overlap on winter ranges, indicating that sage-grouse conservation efforts represent an important step in conserving migratory mule deer. Conservation of migratory species presents unique challenges because although overlap with conserved lands may be high, connectivity of the entire route must be maintained as barriers to movement anywhere within the migration corridor could render it unviable. Where mule deer habitats overlap with sage-grouse core areas, our results indicate that increased protection is afforded to winter ranges and migration routes within the umbrella of sage-grouse conservation, but this protection is contingent on concentrated developments within core areas not

  3. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  4. Heterogeneity in Primary Productivity Influences Competitive Interactions between Red Deer and Alpine Chamois.

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    Pia Anderwald

    Full Text Available Habitat heterogeneity can promote coexistence between herbivores of different body size limited to different extents by resource quantity and quality. Red deer (Cervus elaphus are known as superior competitors to smaller species with similar diets. We compared competitive interactions and habitat use between red deer and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra in two adjacent valleys in a strictly protected area in the Central Alps. Red deer density was higher in the valley with higher primary productivity. Only here was horn growth in kid and yearling chamois (as a measure for body condition negatively correlated with red deer population size, suggesting interspecific competition, and chamois selected meadows with steeper slopes and lower productivity than available on average. Conversely, red deer selected meadows of high productivity, particularly in the poorer area. As these were located mainly at lower elevations, this led to strong altitudinal segregation between the two species here. Local differences in interspecific competition thus coincided with differences in habitat preference and-segregation between areas. This suggests that spatial habitat and resource heterogeneity at the scale of adjacent valleys can provide competition refuges for competitively inferior mountain ungulates which differ from their superior competitor in their metabolic requirements.

  5. Heterogeneity in Primary Productivity Influences Competitive Interactions between Red Deer and Alpine Chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderwald, Pia; Haller, Rudolf M; Filli, Flurin

    2016-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity can promote coexistence between herbivores of different body size limited to different extents by resource quantity and quality. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are known as superior competitors to smaller species with similar diets. We compared competitive interactions and habitat use between red deer and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in two adjacent valleys in a strictly protected area in the Central Alps. Red deer density was higher in the valley with higher primary productivity. Only here was horn growth in kid and yearling chamois (as a measure for body condition) negatively correlated with red deer population size, suggesting interspecific competition, and chamois selected meadows with steeper slopes and lower productivity than available on average. Conversely, red deer selected meadows of high productivity, particularly in the poorer area. As these were located mainly at lower elevations, this led to strong altitudinal segregation between the two species here. Local differences in interspecific competition thus coincided with differences in habitat preference and-segregation between areas. This suggests that spatial habitat and resource heterogeneity at the scale of adjacent valleys can provide competition refuges for competitively inferior mountain ungulates which differ from their superior competitor in their metabolic requirements.

  6. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

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    Stephen L. Webb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363m±364 than postrut (6,156m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357m±91, followed by parturition (2,902m±107, and preparturition (2,682m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  7. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

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    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  8. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.L.; Strickland, B.K.; Demarais, S.; Webb, S.L.; Gee, K.L.; DeYoung, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  9. Positioning the red deer (Cervus elaphus hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.

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    Cristina Olivieri

    Full Text Available In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present. A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy and Sardinia.

  10. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (Proe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  11. Cephenemyiosis, an emergent myiasis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Arias María; Gerardo, Pajares; Natividad, Díez-Baños; Ana, Pérez-Creo; Alberto, Prieto; Pablo, Díez-Baños; Patrocinio, Morrondo

    2016-12-01

    Cephenemyia stimulator larvae cause a specific myiasis in roe deer, which is widely distributed in Europe. In Spain, this parasite was detected by the first time in 2005, coinciding with a high mortality of this ruminant especially in northwest of the country. The aim of this study was to analyse the results obtained by necropsy and ELISA to elucidate when the first infestation by C. stimulator in roe deer from northwestern Spain occurred, as well as to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors on the prevalence and intensity of infestation. During 1994-2000, none seropositive roe deer was observed by ELISA. However, from 2007 to 2014, 38 % of animals were seropositive. The results of the necropsy pointed that prevalence and intensity of infestation had increased over the years. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of animals harbouring C. stimulator larvae and seroprevalence values. This significant correlation was also observed between the seroprevalence and mean intensity of infestation. Adult roe deer showed higher prevalence and intensity of infestation than younger reaching statistical significance. It is also detected that the prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in males than in females although the mean number of larvae found in females were higher than in males. The combined use of direct and indirect techniques demonstrated a high prevalence of C. stimulator infestation in roe deer in the northwest of Spain, which certainly highlights the importance of this myiasis during the last years.

  12. Influence of Ambient Temperature and Confinement on the Chemical Immobilization of Fallow Deer ( Dama dama ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanna Lucrezia; Nastasi, Bernadette; Musicò, Marcello; Spadola, Filippo; Morici, Manuel; Cucinotta, Giuseppe; Interlandi, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    We used physiological parameters and the duration and quality of anesthesia to compare the effects of two ambient temperatures and of the duration of pre-immobilization confinement on the chemical immobilization of fallow deer. We divided 45 free-ranging fallow deer ( Dama dama ) into two groups: Group A were deer captured in winter (average 12 C), using 1 mg/kg of xylazine and 1 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam; and Group B were deer captured in spring (average 24 C), using 2 mg/kg of xylazine and 1.5 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam, after being confined in a pen. We observed lower mean respiratory rate and oxygen saturation in Group B. In contrast, the mean body temperature and the mean blood lactate concentration were significantly higher in Group B, and quality of anesthesia was better in Group A. Mean induction time (time to achieve recumbency) and durations of recumbency were the same in Groups A and B: approximately 8 and 50 min, respectively. Despite the lower drug dosage, better sedation was obtained in Group A than in group B. The time of year, most likely associated with differences in ambient temperature and in confinement, influenced the recommended dosage for xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam in fallow deer. As all the animals were sound, we concluded that the only factors that influenced the outcome of the present study were the ambient temperature and the level of stress caused by confinement in the pen.

  13. The Anatomy of Vocal Divergence in North American Elk and European Red Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Riede, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in red deer but not in elk. The laryngeal lumen is more constricted in elk, and narrows further during ontogeny. Several elements of the hyoid skeleton and two of four vocal tract segments are longer in red deer than in elk allowing greater vocal tract expansion and elongation. We conclude that elk submit the larynx and vocal tract to much higher tension than red deer, whereby, enormously stressed vocal folds of reduced effective length create a high resistance glottal source. The narrow, high impedance laryngeal vestibulum matches glottal and vocal tract impedance allowing maximum power transfer. In red deer longer and relaxed vocal folds create a less resistant glottal source and a wider vestibulum matches the low glottal impedance to the vocal tract, thereby also ensuring maximum power transfer. PMID:23225193

  14. Effects of acepromazine on capture stress in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montané, J; Marco, I; López-Olvera, J; Perpiñán, D; Manteca, X; Lavín, S

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of a short-acting neuroleptic (acepromazine) on capture stress response in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Sixteen roe deer were captured by drive-nets in the winters of 1998, 1999, and 2001. Roe deer were divided into two groups: animals in the treatment group received an intramuscular injection of acepromazine (0.093 mg/kg +/- 0.003 SEM; n = 8) while animals in the control group (n = 8) did not receive tranquilizer. Heart rate and body temperature, as well as hematologic and biochemical indicators of stress, were used to evaluate effect of the neuroleptic over 3 hr. Heart rate decreased over time after capture in both groups (P deer (75 min after capture) than in the controls (105 min after capture). Body temperature decreased over 45 min and then stabilized in both groups (P stress response and prevent its adverse effects in roe deer. The beneficial effect was not only due to the sedative effect of acepromazine, but also to peripheral vasodilatation.

  15. Regulatory changes contribute to the adaptive enhancement of thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheviron, Zachary A; Bachman, Gwendolyn C; Connaty, Alex D; McClelland, Grant B; Storz, Jay F

    2012-05-29

    In response to hypoxic stress, many animals compensate for a reduced cellular O(2) supply by suppressing total metabolism, thereby reducing O(2) demand. For small endotherms that are native to high-altitude environments, this is not always a viable strategy, as the capacity for sustained aerobic thermogenesis is critical for survival during periods of prolonged cold stress. For example, survivorship studies of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated that thermogenic capacity is under strong directional selection at high altitude. Here, we integrate measures of whole-organism thermogenic performance with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and genomic transcriptional profiles to examine the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive variation in this complex trait in deer mice that are native to different elevations. We demonstrate that highland deer mice have an enhanced thermogenic capacity under hypoxia compared with lowland conspecifics and a closely related lowland species, Peromyscus leucopus. Our findings suggest that the enhanced thermogenic performance of highland deer mice is largely attributable to an increased capacity to oxidize lipids as a primary metabolic fuel source. This enhanced capacity for aerobic thermogenesis is associated with elevated activities of muscle metabolic enzymes that influence flux through fatty-acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in high-altitude deer mice and by concomitant changes in the expression of genes in these same pathways. Contrary to predictions derived from studies of humans at high altitude, our results suggest that selection to sustain prolonged thermogenesis under hypoxia promotes a shift in metabolic fuel use in favor of lipids over carbohydrates.

  16. Factors affecting seasonal habitat use, and predicted range of two tropical deer in Indonesian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Dede Aulia; Gonzalez, Georges; Haryono, Mohammad; Muhtarom, Aom; Firdaus, Asep Yayus; Aulagnier, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    There is an urgent recognized need for conservation of tropical forest deer. In order to identify some environmental factors affecting conservation, we analyzed the seasonal habitat use of two Indonesian deer species, Axis kuhlii in Bawean Island and Muntiacus muntjak in south-western Java Island, in response to several physical, climatic, biological, and anthropogenic variables. Camera trapping was performed in different habitat types during both wet and dry season to record these elusive species. The highest number of photographs was recorded in secondary forest and during the dry season for both Bawean deer and red muntjac. In models, anthropogenic and climatic variables were the main predictors of habitat use. Distances to cultivated area and to settlement were the most important for A. kuhlii in the dry season. Distances to cultivated area and annual rainfall were significant for M. muntjak in both seasons. Then we modelled their predictive range using Maximum entropy modelling (Maxent). We concluded that forest landscape is the fundamental scale for deer management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for deer conservation. Important areas for conservation were identified accounting of habitat transformation in both study areas.

  17. Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P urine analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

  18. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  19. Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Maršálková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

  20. Detection of Brucellosis in Sika Deer ( Cervus nippon ) through Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianhong; Wei, Jie; Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Ben; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wenrong

    2017-07-01

    Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1.7 ng. No cross-reactivity was observed with four bacteria: Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Clostridium pasteurianum , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We used 263 samples of blood to evaluate the reaction. The percentage of agreement between LAMP and PCR reached 91%; relative specificity reached 87%, and relative sensitivity reached 100%. The results indicate LAMP can be a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting brucellosis in sika deer, particularly in the field, where it is essential to control brucellosis in deer with a rapid and accurate diagnosis for removal of positive animals.

  1. Preventing the Establishment of a Wildlife Disease Reservoir: A Case Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild Deer in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Carstensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB has been found in 12 cattle operations and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in northwestern Minnesota, following the state's most recent outbreak of the disease in 2005 in the northwest part of the state. Both deer and cattle have the same strain of bTB. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health has been leading efforts to eradicate the disease in Minnesota's cattle, which have included the depopulation of all infected herds, a cattle buy-out program, and mandatory fencing of stored feeds. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources began surveillance efforts in free-ranging white-tailed deer in fall 2005. All bTB-infected deer have been found within a 16 km2 area in direct association with infected cattle farms. Aggressive efforts to reduce deer densities through liberalized hunting and sharpshooting have resulted in a 55% decline in deer densities. Also, recreational feeding of wild deer has been banned. Disease prevalence in deer has decreased from 1.2% in 2005 to an undetectable level in 2010.

  2. Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

  3. Restoring forest herb communities through landscape-level deer herd reductions: Is recovery limited by legacy effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Susan L. Stout; David S. deCalesta; Timothy G. Pierson

    2010-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) overbrowsing has altered plant species diversity throughout deciduous forest understories in eastern North America. Here we report on a landscape-level (306 km2) project in Pennsylvania, USA that tracked the herbaceous community response to deer herd reductions. From 2001 to 2007, we...

  4. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Loehman; Joran Elias; Richard J. Douglass; Amy J. Kuenzi; James N. Mills; Kent Wagoner

    2012-01-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for...

  5. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa in fallow deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Diaz

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.

  6. Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

  7. Browsing patterns of white-tailed deer following increased timber harvest and a decline in population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn M. Crimmins; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; Patrick D. Keyser; James M. Crum

    2010-01-01

    We examined browsing patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on a site in the central Appalachians that experienced a substantial (>50%) reduction in deer population density and an increase in the amount of timber harvest since 2001. We sampled woody browse in and immediately adjacent to 12 clearcuts ranging in age from 0-5 years...

  8. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular...

  9. Forest habitats and the nutritional ecology of Sitka black-tailed deer: a research synthesis with implications for forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Hanley; C.T. Robbins; D.E. Spalinger

    1989-01-01

    Research on forest habitats and the nutritional ecology of Sitka black-tailed deer conducted during 1981 through 1986 is reviewed and synthesized. The research approach was based on the assumption that foraging efficiency is the best single measure of habitat quality for an individual deer. Overstory-understory relations and the influence of forest overstory on snow...

  10. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccina...

  12. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  13. Pattern and Drivers of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Herbivory on Tree Saplings across a Plateau Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Evans

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus populations are impacting long-term regeneration across eastern United States forests. Deer distribution and resulting herbivory patterns are variable across a landscape due to habitat patchiness and topography. It is poorly understood how features associated with topography control deer herbivory. We examined the heterogeneity of deer herbivory as it affects sapling densities across a single forest-type landscape on the Cumberland Plateau. The 1242 hectare site represented a peninsula of tableland that transitioned from developed land to forest and was surrounded on three sides by a bluff, irregularly punctuated by drainages. We examined the spatial variability of deer impacts on sapling density and modeled the relative importance of plateau accessibility features related to topography, proximity to edge, and deer culling as predictors of sapling variation. We used a stratified random design to sample sapling density across the landscape in 2012 and 2015. The intensity of deer herbivory on saplings varied, with the fewest saplings in forests surrounded by residential development. Our model predicted that plateau accessibility measures best determined sapling densities, followed by distance from edge and deer culling measures. Our results suggest that herbivory impacts may not be homogeneous in a contiguous uniform landscape if there are topographic barriers.

  14. Social rank affects the haematologic profile in red deer hinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés J

    2018-01-26

    We studied the effects of social rank on the haematologic profile in a herd of 24 female Iberian red deer hinds. Social rank hierarchy was determined and blood samples were taken and analysed. After adjusting for age and body mass, dominance ranking showed a significant negative effect (ie, lower values in dominant hinds) on white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Our results are similar to those reported for stressed individuals due to physical immobilisation, but do not support the predicted enhanced erythropoiesis due to higher levels of androgens. The results for WBC numbers may also reflect that subordinate hinds must allocate a higher amount of resources to immunity as a result of injuries incurred from dominant hinds, while simultaneously facing restricted access to food sources. For red blood cell (RBC) counts, the results may be due to subordinate hinds likely needing increased haematocrit and haemoglobin levels for fast flight responses. Our data show that social rank influences haematologic profile, and thus it should be considered when correctly interpreting blood analyses in social cervid species. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus desmarest, 1822 in Leyte Island

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    Harvie Potot Portugaliza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the necropsy findings of two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting the Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus in Leyte Island, Philippines. A female deer aging approximately 5-year was presented for necropsy to the Diagnostic Laboratory at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Visayas State University. Gross pathology was recorded and the selected organs having lesion were collected for histopathological studies. Results showed severe necrotizing lesions in the nasal and palatal areas, infestation of calliphorid maggots, hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, lung atelectasis and duodenitis. Heavy ruminal fluke infection was also observed. Two potentially zoonotic parasites namely Fasciola gigantica and Sarcocystis spp. were identified. The Philippine brown deer appears to have a role in transmission and amplification of zoonotic parasites, and can also be threatened by diseases caused by the parasites.

  16. Fructosamine: An Alternative to Serum Glucose Measurement in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition.

  17. Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jo, Yun Won; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-Sil

    2013-09-01

    The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E. Phylogenetic analysis of his serum revealed genotype-4 HEV. This case supports the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV because the patient appears to have been infected with genotype-4 HEV after ingesting raw deer meat.

  18. A First Attempt at Modelling Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus Distributions Over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil S Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of roe deer can be an important component within ecological and epidemiological systems contributing to the risk and spread of a range of vector-borne diseases. Deer are important hosts for many vectors, and may therefore serve as a focal point or attractant for vectors or may themselves act as a reservoir for vector-borne disease. Three spatial modelling techniques were used to generate an ensemble model describing the proportion of suitable roe deer habitat within recorded distributions for Europe as identified from diverse sources. The resulting model is therefore an index of presence, which may be useful in supporting the modelling of vector-borne disease across Europe.

  19. Indices for nutritional condition and thresholds for winter survival in sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, M; Uno, H; Suzuki, M; Kaji, K; Ohtaishi, N

    2000-11-01

    We derived fat indices for sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, and estimated the probability of over-winter survival with a logistic regression model using fat indices. Kidney fat mass (KFM) appears to be an adequate index of wide range of physical conditions before the onset of severe nutritional stress. When KFM values fell below 20 g, femur (FMF) and mandible cavity fat (MCF) indices declined sharply. FMF and MCF were useful indices for detecting malnourished deer. A logistic regression model describes survival thresholds in two bone fat indices for calves (45%) and three fat indices for adult females (FMF = 25%, MCF = 30%, KFM = 20 g). These models are useful for estimating the probability of winter survival in Hokkaido sika deer.

  20. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglero, Manuel M; Taggart, Mark A; Castellanos, Pilar; Mateo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa.

  1. Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2013-09-23

    Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Elucidating the evolution of the red brocket deer Mazama americana complex (Artiodactyla; Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, V V; Carnelossi, E A G; González, S; Duarte, J M B

    2010-01-01

    The red brocket deer Mazama americana is a neotropical species that exhibits extensive karyotype variation under an unvarying morphotype. In order to deduce red brocket deer genetic units for conservation, gene flow between populations, and genetic variation, we initiated a cytogenetic and molecular genetic study based on representative samples from throughout their Brazilian geographic range. These data represent the first cytotaxonomical and molecular systematics, and although sample sizes are limited, our results clearly suggest that red brocket deer populations are significantly differentiated with respect to karyotypes and the mitochondrial sequences analyzed. We clearly recognized 2 independent species, and we will be focusing further research in analyzing the meiotic dynamic to determine the existence of other evolutionarily significant units under the red brocket complex. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted.

  4. Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Koen

    Full Text Available Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local and population (global levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data. At the local level, we found that sociality among female deer in neighboring social groups (n = 36 was mainly explained by their home range overlap, with two exceptions: 1 during fawning in an area of mixed forest and grassland, deer whose home ranges had low forest connectivity were more social than expected; and 2 during the rut in an area of intensive agriculture, deer inhabiting home ranges with high amount and connectedness of agriculture were more social than expected. At the global scale, we found that deer populations (n = 7 in areas with highly connected forest-agriculture edge, a high proportion of agriculture, and a low proportion of forest tended to have higher weighted network closeness, although low sample size precluded statistical significance. This result implies that infectious disease could spread faster in deer populations inhabiting such landscapes. Our work advances the general understanding of animal social networks, demonstrating how landscape features can underlie differences in social behavior both within and among wildlife social networks.

  5. Selection of forages by timor deer (cervus timorensis blainville) in menjangan island, bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut Ginantra, I.; Bagus Made Suaskara, Ida; Ketut Muksin, I.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the selection of forages plants by Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) on Menjangan Island and its relation to the availability, chemical and physical properties of feed plants. The study was conducted in July-September 2016 in savanna and monsoon forest habitats. The availability of habitat feed plants in the habitat was determined by the quadrat method, and the species of plant eaten by Timor deer was determined through the microhistological analysis of the fecal sample. The food selection index is determine by the Ivlev index. Energy contents of forages plants by bomb calorimeter apparatus, crude protein analyzed by Semi-Micro Kjeldahl technique, NDF, ADF and lignin levels refer to the method of Goering and Van Soest. Mineral content of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Determination of tannin content with Folin Denish reaction. Physical properties determine are water regain capacity and water solubility. The relationship between availability with the utilization of plants by Timor deer was analyzed with the similarity index. Multiple regression statistic to test the relationship between index selection with nutritional value factor and physical characteristic of plant species. The result showed that Timor deer selected 32 plants species of graminoids, forbs and woody plants. Feeding selection of Timor deer is strongly influenced by the availability of forage plants in habitat. The feeding selection was significantly influenced by three predictor variables i.e. positive nutritional value is crude protein and negative nutritional value were lignin and tannins. Selection of forage plant Timor deer is positively correlated with the physical properties of feed plants.

  6. Brown bear-human interactions associated with deer hunting on Kodiak Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    I compared distribution and range of brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) with temporal and spatial distribution of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) hunting activity on westside Kodiak Island, Alaska, to examine impacts of deer hunting on bears. Mean number of bears that annually ranged ≤5 km from the coast, >5 km inland from the coast, or in both areas was 10, 8, and 11, respectively. Bears that exclusively or seasonally occupied the coast zone were usually classed as having moderate or high potential to interact with hunters because most hunter access and effort (>95%) was via the coast. Bears that ranged exclusively inland were considered unlikely to encounter hunters. Animals that ranged in both zones often (39%) moved inland during fall (Oct-Dec) and most bears (70%) denned in the inland zone. Females that denned near the coast entered dens later (x̄ = 22 Nov) than females that denned inland (x̄ = 12 Nov). Two radio-collared bears were known to raid deer-hunting camps and 9 other marked bears were observed by hunters or were located bear during their hunt. Seven to 21% of the respondents reported having a threatening encounter with a bear and 5-26% reported losing deer meat to bears. Human-induced mortality to radio-collared bears occurred more often near the coast (5) than inland (3); 7 bears were harvested by sport hunters and 1 was killed (nonsport) in a Native village. Deer hunters killed 2 unmarked females in defense of life or property situations in the study area. High bear densities and concentrated deer-hunting activity combine to make conflicts unavoidable. Adverse impacts to bears can be minimized by maintaining low levels of human activity in inland areas and improving hunter awareness of bear ecology and behavior.

  7. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  9. Seasonal variation of activity patterns in roe deer in a temperate forested area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagon, Nives; Grignolio, Stefano; Pipia, Anna; Bongi, Paolo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Apollonio, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of 31 radio-collared roe deer were assessed through sessions of radio tracking for a total period of 18 consecutive months. Roe deer showed bimodal activity patterns throughout the year, with the two highest peaks of activity recorded at dawn and dusk. Activity patterns of males and females differed during the territorial period (from early spring to late summer), whereas they did not during the nonterritorial period. Most likely, behavioral thermoregulation can be held responsible for variation of daily activity patterns in different seasons. In winter, for instance, activity during the dawn period was significantly higher than in other seasons and daylight activity was significantly higher than at night. Nocturnal activity was highest in summer and lowest in winter. During the hunting season, moreover, roe deer showed lower activity levels than during the rest of the year. The prediction that roe deer would show lower activity levels during full moon nights, when the predation risk was assumed to be higher, was not confirmed by our data. Activity rhythms in roe deer were thus subjected to both endogenous and environmental factors, the latter working as exogenous synchronization cues. Accordingly, in changing environmental and ecological conditions, a circadian cycle of activity could be seen as the result of complex interactions among daily behavioral rhythm, digestive physiology, and external modifying factors.

  10. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency induces pancreatic injury in chronic ethanol feeding model of deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Samir M; Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Kakumanu, Ramu D; Popov, Vsevolod L; Rampy, Bill A; El-Mehallawi, Inas H; Ashmawy, Magdy M; Shakeel Ansari, G A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2018-02-01

    The single most common cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP, a serious inflammatory disease) is chronic alcohol abuse, which impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, a major ethanol oxidizing enzyme). Previously, we found ~5 fold greater fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), and injury in the pancreas of hepatic ADH deficient (ADH - ) vs. hepatic normal ADH (ADH + ) deer mice fed 3.5g% ethanol via liquid diet daily for two months. Therefore, progression of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury was determined in ADH - deer mice fed ethanol for four months to delineate the mechanism and metabolic basis of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). In addition to a substantially increased blood alcohol concentration and plasma FAEEs, significant degenerative changes, including atrophy and loss of acinar cells in some areas, ultrastructural changes evident by such features as swelling and disintegration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae and ER stress were observed in the pancreas of ethanol-fed ADH - deer mice vs. ADH + deer mice. These changes are consistent with noted increases in pancreatic injury markers (plasma lipase, pancreatic trypsinogen activation peptide, FAEE synthase and cathepsin B) in ethanol-fed ADH - deer mice. Most importantly, an increased levels of pancreatic glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 (a prominent ER stress marker) were found to be closely associated with increased phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α signaling molecule in PKR-like ER kinase branch of unfolded protein response (UPR) as compared to X box binding protein 1S and activating transcription factor (ATF)6 - 50kDa protein of inositol requiring enzyme 1α and ATF6 branches of UPR, respectively, in ethanol-fed ADH - vs. ADH + deer mice. These results along with findings on plasma FAEEs, and pancreatic histology and injury markers suggest a metabolic basis of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury, and provide new avenues to understand metabolic basis and molecular mechanism of ACP

  11. Epizootiology of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S.; Belser, Emily H.; Killmaster, Charlie H.; Bowers, John W.; Irwin, Brian J.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection byTrueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  12. Spatial factors of white-tailed deer herbivory assessment in the central Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B; Ford, W Mark

    2018-03-25

    Because moderate to over-abundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory impacts biodiversity and can alter community function, ecological benchmarks of herbivory impact are needed to assess deer impacts. We evaluated spatial patterns of deer herbivory and their relation to herbivory assessment by evaluating woody vegetation along 20 transects at each of 30 sites spread across a wide range of deer herd densities and vegetative condition throughout the biodiverse Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, USA. Surprisingly, herbivory patterns and the availability of woody forage generally were unchanged among physiographic regions and land use diversity classes. However, some relationships between browsing pattern and vegetation varied with scale. The total quantity of vegetation browsed on a given site and at the transect scale were related positively to the availability of forage, as the proportion of stems browsed decreased as stem density increased. However, this was only true when all stems were considered equally. When stem densities by species were weighted for deer preference, the proportion of stems browsed had no relationship or increased with stem density. Compared to the value from all transects sampled, on average, the mean of ≥ 3 transects within a site was within 0.1 of the browsing ratio and stem densities were within 0.5 stems m -2 . Our results suggest that one transect per square kilometer with a minimum of three transects may be sufficient for most browsing intensity survey requirements to assess herbivory impacts in the Appalachian region of Virginia. Still, inclusion of spatial factors to help partition variation of deer herbivory potentially may allow for improved precision and accuracy in the design of field herbivory impact assessment methods and improve their application across various landscape contexts.

  13. Tolerance to deer herbivory and resistance to insect herbivores in the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, A; Johnson, M T J

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of plant defence in response to herbivory will depend on the fitness effects of damage, availability of genetic variation and potential ecological and genetic constraints on defence. Here, we examine the potential for evolution of tolerance to deer herbivory in Oenothera biennis while simultaneously considering resistance to natural insect herbivores. We examined (i) the effects of deer damage on fitness, (ii) the presence of genetic variation in tolerance and resistance, (iii) selection on tolerance, (iv) genetic correlations with resistance that could constrain evolution of tolerance and (v) plant traits that might predict defence. In a field experiment, we simulated deer damage occurring early and late in the season, recorded arthropod abundances, flowering phenology and measured growth rate and lifetime reproduction. Our study showed that deer herbivory has a negative effect on fitness, with effects being more pronounced for late-season damage. Selection acted to increase tolerance to deer damage, yet there was low and nonsignificant genetic variation in this trait. In contrast, there was substantial genetic variation in resistance to insect herbivores. Resistance was genetically uncorrelated with tolerance, whereas positive genetic correlations in resistance to insect herbivores suggest there exists diffuse selection on resistance traits. In addition, growth rate and flowering time did not predict variation in tolerance, but flowering phenology was genetically correlated with resistance. Our results suggest that deer damage has the potential to exert selection because browsing reduces plant fitness, but limited standing genetic variation in tolerance is expected to constrain adaptive evolution in O. biennis. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Dietary response of sympatric deer to fire using stable isotope analysis of liver tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Zimmerman, T.J.; Leslie, David M.; Jenks, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N) isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ??13C and ??15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ??13C and ??15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2-3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter) differences in forage type. Liver ??13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ??15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ??13C and ??15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

  15. Molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of Ercc6l in Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One important protein family that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER factors is the SNF2 family. A newly identified mouse ERCC6-like gene, Ercc6l (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6-like, has been shown to be another developmentally related member of the SNF2 family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, Sika deer Ercc6l cDNA was first cloned and then sequenced. The full-length cDNA of the Sika deer Ercc6l gene is 4197 bp and contains a 3732 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 1243 amino acids. The similarity of Sika deer Ercc6l to Bos taurus Ercc6l is 94.05% at the amino acid sequence level. The similarity, however, is reduced to 68.42-82.21% when compared to Ercc6l orthologs in other mammals and to less than 50% compared to orthologs in Gallus gallus and Xenopus. Additionally, the expression of Ercc6l mRNA was investigated in the organs of fetal and adult Sika deer (FSD and ASD, respectively by quantitative RT-PCR. The common expression level of Ercc6l mRNA in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and stomach from six different developmental stages of 18 Sika deer were examined, though the expression levels in each organ varied among individual Sika deer. During development, there was a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. The highest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 months old in every organ and showed the highest level of detection in the spleen of FSD. The lowest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 years old. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are the first to successfully clone Sika deer Ercc6l mRNA. Ercc6l transcript is present in almost every organ. During Sika deer development, there is a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. It is possible that Ercc6l has other roles in embryonic development and in maintaining the growth of animals.

  16. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  17. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins

  18. Food safety aspects of primary environmental contaminants in the edible tissues of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, József; Zwillinger, Dóra; Bartha, András; Lányi, Katalin; Laczay, Péter

    2017-11-01

    The muscle, liver, kidney and fat samples of 20 roe deer of both sexes originating from a hunting area in central Hungary were investigated for the presence of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb, and their contents were evaluated for possible health risk to consumers. Both As and Hg were found at a level below the limit of detection (roe deer could be objectionable from food-toxicological point of view and may pose risk to the high consumers of wild game due to their cadmium and lead contents.

  19. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Paul; Vitari, Francesca; Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; Le Normand, Laurence; Romé, Véronique; Savary, Gérard; Delaby, Luc; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Morisset, Jean

    2012-05-28

    Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric) or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva) which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins) compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play

  20. Mushroom spores and 137Cs in faeces of the roe deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, M.; Knudsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Levels of 137 Cs in meat, faeces and feed of Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were studied. Faecal samples were studied in the microscope for the occurrence of fungal spores. The 137 Cs levels in collections of meat and faeces indicated that the food selection of the roe deer changes in the autumn towards a more caesium rich menu. The 137 Cs levels in some of the faecal samples were so high that they could only be explained by the ingestion of a very caesium rich feed, like mushrooms. (Author)

  1. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  2. Congenital Filariasis Caused by Setaria bidentata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the Red Brocket Deer (Mazama americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mayor, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    The filarial nematode Setaria bidentata was found in 10 of 31 fetuses of the red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ) from the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. A total of 25 specimens were collected and morphologically identified as S. bidentata. Filarial nematodes were found in the peritoneal cavity of 9 deer fetuses and the thoracic cavity of 1 fetus. Most specimens were adult stage. In this report, we provide morphometric data for these filarial specimens. This is the first study to demonstrate prenatal S. bidentata infection in cervid fetuses. Also, the finding of S. bidentata in Peru expands the geographic range of this parasite.

  3. Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains Danish and Pasteur in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R

    2009-06-01

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock and the cause for many faltering bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes. One approach in dealing with wildlife reservoirs of disease is to interrupt inter-species and intraspecies transmission through vaccination of deer or cattle. To evaluate the efficacy of BCG vaccination in white-tailed deer, 35 deer were assigned to one of three groups; one s.c. dose of 10(7) CFU of M. bovis BCG Pasteur (n = 12); 1 s.c. dose of 10(7) CFU of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 11); or unvaccinated deer (n = 12). After vaccination, deer were inoculated intratonsilarly with virulent M. bovis. Lesion severity scores of the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, as well as all lymph nodes combined, were reduced in vaccinated deer compared to unvaccinated deer. BCG Danish vaccinated deer had no late stage granulomas characterized by coalescent caseonecrotic granulomas containing numerous acid-fast bacilli compared to BCG Pasteur vaccinated or unvaccinated deer where such lesions were present. Both BCG strains were isolated as late as 250 days after vaccination from deer that were vaccinated but not challenged. In white-tailed deer, BCG provides protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. Issues related to vaccine persistence, safety and shedding remain to be further investigated.

  4. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

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    José Luis Ros-Santaella

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF or bad freezers (BF at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006. The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001. Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  5. Effects of deer velvet extract from Formosan sika deer on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative enzymes mRNA expression in mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Lin; Lai, Yi-Ling; Lee, Ming-Che; Shen, Perng-Chih; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Liu, Bing-Tsan

    2014-07-03

    The deer velvet or its extracts has been widely used in clinic. It has been used in promoting reproductive performances and treating of oxidation and aging process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of velvet extract from Formosan sika deer (Formosan sika deer; Cervus nippon taiouanus, FSD) velvet on mouse embryonic development and anti-oxidant ability in vitro. Mouse 4-cells embryos were divided into 16 groups for 72 h in vitro incubation. The embryonic development stages and morphology were evaluated every 12h in experimental period. The quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the CuZn-SOD, GPx and CAT mRNA expression of the blastocysts. The 4-cells embryos of hydrogen peroxide (HP) groups did not continue developing after oxidant stress challenged. The blastocyst developmental rate (90.0-90.4%, P>0.05) and normal morphological rate (84.4-85.1%, P>0.05) of the 1% and 2% DV extract groups were similar to those in the control group (90.7% and 88.8%, respectively). The embryos challenged by HP (5, 10 and 25 μM) and subsequently incubated in mHTF medium with 1% and 2% of deer velvet (DV) extracts were able to continue development; the blastocyst developmental rate of these groups were similar to that in the control group. The relative mRNA expression of the focused anti-oxidative enzymes in the mouse embryos did not significantly differ among the designed DV treatment groups (P>0.05). The FSD velvet extract in adequate concentration could promote anti-oxidative enzymes mRNA expression followed the challenge of hydrogen peroxide, relieve the mouse embryo under oxidative stress, and maintain the blastocyst developmental ability in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infectious prions in pre-clinical deer and transmission of chronic wasting disease solely by environmental exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace K Mathiason

    Full Text Available Key to understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD of cervids, is determining the mode of transmission from one individual to another. We have previously reported that saliva and blood from CWD-infected deer contain sufficient infectious prions to transmit disease upon passage into naïve deer. Here we again use bioassays in deer to show that blood and saliva of pre-symptomatic deer contain infectious prions capable of infecting naïve deer and that naïve deer exposed only to environmental fomites from the suites of CWD-infected deer acquired CWD infection after a period of 15 months post initial exposure. These results help to further explain the basis for the facile transmission of CWD, highlight the complexities associated with CWD transmission among cervids in their natural environment, emphasize the potential utility of blood-based testing to detect pre-clinical CWD infection, and could augur similar transmission dynamics in other prion infections.

  7. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. William

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

  8. The first detection and whole genome characterization of the G6P[15] group A rotavirus strain from roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska; Kuhar, Urska; Sturm, Sabina; Kirbis, Andrej; Racki, Nejc; Steyer, Andrej

    2016-08-15

    Although rotaviruses have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer, where their role is unknown. In this study, group A rotavirus was identified in roe deer during a study of enteric viruses in game animals. 102 samples of intestinal content were collected from roe deer (56), wild boars (29), chamois (10), red deer (6) and mouflon (1), but only one sample from roe deer was positive. Following whole genome sequence analysis, the rotavirus strain D38/14 was characterized by next generation sequencing. The genotype constellation, comprising 11 genome segments, was G6-P[15]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genome segment showed that the D38/14 rotavirus strain is closely related to the various G6 zoonotic rotavirus strains of bovine-like origin frequently detected in humans. In the VP4 segment, this strain showed high variation compared to that in the P[15] strain found in sheep and in a goat. This finding suggests that rotaviruses from deer are similar to those in other DS-1 rotavirus groups and could constitute a source of zoonotically transmitted rotaviruses. The epidemiological status of group A rotaviruses in deer should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia de Sa; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; de Oliveira, Marcos Jose; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Silva, Lília Marcia Paulin; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Castro, Vanessa; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2015-01-01

    A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%), N. caninum (6.2%) and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1%) were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo.

  10. Comparison of trace mineral concentrations in tail hair, body hair, blood, and liver of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela K; Gerstenberg, Greg; Woods, Leslie W; Kreuder-Johnson, Christine; Torres, Steven G; Puschner, Birgit

    2015-05-01

    Measuring trace mineral concentrations can be an important component of assessing the health of free-ranging deer. Trace mineral concentrations in liver most accurately reflect the trace mineral status of an individual, but, in live animals, whole blood or serum are the most commonly used sample types. Trace minerals measured in serum, such as copper, zinc, and iron, do not always accurately correlate to liver concentrations, and supplementary samples for evaluating the trace mineral status in live deer would be useful. We evaluated the utility of body and tail hair for measuring selenium, copper, zinc, iron, and manganese in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) by using Spearman rank correlations and linear regression. Correlations were strongest at the time of or shortly after growth of the winter coat and in resident deer. In live deer, strong correlations and moderate linear associations (R (2) = 0.57) were detected between body and tail hair and whole blood selenium in December. In postmortem-sampled deer, a strong correlation and linear association (R (2) = 0.80) were found between liver and body hair selenium in August-November. Results indicate that body hair, if collected during or shortly after growth of the winter coat, can be used as a supplementary sample for measuring selenium concentrations in deer. None of the other correlations and linear associations were found to be sufficiently strong to conclude that hair can reliably be utilized as a complementary sample for measuring these trace mineral concentrations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kraemer Zimpel

    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%, N. caninum (6.2% and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1% were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo.

  12. Assessing enclosure design and husbandry practices for successful keeping and breeding of the Burmese brow antlered deer (Eld's deer, Rucervus eldii thamin) in European zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ellis L; Hartley, Matt

    2017-05-01

    The endangered Burmese brow antlered deer (Rucervus eldii thamin) is a medium sized tropical cervid kept in a number of European zoos. Studbook data and anecdotal reports have suggested that this species suffers from poor reproductive success and relatively high neonatal mortality in captivity. Questionnaires were sent to 10 European zoos, holding 91 (20.71.0) deer, in order to record information on husbandry practices and enclosure design. Studbook analysis was performed to determine reproductive success and mortality values at each of the zoos participating in the study. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify any links between husbandry or enclosure design and the population parameters calculated from the studbook. From the nine zoos that were analyzed in this study, no significant differences were found for population parameters between male and female deer. Neonatal mortality was negatively correlated to enclosure size (in males) and enclosure cover (in females). Positive correlations were found between enclosure cover, average temperature and group size with life expectancy, and negative correlations between enclosure visibility and visitor distance with female life expectancy. These results may be useful for informing husbandry guidelines, although further research into stress responses in captivity is recommended for this species to improve their welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Illiger, 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J A G; Rabelo, E M L; Ribeiro, M F B

    2012-08-01

    Deer are important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. The present study used nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Blood samples were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16S rRNA genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences available from GenBank using BLAST software. Of the animals investigated, 93.1% (27/29) were infected with haemoparasites including Anaplasma marginale (79.3%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (3.4%), Anaplasma bovis (3.4%) and Anaplasma spp. (assigned to A. platys and A. phagocytophilum) (17.2%). Co-infection occurred in 20% (6/29) of the deer examined. Four (13.8%) were infected with A. marginale and Anaplasma sp., one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and E. chaffeensis, and one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and A. bovis. The results of the present study suggest that cross-protection does not occur in these deer. Immunological cross-reaction occurs when sera are tested diagnostically because these bacteria are closely related taxonomically, reinforcing the importance of molecular diagnosis followed by nucleotide sequencing. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  15. 75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...), intend to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). The Refuge has units located in Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID, and Malheur County, OR. We will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to evaluate the potential effects of...

  16. Foliar essential oils and deer browsing preference of Douglas-fir genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan

    1978-01-01

    Yield and composition of essential oils were compared in foliage of Douglas-fir. Five clones with different susceptibilities to deer browsing were used; foliage was collected during the dormant season. There were no qualitative differences among the oils of the different clones, but the oils differed quantitatively in all variables measured. Eight variables appeared...

  17. Radiocaesium transfer to man from moose and roe deer in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl J.; Bergstroem, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of radiocaesium in the forest ecosystems in Sweden resulted in aggregated transfer factors quantified for the transfer of 137 Cs from soil to moose and roe deer. These aggregated transfer factors were 0.02 m 2 kg -1 for moose and 0.05 m 2 kg -1 for roe deer. There seems to be no decrease in the 137 Cs activity concentrations in moose harvested in our research area and therefore we suggest the use of the physical half-life of 137 Cs (30 years) as the effective ecological half-life. The time-integrated transfer of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fall-out to man by moose in Sweden was calculated and found to be 115 GBq, corresponding to 1500 man Sv for moose. The time-integrated transfer by roe deer to man was estimated to be between 25-48 GBq, corresponding to 327-620 man Sv for roe deer. The annual transfer of 137 Cs to man by moose has varied between 2.0-2.7 GBq, corresponding to 27-34 man Sv. Depending on the group studied, the mean annual transfer of 137 Cs can be calculated to be from about 250 to 43'000 Bq. For example, the mean annual transfer of 137 Cs by moose to hunters and their families in Gaevle commune, the most affected commune in Sweden, was estimated to be about 26'000 Bq, corresponding to 0.34 mSv

  18. Canopy openings and white-tailed deer influence the understory vegetation in mixed oak woodlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd W. Bowersox; Gerald L. Storm; Walter M. Tzilkowski

    1995-01-01

    Effects of canopy opening and white-tailed deer on ground level vegetation are being assessed in south-central Pennsylvania. Herbaceous plants and woody seedlings are being monitored in three unevenaged, mixed oak woodlots at Gettysburg National Military Park. Canopy opening levels on 0.20 ha treatment units were closed (~100% canopy), small (50-60% canopy) and large (...

  19. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at least...

  20. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

  1. Use of curlleaf mountain-mahogany by mule deer on a transition range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Edward Dealy; Paul J. Edgerton; Wayne G. Williams

    1986-01-01

    Using the pellet-group sampling method, we concluded that migrating mule deer showed no preference in use between two ratios of curlleaf mountain-mahogany cover and openings on a northern California transition range. Where there is a need to develop forage openings in transition habitats dominated by dense thickets of curlleaf mountain-mahogany, manipulation of cover...

  2. A regional assessment of white-tailed deer effects on plant invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine M Averill; David A Mortensen; Erica A H Smithwick; Susan Kalisz; William J McShea; Norman A Bourg; John D Parker; Alejandro A Royo; Marc D Abrams; David K Apsley; Bernd Blossey; Douglas H Boucher; Kai L Caraher; Antonio DiTommaso; Sarah E Johnson; Robert Masson; Victoria A. Nuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g. white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual...

  3. Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in reeves' muntjac deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V Nalls

    Full Text Available The horizontal transmission of prion diseases has been well characterized in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, chronic wasting disease (CWD of deer and elk and scrapie of sheep, and has been regarded as the primary mode of transmission. Few studies have monitored the possibility of vertical transmission occurring within an infected mother during pregnancy. To study the potential for and pathway of vertical transmission of CWD in the native cervid species, we used a small cervid model-the polyestrous breeding, indoor maintainable, Reeves' muntjac deer-and determined that the susceptibility and pathogenesis of CWD in these deer reproduce that in native mule and white-tailed deer. Moreover, we demonstrate here that CWD prions are transmitted from doe to fawn. Maternal CWD infection also appears to result in lower percentage of live birth offspring. In addition, evolving evidence from protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA assays on fetal tissues suggest that covert prion infection occurs in utero. Overall, our findings demonstrate that transmission of prions from mother to offspring can occur, and may be underestimated for all prion diseases.

  4. Deer and diversity in Allegheny hardwood forests: managing an unlikely challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. deCalesta

    1994-01-01

    High white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density and interfering vegetation were identified as factors affecting the regeneration of hardwood forests in the Allegheny National Forest and surrounding forests in northwestern Pennsylvania. Research was designed by Forest Service scientists to quantify these effects. A high degree of interest in...

  5. Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Breukelen, van L.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis

  6. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  7. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    2017-06-01

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical professionals has led to the identification of autochthonous cases.

  8. Time-dependence of the radiocaesium contamination of roe deer: measurement and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibold, G. E-mail: zibold@fbp.fh-weingarten.de; Drissner, J.; Kaminski, S.; Klemt, E.; Miller, R

    2001-07-01

    In spruce forest and peat bog, the migration of {sup 137}Cs from soil to plants, fungi, roe deer and consumers has been surveyed. In spruce forest the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer decreases slowly with time and has superimposed periodic maxima in autumn which are correlated with the mushroom season. The decrease with time can be described by an effective half-life of 3.5 yr caused by a fraction of the {sup 137}Cs in the soil becoming unavailable for green grazing plants with time. The additional transfer of {sup 137}Cs into roe deer meat during the mushroom season depends on precipitation in July, August and September which also determines the yield of fungi in autumn. Our model confirms the assumption that fungi also have access to a fraction of the {sup 137}Cs in the soil which is unavailable for green plants. On peat bog the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher than in spruce forest and its effective half-life is about 17 yr, due to reversible binding of {sup 137}Cs to organic matter in the peat bog.

  9. Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

    2014-01-01

    Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking. PMID:24448563

  10. Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ∼300 bp) and 12S rDNA (∼330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode.

  11. The Importance of Cultivated Plants in the Diet of Red and Roe Deer and Mouflon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kamler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical composition of red and roe deer and mouflon diet was studied in the mosaic landscape in Drahanská vrchovina highlands, Czech Republic. We focused on the proportion and quality of agricultural crops and natural forest plants and estimated quality of the herbivore diet. Diet quality was monitored by the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on the basis of nutritional quality of diet items. Red deer, roe deer and mouflon ingested all cultivated plants growing close to forest. However, the proportion of cultivated plants varied between seasons and herbivore species. The peak of crops consumption occurred in summer – when cereals spikes were ripe. The average proportion of corn for red deer was 40%. Cultivated plants were well accessible for herbivores in the study area and during vegetation period formed an important part of their diet, but the importance of cultivated plants for herbivores was lower compared with natural food resources present in forests during vegetation period. Although the main natural food sources had lower nutritional value, they formed the main part of herbivore diet in the study area. The availability of cultivated plants increases the quality of food supply during the growing season, but for herbivores the natural food sources are crucial, forming the main part of their diet both in summer and in winter. Wildlife management should reckon with feeding preferences of herbivores.

  12. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical

  13. Time-dependence of the radiocaesium contamination of roe deer: measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zibold, G.; Drissner, J.; Kaminski, S.; Klemt, E.; Miller, R.

    2001-01-01

    In spruce forest and peat bog, the migration of 137 Cs from soil to plants, fungi, roe deer and consumers has been surveyed. In spruce forest the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer decreases slowly with time and has superimposed periodic maxima in autumn which are correlated with the mushroom season. The decrease with time can be described by an effective half-life of 3.5 yr caused by a fraction of the 137 Cs in the soil becoming unavailable for green grazing plants with time. The additional transfer of 137 Cs into roe deer meat during the mushroom season depends on precipitation in July, August and September which also determines the yield of fungi in autumn. Our model confirms the assumption that fungi also have access to a fraction of the 137 Cs in the soil which is unavailable for green plants. On peat bog the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher than in spruce forest and its effective half-life is about 17 yr, due to reversible binding of 137 Cs to organic matter in the peat bog

  14. Seasonality of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielitz, U. [Environmental Studies, Thomasberg 33, D-37115 Duderstadt (Germany)], E-mail: mail@environmental-studies.de; Klemt, E. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: klemt@hs-weingarten.de; Strebl, F. [Div. Radiation Safety and Applications, Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstr. 1, A-1160 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: frieda.tataruch@vu-wien.ac.at; Zibold, G. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: zibold@hs-weingarten.de

    2009-03-15

    Empirical data on the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of {sup 137}Cs with time. The time-dependency of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of {sup 137}Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest.

  15. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  16. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical

  17. Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldenpfennig, Marianne; Wolmarans, De Wet; du Preez, Jan L; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2011-06-01

    The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox status. Deer mice were separated into high (HSB), low (LSB) and non-stereotypy (NS) groups. Frontal cortical and striatal dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and glutathione redox index, were analysed as markers for regional dopamine turnover and oxidative stress, respectively. Dopamine and its metabolites and SOD activity did not differ across the stereotypy groups. Significantly reduced GSH and GSSG and increased glutathione redox index were only observed in the frontal cortex of HSB animals. Frontal cortical GSH and GSSG were inversely correlated while glutathione redox index was positively correlated with stereotypy. Deer mouse stereotypy is thus characterised by a deficient glutathione system in the frontal cortex but not striatum, and provides a therapeutic rationale for using glutathione-active antioxidants in OCD. The evidence for a primary frontal lesion has importance for future OCD research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Mary M. Rowland; James H. Noyes

    1993-01-01

    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling...

  19. Mule deer and elk winter diet as an indicator of habitat competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Frisina; Carl L. Wambolt; W. Wyatt Fraas; Glen Guenther

    2008-01-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations have gradually declined in recent decades, while elk (Cervus elaphus) have often increased throughout their common ranges. The cause is uncertain and a source of debate. Increasing elk numbers on these ungulate winter ranges may be causing competition for resources. We contrast winter...

  20. Movements and habitat use of rocky mountain elk and mule deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Haiganoush K. Preisler; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2004-01-01

    Understanding how ungulates use large landscapes to meet their daily needs for food, security and other resources is critical to wildlife management and conservation practices (Johnson et al. 2002). For ungulates like Rocky Mountain elk (Gems elaphui) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), landscapes are a mosaic of different...

  1. Effects of population reduction on white-tailed deer home-range dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Shawn M.; Edwards, John W.; Campbell, Tyler A; Ford, W. Mark; Keyser, Patrick D.; Miller, Brad F.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Management strategies designed to reduce the negative impacts of overabundant Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) populations on forest regeneration may be influenced by changes in both population density and timber harvest. However, there is conflicting evidence as to how such changes in per capita resource availability influence home-range patterns. We compared home-range patterns of 33 female White-tailed Deer from a low-density population at a site with abundant browse to patterns of a sample of >100 females prior to a 75% reduction in population density and a doubling in timber harvest area. Home-range and core-area sizes were approximately 3 times larger than were found prior to population decline and timber harvest increase, consistent with predictions related to intraspecific competition. We also observed greater site fidelity than previously exhibited, although this may be an artifact of increased home-range sizes. Our results support previous research suggesting that White-tailed Deer home-range size is inversely related to population density and is driven, in part, by intraspecific competition for resources. Relationships among population density, resource availability, and home-range patterns among female White-tailed Deer appear to be complex and context specific.

  2. Spatial partitioning by mule deer and elk in relation to traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Norman J. Cimon; Bruce K. Johnson; Edward O. Garton; Jack Ward. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) have overlapping ranges on millions of acres of forests and rangelands in western North America. Accurate prediction of their spatial distributions within these ranges is essential to effective land-use planning, stocking allocation and population management (Wisdom and...

  3. White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Lashley

    Full Text Available Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer.

  4. Effects of deer exclosures on oak regeneration in closed-canopy stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela M. Yuska; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the effects of high deer densities on forest regeneration have shown altered species composition and reduced diversity in stands regenerating after harvest. The effects of browsing in fully stocked, undisturbed stands are less well known but important, as establishment of seedlings of oaks and other species prior to disturbance is very important for self-...

  5. Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) using DNA from fecal pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd J. Brinkman; David K. Person; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin E. Colson; Kris J. Hundertmark

    2010-01-01

    We tested a protocol for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated genotyping performance of previously developed microsatellite markers as well as a suite of new markers designed specifically for this study. We screened 30 microsatellites, and identified 7 (23%) loci including 4 new markers, that fit...

  6. Mismatch Between Birth Date and Vegetation Phenology Slows the Demography of Roe Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition. PMID:24690936

  7. Long-term dynamics of Coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGonzález-Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q-fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity and the age of first exposure - were analysed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season - at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated to herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based upon humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months.

  8. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  9. Taphonomic reinterpretation of a bone sample of endemic Pleistocene deer from Crete (Greece): osteoporosis versus regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attard, I.R.; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of fossil deer remains (genus Candiacervus) from Mavro Mouri cave, Crete, Greece is studied because a large proportion shows aberrant, seemingly pathological changes to the morphology and the structure of the bones. Here we show that the aberrant appearance of the Mavro Mouri bone sample

  10. Population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Sin Nombre virus, California Channel Islands.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, T. B.; Chomel, B. B.

    1997-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is carried by the Peromyscus species. In 1994, high SNV antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two California Channel Islands. We sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and SNV prevalence. Population flux and SNV prevalence appear to vary independently.

  11. Grazing and Burning Impacts on Deer Diets on Lousiana Pine-Bluestem Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. Thill; Alton Martin; Hershel F. Morris; E. Donice McCune

    1987-01-01

    Diets of 3-5 tame white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on adjacent ungrazed and continuously grazed (35% herbage removal by late CM) forested pastures were compared for forage-class use, botanical similarities, foraging selectivity and efficiency, and diet quality. Both pastures were divided into 3 burning subunits and burned in late February on a 3-year...

  12. White-tailed deer age ratios as herd management and predator impact measures in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fleegle, Jeannine T.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the Pennsylvania Game Commission's (PGC) deer management program and public concern about predator impacts on deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations compelled the PGC to investigate the role of age ratios in developing management recommendations. Age ratios, such as proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest, may provide an index to population productivity and predator impacts. We estimated proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest from hunter-killed deer, population trends using the Pennsylvania (USA) sex–age–kill model, and reproduction from road-killed females. Using these estimates and a simulation model, we concluded that no single age-ratio value would serve as a reliable measure of population status. Wildlife Management Unit-specific trends in proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest and population trends provided the most relevant management information. We also provide an example decision chart to guide management actions in response to declining age ratios in the harvest. Although predator management activities and juvenile survival studies are often desired by the public, our decision-chart example indicated a number of deer management options exist before investing resources in predator management activities and juvenile survival studies.

  13. OCCURRENCE OF FASCIOLOIDOSIS IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS IN BARANJA REGION IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Flirijančić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875. In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L. from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia. The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60% were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300. High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.

  14. Formant frequencies as indicators of body size in red deer roars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reby, David; McComb, Karen; Darwin, Chris; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies of animal vocal communication have emphasized the potential for vocal tract resonances to encode information on the size of callers and the need for receivers to attend to this information, in particular in the context of intra-sexual competition and inter-sexual mate choice. Our recent work on red deer roaring, a classical example of a sexual communication signal, is reviewed here. A combination of anatomical analyses of the vocal apparatus, acoustical analyses, and playback experiments using re-synthesized calls has enabled us to show that: (i) red deer and fallow deer males have a descended and mobile larynx, an anatomical innovation that was previously believed to be uniquely human and that enables callers to modulate their formants during vocalizing; (ii) minimum formant frequencies provide an honest indication of body size in red deer roars and (iii) stags use rivals' minimum formant frequencies in assessment during male-male contests, and adjust the formants of their own replies in relation to what they hear.

  15. A Review of Techniques for Minimizing Beaver and White-Tailed Deer Damage in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward P. Hill; Douglas N. Lasher; R. Blake. Roper

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing beaver and deer damage to hardwood forest resources are reviewed. Beaver controls considered were poisons, chemosterilants, predators, and trapping. Population reduction through trapping with 330 conibear traps for two weeks during two successive years effectively eliminates beaver from small watersheds and shows greater promise for control than...

  16. Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2...

  17. Variation in nutritional quality of plants for deer in relation to sunny versus shady environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Jeffrey C. Barnard

    2014-01-01

    Variation in nutritional quality of natural forages for black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was studied in summer and winter in southeast Alaska. Freeze-dried samples of 17 summer forages collected in early July and 10 winter forages collected in February from three replicate sites each of shady forest understory and open, sunny habitat were...

  18. Some remarks on the birth of a Father David’s Deer, Elaphurus davidianus Milne Edw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van C.; Slijper, E.J.

    1959-01-01

    At the Royal Zoological Gardens “Blijdorp” at Rotterdam May 6th 1958 a Father David’s Deer gave birth to a female calf. It was the first young of this three year old doe. During the days before the day of birth the doe was seen several times leaping upon the buck. Experience with other Ungulates has

  19. Cattle or sheep reduce fawning habitat available to Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Bruce E. Coblentz

    2010-01-01

    We studied responses of Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) to cattle and sheep in western Oregon because of viability concerns. We used radio-telemetry, observations from horseback, and searches with a trained dog to determine fawning habitat, dam home ranges, and habitat use by fawns. Dams shifted their center of...

  20. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Plard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  1. Ovarian features in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus fawns and does.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G D A Gastal

    Full Text Available The knowledge about ovarian reserve is essential to determine the reproductive potential and to improve the methods of fertility control for overpopulated species, such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the female reproductive tract of white-tailed deer, focusing on ovarian features. Genital tracts from 8 prepubertal and 10 pubertal females were used to characterize the preantral follicle population and density, morphology, distribution of follicular classes; stromal cell density; and apoptosis in the ovary. In addition, uterus and ovary weights and dimensions were recorded; and the number and the size of antral follicles and corpus luteum in the ovary were quantified. Overall, fawns had a greater (P 0.05 between the ovaries of fawns and does. However, apoptotic ovarian cells negatively (P < 0.001 affected the preantral follicle morphology and density, and conversely, a positive correlation was observed with stromal cell density. As expected, the uteri and ovaries were larger (P < 0.002 and heavier (P < 0.001 in does than in fawns. In conclusion, this study has shown, for the first time, the preantral follicle population and distribution of classes, rate of morphologically normal follicles, and density of preantral follicles and stromal cells in white- tailed deer. Therefore, the findings herein described lead to a better understanding of the white-tailed deer ovarian biology, facilitating the development of new methods of fertility control.

  2. Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; L’Hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We report in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of roe deer in France. This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1. PMID:17953093

  3. Nutritive value of mule deer forages on ponderosa pine summer range in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Urness; D. J. Neff; R. K. Watkins

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses and apparent in vitro dry matter digestibilities were obtained for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) forages appearing in monthly diets. Relative values among individual forage species were calculated based upon nutrient contents and percentage composition in the diet. These data provide land managers with the means to more precisely assess some impacts...

  4. Deer mouse hemoglobin exhibits a lowered oxygen affinity owing to mobility of the E helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoguchi, Noriko; Oshlo, Jake R.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, exhibits altitude-associated variation in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. To examine the structural basis of this functional variation, the structure of the hemoglobin was solved. Recombinant hemoglobin was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Recombinant hemoglobin was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The obtained orthorhombic crystal contained two subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined structure was interpreted as the aquo-met form. Structural comparisons were performed among hemoglobins from deer mouse, house mouse and human. In contrast to human hemoglobin, deer mouse hemoglobin lacks the hydrogen bond between α1Trp14 in the A helix and α1Thr67 in the E helix owing to the Thr67Ala substitution. In addition, deer mouse hemoglobin has a unique hydrogen bond at the α1β1 interface between residues α1Cys34 and β1Ser128. PMID:23545644

  5. Habitat, wildlife and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans.

  6. Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs

  7. Long-term patterns of immune investment by wild deer mice infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Jones, Jeremy D; Bego, Mariana G; Varner, Johanna M; Jeor, Stephen St; Clay, Christine A; Dearing, M Denise

    2010-01-01

    Immunocompetence of animals fluctuates seasonally, However, there is little consensus on the cause of these fluctuations. Some studies have suggested that these patterns are influenced by changes in reproductive condition, whereas others have suggested that differences result from seasonal variations in energy expenditures. The objective of our study was to examine these contrasting views of immunity by evaluating seasonal patterns of immune response and reproduction in wild populations of deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus exposed to Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Over three consecutive fall (September, October, November) and three consecutive spring (March, April, May) sampling periods, we used titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify virus-specific antibody production in 48 deer mice infected with SNV. Levels of reproductive hormones were quantified using ELISA. SNV antibody titers reached their lowest level during November (geometric mean titer [GMT] = 420) and their highest levels during September (GMT = 5,545) and May (GMT = 3,582), suggesting that the immune response of deer mice to SNV has seasonal patterns. The seeming decrease in antibody titer over winter coupled with the consistency in body masses suggests that during winter, immunocompetence may be compromised to offset the energetic costs of maintenance functions, including those associated with maintaining body mass. Deer mice showed distinct sex-based differences in SNV antibody production, with males producing higher antibody titers (GMT = 3,333) than females (GMT = 1,477). Levels of reproductive hormones do not appear to influence antibody production in either males or females, as there was no correlation between estradiol concentrations and SNV antibody titer in female deer mice (r² = 0.26), nor was there a significant relationship between levels of testosterone and SNV antibody titers in males (r² = 0.28). Collectively, this study demonstrates that immunocompetence of wild deer

  8. Effects of white-tailed deer and invasive plants on the herb layer of suburban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janet A

    2017-11-01

    Lack of hunting and predators and proximity to human communities make suburban forests prone to high deer abundance and non-native plant invasions. I investigated these likely drivers of community structure in the herb layers of six suburban forests in one region of New Jersey, USA. In 223 plots I assessed the herb layer response to 2.5 years with or without deer fencing and the early stage of invasion from seed additions of Microstegium vimineum , an invasive, annual grass. Non-native plants and herbaceous native plants were affected very little by fencing or M. vimineum invasion. In contrast, across all forests the combination of deer access and M. vimineum addition had a strongly negative effect on woody native percent cover. Forests differed in overall fencing effects on woody natives; their cover was greater in fenced plots in just three forests, suggesting greater deer pressure in those forests during the experiment. The early invasion by M. vimineum was greatest in two of these same forests, but was not influenced by fencing. Multi-group structural equation modelling compared two groups of forests that differed in vegetation abundance and other characteristics. It paralleled the results above and also showed no negative influence of non-native cover on native cover, even in the forests where non-native cover was greater. It identified a positive effect of light level on herb layer plants in the forests with less vegetation, and also revealed a positive effect of soil water potential (SWP) on non-native plants in the forests with more vegetation, which had higher SWP. These suburban forests within a common region varied widely in native and non-native herb layer abundance, the early success of M. vimineum invasion and the herb layer's response to early invasion and protection from deer.

  9. Deer browsing delays succession by altering aboveground vegetation and belowground seed banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DiTommaso

    Full Text Available Soil seed bank composition is important to the recovery of natural and semi-natural areas from disturbance and serves as a safeguard against environmental catastrophe. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus populations have increased dramatically in eastern North America over the past century and can have strong impacts on aboveground vegetation, but their impacts on seed bank dynamics are less known. To document the long-term effects of deer browsing on plant successional dynamics, we studied the impacts of deer on both aboveground vegetation and seed bank composition in plant communities following agricultural abandonment. In 2005, we established six 15 × 15 m fenced enclosures and paired open plots in recently followed agricultural fields near Ithaca, NY, USA. In late October of each of six years (2005-2010, we collected soil from each plot and conducted seed germination cycles in a greenhouse to document seed bank composition. These data were compared to measurements of aboveground plant cover (2005-2008 and tree density (2005-2012. The impacts of deer browsing on aboveground vegetation were severe and immediate, resulting in significantly more bare soil, reduced plant biomass, reduced recruitment of woody species, and relatively fewer native species. These impacts persisted throughout the experiment. The impacts of browsing were even stronger on seed bank dynamics. Browsing resulted in significantly decreased overall species richness (but higher diversity, reduced seed bank abundance, relatively more short-lived species (annuals and biennials, and fewer native species. Both seed bank richness and the relative abundance of annuals/biennials were mirrored in the aboveground vegetation. Thus, deer browsing has long-term and potentially reinforcing impacts on secondary succession, slowing succession by selectively consuming native perennials and woody species and favoring the persistence of short-lived, introduced species that continually

  10. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed feeding exhibited IFA titers of 1:256, whereas sera from mice and rabbits similarly exposed had titers of > 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with complement-mediated killing. The chelators EGTA and EDTA were used to block the classical or both the classical and alternative complement pathways, respectively. Addition of 10 mM EGTA to NDS had a negligible effect on borreliacidal activity, with > 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer.

  11. Geochemical landscapes as drivers of trace and toxic element profiles in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2017-12-01

    Tissue concentrations of essential trace and toxic elements in red deer (Cervus elaphus) are associated with the plants, soil and water they ingest. As such, variation in tissue concentrations is associated with variation in local geochemistry and bioavailability of elements. Physiological factors such as liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection, breeding status, and in-tissue element interactions may also affect tissue concentrations, though their effects in red deer are not well understood. The primary objective of this study was therefore to survey wild red deer liver element concentrations across a range of geographically distinct populations during the Scottish red deer stalking season; and, in so doing, establishes element reference ranges while also exploring geographic and temporal variation and physiological factors. Livers were sampled from carcasses intended for human consumption on nine hunting estates during two seasons (2012-13, 2013-14). Samples were digested and analysed by ICP-OES for essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) and for Cd. Data (n=787) were modelled against cull location, date, and F. hepatica diagnosis. Interactions between elements within liver, and differences in element profiles between estates, were explored by principal component analysis. Our results revealed marked geographic variation in Cd, Cu and Se, where up to four-fold differences in median element concentrations occurred between estates, and, in males, Mn, Mo and Zn declined as the breeding season approached. In both sexes, within-liver associations (Cd-Cu-Se and Mn-Mo-Zn) were found. In females, liver Zn was greater on average in individuals that were not infected with F. hepatica. This study is the first to quantify geographic variation in Scottish red deer liver element concentrations; the drivers of which remain to be explored (and may be management related), and, the consequence of which may affect sub-clinical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  12. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, J.; Torres, R. T.; Prada, C.; Garcia-Serrano, A.; Gimenez-Anaya, A.; Fernandez, O.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon), Spain. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i) driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96-2009/10, n = 1,417, ii) itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003-2010, n = 310 itineraries), iii) roe deer carcass recoveries (2006-2010, n = 100), and iv) data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006-2010, n = 325 hunted animals. Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km–2 (CV 17%). Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641) and 0.9 (n = 100) males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations. Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions. (Author)

  13. Immunogenetic heterogeneity in a widespread ungulate: the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Galan, Maxime; Cosson, Jean-François; Klein, François; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Merlet, Joël; Bonhomme, Maxime; Hewison, A J Mark; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how immune genetic variation is shaped by selective and neutral processes in wild populations is of prime importance in both evolutionary biology and epidemiology. The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has considerably expanded its distribution range these last decades, notably by colonizing agricultural landscapes. This range shift is likely to have led to bottlenecks and increased roe deer exposure to a new range of pathogens that until recently predominantly infected humans and domestic fauna. We therefore investigated the historical and contemporary forces that have shaped variability in a panel of genes involved in innate and acquired immunity in roe deer, including Mhc-Drb and genes encoding cytokines or toll-like receptors (TLRs). Together, our results suggest that genetic drift is the main contemporary evolutionary force shaping immunogenetic variation within populations. However, in contrast to the classical view, we found that some innate immune genes involved in micropathogen recognition (e.g. Tlrs) continue to evolve dynamically in roe deer in response to pathogen-mediated positive selection. Most studied Tlrs (Tlr2, Tlr4 and Tlr5) had similarly high levels of amino acid diversity in the three studied populations including one recently established in southwestern France that showed a clear signature of genetic bottleneck. Tlr2 implicated in the recognition of Gram-positive bacteria in domestic ungulates, showed strong evidence of balancing selection. The high immunogenetic variation revealed here implies that roe deer are able to cope with a wide spectrum of pathogens and to respond rapidly to emerging infectious diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cesium-137 and potassium-40 concentrations in roe deer of the region Hohe Tauern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichler, C.

    1998-01-01

    Ten years after the accident of Chernobyl we studied the distribution of Cs-137 in roe deer, red deer and chamoise. Our investigation took place in Rauris and Krimml, two valleys of the Nationalpark Hohe Tauern. Tissue samples from liver, heart, kidneys, muscle and the content of the stomach were taken from 22 animals with the voluntary help of local hunters. From a radiation protection point of view, the contamination of muscle is of particular importance, as it is a potential source of radiocesium for humans. We further analyzed samples of the vegetation in order to obtain information about the potential feed. The results of our study showed that even 10 years after the fallout contamination of Austria in the wake of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, contamination of deer and vegetation with Cs-137 is still relatively high. In most of the tissue samples the highest activity was found in muscle and the kidneys, followed by heart and liver. In roe deer the cesium contamination, was much higher than in chamoise and red deer. Our investigations also suggested a dependency on age, i.e., young animals showed higher concentrations of radiocesium than adult animals. From all vegetation samples studied, the highest contamination was observed in the sprouts of Picea abies and Larix decidua. In general, measurements showed large variations among the samples. From all data collected we can draw the conclusion that radiocesium contamination of game is a very complicated process which is influenced by many different parameters. In spite of this complex system we think that game could be used as a bioindicator in the sense that it shows qualitatively the presence of radiocesium in an ecosystem. (author)

  15. Toxic heavy metals in the muscle of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)--food toxicological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, József; Laczay, Péter; Gyurcsó, Adrienn; Jánoska, Ferenc; Majoros, Szilvia; Lányi, Katalin; Marosán, Miklós

    2016-03-01

    The study was performed on 20 (10 males, 10 females) roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to investigate the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic in the muscle tissue. They reside in forest and meadow, about 50 km distance from industrial activities and traffic. Samples were taken from the musculus biceps femoris of each deer without external contamination after shooting during the regular hunting season on a hunting area close to Eger in Hungary. The determination of heavy metal contents was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The statistical analysis was performed by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 11.0. The measured residue concentration of cadmium was below the limit of detection in the roe deer meat indicating no health risk for the consumers. The average lead concentration (0.48 ± 0.21 mg/kg wet weight) exceeded the regulated maximum limit, but its calculated weekly intake was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The residue level of mercury is not regulated and the average mercury content of roe deer meat (0.87 ± 0.40 mg/kg wet weight) was about half of PTWI, but the consumption of meat with the highest detected concentrations results in higher PTWI than recommended. The measured concentration of arsenic (0.27 ± 0.20 mg/kg wet weight) in the roe deer meat may not pose any health risk for the human consumers according to the PTWI set by the World Health Organization.

  16. Landscape level variation in tick abundance relative to seasonal migration in red deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Qviller

    Full Text Available Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus, but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n=42 and resident red deer (Cervus elaphus individuals (n=32 in two populations in May and August 2009-2012. Consistent with predictions, there was markedly lower abundance of questing ticks in the summer areas of migrating red deer (0.6/20 m(2, both when compared to the annual home range of resident deer (4.9/20 m(2 and the winter home ranges of migrants (5.8/20 m(2. The reduced abundances within summer home ranges of migrants were explained by lower abundance of ticks with increasing altitude and distance from the coast. The lower abundance of ticks in summer home ranges of migratory deer does not imply that ticks are the main driver of migration (being most likely the benefits expected from forage maturation, but it suggests that ticks may add to the value of migration in some ecosystems and that it may act to spread ticks long distances in the landscape.

  17. Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoot Dustin L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

  18. Deformities of the metacarpus and metatarsus in fallow deer (Dama dama L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.I.; Chapman, N.G.; Jeffcott, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic examination of the metacarpus and metatarsus from 333 fallow deer revealed a high incidence of animals with an angular deviation of at least one epiphysis. The incidence in males (59 per cent) was significantly higher than that in females (21 per cent). The cloven hoof is bent laterally and a deviation of up to 23 degrees was recorded. A deer with one deformed foot is equally likely to have 2, 3 or 4 deformed feet and no bone is more susceptible than others. Fusion of the epiphyses commenced at about 16 months and was complete by about 32 months, and the angular deformity occurred before this age. The incidence increases with increasing age in deer whose epiphyses have not yet fused. Other radiographic changes noted were growth plate deformities in young deer of 8 to 12 months of age and bowing of the shaft of the cannon bone in some older animals. It is suggested that the following sequence of events could involve all 3 defects and provide an explanation for the gross angular deviation of the foot seen in some deer. First, a defect in the process of calcification as a result of a nutritional deficiency causes hypertrophy of the cartilage of the growth plate, with local epiphyseal damage. Second, a compression or a breakdown of the cartilage of the cannon bone, particularly if on one side only, causes angular deviation of the epiphysis. Subsequent ossification leads to fusion of the diaphysis with the epiphysis at an abnormal angle. Third, the defect in calcification of the diaphysis leads to a weakness in the bone which, if stressed, becomes deformed and, after subsequent ossification, is seen as a bowing of the cannon bone

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  20. The C-Banding and Ag-NOR Distribution Patterns in the Fallow Deer Dama dama (Mammalia: Cervidae) from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 181-185 ISSN 0011-4545 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Karyotype * Chromosome banding * Fallow deer * Indigenous population Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.205, year: 2014

  1. Plant community and white-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity response to intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ethan Jacob

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic feedstock for alternative energy production that could grow well between planted pines (Pinus spp.). Southeastern planted pine occupies 15.8 million hectares and thus, switchgrass intercropping could affect biodiversity if broadly implemented. Therefore, I evaluated effects of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) plantations on plant community diversity, plant biomass production, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) nutritional carrying capacity. In a randomized complete block design, I assigned three treatments (switchgrass intercropped, switchgrass monoculture, and a "control" of traditional pine management) to 4 replicates of 10-ha experimental units in Kemper County, Mississippi during 2014-2015. I detected 246 different plant species. Switchgrass intercropping reduced plant species richness and diversity but maintained evenness. I observed reduced forb and high-use deer forage biomass but only in intercropped alleys (interbeds). Soil micronutrient interactions affected forage protein of deer plants. White-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity remained unaffected.

  2. Evidence of shared bovine viral diarrhea infections between red deer and extensively raised cattle in south-central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, Víctor; Kukielka, Deborah; Rivera-Arroyo, Belén; Martínez-López, Beatriz; de las Heras, Ana Isabel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Vicente, Joaquín

    2016-01-14

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects cattle production worldwide and that can infect other ungulates such as cervids and even wild boar (Sus scrofa). It is believed that domestic livestock can become infected through contact with wild animals, though it is known that infection can spread among wild animals in the absence of contact with livestock. Little is known about the sharing of BVDV infection between wild and domestic animals in the same habitat, which is important for designing eradication campaigns and preventing outbreaks, especially on hunting estates with high animal densities. We assessed the sharing of BVDV infections among hunted red deer, wild boar and cattle in south-central Spain. Sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 267) and wild boar (n = 52) were located on 19 hunting estates, and cattle (n = 180) were located on 18 nearby farms. We used ELISA kits for the serological screening, Taqman RT-PCR assay for the virus determination, and subsequent phylogenetic analysis for 17 RT-PCR positive sample amplicons. Fifty-two red deer (19.5%) and 82 cattle (45.6%) samples tested positive by ELISA. A high apparent prevalence (22.47%) was obtained for red deer, while only five cattle farms tested positive by RT-PCR. Conversely, no wild boar tested positive by both ELISA or RT-PCR. Eleven red deer (4.1%) tested positive by both ELISA and RT-PCR; these animals may have been sampled during the last phase of viremia, or they may represent previously exposed individuals infected by a different BVDV strain. The amplicons shared 92.7-100% identity and fell within the BVDV subgroup 1b, although nine of these (from four red deer and five cattle pools) formed a separate branch. This suggests that there might be a common BVDV infecting both cattle and red deer. Higher red deer abundance was significantly associated with greater risk that extensively raised cattle would test positive for BVDV by ELISA. Our findings suggest that BVDV

  3. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  4. Large herbivores in novel ecosystems - Habitat selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a former brown-coal mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøcher, Peder Klith; Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    After centuries of range contraction, many megafauna species are recolonizing parts of Europe. One example is the red deer (Cervus elaphus), which was able to expand its range and is now found in half the areas it inhabited in the beginning of the 19th century. Herbivores are important ecosystem engineers, influencing e.g. vegetation. Knowledge on their habitat selection and their influence on ecosystems might be crucial for future landscape management, especially for hybrid and novel ecosystems emerging in post-industrial landscapes. In this study, red deer habitat selection was studied in a former brown-coal mining area in Denmark. Here, natural settings were severely changed during the mining activity and its current landscape is in large parts managed by hunters as suitable deer habitat. We assessed red deer habitat preferences through feces presence and camera traps combined with land cover data from vegetation sampling, remote sensing and official geographic data. Red deer occurrence was negatively associated with human disturbance and positively associated with forage availability, tree cover and mean terrain height. Apparently, red deer are capable of recolonizing former industrial landscapes quite well if key conditions such as forage abundance and cover are appropriate. In the absence of carnivores, human disturbance, such as a hunting regime is a main reason why deer avoid certain areas. The resulting spatial heterogeneity red deer showed in their habitat use of the study area might be a tool to preserve mosaic landscapes of forest and open habitats and thus promote biodiversity in abandoned post-industrial landscapes. PMID:28505192

  5. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Jonas; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Björkman, Camilla

    2011-05-11

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  7. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, C. I. [UNESP; Abril, V. V. [UNESP; Duarte, J. M B [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a mul...

  8. A Novel Application of an Anthelmintic Mixture for Use against Gastrointestinal Parasites of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Hughes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of proprietary anthelmintics delivering 0.5 mg/kg moxidectin, 9.06 mg/kg oxfendazole, 15 mg/kg levamisole, and 0.08 mg/kg selenium on bodyweight basis per os to red deer is investigated. On a deer farm with a history of parasite problems, six weaner red deer were treated orally with a 50/50 mixture of Exodus Pour-On and Oxfen C Plus (Ex/Ox at a dose rate of 1 ml/5 kg bodyweight. Six herd mates were untreated. Eleven days later abomasal worm counts for the untreated deer revealed an arithmetic mean burden of 2,566 Ostertagia-type worms and 300 Trichostrongylus axei. No worms were detected in the abomasa of the treated group. Six yearling red deer were treated with the Ex/Ox combination and sent 39 days later to a slaughter plant where tissue samples were collected for residue analysis. Moxidectin was the only anthelmintic compound to show residues and the concentrations measured were well below maximum residue limits. Laboratory analysis of the Ex/Ox product after six-week storage at ambient temperature indicated good physical and chemical stability. These investigations support the hypothesis that the Ex/Ox combination can be an effective and practical anthelmintic option for use in red deer against a background of widespread gastrointestinal parasite resistance to the registered alternatives.

  9. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  10. Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell V Palmer

    Full Text Available Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1 × 10(8 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17; and non-vaccinated (n = 16. One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts.

  11. Prevalence of Dermatophytes in The Haircoat of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus in The Stelvio National Park, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Perego

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis has been described in wildlife, but the literature reporting dermatophyte prevalence in deer is incomplete. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and to evaluate the hypothetical role of asymptomatic carriers hair samples were collected from 30 legally hunted wild red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Stelvio National Park, Italy. All deer were visually examined for dermatologic lesions and the coat was brushed using a modified Mackenzie collection method. A small sample of hair was used for trichography and subsequently fungal culture was performed on the hair samples. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were used to identify dermatophytes, saprophytic fungi and yeasts. None of the deer had visible cutaneous lesions. No dermatophyte spores or hyphae were found on trichography and, when hair samples were cultured, there was no colour change on DTM in any sample nor was any dermatophyte colony grown. Only saprophytic fungi were grown, predominantly Alternaria spp., Mucor spp., Cladosporium spp. These results suggest that the red deer of Stelvio National Park do not seem to be asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes and confirm that it is unlikely that the deer act a reservoir for transmission of dermatophytes  to other wild animals, livestock or people living locally.

  12. Age-Related Patterns in Trace Element Content Vary Between Bone and Teeth of the European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesko, Jan; Markowski, Janusz; Słaba, Mirosława; Hejduk, Janusz; Minias, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Game animals, such as the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), have long been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. Most ecotoxicological research on ungulates has focused on trace element content in soft tissues and antlers. Also, only fragmentary information exists about whether and how trace element concentrations vary with the age of wild-living animals and whether these age-related patterns are similar for different types of tissues. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of seven trace metals (barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium, zinc) and fluoride in bone and teeth of roe deer and to determine whether significant variation is evident with individual age. For this purpose, we collected permanent molars and fragments of mandible bone from more than 130 female roe deer in Central Poland. We found that concentrations of four trace elements (barium, manganese, zinc, and fluoride) in teeth of deer showed positive linear relationships with individual age. No such trends were recorded for trace element content in bone. We suggest that these striking differences in age-related patterns of trace element bioaccumulation between bone and permanent teeth of roe deer might be explained by higher turnover rate and constant remodelling of bone tissue. The results suggest that analysis of permanent teeth may be useful for assessing throughout-life intoxication by environmental pollution in the roe deer and possibly in other mammal species. Our study reinforces the need to carefully account for age-related variation in ecotoxicological research on wild-living animals.

  13. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  14. Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

    2013-06-01

    In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus.

  15. Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Matthew J.; Ruth, Charles

    2012-05-07

    Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local

  16. Abundance estimation of Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Lödige, Christina; Alings, Matthias; Vor, Torsten; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-09-01

    Despite the importance of roe deer as a host for Ixodes ticks in central Europe, estimates of total tick burden on roe deer are not available to date. We aimed at providing (1) estimates of life stage and sex specific (larvae, nymphs, males and females, hereafter referred to as tick life stages) total Ixodes burden and (2) equations which can be used to predict the total life stage burden by counting the life stage on a selected body area. Within a period of 1(1/2) years, we conducted whole body counts of ticks from 80 hunter-killed roe deer originating from a beech dominated forest area in central Germany. Averaged over the entire study period (winter 2007-summer 2009), the mean tick burden per roe deer was 64.5 (SE +/- 10.6). Nymphs were the most numerous tick life stage per roe deer (23.9 +/- 3.2), followed by females (21.4 +/- 3.5), larvae (10.8 +/- 4.2) and males (8.4 +/- 1.5). The individual tick burden was highly aggregated (k = 0.46); levels of aggregation were highest in larvae (k = 0.08), followed by males (k = 0.40), females (k = 0.49) and nymphs (k = 0.71). To predict total life stage specific burdens based on counts on selected body parts, we provide linear equations. For estimating larvae abundance on the entire roe deer, counts can be restricted to the front legs. Tick counts restricted to the head are sufficient to estimate total nymph burden and counts on the neck are appropriate for estimating adult ticks (females and males). In order to estimate the combined tick burden, tick counts on the head can be used for extrapolation. The presented linear models are highly significant and explain 84.1, 77.3, 90.5, 91.3, and 65.3% (adjusted R (2)) of the observed variance, respectively. Thus, these models offer a robust basis for rapid tick abundance assessment. This can be useful for studies aiming at estimating effects of abiotic and biotic factors on tick abundance, modelling tick population dynamics, modelling tick-borne pathogen transmission dynamics

  17. Malignant Catarrhal Fever-Like Disease in Barbary Red Deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus) Naturally Infected with a Virus Resembling Alcelaphine Herpesvirus 2†

    OpenAIRE

    Klieforth, Robert; Maalouf, Gabriel; Stalis, Ilse; Terio, Karen; Janssen, Donald; Schrenzel, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Eight Barbary red deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus) developed clinical signs suggestive of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) over a 28-day period. These animals were housed outdoors with four other species of ruminants. Affected red deer had lethargy, ocular signs, and nasal discharge and were euthanatized within 48 h. Lesions included ulcers of the muzzle, lips, and oral cavity associated with infiltrates of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Serologically, six of seven red deer tested during the outbr...

  18. Reduction in the number of patients with neuroborreliosis, following a significant reduction in roe deer abundance on the island of Funen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Moestrup Jensen, Per; Skarphédinson, Sigurdur

    in the annual hunting bag, mirroring the existing abundance of roe deer. It is well established that the abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus, - the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sl in Europe,- is correlated with the abundance of roe deer. Since tick abundance correlates with human cases of neuroborreliosis......, it can be expected that changes in roe deer densities lead to changes in human neuroborreliosis cases in the region. Due to sizable reduction in roe deer abundance on the island of Funen, it was hypothesized that the number of I. ricinus must have declined and thereby the number of patients...

  19. Dual infection of a white-tailed deer by Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, I F; Gordon, M A; Stone, W B

    1975-10-01

    Infection by both Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata was found in a 5 1/2-year-old, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Encrusted lesions characteristic of dermatophilosis were observed on the hocks, flanks, and back. Giemsa-staining of smears of material from beneath the crusts revealed branching filaments, transversely and longitudinally divided into packets of coccoid cells typical of D congolensis. Hyphae morphologically consistent with those of A alternata were found in methenamine-silver- and hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of tissue from the ears, flanks, and back. Nutrient agar cultures inoculated with tissue from an ear and hindlimb of the deer yielded, respectively, A alternata and D congolensis.

  20. High spread of Schmallenberg virus among roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José M; Prieto, Alberto; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Pérez, Ana; Panadero, Rosario; Pajares, Gerardo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emergent virus in northwestern Europe since 2011. We conducted this study to evaluate the spread of this virus in a wild ruminant community. During 2013 and 2014, 75 serum samples of roe deer were collected from different locations of the Spanish geography and analysed for the presence of antibodies. The results revealed a widespread exposure to SBV, as well as a high seroprevalence (53.3%, CI95% 42.16–64.18). These findings demand more research with regard to the impact of SBV on roe deer health and the interactions with livestock. Results also show this species as potentially suitable for monitoring the spread of the virus through sylvatic areas.

  1. Intestinal adenocarcinoma in a herd of farmed Sika deer (Cervus nippon): a novel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P A; Toolan, D; Jahns, H

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas were identified in 76 adult deer from a closed herd of 193 breeding animals grazing pasture heavily infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Tumors were observed postmortem in 32 animals with rapid weight loss, and similar neoplasms were detected in a further 44 clinically normal deer at "cull." Tumors were located in distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon and presented as single (26%) or multiple (74%), variably sized, pale-gray, firm, poorly circumscribed neoplasms with associated intestinal strictures. Histopathologically tumors were well-differentiated, locally infiltrative, low-grade adenocarcinomas of tubular (51%), mucinous (33.5%), or mixed (15.5%) types. Extraintestinal metastases were not observed. The high incidence of intestinal adenocarcinoma within this herd suggests a specific and novel syndrome, and genetic and/or environmental factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Transferability of microsatellite loci from exotic Cervidae to Brazilian brocket deer (Mazama spp, Mammalia: Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantellatto, A M B; Carnelossi, E A G; Duarte, J M B

    2010-02-18

    Transferability of microsatellite loci between closely related species has been reported in several species. This helps reduce costs involved with the development of primers for newly investigated species. Fifteen microsatellite primers developed for Rangifer tarandus, Cervus elaphus, C. axis, and Moschus berezovskii were tested on five species of Brazilian brocket deer of the genus Mazama (M. americana, M. bororo, M. gouazoubira, M. nana, and M. nemorivaga). These primers were tested with DNA extracted from blood samples of two individuals of each species obtained from the Núcleo de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cervídeos (NUPECCE) of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Fourteen of the 15 primers tested amplified microsatellite regions of all five species of Mazama, confirmed by sequencing of the amplified fragments. We conclude that these primers could be used for population studies of brocket deer.

  3. Development of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, H; Hommelsheim, S; Kierdorf, U

    2012-12-01

    The study describes crown and root formation of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth of fallow deer from a gestational age of 22-23 weeks up to a post-natal age of 33 months. Tooth development was recorded using a scoring scheme based on morphological criteria ranging from crypt formation to completion of root growth. The morphological appearance of the enamel surface during three different stages (secretory-stage enamel, maturation-stage enamel and mature enamel) was described, and the approximate age at termination of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in the deciduous and permanent mandibular cheek teeth was determined. The data enable an age estimation of fallow deer up to 3 years of age and provide a basis for assessing the timing of stress episodes that affect tooth crown formation. This information is useful for the management of the species as well as in bioarchaeological and bioindication studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

  5. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.

  6. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  7. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetdal, B.; Hals, E.

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained. (author)

  8. Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  9. Anatomy of an eradication effort: Removing Hawaii's illegally introduced axis deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Muise, Jake; Schipper, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In February 2011, a rancher in the rural southern part of Hawaii Island reported a large mammal on her land. Her call mobilized several agencies led by the Big Island Invasive Species Committee (BIISC), a partnership to prevent, detect, and control the establishment and spread of invasive species, to sit up and take notice. Agency biologists installed camera traps to identify the animal, and a few months later verified the diagnostic field marks of a chervid with spots. The animal in questions was a chital, or axis deer (Axis axis)--a species native to tropical and subtropical India. Although the deer are abundant on the islands of Molokai, Lānai, and Maui, officials knew they weren't capable of swimming across the notoriously treacherous ʻAlenuihāhā channel, and subsequently suspected human intervention.

  10. Deer antler base as a traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yongsheng; You, Jiansong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2013-01-30

    Deer antler base (Cervus, Lu Jiao Pan) has been recorded in the Chinese medical classics Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 2000 years ago and is believed to nourish the Yin, tonify the kidney, invigorate the spleen, strengthen bones and muscles, and promote blood flow. In China, deer antler base has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a variety of diseases including mammary hyperplasia, mastitis, uterine fibroids, malignant sores and children's mumps. We provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the traditional uses, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of deer antler base in order to explore its therapeutic potentials and future research needs. The pharmacological value of deer antler base was ignored for many years while researchers concentrated on the pharmacological value of velvet antler. However, more recently, scientists have carried out a great number of chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on deer antler base. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2012. All relevant information on deer antler base was collected from ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias, formularies, scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search by using PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and CNKI (in Chinese). Both in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies have demonstrated that deer antler base possess immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-fatigue, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hematopoietic modulatory activities and the therapeutic effect on mammary hyperplasia. Although the mechanism of actions is still not clear, the pharmacological activities could be mainly attributed to the major bioactive compounds amino acids, polypeptides and proteins. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, deer antler base causes no severe side effects. Deer antler

  11. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mahan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  12. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  13. Quantifying spatial habitat loss from hydrocarbon development through assessing habitat selection patterns of mule deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Joseph M; Anderson, Charles R; Wittemyer, George

    2015-11-01

    Extraction of oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) from shale is increasing rapidly in North America, with documented impacts to native species and ecosystems. With shale oil and gas resources on nearly every continent, this development is set to become a major driver of global land-use change. It is increasingly critical to quantify spatial habitat loss driven by this development to implement effective mitigation strategies and develop habitat offsets. Habitat selection is a fundamental ecological process, influencing both individual fitness and population-level distribution on the landscape. Examinations of habitat selection provide a natural means for understanding spatial impacts. We examined the impact of natural gas development on habitat selection patterns of mule deer on their winter range in Colorado. We fit resource selection functions in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, with habitat availability defined using a movement-based modeling approach. Energy development drove considerable alterations to deer habitat selection patterns, with the most substantial impacts manifested as avoidance of well pads with active drilling to a distance of at least 800 m. Deer displayed more nuanced responses to other infrastructure, avoiding pads with active production and roads to a greater degree during the day than night. In aggregate, these responses equate to alteration of behavior by human development in over 50% of the critical winter range in our study area during the day and over 25% at night. Compared to other regions, the topographic and vegetative diversity in the study area appear to provide refugia that allow deer to behaviorally mediate some of the impacts of development. This study, and the methods we employed, provides a template for quantifying spatial take by industrial activities in natural areas and the results offer guidance for policy makers, mangers, and industry when attempting to mitigate habitat loss due to energy development. © 2015 The Authors

  14. Effects of maternal and grandmaternal nutrition on deer mass and vulnerability to wolf predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.; McRoberts, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    In a Minnesota ecosystem, mass of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and adults, and survival of adult females in the face of wolf (Canis lupus) predation, were directly related to maternal nutrition during gestation. Mass of single male fawns produced by 2-year-old females, and survival of yearlings to 2 years of age were related directly to the nutrition of their grandmothers.

  15. Impact of deer browsing on natural and artificial regeneration in floodplain forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barančeková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Homolka, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2007), s. 354-364 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : deer * floodplain forest * browsing intensity * nutrient content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/56/4/354-364_MS1342.pdf

  16. Molecular biogeography of red deer Cervus elaphus from eastern Europe: insights from mitochondrial DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Otto, Thurid; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Skog, Anna; Hartl, Günther B.; Borowik, Tomasz; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Lang, Johannes; Zachos, Frank E.

    2010-01-01

    European red deer are known to show a conspicuous phylogeographic pattern with three distinct mtDNA lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian). The western lineage, believed to be indicative of a southwestern glacial refuge in Iberia and southern France, nowadays covers large areas of the continent including the British Isles, Scandinavia and parts of central Europe, while the eastern lineage is primarily found in southeast-central Europe, the Carpathians and the Balkans. However...

  17. Habitat influences distribution of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler S.; Kirchgessner, Megan S.; Eyler, B.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Walter, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that was first detected in 1967 in a captive research facility in Colorado. In the northeastern United States, CWD was first confirmed in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2005. Because CWD is a new and emerging disease with a spatial distribution that had yet to be assessed in the Northeast, we examined demographic, environmental, and spatial effects to determine how each related to this spatial distribution. The objectives of our study were to identify environmental and spatial effects that best described the spatial distribution of CWD in free-ranging white-tailed deer and identify areas that support deer that are at risk for CWD infection in the Northeast. We used Bayesian hierarchical modeling that incorporated demographic covariates, such as sex and age, along with environmental covariates, which included elevation, slope, riparian corridor, percent clay, and 3 landscapes (i.e., developed, forested, open). The model with the most support contained landscape covariates and spatial effects that represented clustering of CWD in adjacent grid cells. Forested landscapes had the strongest relationship with the distribution of CWD, with increased risk of CWD occurring in areas that had lesser amounts of forest. Our results will assist resource managers in understanding the spatial distribution of CWD within the study area, and in surrounding areas where CWD has yet to be found. Efficiency of disease surveillance and containment efforts can be improved by allocating resources used for surveillance in areas with deer populations that are at greatest risk for infection.

  18. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory mucosae of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-04-01

    The morphological features of the olfactory mucosae of Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, were histologically studied using the ethmoid turbinates containing the olfactory mucosae from six roe deer (male, 2-3 years old). The ethmoid turbinates were embedded in paraffin, and histochemically evaluated in terms of the mucosal characteristics. Lectin histochemistry was performed to investigate the carbohydrate-binding specificity on the olfactory mucosa. Lectins, including Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used for the N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate groups, respectively. Histologically, the olfactory mucosa, positioned mainly in the caudal roof of the nasal cavity, consisted of the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria. The olfactory epithelium consisted of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive olfactory receptor cells, galectin-3-positive supporting cells and basal cells. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria were stained by both the periodic acid Schiff reagent and alcian blue (pH 2.5). Two types of lectin, WGA and SBA, were labeled in free border, receptor cells, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, with the exception of basal cells, while UEA-I was labeled in free border, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, but not in receptor cells and basal cells, suggesting that carbohydrate terminals on the olfactory mucosae of roe deer vary depending on cell type. This is the first morphological study of the olfactory mucosa of the Korean roe deer to evaluate carbohydrate terminals in the olfactory mucosae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Spain: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Creo, A; Panadero, R; López, C; Díaz, P; Vázquez, L; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, P

    2013-12-01

    Muscular samples from the oesophagus, diaphragm and heart of 101 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunted in Galicia (Northwestern Spain) were examined, by the compression method, for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. infection. The structure of the cyst wall was examined by light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overall prevalence of infection was very high (99%), with a density of 404 cysts/sample (SD 812). The prevalence was very similar in the different examined muscle types (99% heart and diaphragm, and 98.9% oesophagus). A significantly higher intensity of infection was found in the heart (831; SD 1281), followed by the diaphragm (197; SD 190) and the oesophagus (180; SD 205). Macrocysts (>1500 μm long) were only detected in the oesophagus of 48.5% of the examined roe deer; their mean size was 2055.4 μm (SD 632.46). Cysts localised in the myocardium were significantly shorter (371.5 μm; SD 160.47) than those found in the diaphragm (678.2; SD 546) and the oesophagus (973.4 μm; SD 667.87). By LM, most of the cysts (98.8%) displayed a thin wall, which was consistent with those of Sarcocystis sp., S. gracilis and S. capreolicanis; only 1.2% of the cysts had a thick striated wall, consistent with Sarcocystis silva. Three morphological distinct sarcocysts were observed by TEM: the unnamed species Sarcocystis sp., S. capreolicanis and S. gracilis. The wall ultrastructure of the examined macrocysts was consistent with S. gracilis. This study has revealed that Spanish roe deer harbours 4 morphologically distinct types of sarcocysts; being the first record of S. gracilis in roe deer from Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.