Sample records for corneum lipid organization

  1. Stratum corneum lipid organization as observed by atomic force, confocal and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlén, Lars; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Bagatolli, Luis


    Skin moisturization is largely a function of stratum corneum barrier capacity, which in turn is a function of the physical state and structural organization of the stratum corneum extracellular lipid matrix [ J. Invest. Dermatol.18, 433 (1952); AIChE J. 21, 985 (1975); Acta Derm. Venereol.74, 1...... into co-existing microscopic domains below pH 6 [ Biophys. J.93, 3142 (2007) ]. It was further shown that the role of cholesterol is related to dispersion of ceramide-enriched domains. This effect is counteracted by the presence of free fatty acids, which mix with skin ceramides but not with cholesterol...

  2. Stratum Corneum Barrier Lipids in Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Rasmussen, G


    Specimens from primary cholesteatomas were examined under the electron microscope using a lipid-retaining method that is best suited for intracellular lipids and a method that is best for intercellular lipids. In the stratum granulosum of the squamous epithelium, a large number of Odland bodies...... emerged. When the corneocyte reaches the transitional stage to the stratum corneum, the Odland bodies accumulate near the cell membrane and discharge their contents of lipid and enzymes. The lipids are reorganized into multiple long sheets of lamellar structures that embrace the keratinized corneocytes......, as seen in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. In this study we draw the attention to the facts that the cholesteatoma epithelium is capable of producing not only cholesterol, but also several lipids, and that the lipid molecules are organized in multilamellar structures...

  3. Effect of borneol on the transdermal permeation of drugs with differing lipophilicity and molecular organization of stratum corneum lipids. (United States)

    Yi, Qi-Feng; Yan, Jin; Tang, Si-Yuan; Huang, Hui; Kang, Li-Yang


    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the promoting activity of borneol on the transdermal permeation of drugs with differing lipophilicity, and probe its alterations in molecular organization of stratum corneum (SC) lipids. The toxicity of borneol was evaluated in epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT and dermal fibroblast CCC-HSF-1 cell cultures and compared to known enhancers, and its irritant profile was also assessed by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) evaluation. The promoting effect of borneol on the transdermal permeation of five model drugs, namely 5-fluorouracil, antipyrine, aspirin, salicylic acid and ibuprofen, which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logp value, were performed using in vitro skin permeation studies. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was employed to monitor the borneol-induced alteration in molecular organization of SC lipids. The enhancer borneol displayed lower cytotoxicity or irritation in comparison to the well-established and standard enhancer Azone. Borneol could effectively promote the transdermal permeation of five model drugs, and its enhancement ratios were found to be parabolic curve with the logp values of drugs, which exhibited the optimum permeation activity for relatively hydrophilic drugs (an estimated logp value of -0.5 ∼0.5). The molecular mechanism studies suggested that borneol could perturb the structure of SC lipid alkyl chains, and extract part of SC lipids, resulting in the alteration in the skin permeability barrier.

  4. Effect of menthone and related compounds on skin permeation of drugs with different lipophilicity and molecular organization of stratum corneum lipids. (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Wang, Jingyan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Yanyan; Zhao, Bochen; Wu, Qing


    The objective of this article was to investigate the enhancing effect of menthone, menthol and pulegone on the transdermal absorption of drugs with different lipophilicity and probe their mechanisms of action at molecular level. Five model drugs, namely osthole, tetramethylpyrazine, ferulic acid, puerarin and geniposide, which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logKo/w, were tested using in vitro permeation studies in which Franz diffusion cells and rat skin were employed. Infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulation were used to investigate the effect of these enhancers on the stratum corneum (SC) lipids, respectively. Three compounds could effectively promote the transdermal absorption of drugs with different lipophilicity, and the overall promoting capacities were in the following increasing order: pulegone drug lipophilicity after treatment with menthol or menthone, while the penetration enhancement effect of pulegone hardly changed with the alteration of the drug lipophilicity. The molecular mechanism studies suggested that menthone and menthol enhanced the skin permeability by disordering the ordered organization of SC lipids and extracted part of SC lipids, while pulegone appeared to promote drug transport across the skin only by extracting part of SC lipids.

  5. Direct visualization of lipid domains in human skin stratum corneum's lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Norlen, Lars; Bagatolli, Luis


    ; and iii), whether pH has a direct effect on the lipid matrix phase behavior. In this work the lateral structure of membranes composed of lipids extracted from human skin stratum corneum was studied in a broad temperature range (10 degrees C-90 degrees C) using different techniques such as differential...... resolution limit 300 nm) to a single gel phase at pH 7, coexistence of different gel phases between pH 5 and 6, and no fluid phase at any pH. This observation suggests that the local pH in the stratum corneum may control the physical properties of the extracellular lipid matrix by regulating membrane lateral......-dimensional morphology of the stratum corneum extracellular space. These structures can be directly visualized using the aforementioned fluorescence microscopy techniques. At skin physiological temperatures (28 degrees C-32 degrees C), the phase state of these hydrated bilayers correspond microscopically (radial...

  6. In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils. (United States)

    Choe, ChunSik; Schleusener, Johannes; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E


    The intercellular lipids (ICL) of stratum corneum (SC) play an important role in maintaining the skin barrier function. The lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in SC is not homogenous, but rather depth-dependent. This study aimed to analyze the influence of the topically applied mineral-derived (paraffin and petrolatum) and plant-derived (almond oil and jojoba oil) oils on the depth-dependent ICL profile ordering of the SC in vivo. Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), a unique tool to analyze the depth profile of the ICL structure non-invasively, is employed to investigate the interaction between oils and human SC in vivo. The results show that the response of SC to oils' permeation varies in the depths. All oils remain in the upper layers of the SC (0-20% of SC thickness) and show predominated differences of ICL ordering from intact skin. In these depths, skin treated with plant-derived oils shows more disordered lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL than intact skin (poils do not influence the lateral packing order of SC ICL (p>0.1), except plant-derived oils at the depth 30% of SC thickness. In the deeper layers of the SC (60-100% of SC thickness), no difference between ICL lateral packing order of the oil-treated and intact skin can be observed, except that at the depths of 70-90% of the SC thickness, where slight changes with more disorder states are measured for plant-derived oil treated skin (poil types remain in the superficial layers of the SC (0-20% of the SC thickness). Skin treated with mineral- and plant-derived oils shows significantly higher disordered lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in these layers of the SC compared to intact skin. Plant-derived oils significantly changed the ICL ordering in the depths of 30% and 70-90% of the SC thickness, which is likely due to the penetration of free fatty acids in the deeper layers of the SC. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. A breached barrier : analysis of stratum corneum lipids and their role in eczematous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeden, Jeroen van


    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin, and acts as the primary barrier against penetration of pathogens, allergens and other exogenous substances into the lower layers of the skin. Crucial for a proper barrier function are the lipids in the stratum corneum, mainly consisting of

  8. Investigation of the interaction between modified ISCOMs and stratum corneum lipid model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henriette Baun; Arboe-Andersen, Helle M.; Rozlosnik, Noemi


    of the stratum corneum, the interaction between the nanoparticles and lipid model systems in form of liposomes and/or supported lipid bilayer was studied. As a lipid model we used Stratum Corneum Lipid (SCL), a mixture similar in composition to the lipids of the intercorneocyte space. By Forster Resonance Energy...... Transfer (FRET), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) it was shown that application of nanoparticles to the SCL bilayers results in lipid disturbance. Investigation of this interaction by means of Isothermal...

  9. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de


    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a

  10. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke


    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sup -1}) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction.

  11. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, Alex M.; Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B. Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E.; Williams, Joseph B.


    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments.

  12. Stratum corneum lipids: specificity, role, deficiencies and modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castiel-Higounenc Isabelle


    Full Text Available Lipids are important constituents of the human epidermis. Either free and organized into broad lipid bilayers in the intercorneocytes spaces, or covalently bound to the corneocyte envelope, they play a crucial role in permeability barrier function. This article presents the structures of various human skin ceramides, their role in the maintenance of skin barrier function and homeostasis, and their qualitative and quantitative changes in some cases of dry skin or atopic xerosis. Moreover, we show that reconstructed human skin models could provide valuable tools to assess in vitro the biological interest of active compounds on epidermal lipogenesis. Based on such in vitro studies, we assume that the association of vitamin C and some exogenous sphingolipid could enhance the endogenous ceramide content deficient in some cases of atopic dry skin.

  13. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability. (United States)

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna


    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  14. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients. (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A


    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  15. Stratum corneum lipids in disorders of cornification: increased cholesterol sulfate content of stratum corneum in recessive x-linked ichthyosis. (United States)

    Williams, M L; Elias, P M


    Activity of the microsomal enzyme, steroid sulfatase, is absent in keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and leukocytes of patients with recessive x-linked ichthyosis. This study was undertaken to determine if cholesterol sulfate, a substrate of this enzyme, accumulates in the pathological scale of these patients. Scales from 8 patients with recessive x-linked ichthyosis, 10 patients with other forms of ichthyosis, and normal human outer stratum corneum were extracted with chloroform/water (1:2:0.8 by vol) and lipids were fractionated by quantitative, sequential thin-layer chromatography. Cholesterol sulfate was identified by cochromatography in several solvent systems, by its staining characteristics, by biochemical analysis, and by mass spectrometry. The mean cholesterol sulfate content of recessive x-linked ichthyotic scale was 12.5 +/- 0.8% of the total lipid, a fivefold increase over normal (P less than 0.0025), whereas the cholesterol sulfate content of other ichthyotic scale was normal. This increase in cholesterol sulfate content was accompanied by a decrease in total neutral lipids (P less than 0.0025) and free sterols (P less than 0.025) but no change in sterol esters or total sterols. These results demonstrate that deficiency of steroid sulfatase in recessive x-linked ichthyosis results in excessive accumulation of a substrate, cholesterol sulfate, in the pathologic scale, which may underly the pathogenesis of the scaling in this disorder. Measurement of cholesterol sulfate content in scale provides an alternative method to enzymatic assay for the diagnosis of this form of ichthyosis. Images PMID:6947980

  16. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred


    Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum...... barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence.......g. slightly smaller than that determined for human SC in the present study (127Å). Moreover, SAXS results also indicate the presence of covalently bound ceramides, which are crucial for a proper SC barrier, although the corresponding thermal transitions were not clearly detectable by DSC. Due to the competent...

  17. Validation of Cyanoacrylate Method for Collection of Stratum Corneum in Human Skin for Lipid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, JM; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue


    Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method for the col......Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method...... for the collection of SC in relation to lipid analysis. Methods: The results of the lipid analysis (ceramide/cholesterol and ceramide profile) of SC samples obtained by the cyanoacrylate method were compared to the results of the lipid analysis of mechanically removed SC samples. The intra- and interindividual...... indicate that the cyanoacrylate method used for obtaining SC for lipid analysis is a useful and valid method for the purpose....

  18. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows. (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B


    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  19. Molecular Interaction between Intercellular Lipids in the Stratum Corneum and l-Menthol, as Analyzed by Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshida, Shinya; Obata, Yasuko; Onuki, Yoshinori; Utsumi, Shunichi; Ohta, Noboru; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takayama, Kozo


    l-Menthol increases drug partitioning on the surface of skin, diffusion of drugs in the skin, and lipid fluidity in the stratum corneum and alters the rigidly arranged lipid structure of intercellular lipids...

  20. Correlation between the properties of the lipid matrix and the degrees of integrity and cohesion in healthy human Stratum corneum. (United States)

    Berthaud, Fabienne; Boncheva, Mila


    The correlation between the degrees of integrity and cohesion in healthy human Stratum corneum (SC) and the properties of the SC lipid matrix could be examined non-invasively in vivo using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and measurements of pH, conductance, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) taken in the course of tape-stripping. The change of TEWL following the removal of a SC layer with a predefined thickness served as a measure for the SC integrity, and the amount of protein removed by predefined number of tapes - as a measure for the SC cohesion. The extent of lipids organized in orthorhombic lattices and the pH in the inner SC emerged as the main factors that determine the degree of integrity. The amounts and molecular organization of the SC lipids did not correlate with the degree of cohesion, while the pH and the hydration of SC correlated well with the degree of cohesion in the superficial but not in the inner SC layers. This study evidenced the variability of SC integrity and cohesion existing in healthy human skin, demonstrated the importance of the lipid molecular organization for the SC integrity, and illustrated the limitations in the determination the degree of corneodesmolysis in SC based only on the protein content of tape-strips. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Effects of anionic surfactants on the water permeability of a model stratum corneum lipid membrane. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Tettey, Kwadwo E; Yarovoy, Yury; Lee, Daeyeon


    The stratum corneum (SC) is the ourtermost layer of the epidermis and has a brick-and-mortar-like structure, in which multilamellar lipid bilayers surround flattened dead cells known as corneocytes. The SC lipid membranes provide the main pathway for the transport of water and other substances through the SC. While the physicochemical properties of the SC can be affected by exogenous materials such as surfactants, little is known about how the water barrier function of the SC lipid membranes is compromised by common surfactants. Here, we study the effect of common anionic surfactants on the water permeability of a model SC lipid membrane using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Particularly, the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is compared. These two surfactants share commonality in their molecular structure: sulfate in the polar headgroup and the same apolar tail. The mass of the lipid membranes increases after the surfactant treatment at or above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactants due to their absorption into the membranes. The incorporation of the surfactants into the lipid membranes is also accompanied by partial dissolution of the lipids from the model SC lipid membranes as confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Although the water sorption of pure SDS is much lower than that of pure SLES, the water sorption of SDS-treated membranes increases significantly similar to that of SLES-treated membranes. By combining QCM-D and FT-IR spectroscopy, we find that the chain conformational order and stiffness of the lipid membranes decrease after SDS treatment, resulting in the increased water sorption and diffusivity. In contrast, the conformational order and stiffness of the SLES-treated lipid membranes increase, suggesting that the increased water sorption capacity of SLES-treated lipid membranes is due to the hygroscopic nature of SLES.

  2. Further investigations on the role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models after UV exposure. (United States)

    Trommer, Hagen; Böttcher, Rolf; Huschka, Christoph; Wohlrab, Wolfgang; Neubert, Reinhard H H


    This study is the continuation of our research into vitamin C and its possible effects on human skin after topical administration. The effects of ascorbic acid, iron ions and UV irradiation on stratum corneum lipid models were investigated. The lipid models used were: a simple system (linolenic acid dispersion), a complex system (liposomes consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and linolenic acid) and complex systems with additionally incorporated ceramides (types III and IV). The lipid peroxidation was quantified by the thiobarbituric acid assay. A human adult low-calcium high-temperature (HaCaT) keratinocytes cell culture was used as a second in-vitro model. The amount of intracellular peroxides was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity using the dihydrorhodamine 123 assay. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the influence of ascorbic acid and iron ions on the signal intensity of 5-doxylstearic acid during UV exposure. Ascorbic acid showed prooxidative properties in the thiobarbituric acid assay whereas cell protection was measured in the HaCaT keratinocytes experiments. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations revealed different extents of free radical production generated by iron ions, ascorbic acid and UV irradiation. In evaluating the results from this study new aspects of the mechanism of lipid damage caused by these three factors were suggested, transcending the simple redox behaviour of ascorbic acid.

  3. Effect of organic solvents on normal human stratum corneum: evaluation by the corneoxenometry bioassay. (United States)

    Goffin, V; Letawe, C; Piérard, G E


    Organic solvents alter the stratum corneum structure and barrier function. To measure the effect of various solvents upon human stratum corneum using the ex vivo corneoxenometry bioassay which is a variant of corneosurfametry. Corneoxenometry entails collection of human stratum corneum by cyanoacrylate. The material is immersed in organic solvents for periods ranging from 1 to 120 min. After staining the samples with a toluidine blue-basic fuchsin solution, the color is measured using reflectance colorimetry. Solvent aggressivity to the stratum corneum correlates with the color darkening of the samples. The least aggressive solvent was hexane, followed by ethanol, methanol, hexane-ethanol, chloroform, chloroform-methanol and hexane-methanol. The influence of contact time between solvents and the stratum corneum showed a logarithmic pattern which varied according to the solvent. Data are in line with previous experiments conducted in vivo and in vitro, thus indicating the predictive value of corneoxenometry. Such a bioassay may avoid hazards of some in vivo human testings.

  4. Conformational changes in stratum corneum lipids by effect of bicellar systems. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gelen; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Rubio, Laia; Cócera, Mercedes; Díez, Avencia; Estelrich, Joan; Pons, Ramon; Caelles, Jaume; De la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga


    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to study the effects of the bicelles formed by dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) and dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in porcine stratum corneum (SC) in vitro. A comparison of skin samples treated and untreated with bicelles at different temperatures was carried out. The analysis of variations after treatment in the position of the symmetric CH2 stretching, CH2 scissoring, and CH2 rocking vibrations reported important information about the effect of bicelles on the skin. Bicellar systems caused a phase transition from the gel or solid state to the liquid crystalline state in the lipid conformation of SC, reflecting the major order-disorder transition from hexagonally packed to disordered chains. Grazing incidence small and wide X-ray scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS) techniques confirmed this effect of bicelles on the SC. These results are probably related to with the permeabilizing effect previously described for the DMPC/DHPC bicelles.

  5. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss. (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B


    The outermost 10-20 µm of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Cutaneous water loss and covalently bound lipids of the stratum corneum in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) from desert and mesic habitats. (United States)

    Clement, Michelle E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B


    Lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis of birds and mammals, provide a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The SC of birds consists of flat dead cells, called corneocytes, and two lipid compartments: an intercellular matrix and a monolayer of covalently bound lipids (CBLs) attached to the outer surface of the corneocytes. We previously found two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides, covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.); these lipids were associated with cutaneous water loss (CWL). In this study, we collected adult and nestling house sparrows from Ohio and nestlings from Saudi Arabia, acclimated them to either high or low humidity, and measured their rates of CWL. We also measured CWL for natural populations of nestlings from Ohio and Saudi Arabia, beginning when chicks were 2 days old until they fledged. We then evaluated the composition of the CBLs of the SC of sparrows using thin layer chromatography. We found that adult house sparrows had a greater diversity of CBLs in their SC than previously described. During ontogeny, nestling sparrows increased the amount of CBLs and developed their CBLs differently, depending on their habitat. Acclimating nestlings to different humidity regimes did not alter the ontogeny of the CBLs, suggesting that these lipids represent a fundamental component of SC organization that does not respond to short-term environmental change.

  7. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars


    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...

  8. Interaction of menthol with mixed-lipid bilayer of stratum corneum: A coarse-grained simulation study. (United States)

    Wan, Guang; Dai, Xingxing; Yin, Qianqian; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang


    Menthol is a widely used penetration enhancer in clinical medicine due to its high efficiency and relative safety. Although there are many studies focused on the penetration-enhancing activity of menthol, the details of molecular mechanism are rarely involved in the discussion. In this study, we present a series of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of menthol with a mixed-lipid bilayer model consisting of ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids in a 2:2:1 molar ratio. Taking both the concentration of menthol and temperature into consideration, it was found that a rise in temperature and concentration within a specific range (1-20%) could improve the penetration-enhancing property of menthol and the floppiness of the bilayer. However, at high concentrations (30% and more), menthol completely mixed with the lipids and the membrane can no longer maintain a bilayer structure. Our results elucidates some of the molecular basis for menthol's penetration enhancing effects and may provide some assistance for the development and applications of menthol as a penetration enhancer. Furthermore, we establish a method to investigate the penetration enhancement mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine using the mixed-lipid bilayer model of stratum corneum by molecular dynamics simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnicity and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J M; Høgh, J K; Hellgren, Lars


    The barrier function of the skin is dependent on an optimal composition of the stratum corneum lipids, exemplified by the altered lipid profile in patients with atopic eczema (AE). Differences in the global prevalence of AE point to the environment as an important factor in AE. Studies on filaggr...

  10. A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy. (United States)

    Choe, ChunSik; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E


    The intercellular lipid structure of the stratum corneum (SC) plays a key role in skin barrier function. A depth profile of the intercellular lipid conformation and the lipid lateral packing order were measured in vivo in the human SC using confocal Raman microscopy. The depth profiles of the 2880 cm(-1)/2850 cm(-1) peak ratio intensity, which represent the C-H stretching and lateral packing order of lipids, and the 1080 cm(-1)/(1130 cm(-1) + 1060 cm(-1)) peak ratio, which represents the C-C skeleton vibration and trans-gauche conformation order of lipids, were investigated. The influence of keratin on the lipid peaks at 2850 cm(-1) and 2880 cm(-1) was excluded by the developed mathematical algorithm. The results show that the trans-conformation and lateral packing order of the intercellular lipids reach their maximum value in the SC at 20-40% of its depth and then decrease towards the stratum granulosum. These results show that at a depth of 20-40% (normally corresponding to a depth of 4-8 μm) the SC exhibits the most ordered lipids and therefore the highest skin barrier function. The lateral packing of lipids is more disordered on the surface and in the deeper parts of the SC, which may be associated with a reduced skin barrier function.

  11. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) following acclimation to high and low humidity. (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Cox, Robert M; Williams, Joseph B


    Resistance to water-vapor diffusion through the skin is thought to be conferred by lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis. We tested the effect of ambient humidity on cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC by acclimating house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to either a dry (6.5 g/m(3) absolute humidity) or a humid (31 g/m(3)) environment for 3 wk at a thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Sparrows in the dry-acclimated group reduced CWL by 36% compared with those in the humid environment. Relative to initial values, both groups of sparrows decreased CWL, 45% in the dry-acclimated group and 23% in the humid group, suggesting that temperature is also an important stimulus for CWL apart from humidity. Both groups of acclimated sparrows decreased quantities of cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cerebrosides and increased the proportion of ceramides in their SC. Lipid amounts or proportions in the SC did not differ between dry- and humid-acclimated sparrows, but the free fatty acid : ceramide ratio was significantly lower in dry-acclimated birds. Also, lipid composition was only correlated with CWL in dry-acclimated sparrows, suggesting that structural changes to SC lipids are more tightly linked to CWL regulation in response to low humidity. Our results demonstrate phenotypic flexibility in CWL and lipid composition of the SC and provide support for a functional relationship between these traits.

  12. Nanoscale infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging of structural lipids in human stratum corneum using an atomic force microscope to directly detect absorbed light from a tunable IR laser source. (United States)

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Domanov, Yegor; Balooch, Guive; Luengo, Gustavo S


    An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a tunable infrared (IR) laser source have been combined in a single instrument (AFM-IR) capable of producing ~200-nm spatial resolution IR spectra and absorption images. This new capability enables IR spectroscopic characterization of human stratum corneum at unprecendented levels. Samples of normal and delipidized stratum corneum were embedded, cross-sectioned and mounted on ZnSe prisms. A pulsed tunable IR laser source produces thermomechanical expansion upon absorption, which is detected through excitation of contact resonance modes in the AFM cantilever. In addition to reducing the total lipid content, the delipidization process damages the stratum corneum morphological structure. The delipidized stratum corneum shows substantially less long-chain CH2 -stretching IR absorption band intensity than normal skin. AFM-IR images that compare absorbances at 2930/cm (lipid) and 3290/cm (keratin) suggest that regions of higher lipid concentration are located at the perimeter of corneocytes in the normal stratum corneum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lipids and membrane lateral organization. (United States)

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro


    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically) popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts). Today, a PubMed search using the key word "lipid rafts" returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, "ceramide" returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews), and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as "lipid raft-dependent." However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells has been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasizes multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompass their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes.

  14. Lipids and membrane lateral organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSonnino


    Full Text Available Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creations of these levels of order. In the late 80’s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts. Today, a PubMed search using the key word lipid rafts returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, ceramide returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews, and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as lipid raft-dependent. However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells have been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasize multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompasses their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes.

  15. Lipids and Membrane Lateral Organization


    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro


    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid...

  16. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum. (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V


    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  17. Lipid organization of the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Melo, Manuel N; van Eerden, Floris J; Arnarez, Clément; Lopez, Cesar A; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Periole, Xavier; de Vries, Alex H; Tieleman, D Peter; Marrink, Siewert J


    The detailed organization of cellular membranes remains rather elusive. Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a high-resolution view of the lipid organization of a plasma membrane at an unprecedented level of complexity. Our plasma membrane model consists of 63 different

  18. Organization in lipid membranes containing cholesterol. (United States)

    Veatch, Sarah L; Keller, Sarah L


    A fundamental attribute of raft formation in cell membranes is lateral separation of lipids into coexisting liquid phases. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observe spontaneous lateral separation in free-floating giant unilamellar vesicles. We record coexisting liquid domains over a range of composition and temperature significantly wider than previously reported. Furthermore, we establish correlations between miscibility in bilayers and in monolayers. For example, the same lipid mixtures that produce liquid domains in bilayer membranes produce two upper miscibility critical points in the phase diagrams of monolayers.

  19. Effectiveness of Sunscreen at Preventing Solar UV-Induced Alterations of Human Stratum Corneum (United States)

    Martinez, O.; Dauskardt, R.; Biniek, K.; Novoa, F.


    The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, protects the body from harmful environmental conditions by serving as a selective barrier. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most common conditions the body encounters and is responsible for many negative skin responses, including compromised barrier function. UV exposure has dramatic effects on stratum corneum cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the stratum corneum's intercellular lipids. Hypothesis Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb UV radiation to prevent the radiation from penetrating the skin. Thus, it is expected that the application of sunscreen on human stratum corneum will reduce UV-induced alterations of human stratum corneum. Procedures/Equipment Human tissue was processed in order to isolate the stratum corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Double cantilever beam (DCB) testing was used to study the effect of UV radiation on human stratum corneum. Two different types of DCB samples were created: control DCB samples with the application of carrier and UV light to the stratum corneum and DCB samples with the application of sunscreen and UV light to the stratum corneum. For the control sample, one side of the stratum corneum was glued to a polycarbonate beam and carrier was applied. Then, the sample was placed 10 cm away from the UV lamp inside of the environmental chamber and were exposed to UV dosages of about 800 J/cm2. Once this step was complete, a second polycarbonate beam was glued to the other side of the stratum corneum. The steps were similar for the DCB sample that had sunscreen applied and that was exposed to UV light. After gluing one side of the stratum corneum to a polycarbonate beam, Octinoxate sunscreen was applied. The next steps were similar to those of the control sample. All DCB samples were then let out to dry for two hours in a dry box in order for the moisture from the lab to be extracted. Each DCB sample was tested

  20. Stratum Corneum Hydration and Skin Surface pH Variation Indicate that Organ Blood Flow Is Regulated by Meridian Activity at Certain Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fan Chuang


    Full Text Available Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”. By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.

  1. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia


    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  2. Structure Enhancement Relationship of Chemical Penetration Enhancers in Drug Transport across the Stratum Corneum (United States)

    Chantasart, Doungdaw; Li, S. Kevin


    The stratum corneum is a major barrier of drug penetration across the skin in transdermal delivery. For effective transdermal drug delivery, skin penetration enhancers are used to overcome this barrier. In the past decades, a number of research studies were conducted to understand the mechanisms of skin penetration enhancers and to develop a structure enhancement relationship. Such understanding allows effective prediction of the effects of skin penetration enhancers, assists topical and transdermal formulation development, and avoids extensive enhancer screening in the transdermal delivery industry. In the past two decades, several hypotheses on chemical enhancer-induced penetration enhancement for transport across the skin lipoidal pathway have been examined based on a systematic approach. Particularly, a hypothesis that skin penetration enhancement is directly related to the concentration of the enhancers in the stratum corneum lipid domain was examined. A direct relationship between skin penetration enhancer potency (based on enhancer aqueous concentration in the diffusion cell chamber) and enhancer n-octanol-water partition coefficient was also established. The nature of the microenvironment of the enhancer site of action in the stratum corneum lipid domain was found to be mimicked by n-octanol. The present paper reviews the work related to these hypotheses and the relationships between skin penetration enhancement and enhancer concentration in the drug delivery media and stratum corneum lipids. PMID:24300181

  3. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine is upregulated in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Okamoto, Reiko; Arikawa, Junko; Ishibashi, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Makoto; Takagi, Yutaka; Imokawa, Genji


    To clarify the functional relevance of sphingomyelin (SM) deacylase to the ceramide deficiency seen in atopic dermatitis (AD), we developed a new highly sensitive method and measured the metabolic intermediate sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) that accumulates in the stratum corneum. SPC in intercellular lipids extracted from stratum corneum was reacted with [(14)C]acetic anhydride to yield [(14)C-C(2)]SM, which was then analyzed by TLC. In both the lesional and non-lesional stratum corneum obtained from patients with AD, there was a significant increase in the content of SPC over that of healthy control subjects. There was a reciprocal relationship between increases in SPC and decreases in ceramide levels of stratum corneum obtained from healthy controls, and from lesional and non-lesional skin from patients with AD. Comparison with other sphingolipids present in the stratum corneum demonstrated that there is a significant positive correlation between SPC and glucosylsphingosine, another lysosphingolipid derived from glucosylceramide by another novel epidermal enzyme, termed glucosylceramide deacylase. In contrast, there was no correlation between SPC and sphingosine, a degradative product generated from ceramide by ceramidase. These findings strongly suggest the physiological relevance of SM deacylase function in vivo to the ceramide deficiency found in the skin of patients with AD.

  4. Plasma Lipid Profile and Target Organ Effect of Theobromine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of theobromine rich extracts of cocoa on plasma lipid profile and its organ specific effects on the kidney and liver were determined in twenty female weaning albino wistar rats. Varying concentration, 70 mg/kg, 140 mg/kg and 210 mg/kg body weight of theobromine in 0.9% normal saline were administered ...

  5. Exceptional molecular organization of canthaxanthin in lipid membranes. (United States)

    Sujak, Agnieszka


    Canthaxanthin (β,β-carotene 4,4' dione) used widely as a drug or as a food and cosmetic colorant may have some undesirable effects on human health, caused mainly by the formation of crystals in the macula lutea membranes of the retina of an eye. Experiments show the exceptional molecular organization of canthaxanthin and a strong effect of this pigment on the physical properties of lipid membranes. The most striking difference between canthaxanthin and other macular pigments is that the effects of canthaxanthin at a molecular level are observed at much lower concentration of this pigment with respect to lipid (as low as 0.05 mol%). An analysis of the molecular interactions of canthaxanthin showed molecular mechanisms such as: strong van der Waals interactions between the canthaxanthin molecule and the acyl chains of lipids, restrictions to the segmental molecular motion of lipid molecules, modifications of the surface of the lipid membranes, effect on the membrane thermotropic properties and finally interactions based on the formation of the hydrogen bonds. Such interactions can lead to a destabilization of the membrane and loss of membrane compactness. In the case of the retinal vasculature, it can lead to an increase in the permeability of the retinal capillary walls and the development of retinopathy.

  6. Analytical data of synthesized deuterated isopropyl myristate and data about the influence of IPM/IPMdeut on the thermodynamics and morphology of 2D Stratum Corneum models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.L. Oliveira


    Full Text Available The data in this article shows the effect of isopropyl myristate (IPM on a 2D Stratum Corneum lipid model. In the first part, the analytical characterization of the synthesized deuterated isopropyl myristate is given. Then a BAM image of the pure Stratum Corneum model used is shown and a dataset of surface-pressure – area isotherms considering various ratios of deuterated and non-deuterated IPM and the Stratum Corneum model mixture is provided. Assuming that after the plateau in the isotherm the area per molecule corresponds only to the Stratum Corneum model (squeezing out of IPM, the value of the area will correspond to the percentage of these lipids in the mixture when considering the pure SC model. The comparison of the real and the calculated areas per molecule is also done.

  7. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration. (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard


    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [(14)C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  8. Noninvasive stratum corneum sampling and electron microscopical examination of skin barrier integrity: pilot study with a topical glycerin formulation for atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Daehnhardt-Pfeiffer, S; Surber, C; Wilhelm, K-P; Daehnhardt, D; Springmann, G; Boettcher, M; Foelster-Holst, R


    Therapy of atopic dermatitis encloses use of medicated and nonmedicated preparations. Results of clinical and biophysical procedures indirectly describe the condition of the impaired skin barrier (SB). Direct evaluation of SB integrity is only possible by electron microscopical visualization, e.g. intercellular lipid lamellae (ICLL) organization of the stratum corneum. SB integrity was measured by morphometric analysis of ICLL in healthy and atopic skin and after a 15-day treatment (plus 7-day follow-up) of atopic skin with a glycerin preparation. Significant treatment effect was shown by the restoration of the ICLL. The study reveals that morphometric analysis of ICLL organization is suitable to differentiate between healthy and diseased skin and to semiquantitatively determine the effect of a nonmedicated glycerin formulation. Small treatment cohort. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Penetration and growth of DPPC/DHPC bicelles inside the stratum corneum of the skin. (United States)

    Barbosa-Barros, L; de la Maza, A; Estelrich, J; Linares, A M; Feliz, M; Walther, P; Pons, R; López, O


    The effect of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) bicelles on the microstructure of pig stratum corneum (SC) in vitro was evaluated. The physicochemical characterization of these nanoaggregates revealed small disks with diameters around 15 nm and a thickness of 5.4 nm. Upon dilution, the bicelles grow and transform into vesicles. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) images of the SC pieces treated with this system showed vesicles of about 200 nm and lamellar-like structures in the intercellular lipid areas. These vesicles probably resulted from the growth and molecular rearrangement of the DPPC/DHPC bicelles after penetrating the SC. The presence of lamellar-like structures is ascribed to the interaction of the lipids from bicelles with the SC lipids. The bicellar system used is suitable to penetrate the skin SC and to reinforce the intercellular lipid areas, constituting a promising tool for skin applications.

  10. Discovery of a lipid synthesising organ in the auditory system of an insect. (United States)

    Lomas, Kathryn F; Greenwood, David R; Windmill, James F C; Jackson, Joseph C; Corfield, Jeremy; Parsons, Stuart


    Weta possess typical Ensifera ears. Each ear comprises three functional parts: two equally sized tympanal membranes, an underlying system of modified tracheal chambers, and the auditory sensory organ, the crista acustica. This organ sits within an enclosed fluid-filled channel-previously presumed to be hemolymph. The role this channel plays in insect hearing is unknown. We discovered that the fluid within the channel is not actually hemolymph, but a medium composed principally of lipid from a new class. Three-dimensional imaging of this lipid channel revealed a previously undescribed tissue structure within the channel, which we refer to as the olivarius organ. Investigations into the function of the olivarius reveal de novo lipid synthesis indicating that it is producing these lipids in situ from acetate. The auditory role of this lipid channel was investigated using Laser Doppler vibrometry of the tympanal membrane, which shows that the displacement of the membrane is significantly increased when the lipid is removed from the auditory system. Neural sensitivity of the system, however, decreased upon removal of the lipid-a surprising result considering that in a typical auditory system both the mechanical and auditory sensitivity are positively correlated. These two results coupled with 3D modelling of the auditory system lead us to hypothesize a model for weta audition, relying strongly on the presence of the lipid channel. This is the first instance of lipids being associated with an auditory system outside of the Odentocete cetaceans, demonstrating convergence for the use of lipids in hearing.

  11. Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of

  12. Comparative thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of water interaction with human stratum corneum. (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh; Wickett, R Randall; Pinto, Neville G; Kasting, Gerald B; Thiel, Stephen W


    The water content of skin has a significant impact on skin properties; sufficient hydration is necessary to keep the skin supple, flexible, and smooth. To understand more completely the water retention properties of the human skin barrier, physical macroscopic properties must be related to the structural organization of the stratum corneum (SC). Water, lipids, and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) influence the molecular structures that affect the properties of SC, including water sorption and binding enthalpy. In the research reported here, isothermal microcalorimetry was used to study the interaction of water vapor with isolated human SC in intact, delipidized, and water-washed delipidized forms to identify the influences of the principal components of SC on water sorption. The calorimetric data are interpreted in conjunction with spectroscopic results to identify the conformational changes in keratins induced by lipid and NMF removal and to assess the influence of these changes on water binding in SC. Isothermal calorimetry was used to measure the integral heat of water vapor sorption on intact, delipidized, and water-washed delipidized human SC at 32 degrees C as a function of relative humidity using back and thigh skin from three donors. Calorimetric measurements were combined with water vapor sorption measurements to determine the differential thermodynamic properties of these systems. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate effects of extraction on protein secondary structure. The magnitudes of the differential enthalpy, entropy, and free energy were greatest for intact SC and least for water-washed delipidized SC. Water sorption followed a similar trend. Delipidization led to a significantly reduced binding enthalpy at low water content; water washing the delipidized SC had only a small additional effect on binding enthalpy. Delipidization converts a fraction of keratin alpha-helixes to turns and random

  13. Interaction of fengycin with stratum corneum mimicking model membranes: a calorimetry study. (United States)

    Eeman, Marc; Olofsson, Gerd; Sparr, Emma; Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Nylander, Tommy; Deleu, Magali


    Based on its outstanding antifungal properties, it is reasonable to believe that fengycin might be efficient to topically treat localized dermatomycoses. Since most of the fungi species involved in the formation of those mycotic skin diseases colonize primarily the stratum corneum (SC), studying the interaction between fengycin and SC-mimicking lipid membranes is a primary step to determine the potential of fengycin to overcome the physical barrier of the skin. In this respect, multilamellar lipid vesicles (MLVs), with a lipid composition mimicking that of the SC, were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of fengycin was also assessed under skin conditions and found to be 1.2±0.1μM. The molecular interactions of fengycin with SC-mimicking MLVs were investigated by both DSC and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results showed that the interactions were considerably affected by changes in lipid phase behaviour. At 40°C and below, fengycin induced exothermic changes in the lipid structures suggesting that less-ordered lipid domains became more-ordered in presence of fengycin. At 60°C, clearly endothermic interaction enthalpies were observed, which could arise from the "melting" of remaining solid domains enriched in high melting lipids that without fengycin melt at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid lateral organization on giant unilamellar vesicles containing lipopolysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubiak, Jakub; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Hansen, Søren


    -Ra > LPS-Rc > LPS-Rd) were selected to generate GUVs composed of different LPS/E. coli polar lipid mixtures. Our procedure consists of two main steps: 1), generation and purification of oligolamellar liposomes containing LPSs; and 2), electroformation of GUVs using the LPS-containing oligolamellar vesicles...... the presence of elongated micrometer-sized lipid domains for GUVs containing either LPS-Rc or LPS-Rd above 10 mol %. Laurdan GP images confirm this finding and show that this particular lateral scenario corresponds to the coexistence of fluid disordered and gel (LPS-enriched)-like micron-sized domains......, in similarity to what is observed when LPS is replaced with lipid A. For LPSs containing the more bulky polar headgroup (i.e., LPS-smooth and LPS-Ra), an absence of micrometer-sized domains is observed for all LPS concentrations explored in the GUVs (up to ∼15 mol %). However, fluorescence correlation...

  15. Color stability and lipid oxidation of broiler breast meat from animals raised on organic versus non-organic production systems. (United States)

    Viana, F M; Canto, A C V C S; Costa-Lima, B R C; Salim, A P A A; Conte-Junior, C A


    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the influence of organic and non-organic production systems on color stability and lipid oxidation of broiler meat Pectoralis major (PM) stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 9 days. PM samples from organic (ORG) and non-organic (NORG) production systems were compared based on physicochemical analyses (instrumental color, myoglobin concentration, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), pH, and lipid oxidation) performed in 4 different trials (n = 4). In general, NORG broilers demonstrated higher (P meat during storage. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Discovery of a lipid synthesising organ in the auditory system of an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn F Lomas

    Full Text Available Weta possess typical Ensifera ears. Each ear comprises three functional parts: two equally sized tympanal membranes, an underlying system of modified tracheal chambers, and the auditory sensory organ, the crista acustica. This organ sits within an enclosed fluid-filled channel-previously presumed to be hemolymph. The role this channel plays in insect hearing is unknown. We discovered that the fluid within the channel is not actually hemolymph, but a medium composed principally of lipid from a new class. Three-dimensional imaging of this lipid channel revealed a previously undescribed tissue structure within the channel, which we refer to as the olivarius organ. Investigations into the function of the olivarius reveal de novo lipid synthesis indicating that it is producing these lipids in situ from acetate. The auditory role of this lipid channel was investigated using Laser Doppler vibrometry of the tympanal membrane, which shows that the displacement of the membrane is significantly increased when the lipid is removed from the auditory system. Neural sensitivity of the system, however, decreased upon removal of the lipid-a surprising result considering that in a typical auditory system both the mechanical and auditory sensitivity are positively correlated. These two results coupled with 3D modelling of the auditory system lead us to hypothesize a model for weta audition, relying strongly on the presence of the lipid channel. This is the first instance of lipids being associated with an auditory system outside of the Odentocete cetaceans, demonstrating convergence for the use of lipids in hearing.

  17. Hand eczema and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J. M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars


    Background: Hand eczema (HE) is a multifactorial disease, comprising different aetiological conditions and different morphologies. There are two aetiologically distinct groups of HE recognised: exogenous, such as contact dermatitis (allergic and/or irritant HE) and endogenous, such as the classic......: Using cyanoacrylate, SC samples were taken from 23 patients with allergic/irritant HE and 15 with hyperkeratotic HE for lipid analysis by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Samples were also taken from adjacent, unaffected skin. Severity of HE was assessed by the Hand Eczema Severity...... found a significantly higher HECSI score for hyperkeratotic HE compared with irritant or allergic HE (P=0.02). Conclusions: There appears to be no difference in skin barrier between allergic/irritant HE (exogenous eczema) and hyperkeratotic HE (endogenous eczema) with regard to SC lipids...

  18. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Slotved, H.-C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki


    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy ...

  19. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols. (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia


    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Organic and inorganic osmolytes at lipid membrane interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, P.; Peters, Günther H.j.


    and inorganic components. Before turning to the physicochemical discussion of interfacial interactions, the chapter outlines some central parts of the biology and biotechnology of organic osmolytes. It reviews the central relationships in preferential interaction theory, which we use in subsequent paragraphs...

  1. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos


    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating...

  2. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  3. The Postpharyngeal Gland: Specialized Organ for Lipid Nutrition in Leaf-Cutting Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Decio

    Full Text Available There are several hypotheses about the possible functions of the postpharyngeal gland (PPG in ants. The proposed functions include roles as cephalic or gastric caeca and diverticulum of the digestive tract, mixing of hydrocarbons, nestmate recognition, feeding larvae, and the accumulation of lipids inside this gland, whose origin is contradictory. The current study aimed to investigate the functions of these glands by examining the protein expression profile of the PPGs of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Mated females received lipid supplementation and their glands were extracted and analyzed using a proteomic approach. The protocol used combined two-dimensional electrophoresis and shotgun strategies, followed by mass spectrometry. We also detected lipid β-oxidation by immunofluorescent marking of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Supplying ants with lipids elicited responses in the glandular cells of the PPG; these included increased expression of proteins related to defense mechanisms and signal transduction and reorganization of the cytoskeleton due to cell expansion. In addition, some proteins in PPG were overexpressed, especially those involved in lipid and energy metabolism. Part of the lipids may be reduced, used for the synthesis of fatty alcohol, transported to the hemolymph, or may be used as substrate for the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized to form molecules that drive oxidative phosphorylation and produce energy for cellular metabolic processes. These findings suggest that this organ is specialized for lipid nutrition of adult leaf-cutting ants and characterized like a of diverticulum foregut, with the ability to absorb, store, metabolize, and mobilize lipids to the hemolymph. However, we do not rule out that the PPG may have other functions in other species of ants.

  4. Effect of shaving on axillary stratum corneum. (United States)

    Marti, V P J; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Paterson, S E; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V


    Removal of underarm hair is an intrinsic part of the care regimen for the majority of female consumers, with most using a wet shave with a disposable razor. However, little is known of the impact of shaving on axillary skin, and it is a particularly neglected area of research. To investigate this, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of shaving ultrastructurally, biochemically and functionally. A forearm patch test protocol was devised for antiperspirant (AP) product screening, which involved a pre-shave of the test site with a dry razor just prior to patching. Comparison of the irritation caused by a series of AP products confirmed that shaving leads to increased irritation consistent with enhanced sensitivity. The effect of regular shaving in the axilla was assessed in a 4-week in-use study with shaving either once a week or once a day, both combined with the application of an AP. Expert visual assessment of skin condition showed that more frequent shaving promoted a higher level of visible irritation. However, indirect measurement using corneosurfametry indicated no significant changes to the lipid barrier over the study period irrespective of shaving frequency. Nevertheless, digital images of the axillary skin after dry shaving show distinct opaque lines because of uplifting skin flakes with a corresponding increase in scaliness parameter. Moreover, histamine iontophoresis to assess skin sensitivity demonstrated a significant enhancement of histamine-induced itch and neurogenic flare.

  5. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products. (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello


    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products. (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E


    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  7. Comparison of Performance, Meat Lipids and Oxidative Status of Pigs from Commercial Breed and Organic Crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martino


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rearing systems for pig production, as concerns performance, meat lipid content, the fatty acid profile, histidinic antioxidants, coenzyme Q10, and TBARs. One hundred pigs were assigned to one of three treatments: intensively reared commercial hybrid pig (I, free range commercial hybrid pig (FR or organically reared crossbred pig (O, according to organic EU Regulations. I pigs showed the best productive performance, but FR and O increased: C20:1n9, Δ9-desaturase (C18 and thioesterase indices in meat. Lipid, dipeptides and CoQ10 appeared correlated to glycolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways. We can conclude that all studied parameters were influenced by the rearing system used, and that differences were particularly evident in the O system, which produced leaner meat with higher oxidative stability. In this respect, the organic pig rearing system promotes and enhances biodiversity, environmental sustainability and food quality.

  8. An organic geochemical investigation into lipid distribution at Imperial Geyser, Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Bird, L. R.; Krukenberg, V.; Lohman, E.; Santillan, E.; Urrejola, C.; Caporaso, J. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Spear, J. R.


    Imperial Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, is an alkaline, silica-rich thermal spring with a diverse microbial constituency. In order to characterize this microbial community, mat samples growing downstream from the vent were studied for lipid composition and abundance. Both fatty acids and hopanoids were extracted from the mat samples and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID. Microbial community profiling was also performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the SHC (squalene-hopene cyclase) gene. Results for both lipid and metagenomic data were compared using principle components analysis (PCA). PCA revealed the clustering of sample sites for both lipids and genes. A strong correlation (p value Chloroflexus and Chlorobium, indicating that they are the likely source of these lipids at Imperial Geyser. Hopanoid data shows the ratio of methylated to unmethylated hopanoids varies with distance from the vent, potentially representing a response to environmental stress. The ratio of methylated to unmethylated hopanoids appears to be controlled environmentally, being produced by organisms beyond Cyanobacteria. Thus in this setting the 2-methylhopanoid index does not correspond directly to the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria. Results indicate that temperature and pH exert some control over community composition between sample sites and that this is reflected in the lipid composition. However, we also expect to see additional geochemical variants, such as dissolved inorganic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur from the stream water, contributing to the beta diversity of our results. This research was undertaken as part of the International Geobiology Course 2011.

  9. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.


    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  10. Organized Aggregation of Porphyrins in Lipid Bilayers for Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy. (United States)

    Cui, Liyang; Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Ng, Kenneth K; Wang, Fan; Chen, Juan; Barzda, Virginijus; Zheng, Gang


    Nonlinear optical microscopy has become a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging of cellular and subcellular composition, morphology, and interactions because of its high spatial resolution, deep penetration, and low photo-damage to tissue. Developing specific harmonic probes is essential for exploiting nonlinear microscopic imaging for biomedical applications. We report an organized aggregate of porphyrins (OAP) that formed within lipidic nanoparticles showing fingerprint spectroscopic properties, structure-associated second harmonic generation, and superradiant third harmonic generation. The OAP facilitated harmonic microscopic imaging of living cells with significantly enhanced contrast. The structure-dependent switch between harmonic (OAP-intact) and fluorescence (OAP-disrupted) generation enabled real-time multi-modality imaging of the cellular fate of nanoparticles. Robustly produced under various conditions and easily incorporated into pre-formed lipid nanovesicles, OAP provides a biocompatible nanoplatform for harmonic imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste. (United States)

    Leong, Siew Yoong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Tan, Chew Khun


    Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52±0.02 and 0.23±0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04±0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids covalently bound to corneocytes in the stratum corneum of house sparrows Passer domesticus. (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Brown, Johnie C; Ro, Jennifer; Williams, Joseph B


    The barrier to water loss from the skin of birds and mammals is localized in the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis. The SC consists of corneocytes, each surrounded by a protein envelope, and a lipid compartment, formed by an extracellular matrix of lipids and by lipids covalently bound to the protein envelope. In mammals, covalently bound lipids in the SC consist of omega-hydroxyceramides attached to the outer surface of corneocytes. Evidence suggests that covalently bound lipids in the SC might be crucial for the establishment of a competent permeability barrier. In this study we assessed the composition of covalently bound lipids of the avian SC and their relationship to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in two populations of house sparrows, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other in mesic Ohio. Previously, we showed that CWL of adult desert sparrows was 25% lower than that of mesic birds. In the present study we characterize covalently bound lipids of the SC using thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure Photospray ionization mass spectrometry. Our study is the first to demonstrate the existence of sphingolipids covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of birds. Although omega-hydroxyceramides occurred in the lipid envelope surrounding corneocytes, the major constituent of the covalently bound lipid envelope in house sparrows was omega-hydroxycerebrosides, ceramides with a hexose molecule attached. Sparrows from Saudi Arabia had more covalently bound cerebrosides, fewer covalently bound ceramides and a lower ceramide to cerebroside ratio than sparrows living in Ohio; these differences were associated with CWL.

  13. Influence of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on nanoparticle adsorption onto supported lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Bo, Zhang; Avsar, Saziye Yorulmaz; Corliss, Michael K; Chung, Minsub; Cho, Nam-Joon


    As the worldwide usage of nanoparticles in commercial products continues to increase, there is growing concern about the environmental risks that nanoparticles pose to biological systems, including potential damage to cellular membranes. A detailed understanding of how different types of nanoparticles behave in environmentally relevant conditions is imperative for predicting and mitigating potential membrane-associated toxicities. Herein, we investigated the adsorption of two popular nanoparticles (silver and buckminsterfullerene) onto biomimetic supported lipid bilayers of varying membrane charge (positive and negative). The quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) measurement technique was employed to track the adsorption kinetics. Particular attention was focused on understanding how natural organic matter (NOM) coatings affect nanoparticle-bilayer interactions. Both types of nanoparticles preferentially adsorbed onto the positively charged bilayers, although NOM coatings on the nanoparticle and lipid bilayer surfaces could either inhibit or promote adsorption in certain electrolyte conditions. While past findings showed that NOM coatings inhibit membrane adhesion, our findings demonstrate that the effects of NOM coatings are more nuanced depending on the type of nanoparticle and electrolyte condition. Taken together, the results demonstrate that NOM coatings can modulate the lipid membrane interactions of various nanoparticles, suggesting a possible way to improve the environmental safety of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. (United States)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Cabrera, Ingrid; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Veciana, Jaume; Stamou, Dimitrios; Ventosa, Nora


    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating two membrane dyes were prepared by either a compressed fluid (CF)-based method (DELOS-susp) or a conventional film hydration procedure. They were subsequently immobilized and imaged individually using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Two integrated fluorescence intensities, I(dye1) and I(dye2), were assigned to each tracked vesicle, and their ratio, I(dye1)/I(dye2), was used for quantifying the degree of membrane inhomogeneity between individual vesicles within each sample. A distribution of I(dye1)/I(dye2) values was obtained for all the studied vesicular systems, indicating intrasample heterogeneity. The degree of inhomogeneity (DI) was similar for Chol/DOPC vesicles prepared by both procedures. In contrast, DI was more than double for the hydration method compared to the CF-based method in the case of Chol/CTAB vesicles, which can suffer from lipid demixing during film formation. These findings reveal a more homogeneous vesicle formation path by CFs, which warranted good homogeneity of the vesicular system, independently of the lipid mixture used. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents. Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle, as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose or not-specialized (liver, muscle tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.

  16. Organic matter of the troposphere—IV. Lipids in harmattan aerosols of nigeria (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Cox, R. E.; Standley, L. J.

    Harmattan aerosols were sampled during the 1979 and 1980 seasons in urban, rural and remote areas of Nigeria, in order to characterize sources of the continental carbonaceous particulate matter. High volume air samples (400-3600 m 3) were obtained. The sample filters were extracted and the soluble lipids were separated into functional group fractions for molecular analyses. These lipids were composed primarily of vascular plant wax and minor amounts of microbial detritus, with a significant anthropogenic component from petroleum products and burning superimposed in samples under urban influence. Plant wax was characterized by the homologous series of mainly n-alkanes and n-alkanols, with minor amounts of n-alkanoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and biomarkers, all in the higher molecular weight range (> C 20). Alcohol fractions contained characteristic phytosterols (C 27-C 29) and triterpenols (C 30 > C 29), which are the biomarkers for vegetation sources. The plant wax signatures of the aerosols in northern Nigeria could be correlated with two dominant geographic source regions (e.g. northern Nigeria and Sahara). A microbial lipid component was evident primarily in the hydrocarbon (as unresolved complex mixture, UCM) and fatty acid fractions (mixture of naphthenic HC ( Cmax = C28), minor biomarkers specific for petroleum and traces of PAH. These compositional data were used for very approximate mass balancing and organic matter source determinations. This permitted the assignment of Harmattan aerosol source regions and the conclusion that the urban components are rapidly diluted downwind from their sources by the overwhelming natural organic matter.

  17. A population-based study of the stratum corneum moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires TF


    Full Text Available Thiago de Farias Pires,1 Ana Paula Azambuja,2 Andrea Roseli Vançan Russo Horimoto,1 Mary Sanae Nakamura,2 Rafael de Oliveira Alvim,1 José Eduardo Krieger,1 Alexandre Costa Pereira1 1Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, 2Natura Innovation and Product Technology Ltd., Cajamar, SP, Brazil Background: The stratum corneum (SC has important functions as a bound-water modulator and a primary barrier of the human skin from the external environment. However, no large epidemiological study has quantified the relative importance of different exposures with regard to these functional properties. In this study, we have studied a large sample of individuals from the Brazilian population in order to understand the different relationships between the properties of SC and a number of demographic and self-perceived variables. Methods: One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine individuals from a rural Brazilian population, who were participants of a family-based study, were submitted to a cross-sectional examination of the SC moisture by capacitance using the Corneometer® CM820 and investigated regarding environmental exposures, cosmetic use, and other physiological and epidemiological measurements. Self-perception-scaled questions about skin conditions were also applied. Results: We found significant associations between SC moisture and sex, age, high sun exposure, and sunscreen use frequency (P<0.025. In specific studied sites, self-reported race and obesity were also found to show significant effects. Dry skin self-perception was also found to be highly correlated with the objective measurement of the skin. Other environmental effects on SC moisture are also reported. Keywords: investigative dermatology, stratum corneum moisture, Corneometer, sun exposure, familial data modeling

  18. Two randomized, controlled, comparative studies of the stratum corneum integrity benefits of two cosmetic niacinamide/glycerin body moisturizers vs. conventional body moisturizers. (United States)

    Christman, Jeremy C; Fix, Deborah K; Lucus, Sawanna C; Watson, Debrah; Desmier, Emma; Wilkerson, Rolanda J Johnson; Fixler, Charles


    Despite numerous body moisturizers being available, cosmetic xerosis continues to be a leading skin problem for consumers. We performed two 35-day studies to evaluate the ability of a variety of body moisturizers containing various levels of oils/lipids, humectants, as well as other ingredients (e.g., niacinamide) to improve stratum corneum integrity. 63 and 58 female subjects were enrolled and randomized in an incomplete block design to six of nine products (eight moisturizers or no treatment control) in studies 1 and 2, respectively. The primary endpoints included visual dryness by a qualified skin grader, skin hydration as measured by Corneometer, and barrier integrity as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The primary comparisons for the two niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers were to the other six moisturizers and to the no treatment control for each endpoint. The two niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers demonstrated an overall better solution towards rapid and prolonged improvement of cosmetic xerosis due to functional improvement of stratum corneum barrier function compared to no treatment and the other moisturizers tested. These studies establish the benefit of including niacinamide in a body moisturizer to improve the integrity of the stratum corneum and thus reduce cosmetic xerosis over time.

  19. Phosphatidylserine Lateral Organization Influences the Interaction of Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 1 with Lipid Membranes. (United States)

    Bobone, Sara; Hilsch, Malte; Storm, Julian; Dunsing, Valentin; Herrmann, Andreas; Chiantia, Salvatore


    not well understood. In this work, we show that phosphatidylserine can form lipid domains in physical models of the inner leaflet of the PM. Furthermore, the spatial organization of PS in the plane of the bilayer modulates M1-M1 interactions. Finally, we show that PS domains appear to be present in the PM of living cells and that M1 seems to display a high affinity for them. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Lipid extractions from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich and oleaginous Chlorella sp. biomasses by organic-nanoclays. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk; Farooq, Wasif; Chung, Jane; Han, Jong-In; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Jeong, Sang Hwa; Lee, Jin-Suk; Oh, You-Kwan; Park, Ji-Yeon


    Microalgae biorefinement has attracted in intensive academic and industrial interest worldwide for its potential to replace petrol biofuels as economically and environmentally advantageous alternatives. However, harvesting and lipid extraction remain as critical and difficult issues to be resolved. In the present study, four amino-groups functionalized organic-nano clays were prepared. Specifically, Mg or Al or Ca backboned and covalently linked with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyltrimethoxysilane by sol-gel reaction under ambient conditions, resulted in Mg-APTES clay, Al-APTES clay, Ca-APTES clay, and Mg-N3 clay, respectively. Each organic-nanoclay was utilized for lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass. As a result, the lipid-extraction efficiency of paste docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich Chlorella sp. with low lipid content was high, while one of paste oleaginous Chlorella sp. with high lipid content was relatively low. Despite the low lipid-extraction efficiencies in all of the wet microalgae biomass, the conversion of the extracted lipids' fatty acids to biodiesel was nearly 100%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...

  2. Lipid biomarkers and spectroscopic indices for identifying organic matter sources in aquatic environments: A review. (United States)

    Derrien, Morgane; Yang, Liyang; Hur, Jin


    Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) and the roles in global and local carbon cycles is challenging to the fields of environmental sciences and biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. Lipids, due to their ubiquitous presence and diagenetic and chemical stability, have long and successfully been used as molecular makers in assessing the sources and the fate of OM in natural environments. In parallel, optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been suggested as efficient tools in tracing OM sources. In this review, three representative lipid biomarkers and several common spectroscopic indices were compared for their capabilities to identify OM sources in various aquatic environments. Spectroscopic indices present various benefits in term of the high sensitivity, easy and rapid analysis, and a low cost, providing reliable information on major sources (i.e., autochthonous, allochthonous and anthropogenic) of DOM in given systems investigated. However, for further understanding the associated biogeochemistry (e.g., diagenetic changes in sources), using biomarkers is preferable due to their abilities to identify a wide spectrum of different sources simultaneously as well as their high resolution for mixed OM sources. Thus, a complementary use of both tools is highly recommended for accurately tracking OM sources and the dynamics in aquatic systems, particularly in a watershed affected by multiple sources. Nevertheless, future studies need to be carried out (1) to refine the accuracy of the source assignments in a wide range of settings along with the development of an extensive database encompassing various sources, environmental factors, and geographical locations and (2) to understand how biogeochemical processes reflect the biomarkers and the spectroscopic indices used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled penetration of ceramides into and across the stratum corneum using various types of microemulsions and formulation associated toxicity studies. (United States)

    Sahle, Fitsum F; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H


    Several skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are associated with the depletion or disturbance of stratum corneum (SC) lipids such as ceramides (CERs), free fatty acids and cholesterol. Studies suggested that replenishment of these lipids might help to treat diseased, affected or aged skin. With this premises in mind, there are some formulations in the market that contain SC lipids and currently, to facilitate permeation of the lipids deep into the SC, various CERs, and other SC lipid microemulsions (MEs) were developed and characterised using lecithin or TEGO® CARE PL 4 (TCPL4) as base surfactants. However, to date, there are no reports that involve the permeability of SC lipids into and across the SC, and therefore, the penetration of CER [NP] as a model ceramide from various formulations was investigated ex vivo using Franz diffusion cell. Besides, the toxicity of the MEs was assessed using hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM). The results of the study showed that CER [NP] could not permeate into deeper layers of the SC from a conventional hydrophilic cream. Unlike the cream, CER [NP] permeated into the deeper layers of the SC from both type of MEs, where permeation of the CER was more and into deeper layers from droplet type and lecithin-based MEs than bicontinuous (BC) type and TCPL4 based MEs, respectively. The CER also permeated into deeper layers from ME gels which was, however, shallow and to a lesser extent when compared with the MEs. The results of HET-CAM showed that both MEs are safe to be used topically, with lecithin-based MEs exhibiting better safety profiles than TCPL4 based MEs. Concluding, the study showed that the MEs are safe to be used on the skin for the controlled penetration of CER [NP] deep into the SC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The spectral stability of several sunscreening agents on stratum corneum sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Ris, A. J.; Hische, E. A.


    Synopsis Film layers of seventeen commercially available sunscreen products and sixteen active ingredients on stratum corneum sheets were spectrophotometrically monitored before and after simulated solar irradiation. Fixed irradiation doses were given within the daily terrestrial limits. From the

  5. Stratum corneum hydration : mode of action of moisturizers on a molecular level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caussin, Julia


    In this thesis, the mode of action of stratum corneum moisturizers is studied using a variety of techniques: cryo-scanning electron microscopy, freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  6. Lipid Vesicles for the Skin Delivery of Diclofenac: Cerosomes vs. Other Lipid Suspensions


    Anahita Fathi-Azarbayjani; Kai Xin Ng; Yew Weng Chan; Sui Yung Chan


    Purpose: Lipid suspensions as drug carriers, including conventional liposomes, ethosomes, transferosomes, proniosomes, niosomes, PEG-PPG-PEG niosomes and stratum corneum liposomes (cerosomes), were formulated and compared. Methods: Lipid vesicles were formulated and assessed with regards to enhancement of skin permeation of diclofenac and stability profiles of the formulations. Formulation-induced changes of the biophysical structure of excised human skin were monitored using the Fourier t...

  7. Comprehensive quantification of ceramide species in human stratum corneum. (United States)

    Masukawa, Yoshinori; Narita, Hirofumi; Sato, Hirayuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kondo, Naoki; Sugai, Yoshiya; Oba, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Rika; Ishikawa, Junko; Takagi, Yutaka; Kitahara, Takashi


    One of the key challenges in lipidomics is to quantify lipidomes of interest, as it is practically impossible to collect all authentic materials covering the targeted lipidomes. For diverse ceramides (CER) in human stratum corneum (SC) that play important physicochemical roles in the skin, we developed a novel method for quantification of the overall CER species by improving our previously reported profiling technique using normal-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (NPLC-ESI-MS). The use of simultaneous selected ion monitoring measurement of as many as 182 kinds of molecular-related ions enables the highly sensitive detection of the overall CER species, as they can be analyzed in only one SC-stripped tape as small as 5 mm x 10 mm. To comprehensively quantify CERs, including those not available as authentic species, we designed a procedure to estimate their levels using relative responses of representative authentic species covering the species targeted, considering the systematic error based on intra-/inter-day analyses. The CER levels obtained by this method were comparable to those determined by conventional thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which guarantees the validity of this method. This method opens lipidomics approaches for CERs in the SC.

  8. Degradation state of organic matter in surface sediments from the Southern Beaufort Sea: a lipid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Rontani


    Full Text Available For the next decades significant climatic changes should occur in the Arctic zone. The expected destabilisation of permafrost and its consequences for hydrology and plant cover should increase the input of terrigenous carbon to coastal seas. Consequently, the relative importance of the fluxes of terrestrial and marine organic carbon to the seafloor will likely change, strongly impacting the preservation of organic carbon in Arctic marine sediments. Here, we investigated the lipid content of surface sediments collected on the Mackenzie basin in the Beaufort Sea. Particular attention was given to biotic and abiotic degradation products of sterols and monounsaturated fatty acids. By using sitosterol and campesterol degradation products as tracers of the degradation of terrestrial higher plant inputs and brassicasterol degradation products as tracers of degradation of phytoplanktonic organisms, it could be observed that autoxidation, photooxidation and biodegradation processes act much more intensively on higher plant debris than on phytoplanktonic organisms. Examination of oxidation products of monounsaturated fatty acids showed that photo- and autoxidation processes act more intensively on bacteria than on phytodetritus. Enhanced damages induced by singlet oxygen (transferred from senescent phytoplanktonic cells in bacteria were attributed to the lack of an adapted antioxidant system in these microorganisms. The strong oxidative stress observed in the sampled sediments resulted in the production of significant amounts of epoxy acids and unusually high proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids with a trans double bond. The formation of epoxy acids was attributed to peroxygenases (enzymes playing a protective role against the deleterious effects of fatty acid hydroperoxides in vivo, while cis/trans isomerisation was probably induced by thiyl radicals produced during the reaction of thiols with hydroperoxides. Our results confirm the

  9. Imaging lipid lateral organization in membranes with C-laurdan in a confocal microscope. (United States)

    Dodes Traian, Martín M; González Flecha, F Luis; Levi, Valeria


    Lateral organization of biological membranes is frequently studied using fluorescence microscopy. One of the most widely used probes for these studies is 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene (laurdan). The fluorescence of this probe is sensitive to the environment polarity, and thus laurdan reports the local penetration of water when inserted in membranes. Unfortunately, this probe can only be used under two-photon excitation due to its low photostability. This is a very important limitation, because there are not too many laboratories with capability for two-photon microscopy. In this work, we explored the performance of 6-dodecanoyl-2-[N-methyl-N-(carboxymethyl)amino]naphthalene (C-laurdan), a carboxyl-modified version of laurdan, for imaging biological membranes using a conventional confocal microscopy setup. We acquired generalized polarization (GP) images of C-laurdan inserted in giant unillamelar vesicles composed of binary mixtures of lipids and verified that the probe allows observing the coexistence of different phases. We also tested the performance of the probe for measurement with living cells and registered GP images of melanophore cells labeled with C-laurdan in which we could observe highly ordered regions such as filopodia. These findings show that C-laurdan can be successfully employed for studies of membrane lateral organization using a conventional confocal microscope and can open the possibility of studying a wide variety of membrane-related processes.

  10. Imaging lipid lateral organization in membranes with C-laurdan in a confocal microscope[S (United States)

    Dodes Traian, Martín M.; Flecha, F. Luis González; Levi, Valeria


    Lateral organization of biological membranes is frequently studied using fluorescence microscopy. One of the most widely used probes for these studies is 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene (laurdan). The fluorescence of this probe is sensitive to the environment polarity, and thus laurdan reports the local penetration of water when inserted in membranes. Unfortunately, this probe can only be used under two-photon excitation due to its low photostability. This is a very important limitation, because there are not too many laboratories with capability for two-photon microscopy. In this work, we explored the performance of 6-dodecanoyl-2-[N-methyl-N-(carboxymethyl)amino]naphthalene (C-laurdan), a carboxyl-modified version of laurdan, for imaging biological membranes using a conventional confocal microscopy setup. We acquired generalized polarization (GP) images of C-laurdan inserted in giant unillamelar vesicles composed of binary mixtures of lipids and verified that the probe allows observing the coexistence of different phases. We also tested the performance of the probe for measurement with living cells and registered GP images of melanophore cells labeled with C-laurdan in which we could observe highly ordered regions such as filopodia. These findings show that C-laurdan can be successfully employed for studies of membrane lateral organization using a conventional confocal microscope and can open the possibility of studying a wide variety of membrane-related processes. PMID:22184757

  11. Influence of a Novel Dimeric Ceramide Molecule on the Nanostructure and Thermotropic Phase Behavior of a Stratum Corneum Model Mixture. (United States)

    Stahlberg, Sören; Eichner, Adina; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Kováčik, Andrej; Lange, Stefan; Schmitt, Thomas; Demé, Bruno; Hauß, Thomas; Dobner, Bodo; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Huster, Daniel


    The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of the skin and is composed of a multilayered assembly of mostly ceramids (Cer), free fatty acids, cholesterol (Chol), and cholesterol sulfate (Chol-S). Because of the tight packing of these lipids, the SC features unique barrier properties defending the skin from environmental influences. Under pathological conditions, where the skin barrier function is compromised, topical application of molecules that rigidify the SC may lead to a restored barrier function. To this end, molecules are required that incorporate into the SC and bring back the original rigidity of the skin barrier. Here, we investigated the influence of a novel dimeric ceramide (dim-Cer) molecule designed to feature a long, rigid hydrocarbon chain ideally suited to forming an orthorhombic lipid phase. The influence of this molecules on the thermotropic phase behavior of a SC mixture consisting of Cer[AP18] (55 wt %), cholesterol (Chol, 25 wt %), steric acid (SA, 15 wt %), and cholesterol sulfate (Chol-S, 5 wt %) was studied using a combination of neutron diffraction and 2H NMR spectroscopy. These methods provide detailed insights into the packing properties of the lipids in the SC model mixture. Dim-Cer remains in an all-trans state of the membrane-spanning lipid chain at all investigated temperatures, but the influence on the phase behavior of the other lipids in the mixture is marginal. Biophysical experiments are complemented by permeability measurements in model membranes and human skin. The latter, however, indicates that dim-Cer only partially provides the desired effect on membrane permeability, necessitating further optimization of its structure for medical applications.

  12. Interaction of lipid nanoparticles with human epidermis and an organotypic cell culture model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, Heike; Fahr, Alfred


    Various lipid nanoparticle formulations were investigated with respect to (trans)dermal drug delivery with special regard to the mechanism of their effects on human and an organotypic cell culture epidermis. Potential alterations of stratum corneum lipid domains were studied using fluorescence...... was visualized by fluorescence microscopy of cross sections of human epidermis after incubation with cubic and solid lipid nanoparticles. Corticosterone permeation was limited when applied in matrix-type lipid nanoparticles (fat emulsion, smectic and solid lipid nanoparticles). An adhesion of solid lipid...... nanoparticles was clearly observed in thermal analysis as reflected by additional phase transitions probably caused by the nanoparticle matrix lipid. However, as for the other matrix-type nanoparticles, no distinct alterations of the phase transitions of the stratum corneum lipids were observed. Cubic...

  13. Organization of lipids in the tear film: a molecular-level view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wizert

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film.

  14. Organization of Lipids in the Tear Film: A Molecular-Level View (United States)

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D. Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz


    Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film. PMID:24651175

  15. Structural characterization and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Sørensen, Jens A


    , evaluation of Nile red and LAURDAN generalized polarization function images of the cholesteatoma show intercellular regions similar to normal skin stratum corneum in terms of lipid membrane packing and local water content. CONCLUSION: The investigations show the presence of an extremely thickened stratum...... is a suitable noninvasive tool for investigating the morphology and intrinsic physical properties of acquired cholesteatoma....


    This work compares the ability of hexane and chloroform with methanol (C/M) to extract lipid, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and p,p'-DDE from white croaker (Geneonus lineatus) muscle tissue. Hexane extracted on average 25% of the lipid and 73% of the PCB congeners that were e...

  17. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Yi, L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.


    In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted

  18. Effect of detergents on the physico-chemical properties of skin stratum corneum: A two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Pashkovski, Eugene


    OBJECTIVE: Understanding the structural and dynamical features of skin is critical for advancing innovation in personal care and drug discovery. Synthetic detergent mixtures used in commercially available body wash products are thought to be less aggressive towards the skin barrier when compared...... to conventional detergents. The aim of this work is to comparatively characterize the effect of a mild synthetic cleanser mixture (SCM) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the hydration state of the intercellular lipid matrix and on proton activity of excised skin stratum corneum (SC). METHOD: Experiments were...... performed using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent images of fluorescence reporters sensitive to proton activity and hydration of SC were obtained in excised skin and examined in presence and absence of SCM and SDS detergents. RESULTS: Hydration of the intercellular lipid matrix...

  19. Transdermal delivery of molecules is limited by full epidermis, not just stratum corneum. (United States)

    Andrews, Samantha N; Jeong, Eunhye; Prausnitz, Mark R


    Most methods to increase transdermal drug delivery focus on increasing stratum corneum permeability, without addressing the need to increase permeability of viable epidermis. Here, we assess the hypothesis that viable epidermis offers a significant permeability barrier that becomes rate limiting upon sufficient permeabilization of stratum corneum. We tested this hypothesis by using calibrated microdermabrasion to selectively remove stratum corneum or full epidermis in pig and human skin, and then measuring skin permeability to a small molecule (sulforhodamine) and macromolecules (bovine serum albumin, insulin, inactivated influenza vaccine) in vitro. We found that removal of stratum corneum dramatically increased skin permeability to all compounds tested. However, removal of full epidermis increased skin permeability by another 1-2 orders of magnitude. We also studied the effects of removing skin tissue only from localized spots on the skin surface by covering skin with a mask containing 125-μm holes during tissue removal. Skin permeabilized in this less-invasive way showed similar results. This suggests that microdermabrasion of skin using a mask may provide an effective way to increase skin permeability. We conclude that viable epidermis offers a significant permeability barrier that becomes rate limiting upon removal of stratum corneum.

  20. Molecular and structural organization of lipids in foods: their fate during digestion and impact in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynier Anne


    Full Text Available Lipids are basic constituents of our diet. They play an active part in the acceptability, flavour and perception of our foods. At the same time, they are also regarded as beneficial for health or as sources to various pathologies. Until now, the nutritional impact of the various dietary lipid structures beyond the amounts of ingested lipids and selected fatty acids has been marginally taken into account in nutritional studies and thus in food application. This review gathers first our current knowledge on the diversity of molecular and supramolecular structures of dietary lipids, and then based on the scientific studies carried out on the human model, tempts to sum up the current knowledge and the latest hypotheses concerning the metabolic and nutritional effects of these multiscale structures. It is shown that the perception of lipids in the mouth during oral processing modulates the production of digestive fluids and food intake. Then, during the stomach and intestine phases of lipid digestion, the kinetics of release of the fatty acids are modulated by the multiscale structures of lipids influencing the fatty acid bioaccessibility and rate of absorption. In turn this may impair the post-absorption metabolism and nutritional effects. Future trends of research are evoked as concluding remarks.

  1. Stratum corneum lipids, skin barrier function and filaggrin mutations in patients with atopic eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars; Jungersted, JM


    Background: Prior to the discovery of filaggrin (FLG) mutations, evidence for an impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been documented, and changes in ceramide profile, altered skin pH and increased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with AD have been reported. Until now,...

  2. Regional differences in stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants. Quantitative assessment using the corneosurfametry bioassay. (United States)

    Henry, F; Goffin, V; Maibach, H I; Piérard, G E


    The skin does not react similarly to the presence of xenobiotics over all anatomic sites. Distinct regional differences have been described for irritancy and percutaneous absorption. The present study assesses the regional variation of stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants using the corneosurfametry bioassay. Stratum corneum was harvested from 6 body sites in 20 young adults. Corneosurfametry was performed using water, 1% SLS and a 5% soap solution. Data show that the best variable to assess regional variability in irritancy is the overall difference in corneosurfametry (ODC), comparing the effect of a given surfactant with water. The dorsal hand and volar forearm were the least reactive, the neck, forehead, back and dorsal foot the most reactive, sites. It is concluded that the corneosurfametry bioassay, through the ODC variable, is a practically noninvasive tool for the evaluation of regional variation in irritancy at the level of the stratum corneum.

  3. The effect of protein and lipid source in organic feed for (organic) rainbow trout on sensory quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    of vegetable protein. While the lipid sources were fish, linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed oil. After slaughtering all fish were frozen (-40°C) until the sensory experiment was performed, for which the trout were thawed and stored for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in ice respectively. The sensory experiment...... and texture. After 3 days of storage in ice an impact of lipid source is seen. Inclusion of linseed oil resulted in a sensory profile comparable to the use of fish oil in the feed. While some of the other vegetable oils, especially grape seed oil results in a sensory profile rather different from the trout......-life is increased by feeding the fish with vegetable protein compared to fish meal. The conclusion of the experiment therefore was that both dietary vegetable protein and lipid sources can influence on sensory characteristics of trout stored in ice....

  4. Topical retinol and the stratum corneum response to an environmental threat. (United States)

    Goffin, V; Henry, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E


    The functional consequences of using topical retinol on skin have not been thoroughly studied so far. The aim of this open study was to compare two preparations containing either retinol or vitamin E, using biometric evaluations. Three methods, namely the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) corneosurfametry bioassay, the ultraviolet (UV) squamometry test and optical profilometry of the UV-induced wrinkling process, were used to assess some properties of the stratum corneum. The retinol preparation achieved better scores than the vitamin-E cream in all three tests and appears to improve the resistance of the stratum corneum against some chemical (SLS) and physical (UV) threats. It also limits UV-induced shallow wrinkling.

  5. Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman. (United States)

    Lee, C; Fike, D A; Love, G D; Sessions, A L; Grotzinger, J P; Summons, R E; Fischer, W W


    The largest recorded carbon isotopic excursion in Earth history is observed globally in carbonate rocks of middle Ediacaran age. Known from the Sultanate of Oman as the 'Shuram excursion', this event records a dramatic, systematic shift in δ(13) Ccarbonate values to ca. -12‰. Attempts to explain the nature, magnitude and origin of this excursion include (i) a primary signal resulting from the protracted oxidation of a large dissolved organic carbon reservoir in seawater, release of methane from sediment-hosted clathrates, or water column stratification; and (ii) a secondary signal from diagenetic processes. The compositions and isotope ratios of organic carbon phases during the excursion are critical to evaluating these ideas; however, previous work has focused on localities that are low in organic carbon, hindering straightforward interpretation of the observed time-series trends. We report carbon isotope data from bulk organic carbon, extracted bitumen and kerogen, in addition to lipid biomarker data, from a subsurface well drilled on the eastern flank of the South Oman Salt Basin, Sultanate of Oman. This section captures Nafun Group strata through the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary in the Ara Group and includes an organic-rich, deeper-water facies of the Shuram Formation. Despite the high organic matter contents, the carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates - which record a negative δ(13) C isotope excursion similar in shape and magnitude to sections elsewhere in Oman - do not covary with those of organic phases (bulk TOC, bitumen and kerogen). Paired inorganic and organic δ(13) C data only display coupled behaviour during the latter part of the excursion's recovery. Furthermore, lipid biomarker data reveal that organic matter composition and source inputs varied stratigraphically, reflecting biological community shifts in non-migrated, syngenetic organic matter deposited during this interval. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Microbial lipid remnants within sulfide chimneys reveal organic matter transport in seafloor hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Reeves, E.; Goldenstein, N. I.; Yoshinaga, M. Y.; Pjevac, P.; Bach, W.; Hinrichs, K.


    Several investigations have detected enigmatic evidence for microbial life in high-temperature (>150°C) interiors of hydrothermal vent ';chimney' structures - habitats much hotter than the known temperature limit of life. It is unclear whether these findings reflect fluid ingress after collection, cross-contamination with exterior microbial biomass, or genuine natural phenomena. While the abundant microbial biomass on the exteriors of vent edifices has been more commonly characterized, the origin of biomolecules inside these structures is poorly understood. In this study, we used a novel ';clean' sampling approach to investigate these interior regions in both a moderate temperature ';diffuser' and an inactive ';smoker' chimney structure from the Manus Basin, and use microbial DNA- and detailed lipid-based characterization to elucidate provenances. Mineralogical analysis using scanning-electron- and reflected-light-microscopy suggests vent fluid temperatures of up to ~200°C for the diffuser and >200°C during previous venting of the inactive chimney. No DNA could be amplified from any interior samples and cell membrane intact polar lipids were only recovered from the outer surfaces of the structures, precluding the possibility of active microbial communities in interior regions of either. Free fatty acids from bacteria, however, were abundant in the inactive chimney, including the previously high temperature interior, suggesting possible microbial colonization of the interior or inward transport of biomass during waning of fluid flow. Free fatty acids were not detected in the interior of the active diffuser chimney, consistent with uninhabitable temperatures for microbes and outward fluid flow. In contrast to fatty acids, archaeal core diether and tetraether lipid remnants with distinctive provenances were present in interior and exterior samples from both structures. Principal component analysis (PCA) of these mixtures reveals gradients in their distribution

  7. Comparative investigations on the water content of the stratum corneum using different methods of measurement. (United States)

    Triebskorn, A; Gloor, M; Greiner, F


    Measurements of the water content of the stratum corneum were made on the flexor side of the forearm in healthy male volunteers using direct current resistance and alternating current (1.5 and 15 kHz) electric impedance measurements, capacity measurements and measurements of transepidermal water loss. In addition, infrared-spectroscopic investigations were made using a Frustrated Multiple Internal Reflection device on unstripped skin, then on the same skin area after five and ten strippings with adhesive tape. The tests showed (except for the measurements of transepidermal water loss) all of the aforementioned test methods led to relevant measurement values. While the direct current electrical resistance measurement yielded data on the water content of the most superficial layer of the stratum corneum, it was found that the capacitor measurements gave results from the deep layers of the stratum corneum. With the alternating current impedance measurement method, both superficial and deep layers of the stratum corneum were taken into account. Comparative measurements of direct current resistance and infrared absorption after occlusion treatment revealed that under certain circumstances using both methods can lead to contradictory results.

  8. Modulation of human stratum corneum properties by salicylic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid. (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Piérard, G E


    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to decrease the in vivo skin response to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The converse was also shown with a synergistic effect of RA following prior applications of SLS. The reason for such effects is not clear. We employed measures of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), squamometry and sequential corneosurfametry to explore the protective activity of a 0.05% RA cream at the level of the stratum corneum. Nonionic oil-in-water emulsions with or without 5% salicylic acid (SA) served as test product references. Data indicated that the RA formulation was responsible for a stochastic impairment in the TEWL and for an increased intercorneocyte cohesion. SA and the unmedicated emulsion did not lead to similar TEWL changes. The squamometry test proved to be very sensitive to disclose the effects of SA and RA without, however, allowing to distinguish the difference in the physiological processes involved. The corneosurfametry bioassay did not show any protection or synergistic effect between RA or SA and SLS challenge on the stratum corneum. This is in contrast to a previous work showing a positive protective effect afforded by retinol against SLS. The combined effects of irritant compounds affecting the stratum corneum are complex. The precise reason for some of their biological consequences remains a conundrum. On balance, products such as SA and RA do not appear to afford protection or impairment to a surfactant challenge at the level of the stratum corneum.

  9. Determining equilibrium partition coefficients between lipid/protein and polydimethylsiloxane for highly hydrophobic organic contaminants using preloaded disks. (United States)

    Pei, Yuanyuan; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing


    Bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is of great concern and understanding their partitioning to biological phases is crucial for estimating their bioaccumulation potential. The estimation, however, was of large uncertainty for highly hydrophobic organic contaminants (HHOCs) with log KOW>9 due to the challenge of quantifying their water concentrations. In the present study, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and storage lipid (KSL,PDMS), membrane lipid (KML,PDMS) and protein (Kpro,PDMS) were measured for 21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), covering log KOW from 5.07 to 11.6, using a preloaded PDMS depletion method. The values of KSL,PDMS, KML,PDMS and Kpro,PDMS were in the ranges of 5.36-52.5, 0.286-11.8 and 0.067-2.62g/g, respectively, being relatively constant although their KOW values extend more than six orders of magnitude. The relative sorption capacity of the biological phases showed storage lipid was the dominant sorption phase in biota, followed by membrane lipid and protein was the lowest. The KPDMS,pro values of the compounds with log KOW<9 were similar (0.382-14.9g/g) regardless of the thickness of preloaded PDMS disks (58-209μm). For HHOCs, however, KPDMS,pro values dropped when thinner PDMS disks were used, as a result of slow diffusion of HHOCs in PDMS. The KPDMS,pro values of HHOCs measured by 58-μm PDMS disks ranged from 1.78 to 6.85g/g, which was consistent with compounds with log KOW<9. This validated that partition coefficients between PDMS and biological phases were independent of chemical hydrophobicity, showing the advantage of using PDMS-based methods to directly estimate bioaccumulation potential of HHOCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conformations and membrane-driven self-organization of rodlike fd virus particles on freestanding lipid membranes. (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasiia B; Herold, Christoph; Petrov, Eugene P


    Membrane-mediated interactions and aggregation of colloidal particles adsorbed to responsive elastic membranes are challenging problems relevant for understanding the microscopic organization and dynamics of biological membranes. We experimentally study the behavior of rodlike semiflexible fd virus particles electrostatically adsorbed to freestanding cationic lipid membranes and find that their behavior can be controlled by tuning the membrane charge and ionic strength of the surrounding medium. Three distinct interaction regimes of rodlike virus particles with responsive elastic membranes can be observed. (i) A weakly charged freestanding cationic lipid bilayer in a low ionic strength medium represents a gentle quasi-2D substrate preserving the integrity, structure, and mechanical properties of the membrane-bound semiflexible fd virus, which under these conditions is characterized by a monomer length of 884 ± 4 nm and a persistence length of 2.5 ± 0.2 μm, in perfect agreement with its properties in bulk media. (ii) An increase in the membrane charge leads to the membrane-driven collapse of fd virus particles on freestanding lipid bilayers and lipid nanotubes into compact globules. (iii) When the membrane charge is low, and the mutual electrostatic repulsion of membrane-bound virus particles is screened to a considerable degree, membrane-driven self-organization of membrane-bound fd virus particles into long linear tip-to-tip aggregates showing dynamic self-assembly/disassembly and quasi-semiflexible behavior takes place. These observations are in perfect agreement with the results of recent theoretical and simulation studies predicting that membrane-mediated interactions can control the behavior of colloidal particles adsorbed on responsive elastic membranes.

  11. Human imprint on archaeological anthroposols: first assessment of combined micromophological, pedological and lipid biomarkers analyses of organic matter (United States)

    Cammas, Cécilia; Thuy Nguyen Tu, Thanh; Plessis, Marion; Clotuche, Raphaël; Derenne, Sylvie


    Archaeological anthroposol matrix contains significant amounts of fine organic matter (OM), which can give archaeological information. Geoarchaeological studies of OM aim to reveal its origin in order to reconstruct past human activities. Such studies are complex because the nature and the abundance of OM is the result of human activities together with natural processes. Also, MO evolves over time, a process that is not well understood. Combination of complementary approaches may give further insights into human imprint on archaeological anthroposols. For example, micromorphology gives data on in situ activities and pedological processes with the result that components of animal and vegetal origin can be identified but not some amorphous / fibrous material and very fine residues (pedo-sedimentary history and OM preservation. Two tanning pits in urban craft areas were selected for sampling, as they are likely to contain large amounts of organic matter of vegetal and animal origin. The pit of Saint-Denis (SDN, 10 km at the north of Paris, calcareous alluvium, 13th cAD) was a reference tanning pit. The pit of Famars (FAM, near the Belgian border, luvisols, Roman period) was hypothesized to be a part of the tanning process. To assess preservation of organic components and molecules in relation with pedo-sedimentary context and their potential as biomarkers of human activities, methodology combined micromorphology, pedological analysis (C, N, LOI, P total, organic and inorganic phosphorus) and lipid analysis by GC/MS, lipids having a high preservation potential and containing biomarkers indicative of OM origin. Micromorphological study showed a high amount and diversity of organic components in the two pits. At the SDN pit, the interpretation of tanning (liming) was supported by the presence of scarce fragments of lime with calcitic hairs pseudomorphoses. Plant remains and bone fragments were identified, but red fibrous and yellow amorphous material were not. At the FAM

  12. Cutaneous water loss and the development of the stratum corneum of nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from desert and mesic environments. (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B


    Evaporation through the skin contributes to more than half of the total water loss in birds. Therefore, we expect the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL) to be crucial for birds, especially those that live in deserts, to maintain a normal state of hydration. Previous studies in adult birds showed that modifications of the lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, were associated with changes in rates of CWL. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of CWL and the lipids of the SC in nestling birds. In this study, we measured CWL and the lipid composition of the SC during development of nestlings from two populations of house sparrows, one from the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other from mesic Ohio. We found that desert and mesic nestlings followed different developmental trajectories for CWL. Desert nestlings seemed to make a more frugal use of water than did mesic nestlings. To regulate CWL, nestlings appeared to modify the lipid composition of the SC during ontogeny. Our results also suggest a tighter regulation of CWL in desert nestlings, presumably as a result of the stronger selection pressures to which nestlings are exposed in deserts.

  13. Effect of long-term administration of sildenafil on lipid profile and organ functions in hyperlipidemic rats. (United States)

    El-Mahmoudy, Abubakr M; Shousha, Saad M; Abdel-Maksoud, Hussein; Abouzaid, Omayma


    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the possible biochemical alterations in lipid metabolic profile and organ function profiles that may result from continuous treatment with the drug, sildenafil in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. Blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis on days 30, 45 and 60 of the experiment. Sildenafil (5.625 mg/kg) significantly decreased the serum lipid parameters including total lipid, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C concentrations of rats fed on fat-enriched diet. However, it increased their values in serum of negative control rats. In addition, administration of sildenafil to normal rats caused insignificant changes in serum liver enzymes ALT and AST concentrations all over the period of the experiment; as well as serum urea and creatinine; yet, it significantly decreased their serum concentrations in animals fed on fat-enriched diet compared to the +ve untreated ones, upon its administration starting from the 30th day of the experiment.However, concurrent administration of sildenafil with highfat diet (group-iv) failed to guard against the rise in such liver and kidney function biomarkers. These data suggest that sildenafil may act as a mixed blessing drug; therefore it must be used carefully and under physician supervision to get its therapeutic benefits and guard against its adverse effects.

  14. Phytosphingosine, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine ceramides in model skin lipid membranes: permeability and biophysics. (United States)

    Školová, Barbora; Kováčik, Andrej; Tesař, Ondřej; Opálka, Lukáš; Vávrová, Kateřina


    Ceramides based on phytosphingosine, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine are essential constituents of the skin lipid barrier that protects the body from excessive water loss. The roles of the individual ceramide subclasses in regulating skin permeability and the reasons for C4-hydroxylation of these sphingolipids are not completely understood. We investigated the chain length-dependent effects of dihydroceramides, sphingosine ceramides (with C4-unsaturation) and phytoceramides (with C4-hydroxyl) on the permeability, lipid organization and thermotropic behavior of model stratum corneum lipid membranes composed of ceramide/lignoceric acid/cholesterol/cholesteryl sulfate. Phytoceramides with very long C24 acyl chains increased the permeability of the model lipid membranes compared to dihydroceramides or sphingosine ceramides with the same chain lengths. Either unsaturation or C4-hydroxylation of dihydroceramides induced chain length-dependent increases in membrane permeability. Infrared spectroscopy showed that C4-hydroxylation of the sphingoid base decreased the relative ratio of orthorhombic chain packing in the membrane and lowered the miscibility of C24 phytoceramide with lignoceric acid. The phase separation in phytoceramide membranes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. In contrast, phytoceramides formed strong hydrogen bonds and highly thermostable domains. Thus, the large heterogeneity in ceramide structures and in their aggregation mechanisms may confer resistance towards the heterogeneous external stressors that are constantly faced by the skin barrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bridging the gap between cell biology and organic chemistry: chemical synthesis and biological application of lipidated peptides and proteins. (United States)

    Peters, Carsten; Wagner, Melanie; Völkert, Martin; Waldmann, Herbert


    We have developed a basic concept for studying cell biological phenomena using an interdisciplinary approach starting from organic chemistry. Based on structural information available for a given biological phenomenon, unsolved chemical problems are identified. For their solution, new synthetic pathways and methods are developed, which reflect the state of the art in synthesising lipidated peptide conjugates. These compounds are used as molecular probes for the investigation of biological phenomena that involve both the determination of biophysical properties and cell biological studies. The interplay between organic synthesis, biophysics and cell biology in the study of protein lipidation may open up new and alternative opportunities to gain knowledge about the biological phenomenon that could not be obtained by employing biological techniques alone. This fruitful combination is highlighted using the Ras protein as an outstanding example. Included herein is: the development of methods for the synthesis of Ras-derived peptides and fully functional Ras proteins, the determination of the biophysical properties, in particular the ability to bind to model membranes, and finally the use of synthetic Ras peptides and proteins in cell biological experiments.

  16. Lipid Vesicles for the Skin Delivery of Diclofenac: Cerosomes vs. Other Lipid Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Fathi-Azarbayjani


    Full Text Available Purpose: Lipid suspensions as drug carriers, including conventional liposomes, ethosomes, transferosomes, proniosomes, niosomes, PEG-PPG-PEG niosomes and stratum corneum liposomes (cerosomes, were formulated and compared. Methods: Lipid vesicles were formulated and assessed with regards to enhancement of skin permeation of diclofenac and stability profiles of the formulations. Formulation-induced changes of the biophysical structure of excised human skin were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: The stability profiles of these suspensions over 12 weeks did not show any significant drug leakage from the vesicles of interest (p > 0.05. FTIR observations indicated that the vesicles increased stratum corneum (SC lipid fluidization and altered protein conformation. Skin permeability experiments showed that the free unencapsulated drug in the cerosomal formulations caused significant increase in drug permeation across the skin (p < 0.01. Low skin permeability of drug from the other lipid suspensions could be due to the entrapment of diclofenac within these vesicles which decreased the solubility of the hydrophilic drug in the skin lipids and the partition coefficient of the drug from these vesicles into the SC. Conclusion: Optimal drug entrapment in vesicles or alteration of the skin structure may not necessarily enhance the permeation of hydrophilic drugs across the human skin. These lipid vesicles may be further developed into carriers of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for topical and transdermal delivery, respectively.

  17. A novel and organic solvent-free preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles using natural biopolymers as emulsifier and stabilizer. (United States)

    Xue, Jingyi; Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Luo, Yangchao


    In this work, a new and novel organic solvent-free and synthetic surfactant-free method was reported to fabricate stable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) from stearic acid, sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin, as well as water. Melted stearic acid was directly emulsified into an aqueous phase containing NaCas and pectin, followed by pH adjustment and thermal treatment to induce the formation of a compact and dense polymeric coating which stabilized SLNs. The preparation procedures and formulations were comprehensively optimized. The inter- and intra-molecular interactions among three ingredients were characterized by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The stability of as-prepared SLNs was evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and compared with traditional SLNs prepared with organic solvents. Our results revealed that the SLNs prepared from this organic solvent-free method had superior physicochemical properties over the traditional SLNs, including smaller size and better stability. Furthermore, redispersible SLNs powders were obtained by nano spray drying, but only the SLNs prepared by organic solvent-free method had sub-micron scale, uniform and spherical morphology. The organic solvent-free preparation method was proved to be a promising approach to prepare stable and uniform SLNs for potential oral delivery applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Postsedimentary incorporated root and rhizomicrobial remains influence composition of loess organic matter - an approach based on lipid molecular proxies (United States)

    Gocke, M.; Wiesenberg, G. L. B.


    Organic carbon (Corg) in loess-paleosol sequences is frequently used to study paleovegetation and paleoenvironmental change during Quaternary, assuming that loess organic matter derived from aboveground biomass of synsedimentary vegetation. Contrary to this traditional hypothesis, recent studies showed that postsedimentary deep-rooting plants can contribute considerable amounts of organic matter (OM) to the subsoil via roots and associated microbial biomass. This becomes evident when regarding rhizoliths, a special type of pedogenic carbonates formed by encrustation of roots with secondary CaCO3. The carbonate crust led to preservation of former root tissue, allowing assessment of rhizosphere processes and OM accumulated during the root's lifetime. We hypothesized that rhizosphere effects in loess-paleosol sequences can be quantified at a molecular level. At the late Pleistocene Nussloch section, rhizoliths occur locally abundant. Several transects, comprising rhizoliths, surrounding loess (rhizoloess) up to a distance of 10 cm from rhizoliths, and root-free reference loess, were sampled between 1 and 13 m depth and analysed for their C, n-alkane and fatty acid composition. These lipid fractions are frequently used to assess and quantify OM remains in sediments because of their relative recalcitrance. Rather uniform lipid composition in reference loess indicated its origin from grass aboveground biomass. In contrast, lipid composition of rhizoliths showed strong variation with depth, impeding a general source attribution of rhizoliths. However, several proxies including C27 as most abundant long chain n-alkane in some rhizoliths, as well as low values of average chain length and carbon perference index, indicated that rhizoliths were formed around roots of shrubs or trees. First results indicated that the former rhizosphere extended up to several cm from preserved rhizoliths. High variation in rhizolith abundance (up to 190 m-2) and size (mm to 5 cm in diameter

  19. Interlamellar Organization of Phase Separated Domains in Multi-Component Lipid Multilayers: Energetic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoosh Vashaee


    Full Text Available A recent experimental study [1] has demonstrated the alignment of phase separated domains across hundreds of bilayer units in multicomponent stacked lipid bilayers. The origin of this alignment is the interlamellar coupling of laterally phase separated domains. Here, we develop a theoretical model that presents the energetics description of this phenomenon based on the minimization of the free energy of the system. Specifically, we use solution theory to estimate the competition between energy and entropy in different stacking configurations. The model furnishes an elemental phase diagram, which maps the domain distributions in terms of the strength of the intra- and inter-layer interactions and estimates the value of inter-layer coupling for complete alignment of domains in the stacks of five and ten bilayers. The area fraction occupied by co-existing phases was calculated for the system of the minimum free energy, which showed a good agreement with experimental observations.

  20. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid. (United States)

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. High-throughput screening of Australian marine organism extracts for bioactive molecules affecting the cellular storage of neutral lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rae

    Full Text Available Mammalian cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids in specialised organelles called lipid droplets (LDs. Using a simple cell-based assay and open-source software we established a high throughput screen for LD formation in A431 cells in order to identify small bioactive molecules affecting lipid storage. Screening an n-butanol extract library from Australian marine organisms we identified 114 extracts that produced either an increase or a decrease in LD formation in fatty acid-treated A431 cells with varying degrees of cytotoxicity. We selected for further analysis a non-cytotoxic extract derived from the genus Spongia (Heterofibria. Solvent partitioning, HPLC fractionation and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS identified a family of related molecules within this extract with unique structural features, a subset of which reduced LD formation. We selected one of these molecules, heterofibrin A1, for more detailed cellular analysis. Inhibition of LD biogenesis by heterofibrin A1 was observed in both A431 cells and AML12 hepatocytes. The activity of heterofibrin A1 was dose dependent with 20 µM inhibiting LD formation and triglyceride accumulation by ∼50% in the presence of 50 µM oleic acid. Using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue we found that heterofibrin A1 significantly reduces the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids and results in the formation of distinct fatty acid metabolites in both cultured cells and in embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. In summary we have shown using readily accessible software and a relatively simple assay system that we can identify and isolate bioactive molecules from marine extracts, which affect the formation of LDs and the metabolism of fatty acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Lipid Vesicles for the Skin Delivery of Diclofenac: Cerosomes vs. Other Lipid Suspensions (United States)

    Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita; Ng, Kai Xin; Chan, Yew Weng; Chan, Sui Yung


    Purpose: Lipid suspensions as drug carriers, including conventional liposomes, ethosomes, transferosomes, proniosomes, niosomes, PEG-PPG-PEG niosomes and stratum corneum liposomes (cerosomes), were formulated and compared. Methods: Lipid vesicles were formulated and assessed with regards to enhancement of skin permeation of diclofenac and stability profiles of the formulations. Formulation-induced changes of the biophysical structure of excised human skin were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: The stability profiles of these suspensions over 12 weeks did not show any significant drug leakage from the vesicles of interest (p > 0.05). FTIR observations indicated that the vesicles increased stratum corneum (SC) lipid fluidization and altered protein conformation. Skin permeability experiments showed that the free unencapsulated drug in the cerosomal formulations caused significant increase in drug permeation across the skin (p hydrophilic drug in the skin lipids and the partition coefficient of the drug from these vesicles into the SC. Conclusion: Optimal drug entrapment in vesicles or alteration of the skin structure may not necessarily enhance the permeation of hydrophilic drugs across the human skin. These lipid vesicles may be further developed into carriers of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for topical and transdermal delivery, respectively. PMID:25789216

  3. Profile and quantification of human stratum corneum ceramides by normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled with dynamic multiple reaction monitoring of mass spectrometry: development of targeted lipidomic method and application to human stratum corneum of different age groups. (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Shen, Chun-Ping; Ma, Lin


    Skin, the largest organ of the human body, serves as the primary barrier to the external environment. Ceramides are one of the main constituents of stratum corneum (SC), playing an important role in skin barrier function. Therefore, comprehensive profiling and quantification of SC ceramide is important. Herein, a new targeted lipidomic method for human SC ceramide profiling and quantification is presented and tested. Normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (NP-HPLC-dMRM-MS) was used to separate ceramides into subclasses and then characterize different ceramides within each subclass on the basis of their characteristics. In total, 483 ceramides were quantified in a single run within 20 min, covering 12 subclasses as well as some glycosylated ceramides not previously reported. Each subclass had typical standard substances (if available) that served to establish representative standard curves and were used for related substances with no standards. Linearity range, limit of quantification (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), precision, accuracy, stability, and matrix effects were validated. dMRM increased sensitivity and accuracy greatly compared with common MRM (cMRM). This method was successfully applied to the study of human SC from different age groups. A total of 193 potential biomarkers were found to indicate age differences between children and adults. This method is an innovative approach for high-throughput quantification of SC ceramide. Graphical Abstract Method establishment (MRM spectra by the established method) and method application (score scatter plots of authentic samples).

  4. Lipid microencapsulation allows slow release of organic acids and natural identical flavors along the swine intestine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piva, A; Pizzamiglio, V; Morlacchini, M; Tedeschi, M; Piva, G


    ... Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29100 Piacenza, Italy 3 Corresponding author: andrea.piva{at} The purpose of the present work was to investigate the in vivo concentrations of sorbic acid and vanillin as markers of the fate of organic acids (OA...

  5. Lipid-mediated Wnt protein stabilization enables serum-free culture of human organ stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tüysüz, Nesrin; van Bloois, Louis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839183; van den Brink, Stieneke; Begthel, Harry; Verstegen, Monique M A; Cruz, Luis J; Hui, Lijian; van der Laan, Luc J W; de Jonge, Jeroen; Vries, Robert; Braakman, Eric; Mastrobattista, Enrico|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/228061105; Cornelissen, Jan J; Clevers, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07164282X; Ten Berge, Derk


    Wnt signalling proteins are essential for culture of human organ stem cells in organoids, but most Wnt protein formulations are poorly active in serum-free media. Here we show that purified Wnt3a protein is ineffective because it rapidly loses activity in culture media due to its hydrophobic nature,

  6. Partitioning of hydrophobic organic contaminants between polymer and lipids for two silicones and low density polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedes, F.; Rusina, T.P.; Beeltje, H.; Mayer, P.


    Polymers are increasingly used for passive sampling of neutral hydrophobic organic substances (HOC) in environmental media including water, air, soil, sediment and even biological tissue. The equilibrium concentration of HOC in the polymer can be measured and then converted into equilibrium

  7. Partitioning of hydrophobic organic contaminants between polymer and lipids for two silicones and low density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedes, Foppe; Rusina, Tatsiana P.; Beeltje, Henry


    Polymers are increasingly used for passive sampling of neutral hydrophobic organic substances (HOC) in environmental media including water, air, soil, sediment and even biological tissue. The equilibrium concentration of HOC in the polymer can be measured and then converted into equilibrium...... for a thermodynamically sound risk assessment of HOC contained in microplastics....

  8. Self-Organization of Quantum Rods Induced by Lipid Membrane Corrugations. (United States)

    Bizien, Thomas; Ameline, Jean-Claude; Yager, Kevin G; Marchi, Valérie; Artzner, Franck


    Self-organization of fluorescent nanoparticles, using biological molecules such as phospholipids to control assembly distances, is a promising method for creating hybrid nanostructures. We report here the formation of hybrid condensed phases made of anisotropic nanoparticles and phospholipids. Such structure formation is driven by electrostatic interaction between the nanoparticles and the phospholipids, and results in the formation of a 2D rectangular liquid crystal, as confirmed by high-resolution Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Moreover, we show that the fluorescent properties of the NPs are not modified by the self-assembly process.

  9. Differences between Lipids Extracted from Five Species Are Not Sufficient To Explain Biomagnification of Nonpolar Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Holmbäck, Jan; Andersson, Rina Argelia


    headspace from spiked olive oil to determine their sorptive capacities. Lipids from seal blubber and pork bacon solely composed of triglycerides had capacities similar to that of olive oil; lipids from mussels, herring, and guillemot egg had quantifiable fractions of phospholipids and cholesterol and showed...... capacities reduced by factors of up to 2.3-fold. Generally, the sorptive capacities of the lipids were not elevated relative to the olive oil controls and are unlikely to explain a substantial part of biomagnification....

  10. Epiphytic flora on Gelidium corneum (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales in relation to wave exposure and depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endika Quintano


    Full Text Available The canopy-forming macroalga Gelidium corneum (Hudson J.V. Lamouroux plays a major role in the functioning of the subtidal ecosystem of the Cantabrian Sea (northern Spain. Despite its importance, little is known about the factors that may potentially affect the distribution pattern of its epiphytic flora. Here we examine two indirect factors: coastal orientation (N and NW and depth (3 and 7 m, as proxies for wave exposure and light availability, respectively. We test their effects on the total epiphytic load, alpha diversity (species richness, Shannon, Simpson and evenness measures and multivariate structure of the epiphytic flora growing on G. corneum in subtidal waters off the Basque coast. Plocamium cartilagineum, Dictyota dichotoma and Acrosorium ciliolatum were found to be the most common epiphytes. Significant interactive effect of coastal orientation and depth were observed for species composition and abundance of epiphytic flora. Increased wave exposure resulted in a lower epiphyte load and a less diverse community, suggesting that under high hydrodynamic conditions epiphytes were more likely to become dislodged from hosts. However, light availability only had a significant effect on the distribution of epiphytes below a certain threshold of wave action, with the epiphytic load being 30-40% greater on shallow bottoms.

  11. From observational to analytical morphology of the stratum corneum: progress avoiding hazardous animal and human testings. (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E; Courtois, Justine; Ritacco, Caroline; Humbert, Philippe; Fanian, Ferial; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine


    In cosmetic science, noninvasive sampling of the upper part of the stratum corneum is conveniently performed using strippings with adhesive-coated discs (SACD) and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings (CSSSs). Under controlled conditions, it is possible to scrutinize SACD and CSSS with objectivity using appropriate methods of analytical morphology. These procedures apply to a series of clinical conditions including xerosis grading, comedometry, corneodynamics, corneomelametry, corneosurfametry, corneoxenometry, and dandruff assessment. With any of the analytical evaluations, SACD and CSSS provide specific salient information that is useful in the field of cosmetology. In particular, both methods appear valuable and complementary in assessing the human skin compatibility of personal skincare products. A set of quantitative analytical methods applicable to the minimally invasive and low-cost SACD and CSSS procedures allow for a sound assessment of cosmetic effects on the stratum corneum. Under regular conditions, both methods are painless and do not induce adverse events. Globally, CSSS appears more precise and informative than the regular SACD stripping.

  12. Comparison of gravimetric and spectroscopic approaches to quantify stratum corneum removed by tape-stripping. (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Yang, Q; Guy, R H; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E


    Skin surface tape-stripping is an extensively used technique to examine the distribution profile, penetration and safety of various active compounds. It is also a widely accepted method to probe skin barrier properties and more specifically, those of the stratum corneum (SC). The amount of SC removed by tape-stripping is generally determined either gravimetrically or by extraction and measurement of SC proteins. A novel infra-red densitometry (IRD) technique has recently been introduced to measure SC protein content. In the present study, IRD was investigated as an alternative method to measure the mass of SC removed by tape-stripping. Tape-stripping experiments were conducted on human volunteers. The weight of the stratum corneum removed was assessed by the gravimetric approach and by IRD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured before and after each tape-strip. A linear correlation coefficient was obtained for the data from the gravimetric and IRD measurements (r(2)=0.65; n=240). IRD is therefore proposed as a rapid, non-destructive alternative to the gravimetric approach to estimate the amount of SC removed by tape-stripping in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications of normal and disordered remodeling dynamics of corneodesmosomes in stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kitajima


    Full Text Available Desmosomes and corneodesmosomes are the most important adhering junctions, providing strength for the epidermal sheet structure made of living keratinocytes and enucleated stratum corneum corneocytes, respectively. These junctions are connected directly with transmembrane desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins (Dsgs, and desmocollins (Dscs; mainly Dsg1/Dsc1 and Dsg3/Dsc3 in desmosomes, and Dsg1/Dsc1 with corneodesmosin in corneodesmosomes. Dsgs and Dscs are associated with several proteins at their inner cytoplasmic domains to anchor keratin intermediate filaments. Desmosomes are not static, but dynamic units that undergo regular remodeling to allow for keratinocyte outward-migration in the epidermis. In corneodesmosomes, this dynamic nature of desmosomes is lost by fixing desmosomal cadherins with corneodesmosin at the intercellular domain of desmosomes and possibly with the formation of peptide bonds by activation of transglutaminase-1 at the intracellular face of desmosomes. Immediately after formation, corneodesmosomes normally commit to degradation, which is complicatedly regulated by proteolytic cleavage of their respective extracellular portions, via kallikrein-regulated peptidases and cathepsins. This proteolytic activity is in turn controlled by a variety of inhibitory agents, including protease inhibitors, cholesterol sulfate, and an acidic gradient. The impairment of protease control causes keratinization disorders. This review focuses on the regulation of corneodesmosome remodeling in relation to disorders of the stratum corneum.

  14. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation. (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi


    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipids, lipid droplets and lipoproteins in their cellular context; an ultrastructural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, R.J.


    Lipids are essential for cellular life, functioning either organized as bilayer membranes to compartmentalize cellular processes, as signaling molecules or as metabolic energy storage. Our current knowledge on lipid organization and cellular lipid homeostasis is mainly based on biochemical data.

  16. Les enzymes de l'espace extra-cellulaire du stratum corneum. (United States)

    Forestier, J P


    Synopsis Bien que le stratum corneum soit composé de cellules 'mortes', il est le siège d'une activité métabolique très importante. Mais, contrairement à la plupart d'autres tissus, cette activité a la particularité d'étre extra-cellulaire. Elle est due à des enzymes excrétées par les Corps d'Odland avec les bicouches céramidiques. Ces enzymes sont des hydrolases, elles sont identiques ou très proches de celles des lysosomes. Les principales activités observées correspondent à une (ou des) glycosidase(s), une phospholipase, une sphingomyélinase, une phosphatase, une (ou des) estérase(s), des sulfatases, des protéases. Comme les hydrolases des lysosomes, elles semblent peu spécifiques. Ce pool enzymatique pourrait jouer plusieurs rôles fondamentaux, notamment: 1. La transformation des bicouches gluco-céramidiques en bicouches ceramidiques plus lipophiles; 2. L'élimination de la membrane plasmique, dont certains produits du catabolisme, comme les acides gras et les céramides, peuvent être intégrés aux bicouches céramidiques; 3. La diminution de la cohésion entre les cornéocytes; 4. La protection contre l'intrusion de corps étrangers. Comme tout système enzymatique, les hydrolases extra-cellulaires, sont certainement soumises à des régulations. Plusieurs de ces régulations sont envisagées. A partir de considérations d'enzymologie, le pH de la base du stratum corneum peut être estiméà environ 5. En cosmétologie, les enzymes du stratum corneum sont mises à contribution pour rendre actifs des précurseurs. L'étude des conséquences des modifications de l'activité enzymatique sur l'état de la peau pourrait constituer une future voie de recherche extrêmement prometteuse.

  17. Interactions between the stratum corneum and topically applied products: regulatory, instrumental and formulation issues with focus on moisturizers. (United States)

    Lodén, M


    Virtually everyone in Europe will use at least one cosmetic product every day. The extensive use of cosmetics and results from measurements of quality of life in patients with skin diseases demonstrate the importance of a healthy skin. The skin is not only a barrier against desiccation and intrusion of harmful materials, but also an organ of social communication, where dry, scaly, rough stratum corneum is unappealing to touch, inducing anxiety and depression. Knowledge about the skin biochemistry and the use of noninvasive instruments facilitate the development of topical products and quantification of their effects. The presentation of the products and mode of action determine the regulatory demands and the approval process, as they can fall into different regulatory entities, such as cosmetics, medicinal products, medical devices and as other chemical products. The majority of the topical products on the market are regulated as cosmetics. For example, facial skin care and daily moisturizing routines are frequently used. However, despite visible relief of dryness symptoms, some products are reported to result in deterioration of the skin barrier function. New clinical outcomes show important clinical differences between formulations and the relapse of eczema. In a worst case scenario, treatment with a moisturizing cream may increase the risks of eczema and asthma. In the present overview, product presentations and mode of actions are reflected against the regulatory demands in Europe. The regulations are continuously revisited and new guidelines are being implemented, such as the new cosmetic regulation with advice on testing and responsible marketing. © 2014 The Author BJD © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Effect of different dietary concentrations of inorganic and organic copper on growth performance and lipid metabolism of White Pekin male ducks. (United States)

    Attia, Y A; Qota, E M; Zeweil, H S; Bovera, F; Abd Al-Hamid, A E; Sahledom, M D


    1. The effect of different dietary concentrations of inorganic and organic copper on performance and lipid metabolism of White Pekin ducks (WPD) was investigated from 1-49 d of age. A common basal diet was supplemented with 4, 8, 12 and 150 mg/kg of copper (Cu) from inorganic and organic sources to obtain 9 treatments, including 4 concentrations of Cu x two sources, and the unsupplemented control group. Each treatment contained 5 replicates of 9 male ducks each. 2. Supplementation of Cu at 8 mg/kg in inorganic form was adequate for growth of male WPD from 1-56 d of age. Inorganic Cu significantly decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion ratio, compared with the organic form. 3. Plasma Cu significantly increased, while plasma Zn significantly decreased, due to Cu supplementation. Organic Cu showed better efficacy than inorganic for improving liver Cu concentration, Cu excretion and apparent Cu retention. 4. Dietary Cu concentration significantly affected percentage blood and Hgb and abdominal fat deposition. In addition, inorganic Cu increased percentage blood and abdominal fat deposition compared with the organic source. 5. Supplementation of 150 mg/kg of Cu significantly decreased liver and meat lipids, cholesterol, and colour and tenderness of meat; while liver protein and moisture was increased. In addition, dietary 150 mg/kg of Cu supplementation significantly decreased plasma lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol, while increasing plasma AST and ALT. 6. Organic Cu was more potent for decreasing plasma triglycerides than the inorganic source. However, plasma cholesterol was only significantly decreased with the inorganic source of Cu, compared with the unsupplemented control. 7. The organic Cu was safer as a feed additive for WPD, especially at the lower concentrations up to 12 mg; while some mild to moderate changes may be developed at the higher doses, when fed at pharmacological concentrations as a growth promoter.

  19. Interference of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in the measurement of lipid peroxidation in aquatic organisms through TBARS assay. (United States)

    Monserrat, J M; Seixas, A L R; Ferreira-Cravo, M; Bürguer-Mendonça, M; Garcia, S C; Kaufmann, C G; Ventura-Lima, J


    Nanomaterials (NM) exhibit unique properties due their size and relative area, but the mechanisms and effects in the living organisms are yet to be unfold in their totality. Potential toxicity mechanisms concerning NM as carbon nanotubes include oxidative stress generation. Several fluorimetric and colorimetric methods have been systematically used to measure NM toxicity, and controversial results have been reported. One of the problems can be related to the interference effects induced by NM, leading to artifacts that can lead to misleading conclusions. In present study, it was performed in vitro assays with two aquatic species: the zebrafish Danio rerio and the polychaete Laeonereis acuta to evaluate the potential interference capacity of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in a fluorometric method (TBARS assay) to measure lipid peroxidation. Obtained results indicated that gills and brain of zebrafish presented a lowered fluorescence only at extremely high concentrations (50 and 500mg/L). Determinations in anterior, middle, and posterior body regions of L. acuta showed a quite different pattern: high fluorescence at low SWCNT concentrations (0.5mg/L) and lowering at the highest (500mg/L). To eliminate matrix effect of biological samples, tests employing the standard for TBARS assay, 1,3,3-tetramethoxipropane, were run and the results showed again higher fluorescence values at low concentrations (0.5-5mg SWCNT/L), a technique artifact that could lead to misleading conclusions since higher fluorescence values implicate higher TBARS concentration, implying oxidative stress. Using the colorimetric FOX assay with cumene hydroperoxide as standard presented remarkable better results since no artifacts were observed in the same SWCNT concentration range that employed with the TBARS technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative surfactant reactivity of canine and human stratum corneum: a plea for the use of the corneosurfametry bioassay. (United States)

    Goffin, V; Fontaine, J; Piérard, G E


    Comparative dermatology has paid little attention to the physiopathology of the stratum corneum. In this study, we investigated the responses of human and canine horny layers to marketed animal wash products by using the corneosurfametry bioassay. Previous work has shown that, with increasing surfactant aggressiveness to the stratum corneum, the colorimetric index of mildness (CIM) decreases, while both the corneosurfametry index (CSMI) and the overall difference in corneosurfametry (ODC) increase. In the present study, stratum corneum reactivity to wash products and inter-individual variability were significantly higher in humans than in dogs. For the three corneosurfametry variables, linear correlations were found between data gathered in the two panel groups. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that mean stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants is stronger in humans than in dogs. Inter-individual variation, indicative of sensitive skin, also appears to be broader in humans. As a consequence, data gathered from dogs by using the corneosurfametry bioassay cannot be extrapolated to humans. Such variation between species could be important in the assessment of product safety and in supporting claims for mildness. 1999 FRAME.

  1. From observational to analytical morphology of the stratum corneum: progress avoiding hazardous animal and human testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE


    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1,2 Justine Courtois,1 Caroline Ritacco,1 Philippe Humbert,2,3 Ferial Fanian,3 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont1,4,5 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liège University, Liège, Belgium; 2University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Saint-Jacques, Besançon, France; 4Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 5Department of Dermatology, Regional Hospital of Huy, Huy, Belgium Background: In cosmetic science, noninvasive sampling of the upper part of the stratum corneum is conveniently performed using strippings with adhesive-coated discs (SACD and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings (CSSSs. Methods: Under controlled conditions, it is possible to scrutinize SACD and CSSS with objectivity using appropriate methods of analytical morphology. These procedures apply to a series of clinical conditions including xerosis grading, comedometry, corneodynamics, corneomelametry, corneosurfametry, corneoxenometry, and dandruff assessment. Results: With any of the analytical evaluations, SACD and CSSS provide specific salient information that is useful in the field of cosmetology. In particular, both methods appear valuable and complementary in assessing the human skin compatibility of personal skincare products. Conclusion: A set of quantitative analytical methods applicable to the minimally invasive and low-cost SACD and CSSS procedures allow for a sound assessment of cosmetic effects on the stratum corneum. Under regular conditions, both methods are painless and do not induce adverse events. Globally, CSSS appears more precise and informative than the regular SACD stripping. Keywords: irritation, morphometry, quantitative morphology, stripping

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid modifies the clustering and size of lipid rafts and the lateral organization and surface expression of MHC class I of EL4 cells. (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Salameh, Muhammad; Carraway, Kristen


    An emerging molecular mechanism by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts its effects is modification of lipid raft organization. The biophysical model, based on studies with liposomes, shows that DHA avoids lipid rafts because of steric incompatibility between DHA and cholesterol. The model predicts that DHA does not directly modify rafts; rather, it incorporates into nonrafts to modify the lateral organization and/or conformation of membrane proteins, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Here, we tested predictions of the model at a cellular level by incorporating oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and DHA, compared with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) control, into the membranes of EL4 cells. Quantitative microscopy showed that DHA, but not EPA, treatment, relative to the BSA control diminished lipid raft clustering and increased their size. Approximately 30% of DHA was incorporated directly into rafts without changing the distribution of cholesterol between rafts and nonrafts. Quantification of fluorescence colocalization images showed that DHA selectively altered MHC class I lateral organization by increasing the fraction of the nonraft protein into rafts compared with BSA. Both DHA and EPA treatments increased antibody binding to MHC class I compared with BSA. Antibody titration showed that DHA and EPA did not change MHC I conformation but increased total surface levels relative to BSA. Taken together, our findings are not in agreement with the biophysical model. Therefore, we propose a model that reconciles contradictory viewpoints from biophysical and cellular studies to explain how DHA modifies lipid rafts on several length scales. Our study supports the notion that rafts are an important target of DHA's mode of action.

  3. Effects of organic carbon source and light-dark period on growth and lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. AARL G022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doungpen Dittamart


    Full Text Available The levels of different organic carbon supplements in a mixotrophic culture were optimised to enhance biomass and lipid accumulation in Scenedesmus sp. AARL G022. The supplement nutrients, viz. glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate, were compared with non-organic carbon supplement (photoautotrophic culture. The most suitable carbon source was found to be 0.05M glucose, giving a yield of 2.78 ± 0.86 g.L -1 of biomass and 233.68 ± 35.34 mg.L -1 of crude lipid. The highest yield of biomass (4.04 ± 0.36 g.L -1 was obtained from a light-dark cycle of 24:0 hr. The highest crude lipid yield of 396.35 ± 11.60 mg.L -1 was obtained from a light-dark cycle of 16:8 hr. The optimised condition for culturing Scenedesmus sp. AARL G022 is to cultivate it under a mixotrophic condition using 0.05M of glucose supplement with a light-dark cycle of 16:8 hr.

  4. Lipids and skin barrier function - a clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Hellgren, Lars; Jemec, G.B.E.


    The stratum corneum (SC) protects us from dehydration and external dangers. Much is known about the morphology of the SC and penetration of drugs through it, but the data are mainly derived from in vitro and animal experiments. In contrast, only a few studies have the human SC lipids as their focus...... and in particular, the role of barrier function in the pathogenesis of skin disease and its subsequent treatment protocols. The 3 major lipids in the SC of importance are ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. Human studies comparing levels of the major SC lipids in patients with atopic dermatitis...... and healthy controls have suggested a possible role for ceramide 1 and to some extent ceramide 3 in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therapies used in diseases involving barrier disruption have been sparely investigated from a lipid perspective. It has been suggested that ultraviolet light as a treatment...

  5. The evolution of lipids (United States)

    Itoh, Y. H.; Sugai, A.; Uda, I.; Itoh, T.


    Living organisms on the Earth which are divided into three major domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, probably came from a common ancestral cell. Because there are many thermophilic microorganisms near the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, the common ancestral cell should be considered to be a thermophilic microorganism. The existence of a cell is necessary for the living organisms; the cell membrane is the essential structural component of a cell, so its amphiphilic property is vital for the molecule of lipids for cell membranes. Tetraether type glycerophospholipids with C 40 isoprenoid chains are major membrane lipids widely distributed in archaeal cells. Cyclization number of C 40 isoprenoid chains in thermophilic archaea influences the fluidity of lipids whereas the number of carbons and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids do so in bacteria and eucarya. In addition to the cyclization of the tetraether lipids, covalent bonding of two C 40 isoprenoid chains was found in hyperthermophiles. These characteristic structures of the lipids seem to contribute to their fundamental physiological roles in hyperthermophiles. Stereochemical differences between G-1-P archaeal lipids and G-3-P bacterial and eucaryal lipids might have occured by the function of some proteins long after the first cell was developed by the reactions of small organic molecules. We propose that the structure of lipids of the common ancestral cell may have been similar to those of hyperthermophilic archaea.

  6. Corneosurfametry: a predictive assessment of the interaction of personal-care cleansing products with human stratum corneum. (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C


    Corneosurfametry is introduced as a noninvasive quantitative test rating the interaction between surfactants and human stratum corneum. It may be used as a predictive irritancy test. Surfactants present in personal-care products elicit multiple effects on the stratum corneum. With upcoming regulations avoiding animal experiments and ethical considerations for human testing, there is a need for new in vitro methods evaluating irritancy. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reading the color of samples using reflectance colorimetry. The intensity of color increases with irritancy potential of the surfactant. Results are reproducible, and great differences are noted among a series of diluted shampoos, shower gels and facial cleansing gels. Corneosurfametry is proposed as a rapid in vitro method allowing a predictive grading of surfactants related to irritancy.

  7. Skin permeability enhancement by low frequency sonophoresis: lipid extraction and transport pathways. (United States)

    Alvarez-Román, R; Merino, G; Kalia, Y N; Naik, A; Guy, R H


    The objective of this study was to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which low-frequency ultrasound (20 KHz) enhances the permeability of the skin. The physical effects on the barrier and the transport pathway, in particular, were examined. The amount of lipid removed from the intercellular domains of the stratum corneum following sonophoresis was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Transport of the fluorescent probes nile red and calcein, under the influence of ultrasound, was evaluated by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The results were compared with the appropriate passive control data and with data obtained from experiments in which the skin was exposed simply to the thermal effects induced by ultrasound treatment. A significant fraction ( approximately 30%) of the intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum, which are principally responsible for skin barrier function, were removed during the application of low-frequency sonophoresis. Although the confocal images from the nile red experiments were not particularly informative, ultrasound clearly and significantly (again, relative to the corresponding controls) facilitated transport of the hydrophilic calcein via discrete permeabilized regions, whereas other areas of the barrier were apparently unaffected. Lipid removal from the stratum corneum is implicated as a factor contributing the observed permeation enhancement effects of low-frequency ultrasound. However, microscopic observations imply that sonophoresis induces localized (aqueous?) permeation pathways at discrete sites. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry. A comparative assessment of the impact of surfactants on stratum corneum. (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Haubrechts, Christelle; Léger, Didier Saint; Piérard, Gérald E


    Silicon image sensor (SIS) technology was recently introduced as an innovative tool (SkinChip, L'Oréal) providing sensitive imaging of the skin capacitance. This method can detect discrete focal variations in skin surface hydration, and thus early discrete manifestations of skin irritation induced by surfactants. In the present in vivo study, 2 neat and diluted shampoos, and 5% and 10% sodium laurylsulfate solutions were tested on human skin. Each surfactant solution was gently rubbed on the skin using wet hair wicks mimicking the casual use of a shampoo on the scalp. Clinical and SIS evaluations were carried out. In addition, the same products were tested using the ex vivo corneosurfametry bioassay performed on human stratum corneum (SC) harvested by cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings. The colourimetric index of mildness (CIM) was measured on these samples. The product reactivity with the SC was recognized by darker skin capacitance images, and by both lowered SkinChip-generated values and lowered CIM values. The extent in changes varied according to the nature of the test products and their concentrations. The SkinChip image changes likely corresponded to the acute surfactant-induced water swelling of the corneocytes. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry allow to disclose discrete surfactant-induced alterations of corneocytes.

  9. Genomic organization and reproductive regulation of a large lipid transfer protein in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman). (United States)

    Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Duehl, A J; Donohue, K V; Grozinger, C M; Evans, J D; Teal, P E A


    The complete genomic region and corresponding transcript of the most abundant protein in phoretic varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), were sequenced and have homology with acarine hemelipoglycoproteins and the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) super family. The genomic sequence of VdLLTP included 14 introns and the mature transcript coded for a predicted polypeptide of 1575 amino acid residues. VdLLTP shared a minimum of 25% sequence identity with acarine LLTPs. Phylogenetic assessment showed VdLLTP was most closely related to Metaseiulus occidentalis vitellogenin and LLTP proteins of ticks; however, no heme binding by VdLLTP was detected. Analysis of lipids associated with VdLLTP showed that it was a carrier for free and esterified C12 -C22 fatty acids from triglycerides, diacylglycerides and monoacylglycerides. Additionally, cholesterol and β-sitosterol were found as cholesterol esters linked to common fatty acids. Transcript levels of VdLLTP were 42 and 310 times higher in phoretic female mites when compared with males and quiescent deutonymphs, respectively. Coincident with initiation of the reproductive phase, VdLLTP transcript levels declined to a third of those in phoretic female mites. VdLLTP functions as an important lipid transporter and should provide a significant RNA interference target for assessing the control of varroa mites. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. On the formation of lipid droplets in human adipocytes: the organization of the perilipin-vimentin cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Heid

    Full Text Available We report on the heterogeneity and diversity of lipid droplets (LDs in early stages of adipogenesis by elucidating the cell and molecular biology of amphiphilic and cytoskeletal proteins regulating and stabilizing the generation of LDs in human adipose cells. A plethora of distinct and differently sized LDs was detected by a brief application of adipocyte differentiation medium and additional short treatment with oleic acid. Using these cells and highly specific antibodies for LD-binding proteins of the perilipin (PLIN family, we could distinguish between endogenously derived LDs (endogenous LDs positive for perilipin from exogenously induced LDs (exogenous LDs positive for adipophilin, TIP47 and S3-12. Having optimized these stimulation conditions, we used early adipogenic differentiation stages to investigate small-sized LDs and concentrated on LD-protein associations with the intermediate-sized filament (IF vimentin. This IF protein was described earlier to surround lipid globules, showing spherical, cage-like structures. Consequently - by biochemical methods, by immunofluorescence microscopy and by electron- and immunoelectron microscopy - various stages of emerging lipid globules were revealed with perilipin as linking protein between LDs and vimentin. For this LD-PLIN-Vimentin connection, a model is now proposed, suggesting an interaction of proteins via opposed charged amino acid domains respectively. In addition, multiple sheaths of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae surrounding concentrically nascent LDs are shown. Based on our comprehensive localization studies we present and discuss a novel pathway for the LD formation.

  11. Fish Oil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants Reduces Antioxidant Capacity and Induces Oxidative Stress without Affecting Its Capacity to Lower Lipid Concentrations and Systemic Inflammation in Rats. (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Lumibao, Jan; Mistry, Prashila; Saleh, Rhonda; Hoh, Eunha


    Numerous studies have investigated the benefits of fish, fish oil, and ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. However, concern surrounding contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) prompts caution in the recommendation to consume fish and fish oil. The present study compared the effects of fish oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) on serum lipid profiles, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty eight-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) consumed diets of unmodified fish oil (FO) consisting of 15% fat by weight, persistent organic pollutant-contaminated fish oil (POP FO) (PCBs at 2.40 μg/g; OCs at 3.80 μg/g FO), or corn oil (control; CO) for 9 wk. Lipid profiles and C-reactive protein concentrations were assessed. Hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. After 9 wk of feeding, accumulation of PCBs and OCs in the fat tissue of the POP FO group compared with the other 2 groups was confirmed (P oil groups showed greater HDL cholesterol (FO 53 ± 5.3 and POP FO 55 ± 7.7 vs. CO 34 ± 2.3 mg/dL), but lower triglycerides (24 ± 2.8 and 22 ± 3.0 vs. 43 ± 5.6 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (38 ± 14 and 34 ± 9.2 vs. 67 ± 4.4 mg/dL), and C-reactive protein (113 ± 20 and 120 ± 26 vs. 189 ± 22 μg/dL) compared with the CO group (P oil groups was also less than in the CO group (P oils of varying composition to advise on dietary consumption of fish and fish oil. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. 31P and 1H NMR Studies of the Molecular Organization of Lipids in the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay. (United States)

    Assmus, Frauke; Ross, Alfred; Fischer, Holger; Seelig, Joachim; Seelig, Anna


    The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) has emerged as a widely used primary in vitro screen for passive permeability of potential drug candidates. However, the molecular structure of the permeation barrier (consisting of a filter-supported dodecane-egg lecithin mixture) has never been characterized. Here, we investigated the long-range order of phospholipids in the PAMPA barrier by means of 31P static solid-state NMR. Diffusion constants of PAMPA membrane components were derived from liquid state NMR and, in addition, drug distribution between the PAMPA lipid phase and buffer (log DPAMPA at pH 7.4) was systematically investigated. Increasing concentration of n-dodecane to the system egg lecithin-water (lamellar phase, Lα) induces formation of inverted hexagonal (Hii) and isotropic phases. At n-dodecane concentrations matching those used in PAMPA (9%, w/v) a purely "isotropic" phase was observed corresponding to lipid aggregates with a diameter in the range 4-7 nm. Drug distribution studies indicate that these reverse micelles facilitate the binding to, and in turn the permeation across, the PAMPA dodecane barrier, in particular for amphiphilic solutes. The proposed model for the molecular architecture and function of the PAMPA barrier provides a fundamental, hitherto missing framework to evaluate the scope but also limitations of PAMPA for the prediction of in vivo membrane permeability.

  13. The integrated production of microbial lipids and bio-SiO2 from rice husks by an organic electrolytes pretreatment technology. (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Tian, Jing; Xie, Haibo; Shen, Hongwei; Wang, Qian


    In this study, a full dissolution behavior of rice husks (RHs) in ionic liquids-based organic electrolytes was achieved, and physicochemical effect of the dissolution pretreatment on the structures of RHs was elucidated. The physicochemical changes led to an enhanced subsequent enzymatic saccharification of RHs, and a total reducing sugars (TRSs) yield of 0.70gg(-1), and a glucose yield of 0.43gg(-1) were obtained. The hydrolysates could be used as carbon sources for the cultivation of Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4 for the production of microbial lipids with a satisfactory productivity of cell biomass (13.3gL(-1)) and lipid content (32.5%) after 100h cultivation. Further pyrolysis of the residuals after the enzymatic hydrolysis at 600°C for 3h resulted in new uniform, spherical silica powder materials with particle size around 150nm, and surface area of 179.3m(2)g(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B


    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  15. Leaching from the stratum corneum does not explain the previously reported elevated potassium ion concentration in sweat. (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Stone, Michael; Cannon, Daniel T


    The purpose of this study was to determine if K+ is leached from the stratum corneum when sweat is present on the skin's surface. The results will help address whether sweat [K+] previously reported in the literature are artifactually elevated as a result of K+ leaching. Twelve (six female, six male) healthy volunteers participated in this study. After thorough skin cleansing and preparation with isopropyl alcohol and high-performance liquid chromatography-grade distilled water, three sites were chosen and a 50 μL drop of artificial sweat was pipetted directly onto the skin. The artificial sweat had a [K+] of 4 mEq·L-1, an osmolality of 120 mosm·L-1, and a pH of 6.0. Immediately following, a clear plastic cover slip (~6 cm2) with a shallow 0.8 cm2 convex impression in the center was applied over each drop, preventing evaporation. Each sample was allowed to sit on the forearm, under the plastic cover slip, for 10 min. The mean (±SD) [K+] in 'artificial' sweat not exposed to the skin was measured to be 4.2±0.4 mEq·L-1. After 10 min of exposure to the stratum corneum of the forearm, the artificial sweat had a mean (±SD) [K+] of 3.9±0.3 mEq·L-1. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the [K+] between the control artificial sweat and the samples collected after 10 min of exposure to forearm skin. These results do not support the hypothesis that significant K+ leaching from the stratum corneum into standing sweat is the cause for the previously reported elevated sweat [K+].

  16. Bioorthogonal chemical reporters for analyzing protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. (United States)

    Hang, Howard C; Wilson, John P; Charron, Guillaume


    Protein lipidation and lipid trafficking control many key biological functions in all kingdoms of life. The discovery of diverse lipid species and their covalent attachment to many proteins has revealed a complex and regulated network of membranes and lipidated proteins that are central to fundamental aspects of physiology and human disease. Given the complexity of lipid trafficking and the protein targeting mechanisms involved with membrane lipids, precise and sensitive methods are needed to monitor and identify these hydrophobic molecules in bacteria, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. Although many analytical methods have been developed for characterizing membrane lipids and covalently modified proteins, traditional reagents and approaches have limited sensitivity, do not faithfully report on the lipids of interest, or are not readily accessible. The invention of bioorthogonal ligation reactions, such as the Staudinger ligation and azide-alkyne cycloadditions, has provided new tools to address these limitations, and their use has begun to yield fresh insight into the biology of protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. In this Account, we discuss how these new bioorthogonal ligation reactions and lipid chemical reporters afford new opportunities for exploring the biology of lipid-modified proteins and lipid trafficking. Lipid chemical reporters from our laboratory and several other research groups have enabled improved detection and large-scale proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated and prenylated proteins. For example, fatty acid and isoprenoid chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal ligation methods have circumvented the limited sensitivity and hazards of radioactive analogues, allowing rapid and robust fluorescent detection of lipidated proteins in all organisms tested. These chemical tools have revealed alterations in protein lipidation in different cellular states and are beginning to provide unique insights in mechanisms of regulation. Notably, the

  17. Influence of niacinamide containing formulations on the molecular and biophysical properties of the stratum corneum. (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Crowther, J M; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E


    Niacinamide-containing moisturisers are known be efficacious in alleviating dry skin conditions and improving stratum corneum (SC) barrier function. However, the mechanisms of action of niacinamide at the molecular level in the SC are still not well understood. Previously, we have reported the development of novel methods to probe SC barrier properties in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterise changes in Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL), corneocyte surface area and maturity, selected protease activities and SC thickness after repeated application of a simple vehicle containing niacinamide. A commercial formulation was also included as a reference. The left and right mid-volar forearms of 20 healthy volunteers were used as study sites, to which topical formulations were applied twice daily for 28 days. After successive tape-stripping, corneocyte maturity and surface area were assessed. In addition, activity of the desquamatory kallikrein (KLK) protease enzymes KLK5 and KLK7, and tryptase and plasmin (implicated in inflammatory process) were measured using a fluorogenic probe assay. The amount of protein removed and TEWL were also recorded. SC thickness before and after treatment was determined using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS). Overall (i) corneocyte maturity and surface area decreased with increasing number of tape strips, (ii) activity of both the desquamatory and inflammatory enzymes was highest in the outer layers of the SC and decreased with depth (iii) TEWL increased as more SC layers were removed. Furthermore, areas treated with formulations containing niacinamide were significantly different to pre-treatment baseline and untreated/vehicle-control treated sites, with larger and more mature corneocytes, decreased inflammatory activity, decreased TEWL and increased SC thickness. These data (a) confirm the utility of measures and metrics developed previously for the non-invasive assay of SC barrier function, (b) present an holistic picture

  18. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy of stratum corneum: a pre-clinical validation study. (United States)

    Wu, J; Polefka, T G


    Skin moisturization is not only important for maintaining skin functional properties but also has great impact on the skin's aesthetic properties. The top layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), plays a key role in protecting and preventing against external aggressions as well as in regulating water flux in and out. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is the first commercially available technique that provides a non-invasive, in vivo method to determine depth profiles of water concentration in the skin, however, in this case it was applied in an in vitro setting. As the first phase of validating the usefulness of confocal Raman microspectroscopy, we used porcine skin as a surrogate for human skin. Water concentration profiles were obtained using confocal Raman microspectroscopy from isolated pigskin SC and compared with that using the Karl Fischer titration method. The two methods correlated very well with a regression coefficient of 1.07 as well as a correlation coefficient, R(2) = 0.989, which demonstrated the consistency and accuracy of confocal Raman microspectroscopy for water concentration determination. To evaluate the instrument's response to different skin care/cleansing products, a wide range of products were tested to compare their skin moisturization ability. Among those tested were a lotion, commercial soap bar, syndet bar, traditional non-emollient shower gel (water, Sodium Laureth Ether Sulfate (SLES), cocamidopropyl betaine system) and emollient containing shower gel (water, sunflower oil, SLES, cocamidopropyl betaine, glycerin, petrolatum). The results were consistent with what was expected. The water content on skin treated with (A) lotion was significantly higher than the non-treated control; (B) syndet bar-treated skin had a significantly higher water content than soap-based bar-treated sites; (C) non-emollient shower gel washed sites were more moisturized than soap-based bar-treated samples; and (D) emollient shower gel-treated skin was

  19. Aggregation controls the stability of lignin and lipids in clay-sized particulate and mineral associated organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Gerrit; Mueller, K.E.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Freeman, K.H.; Mueller, C.W.


    Roč. 132, č. 3 (2017), s. 307-324 ISSN 0168-2563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : incubation * physical fractionation * GC/MS * C-13 NMR * CuO * soil organic matter Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 3.428, year: 2016

  20. Engineering of a high lipid producing Yarrowia lipolytica strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedlander, Jonathan; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Kamineni, Annapurna; Greenhagen, Emily H; Consiglio, Andrew L; MacEwen, Kyle; Crabtree, Donald V; Afshar, Jonathan; Nugent, Rebecca L; Hamilton, Maureen A; Joe Shaw, A; South, Colin R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Brevnova, Elena E


    Microbial lipids are produced by many oleaginous organisms including the well-characterized yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which can be engineered for increased lipid yield by up-regulation of the lipid...

  1. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak


    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  2. Quenching of labile functionalised lipids by inorganic sulphur species: Evidence for the formation of sedimentary organic sulphur compounds at the early stages of diagenesis (United States)

    Sinninghe Damst'e, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Kock-van Dalen, A. C.; De Leeuw, Jan W.; Schenck, P. A.


    The bitumen of the Jurf ed Darawish Oil Shale has been analysed for organic sulphur compounds (OSC). A number of OSC are reported for the first time: several C 288, C 37 and C 38 2,5-dialkylthiolanes and -thiophenes and 2,6-di- n-alkylthianes, and C 19 branched thiophenes possessing the 9-methyloctadecane carbon skeleton. A number of these compounds were identified by synthesis of authentic standards. All the OSC compound classes mentioned exhibit structural isomer distributions dominated by a limited number of all theoretically possible isomers. This provides direct evidence for the formation of these OSC by abiogenic sulphur incorporation into functionalised lipids at the early stages of diagenesis. Precursors for the OSC identified are suggested. From these observations and from data on the occurrence of other OSC and of sulphur in high molecular weight substances a general model for the incorporation of sulphur into organic matter is proposed. Sulphur incorporation into precursors with double bonds (or other reactive functionalities) will lead to formation of OSC and sulphur-rich high molecular weight substances. Only precursors with two double bonds in favourable position for intramolecular addition of intermediate thiols can yield low molecular weight OSC. Double bond isomerisations by a sequence of H 2S addition and elimination reactions may play a role in this respect.

  3. Pyrolysis-GC-MS to trace terrigenous organic matter in marine sediments: a comparison between pyrolytic and lipid markers in the Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Daniele [Interdepartmental Centre for the Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRSA), University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)]. E-mail:; Sangiorgi, Francesca [Interdepartmental Centre for the Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRSA), University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48100 Ravenna (Italy); Vassura, Ivano [Interdepartmental Centre for the Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRSA), University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)


    The effectiveness of semiquantitative pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) as a rapid analytical technique for sourcing continental organic matter (OM) in marine sediments was examined by comparison with classical GC-MS analyses of solvent extractable lipid markers. Py-GC-MS was directly applied to HCl/HF de-ashed surface sediment samples collected in five stations located in north western Adriatic Sea. The resulting pyrolysates were characterised by compounds indicative of different biological precursors (e.g. proteins, carbohydrates, chlorophylls), including lignin methoxyphenols diagnostic for continental inputs. The relative abundance of pyrolytic markers was compared to the distribution of n-alkanes, n-alkanols and sterols extracted from the same sediments and determined by GC-MS analyses. For each class of molecular indicators, the terrigenous to aquatic ratio (TAR) was determined as follows: relative abundance of methoxyphenol/protein markers (TAR{sub PY}), concentration ratios of (C27 + C29 + C31)/(C15 + C17 + C19) n-alkanes (TAR{sub HC}), (C26 + C28+ C30)/(C14 + C16) n-alkanols (TAR{sub AL}) and sitosterol/cholesterol (TAR{sub ST}). A positive correlation was found between TAR{sub PY} and both TAR{sub HC} and TAR{sub AL} indicating a decreasing contribution of land-plant-derived materials seaward in two investigated transects. TAR{sub ST} values displayed a different trend suggesting a mixed origin for sitosterol. The distribution of TAR{sub PY} values was also in good agreement with that of atomic C/N ratios. Considering the complexity of environmental systems (diagenetic alteration, different fractions of OM analysed) the obtained results indicate that the pyrolytic marker approach by Py-GC-MS is valuable for sourcing marine OM on a semiquantitative base, providing data consistent with GC-MS determinations of lipid markers and elemental bulk analyses.

  4. Stable carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers provide new insight into the formation of calcite and siderite concretions in organic-matter rich deposits (United States)

    Baumann, Lydia; Birgel, Daniel; Wagreich, Michael; Peckmann, Jörn


    Carbonate concretions from two distinct settings have been studied for their petrography, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, and lipid biomarker content. Carbonate concretions are in large part products of microbial degradation of organic matter, as for example by sulfate-reducing bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. For these prokaryotes certain lipid biomarkers such as hopanoids, terminally-branched fatty acids (bacteria) and isoprenoids (archaea) are characteristic. Two different types of concretions were studied: a) Upper Miocene septarian calcite concretions of the southern Vienna Basin embedded in brackish sediments represented by partly bituminous calcareous sands, silts and clays; b) Paleocene-Eocene siderite concretions enclosed in marine, sandy to silty turbidites with varying carbonate contents and marl layers from the Upper Gosau Subgroup in northern Styria. Calcite concretions consist of abundant calcite microspar (80-90 vol.%), as well as detrital minerals and iron oxyhydroxides. The septarian cracks show beginning cementation with dog-tooth calcite to varying degrees. Framboidal pyrite occurs in some of the calcite concretions, pointing to bacterial sulfate reduction. Siderite concretions consist of even finer carbonate crystals, mainly siderite (40-70 vol.%) but also abundant ferroan calcite, accompanied by iron oxyhydroxides and detrital minerals. The δ13C values of the calcite concretions (-6.8 to -4.1o ) most likely reflect a combination of bacterial organic matter oxidation and input of marine biodetrital carbonate. The δ18O values range from -8.9 to -7.8o agreeing with a formation within a meteoric environment. The surrounding host sediment shows about 1-2o higher δ13C and δ18O values. The siderite δ13C values (-11.1 to -7.5o ) point to microbial respiration of organic carbon and the δ18O values (-3.5 to +2.2o ) agree with a marine depositional environment. In contrast to the calcite concretions, the stable isotope

  5. Synthesis and characterization of O-acylated-ω-hydroxy fatty acids as skin-protecting barrier lipids. (United States)

    Pérez, B; Dahlgaard, S E; Bulsara, P; Rawlings, A V; Jensen, M M; Dong, M; Glasius, M; Clarke, M J; Guo, Z


    A series of O-acylated-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (Acyl acids) of up to 34 carbons were synthesized and characterized through DSC, FTIR and Langmuir isotherm measurements to identify potential replacements to petrolatum, a highly used occlusive technology that if unrefined, it can potentially be classified as carcinogenic. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that long acyl acids engender orthorhombic packing; packing behavior that is predominant in the lipid matrix of healthy stratum corneum, the outmost layer of the skin. In addition, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Langmuir isotherm studies suggested that the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the position of the ester bond influence the molecular organization of the acyl acids. For instance, 16-(tetradecanoyloxy)hexadecanoic acid (30 carbons) displayed a higher melting point (mp=68°C) than 10-(stearoyloxy)decanoic acid (28 carbons; mp=63°C) and 10-(tetradecanoyloxy)decanoic acid (24 carbons; mp=55°C) according to DSC. Moreover, Langmuir isotherm studies showed that mixtures of acyl acid with distearoylphosphatidylcholine improved packing behavior. Finally, Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) measurements showed that the compounds in fact decrease WVTR compared to untreated control (P<0.001) which demonstrates the potential of these ingredients as occlusive technologies to combat skin barrier diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipids and lipid modifications in the regulation of membrane traffic. (United States)

    Haucke, Volker; Di Paolo, Gilbert


    Lipids play a multitude of roles in intracellular protein transport and membrane traffic. While a large body of data implicates phosphoinositides in these processes, much less is known about other glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylserine. Growing evidence suggests that these lipids may also play an important role, either by mediating protein recruitment to membranes or by directly affecting membrane dynamics. Although membrane lipids are believed to be organized in microdomains, recent advances in cellular imaging methods paired with sophisticated reporters and proteomic analysis have led to the formulation of alternative ideas regarding the characteristics and putative functions of lipid microdomains and their associated proteins. In fact, the traditional view that membrane proteins may freely diffuse in a large 'sea of lipids' may need to be revised. Lastly, modifications of proteins by lipids or related derivatives have surprisingly complex roles on regulated intracellular transport of a wide range of molecules.

  7. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.


    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground...

  8. The Scalp Has a Lower Stratum Corneum Function with a Lower Sensory Input than Other Areas of the Skin Evaluated by the Electrical Current Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Takagi


    Full Text Available Many people feel frequent prickling or itching sensations on their scalp. The scalp is an atypical area of the skin since it is normally covered with thick hair and has many sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The scalp often has skin problems that can affect its sensitivity and functions. However, not much is known about stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp. Here we evaluated stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp of 47 normal male individuals in various skin conditions and compared the results to that to the forehead. The neural sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the electrical current perception threshold (CPT. The cutaneous barrier function and stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA of the scalp were significantly lower than on the forehead, even if there were some scalp problems. Depending on the increase in severity of scalp skin problems, both these skin functional properties and the CPT decreased significantly. However, regardless of its lower functional properties, scalp skin was not significantly lower than that of the forehead. Although the scalp has a low stratum corneum function compared with the forehead and has easily induced skin problems, the scalp skin has less sensitive sensory nerves, resulting in experiencing a worsening of scalp symptoms more easily.

  9. Soil-derived branched tetraether membrane lipids in marine sediments : reconstruction of past continental climate and soil organic matter fluxes to the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, J.W.H.


    This thesis describes the structure and occurrence of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids, their potential biological origin and shows their application in reconstructions of past environmental conditions. Based on the stereo-configuration of the glycerol backbone,

  10. Soil-derived branched tetraether membrane lipids in marine sediments: reconstruction of past continental climate and soil organic matter fluxes to the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, J.W.H.


    This thesis describes the structure and occurrence of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids, their potential biological origin and shows their application in reconstructions of past environmental conditions. Based on the stereo-configuration of the glycerol backbone,

  11. Stratum Corneum Keratin Structure, Function, and Formation: The Cubic Rod-Packing and Membrane Templating Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norlén, Lars; Al-Amoudi, Ashraf


    ... capable of explaining keratin intermediate filament structure, function, and formation when newer findings regarding the native structural organization of fully hydrated epidermis (cf.) have been taken into account. Such a theoretical model may provide for a rational design of experimental studies on skin diseases, skin permeability, topical d...

  12. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning


    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen utilization in two species of Red Sea corals along a depth gradient: Insights from stable isotope analysis of total organic material and lipids (United States)

    Alamaru, Ada; Loya, Yossi; Brokovich, Eran; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo


    We examined the utilization of carbon and nitrogen in two common Red Sea coral species (Stylophora pistillata and Favia favus), differing in colony morphology and polyp size, along a depth gradient down to 60 m. We describe the changes in C/N ratios and in the stable isotope composition of carbon and nitrogen of coral's tissue and algal symbionts. We also measured the carbon isotopic composition of the lipid fraction extracted from both coral tissue and algal symbionts in order to reveal the changes in the carbon source utilized by the host coral for lipid synthesis. The results show that for both species, δ13C decreases by 7-8‰ in animal tissue, algal symbionts and in the lipid fractions as depth increases. However, in contrast to previous reports, the difference between δ13C values of coral tissue and algal symbionts does not increase with depth. δ15N values of coral tissue and algal symbionts in both species do not correlate with depth suggesting that the heterotrophic capacity of these corals does not increase with depth. δ13C values of tissue lipids were depleted by an average of ˜3.5‰ compared to δ13C of the entire tissue at all depths. δ13C values of algal lipids were depleted by an average of ˜2‰ compared to δ13C of the entire zooxanthellae at all depths, indicating high efficiency of carbon recycling between the two symbiotic partners along the entire gradient. The depletion of lipids is attributed to the fractionation mechanism during lipid synthesis. In addition, for both species, δ13C values of algal lipids were enriched compared with δ13C of tissue lipids. In S. pistillata, the difference between δ13C values of tissue lipids and algal lipids increased linearly with depth, indicating a change in the sources of carbon utilized by the coral for lipid synthesis below 20 m from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic source. However, in F. favus, this average difference was ˜4 times larger compared to shallow S. pistillata and was constant

  14. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application. (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah


    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  15. Comparison of stratum corneum thickness between two proposed methods of calculation using Raman spectroscopic depth profiling of skin water content. (United States)

    Lee, M; Won, K; Kim, E J; Hwang, J S; Lee, H K


    The stratum corneum (SC) is the most important layer for the barrier function of skin, so investigation of the SC is very important in cosmetic and medical research. Here, we calculated the SC thickness using the depth profile of the skin's water concentration based on previously described methods, and then compared the results. Seven Korean women in their 30s participated in this study. Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the in vivo depth profile of skin water concentration. A total of 21 areas were measured at forearm. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to calculate SC thickness based on the slope and intersection methods. The slope method and the intersection method gave a forearm SC thickness calculated at 21.3 ± 2.6 μm and 17.6 ± 2.8 μm, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two calculation methods but the two methods showed strong correlation of SC thickness results (r = .899). Although there was a difference in calculated SC thickness of about 20% between the two methods, these results reveal that the two SC thickness calculation methods using Raman spectroscopy were suitable for measuring SC thickness, a finding consistent with other published results. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Payyadhah Borhan


    Full Text Available Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w, olive oil B (15–20% w/w, palm oil C (6–10% w/w, castor oil D (15–20% w/w, cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w, and okara F (2–7% w/w by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  17. Lecithin-based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: formulation, characterizations, and in vitro release and penetration studies. (United States)

    Sahle, Fitsum F; Metz, Hendrik; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H


    To improve the solubility and penetration of Ceramide AP (CER [AP]) into the stratum corneum that potentially restores the barrier function of aged and affected skin. CER [AP] microemulsions (MEs) were formulated using lecithin, Miglyol® 812 (miglyol) and water-1,2 pentandiol (PeG) mixture as amphiphilic, oily and hydrophilic components, respectively. The nanostructure of the MEs was revealed using electrical conductivity, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) was used to measure the sizes and shape of ME droplets. The release and penetration of the CER into the stratum corneum was investigated in vitro using a multi-layer membrane model. The MEs exhibited excellent thermodynamic stability (>2 years) and loading capacity (0.5% CER [AP]). The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the MEs were obtained and PCS results showed that the droplets are spherical in shape and bigger in size. In vitro investigations showed that the MEs exhibited excellent rate and extent of release and penetration. Stable lecithin-based CER [AP] MEs that significantly enhance the solubility and penetration of CER [AP] into the stratum corneum were developed. The MEs also have better properties than the previously reported polyglycerol fatty acid surfactant-based CER [AP] MEs.

  18. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan Jose [School of the Environment, University of South Carolina, 702G Byrnes Building, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail:; Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail:; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Wyneken, Jeanette [Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Crowder, Larry [Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Scott, Geoffrey I. [Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)


    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of {sigma}PCBs (52 congeners), {sigma}DDTs, {sigma}chlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  19. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy. (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi


    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  20. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars


    Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached....

  1. The effect of antimycin A on the intensity of oxidative stress, the level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in different organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seedlings subjected to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batjuka Anna


    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to identify the effect of antimycin A (AA as an activator of the alternative pathway (AP of respiration, on oxidative stress intensity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO and activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes in functionally different organs of Triticum aestivum L. subjected to short- and long-term exposure to high temperature (HT. The level of LPO was assessed in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of oxidative injury. The results demonstrated increases in the total content of reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA production in developing and senescent organs of wheat seedlings, and significant augmentation of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, in different organs in response to exposure to HT. The activation of the AP by AA restrained ROS production in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC under exposure to HT.

  2. An unsupervised machine learning method for delineating stratum corneum in reflectance confocal microscopy stacks of human skin in vivo (United States)

    Bozkurt, Alican; Kose, Kivanc; Fox, Christi A.; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind


    Study of the stratum corneum (SC) in human skin is important for research in barrier structure and function, drug delivery, and water permeability of skin. The optical sectioning and high resolution of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows visual examination of SC non-invasively. Here, we present an unsupervised segmentation algorithm that can automatically delineate thickness of the SC in RCM images of human skin in-vivo. We mimic clinicians visual process by applying complex wavelet transform over non-overlapping local regions of size 16 x 16 μm called tiles, and analyze the textural changes in between consecutive tiles in axial (depth) direction. We use dual-tree complex wavelet transform to represent textural structures in each tile. This transform is almost shift-invariant, and directionally selective, which makes it highly efficient in texture representation. Using DT-CWT, we decompose each tile into 6 directional sub-bands with orientations in +/-15, 45, and 75 degrees and a low-pass band, which is the decimated version of the input. We apply 3 scales of decomposition by recursively transforming the low-pass bands and obtain 18 bands of different directionality at different scales. We then calculate mean and variance of each band resulting in a feature vector of 36 entries. Feature vectors obtained for each stack of tiles in axial direction are then clustered using spectral clustering in order to detect the textural changes in depth direction. Testing on a set of 15 RCM stacks produced a mean error of 5.45+/-1.32 μm, compared to the "ground truth" segmentation provided by a clinical expert reader.

  3. Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation. (United States)

    Cartner, T; Brand, N; Tian, K; Saud, A; Carr, T; Stapleton, P; Lane, M E; Rawlings, A V


    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol on stratum corneum (SC) enzymes and keratinocytes in vitro together with their effects on skin condition and function. Activities of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as well as keratinocyte metabolic activity, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured in vitro in the presence and absence of the different alcohols. We also measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, visual dryness and visual redness on the volar forearms of 25 Caucasian women following application of the alcohols 20 and 100 times per day over a period of 14 days in a clinical study. Reduced activities of KLK5 and PLA2 were observed in the presence of the alcohols. The greatest denaturing effect was always observed for n-propanol (P effect of isopropanol was greater than ethanol (P effects on keratinocyte metabolic activity and cytokine secretion (P effects were on the induction of skin irritation (increased dropout rates) and ranked the intolerance of the different alcohols as follows: n-propanol > isopropanol > ethanol. At the high application frequencies, the effect of the different alcohols on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance was similar, but at the low application frequencies, n-propanol had a significant effect on TEWL and capacitance values (P alcohols and should be the active ingredient of choice. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Cosmetic Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Cosmetic Scientists and Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Sun-Induced Changes in Stratum Corneum Function Are Gender and Dose Dependent in a Chinese Population (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Fluhr, J.W.; Song, S.P.; Sun, Z.; Wang, H.; Shi, Y.J.; Elias, P.M.; Man, M.-Q.


    Previous studies have demonstrated that UVB radiation changes the epidermal permeability barrier and stratum corneum (SC) hydration. It is well known that sun exposure causes erythema, sunburn and melanoma. However, whether daily sun exposure alters SC integrity and epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown, especially in Chinese subjects. In the present study, we assess the SC integrity, SC hydration and epidermal permeability barrier function following various doses of sun exposure. A total of 258 subjects (124 males and 134 females) aged 18–50 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka MPA5) was used to measure SC hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearms. In males, basal TEWL was higher with higher doses of sun exposure than with lower doses and control, whereas in females, basal TEWL was higher with lower doses of sun exposure than with higher doses and control. In the group with higher doses of sun exposure, TEWL in females was significantly lower than that in males. The barrier recovery was faster in females than in males in both control and lower-dose groups. In both males and females, barrier recovery was delayed with higher doses of sun exposure. In males, sun exposure did not alter SC hydration, while in females SC hydration was lower with lower doses of sun exposure as compared with control and higher doses of sun exposure. These results demonstrated that sun-induced changes in SC function and SC hydration vary with gender and the extent of sun exposure. PMID:20571289

  5. Sun-induced changes in stratum corneum function are gender and dose dependent in a Chinese population. (United States)

    Liu, Z; Fluhr, J W; Song, S P; Sun, Z; Wang, H; Shi, Y J; Elias, P M; Man, M-Q


    Previous studies have demonstrated that UVB radiation changes the epidermal permeability barrier and stratum corneum (SC) hydration. It is well known that sun exposure causes erythema, sunburn and melanoma. However, whether daily sun exposure alters SC integrity and epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown, especially in Chinese subjects. In the present study, we assess the SC integrity, SC hydration and epidermal permeability barrier function following various doses of sun exposure. A total of 258 subjects (124 males and 134 females) aged 18-50 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka MPA5) was used to measure SC hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearms. In males, basal TEWL was higher with higher doses of sun exposure than with lower doses and control, whereas in females, basal TEWL was higher with lower doses of sun exposure than with higher doses and control. In the group with higher doses of sun exposure, TEWL in females was significantly lower than that in males. The barrier recovery was faster in females than in males in both control and lower-dose groups. In both males and females, barrier recovery was delayed with higher doses of sun exposure. In males, sun exposure did not alter SC hydration, while in females SC hydration was lower with lower doses of sun exposure as compared with control and higher doses of sun exposure. These results demonstrated that sun-induced changes in SC function and SC hydration vary with gender and the extent of sun exposure. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Documentation of normal stratum corneum scaling in an average population: features of differences among age, ethnicity and body site. (United States)

    Chu, M; Kollias, N


    Scaling skin involves an imbalance between cell proliferation and desquamation, resulting in partially detached corneocytes at the stratum corneum (SC) surface that become visible as they scatter light. The purpose of this study was to document scaling skin with no associated pathology, to estimate the range of normal corneocyte detachment in the average population, and to determine if age, pigmentation and/or body sites of different exposures contribute to differences observed in the SC. Healthy African-American and Caucasian female subjects (n = 151) from a typical central New Jersey population, aged between 14 and 75 years, were evaluated on the dorsal forearm and upper inner arm. Dermatoscopy and adhesive tape were used to evaluate the appearance and adhesion of surface corneocytes. Transepidermal water loss and conductivity were measured to assess water-handling properties of the SC. Measurements were conducted during the winter. Corneocyte detachment observed with dermatoscopy became more prevalent with age and was more severe on the dorsal forearm and in Caucasian subjects. The distribution of the amount of corneocyte removal with adhesive tape increased with age. The range of values was larger in the dorsal forearm than the upper inner arm and was greater in Caucasian subjects than African-American subjects. Minimal changes were observed for water-handling properties. The architecture of the outer SC appears different between ages, body sites of different exposures, and individuals of different pigmentation groups, but minimal differences in water-handling properties are observed. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Chemical ultraviolet absorbers topically applied in a skin barrier mimetic formulation remain in the outer stratum corneum of porcine skin. (United States)

    Haque, T; Crowther, J M; Lane, M E; Moore, D J


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fate of three chemical sunscreens, isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (IPMC), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), and bis-ethylhexylphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT), topically applied to mammalian skin from a skin barrier mimetic oil-in-water formulation. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the analysis of each molecule and validated. Franz cell permeation studies were conducted following application of finite doses of the formulations to excised porcine skin. A vehicle formulation containing no sunscreens was evaluated as a control. Permeation studies were conducted for 12h after which full mass balance studies were carried out. Analysis of individual UV sunscreens was achieved with HPLC following application of the formulation to the skin with no interference from the vehicle components. No skin permeation of any of the chemical sunscreens was evident after 12h. While sunscreens were detected in up to 12 tape strips taken from the SC, 87% or more of the applied doses recovered in the first 5 tape strips. When corrected for the amount of protein removed per tape strip this corresponded to a penetration depth in porcine stratum corneum of ∼1.7μm. Mass balance studies indicated total recovery values were within accepted guidelines for cosmetic formulations. Overall, only superficial penetration into the SC was observed for each compound. These findings are consistent with the physicochemical properties of the selected UV absorbing molecules and their formulation into an ordered biomimetic barrier formulation thus support their intended use in topical consumer formulations designed to protect from UV exposure. To our knowledge this is the first report of depth profiling of chemical sunscreens in the SC that combines tape stripping and protein determination following in vitro Franz cell studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov


    which correlates with the phase state of the membrane. This is quantified by the generalized polarization (GP) function, and we demonstrate that a GP analysis can be performed on supported membranes. The results show that although the gel domains have heterogeneous texture, the membrane phase state does......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  9. The impact of lipid composition on the stability of the tear fluid lipid layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulovesi, P.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.


    selected a number of model systems comprised of phospholipids, cholesteryl oleates, triglycerides, and free fatty acids to study how the organization, stability, and dynamics of the lipid layer depend on its composition. In particular our aim is to unravel how excess neutral lipids affect the stability...... of the tear fluid and probably prevent evaporation. We have studied the impact of lipid composition on the structural and dynamical properties of the tear lipid film using Langmuir films, X-ray diffraction, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Based on recently published lipidomic data, we have...... range of surface pressures. Decreasing the phospholipid-neutral lipid ratio, however, decreases the stability of the lipid film. This turns out to stem from the changed organization of the lipid film that varies from a layered structure to an oil droplet-like structure with decreasing phospholipid...

  10. Organizers. (United States)

    Callison, Daniel


    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  11. Lipid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  12. Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Esteban Morales


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR. In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.

  13. LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research


    Fahy, Eoin; Sud, Manish; Cotter, Dawn; Subramaniam, Shankar


    The LIPID MAPS consortium has developed a number of online tools for performing tasks such as drawing lipid structures and predicting possible structures from mass spectrometry (MS) data. A simple online interface has been developed to enable an end-user to rapidly generate a variety of lipid chemical structures, along with corresponding systematic names and ontological information. The structure-drawing tools are available for six categories of lipids: (i) fatty acyls, (ii) glycerolipids, (i...

  14. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  15. Biologic Activity of Porphyromonas endodontalis complex lipids (United States)

    Mirucki, Christopher S.; Abedi, Mehran; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran E.; Clark, Robert B.; Nichols, Frank C.


    Introduction Periapical infections secondary to pulpal necrosis are associated with bacterial contamination of the pulp. Porphyromonas endodontalis, a Gram-negative organism, is considered to be a pulpal pathogen. P. gingivalis is phylogenetically related to P. endodontalis and synthesizes several classes of novel complex lipids that possess biological activity, including the capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. The purpose of this study was to extract and characterize constituent lipids of P. endodontalis, and evaluate their capacity to promote pro-inflammatory secretory responses in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, as well as their capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and inhibit osteoblast activity. Methods Constituent lipids of both organisms were fractionated by HPLC and were structurally characterized using electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or ESI-MS/MS. The virulence potential of P. endodontalis lipids was then compared with known biologically active lipids isolated from P. gingivalis. Results P. endodontalis total lipids were shown to promote TNF-α secretion from RAW 264.7 cells and the serine lipid fraction appeared to account for the majority of this effect. P. endodontalis lipid preparations also increased osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cells but osteoblast differentiation in culture was inhibited and appeared to be dependent on TLR2 expression. Conclusions These effects underscore the importance of P. endodontalis lipids in promoting inflammatory and bone cell activation processes that could lead to periapical pathology. PMID:25146013

  16. Lipid Signaling in Tumorigenesis


    Liu, Renyan; Huang, Ying


    Lipids are important cellular building blocks and components of signaling cascades. Deregulation of lipid metabolism or signaling is frequently linked to a variety of human diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. It is widely believed that lipid molecules or their metabolic products are involved in tumorigenic inflammation and thus, lipids are implicated as significant contributors or even primary triggers of tumorigenesis. Lipids are believed to directly or indirectly...

  17. Pathogenesis of permeability barrier abnormalities in the ichthyoses: inherited disorders of lipid metabolism (United States)

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Holleran, Walter M.; Jiang, Yan J.; Schmuth, Matthias


    Many of the ichthyoses are associated with inherited disorders of lipid metabolism. These disorders have provided unique models to dissect physiologic processes in normal epidermis and the pathophysiology of more common scaling conditions. In most of these disorders, a permeability barrier abnormality “drives” pathophysiology through stimulation of epidermal hyperplasia. Among primary abnormalities of nonpolar lipid metabolism, triglyceride accumulation in neutral lipid storage disease as a result of a lipase mutation provokes a barrier abnormality via lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation within the extracellular matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). Similar mechanisms account for the barrier abnormalities (and subsequent ichthyosis) in inherited disorders of polar lipid metabolism. For example, in recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI), cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) accumulation also produces a permeability barrier defect through lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation. However, in RXLI, the desquamation abnormality is in part attributable to the plurifunctional roles of CSO4 as a regulator of both epidermal differentiation and corneodesmosome degradation. Phase separation also occurs in type II Gaucher disease (GD; from accumulation of glucosylceramides as a result of to β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency). Finally, failure to assemble both lipids and desquamatory enzymes into nascent epidermal lamellar bodies (LBs) accounts for both the permeability barrier and desquamation abnormalities in Harlequin ichthyosis (HI). The barrier abnormality provokes the clinical phenotype in these disorders not only by stimulating epidermal proliferation, but also by inducing inflammation. PMID:18245815

  18. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of topical formulations containing physiological lipid mixture for replacement of skin barrier function. (United States)

    Barba, C; Parra, J L; Coderch, L; Semenzato, A


    The aim of the study was to describe a new in vivo and in vitro approach of the efficacy evaluation of cosmetic emollients to better understand the link between the formulation and the activity of cosmetic products. Two long term in vivo studies were carried out on nine healthy Caucasian volunteers mean age 40±12 years to evaluate the protecting and repairing effects of the two different barrier repair cosmetic formulations. The application of the formulations was repeated once a day during 7 days and biophysical parameters (TEWL and Skin Hydration) were measured before and after Sodium laureth sulphate exposure The in vitro study was carried out by freeze substitution transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM) on stratum corneum samples obtained by sections of fresh skin from young pigs, depleted with a solvent mixture and treated with the two products The in vivo results demonstrated that daily product application provided a reinforcement of the skin barrier with protecting and repairing effects from chemical injuries the extent of which was dependent on the formulation features (product A>product B) The role of the technical form on the lipid availability was confirmed by the in vitro evaluation tests. The results point out that a daily application of physiological lipid mixture containing emulsion can protect healthy skin and promote the reparing effect on unpaired barrier skin, reducing TEWL and maintaining hydration of the stratum corneum. The efficacy degree is higher when the cosmetic form promotes the availability of active ingredients increasing the product performance.

  19. Application of a library of artificial receptors formed by the self-organization of N-lipidated peptides immobilized on cellulose in studying the effects of the incorporation of a fluorine atom. (United States)

    Fraczyk, Justyna; Malawska, Barbara; Kaminski, Zbigniew J


    A library of artificial receptors formed by the self-organization of N-lipidated peptides attached to cellulose via m-aminophenylamino-1,3,5-triazine was used for docking pairs of small colorless N-phenylpiperazines with and without a fluorine atom in the phenyl ring. The interactions of guests with the receptors were visualized by using competitive adsorption-desorption of an appropriate reporter dye. Several library members demonstrated attributes characteristic of the detection of alterations in the guest structure caused by the substitution of one hydrogen atom with fluorine. Analysis of the binding pattern of N-phenylpiperazine derivatives showed two characteristic bonding patterns: one with stronger binding of fluorinated analogues and weaker binding of native phenyl substituted analogues by the most of the receptors studied and another one with stronger binding of native hydrogen substituted compounds and respectively weaker binding of fluorinated analogues of guest molecules by receptors with tryptophan inside the binding pocket.

  20. Characterization of the thermotropic behavior and lateral organization of lipid-peptide mixtures by a combined experimental and theoretical approach: Effects of hydrophobic mismatch and role of flanking residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morein, S.; Killian, J.A.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena


    A combined experimental and theoretical study was performed on a series of mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and synthetic peptides to investigate their thermotropic behavior and lateral organization. The experimental study was based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC...... bilayer hydrophobic thickness, and to investigate the potential role of flanking residues. The results show that both the WALP and the KALP peptides tend to favor the liquid-crystal line (or fluid) phase of the system; i.e., they tend to depress the main-transition temperature, T-m, of pure DPPC. However......, the detailed effects of both peptides on the lateral phase behavior of the lipid-peptide system are dependent on the peptide length and the type of flanking residues. The results suggest that below T-m, the shortest among the WALP and KALP peptides induce gel-fluid phase separation in the system within...

  1. Lipids in plant-microbe interactions. (United States)

    Siebers, Meike; Brands, Mathias; Wewer, Vera; Duan, Yanjiao; Hölzl, Georg; Dörmann, Peter


    Bacteria and fungi can undergo symbiotic or pathogenic interactions with plants. Membrane lipids and lipid-derived molecules from the plant or the microbial organism play important roles during the infection process. For example, lipids (phospholipids, glycolipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids) are involved in establishing the membrane interface between the two organisms. Furthermore, lipid-derived molecules are crucial for intracellular signaling in the plant cell, and lipids serve as signals during plant-microbial communication. These signal lipids include phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, lysophospholipids, and free fatty acids derived from phospholipase activity, apocarotenoids, and sphingolipid breakdown products such as ceramide, ceramide-phosphate, long chain base, and long chain base-phosphate. Fatty acids are the precursors for oxylipins, including jasmonic acid, and for azelaic acid, which together with glycerol-3-phosphate are crucial for the regulation of systemic acquired resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue titled "Plant Lipid Biology," guest editors Kent Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch


    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  3. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON) (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia


    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

  4. Computer Simulations of Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier F. Fernandez-Luengo


    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles (LNP are promising soft matter nanomaterials for drug delivery applications. In spite of their interest, little is known about the supramolecular organization of the components of these self-assembled nanoparticles. Here, we present a molecular dynamics simulation study, employing the Martini coarse-grain forcefield, of self-assembled LNPs made by tripalmitin lipid in water. We also study the adsorption of Tween 20 surfactant as a protective layer on top of the LNP. We show that, at 310 K (the temperature of interest in biological applications, the structure of the lipid nanoparticles is similar to that of a liquid droplet, in which the lipids show no nanostructuration and have high mobility. We show that, for large enough nanoparticles, the hydrophilic headgroups develop an interior surface in the NP core that stores liquid water. The surfactant is shown to organize in an inhomogeneous way at the LNP surface, with patches with high surfactant concentrations and surface patches not covered by surfactant.

  5. Lipid biomarker investigation of the origin and diagenetic state of sub-arctic terrestrial organic matter presently exported into the northern Bothnian Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Predicted climate warming and observed increases in river discharge in the vulnerable Arctic region can lead to alterations in the flux and composition of terrestrial organic matter (terrOM) transported into high latitude coastal waters. A benchmarking of the current sources, transport and

  6. Liquid immiscibility in model bilayer lipid membranes (United States)

    Veatch, Sarah L.

    There is growing evidence that cell plasma membranes are laterally organized into "raft" regions in which particular lipids and proteins are concentrated. These domains have sub-micron dimensions and have been implicated in vital cell functions. Similar liquid domains are observed in model bilayer membrane mixtures that mimick cellular lipid compositions. In model membranes, domains can be large (microns) and can readily form in the absence of proteins. This thesis presents studies of liquid immiscibility in model membrane systems using two experimental methods. By fluorescence microscopy, this thesis documents that miscibility transitions occur in a wide variety of ternary lipid mixtures containing high melting temperature (saturated) lipids, low melting temperature (usually unsaturated) lipids, and cholesterol. I have constructed detailed miscibility phase diagrams for three separate ternary lipid mixtures (DOPC/DPPC/Chol, DOPC/PSM/Chol, and POPC/PSM/Chol). Phase separation is also observed in membranes of lipids extracted from human erythrocytes. NMR experiments probe lipid order and verify the coexistence of a saturated lipid and cholesterol rich liquid ordered (Lo) phase with a more disordered, unsaturated lipid rich liquid crystalline (Lalpha) phase at low temperatures. These experiments also find multiple thermodynamic transitions and lipid organization on different length-scales. This complexity is revealed because fluorescence microscopy and NMR probe lipid order at different length-scales (>1mum vs. ˜100nm). NMR detects small domains (˜80nm) at temperatures just below the miscibility transition, even though micron-scale domains are observed by fluorescent microscopy. NMR does detect large-scale ("100nm) demixing, but at a lower temperature. In addition, it has long been known that >10nm length-scale structure is present in many lipid mixtures containing cholesterol and at least one additional lipid species, though it is shown here that only a subset of

  7. Lipids, lysosomes, and autophagy. (United States)

    Jaishy, Bharat; Abel, E Dale


    Lipids are essential components of a cell providing energy substrates for cellular processes, signaling intermediates, and building blocks for biological membranes. Lipids are constantly recycled and redistributed within a cell. Lysosomes play an important role in this recycling process that involves the recruitment of lipids to lysosomes via autophagy or endocytosis for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. The catabolites produced are redistributed to various cellular compartments to support basic cellular function. Several studies demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between lipids and lysosomes that regulate autophagy. While lysosomal degradation pathways regulate cellular lipid metabolism, lipids also regulate lysosome function and autophagy. In this review, we focus on this bidirectional relationship in the context of dietary lipids and provide an overview of recent evidence of how lipid-overload lipotoxicity, as observed in obesity and metabolic syndrome, impairs lysosomal function and autophagy that may eventually lead to cellular dysfunction or cell death. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids. (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah


    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  9. Deposits from Creams Containing 20% (w/w) Urea and Suppression of Crystallization (Part 2): Novel Analytical Methods of Urea Accumulated in the Stratum Corneum by Tape stripping and Colorimetry. (United States)

    Goto, Norio; Morita, Yutaka; Terada, Katsuhide


    The transfer of urea from a urea formulation to the stratum corneum varies with the formulation base and form, and impacts the formulation's therapeutic effect. Consequently, determining the amount of urea transferred is essential for developing efficient formulations. This study assessed a simple method for measuring the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum. Conventional methods rely on labeling urea used in the formulation with radiocarbon ((14)C) or other radioactive isotopes (RIs), retrieving the transferred urea from the stratum corneum by tape stripping, then quantitating the urea. The handling and use of RIs, however, is subject to legal regulation and can only be performed in sanctioned facilities, so methods employing RIs are neither simple nor convenient. We therefore developed a non-radiolabel method "tape stripping-colorimetry (T-C)" that combines tape stripping with colorimetry (urease-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)) for the quantitative measurement of urea. Urea in the stratum corneum is collected by tape stripping and measured using urease-GLDH, which is commonly used to measure urea nitrogen in blood tests. The results indicate that accurate urea measurement by the T-C method requires the application of 1400 mg (on hairless rats) of a 20% urea solution on a 50 cm(2) (5×10 cm) area. Further, we determined the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum using formulations with different urea concentrations, and the time course of urea accumulation from formulations differing in the rate of urea crystallization. We demonstrate that the T-C method is simple and convenient, with no need for (14)C or other RIs.

  10. Lipid Regulation of Acrosome Exocytosis. (United States)

    Cohen, Roy; Mukai, Chinatsu; Travis, Alexander J


    Lipids are critical regulators of mammalian sperm function, first helping prevent premature acrosome exocytosis, then enabling sperm to become competent to fertilize at the right place/time through the process of capacitation, and ultimately triggering acrosome exocytosis. Yet because they do not fit neatly into the "DNA--RNA-protein" synthetic pathway, they are understudied and poorly understood. Here, we focus on three lipids or lipid classes-cholesterol, phospholipids, and the ganglioside G(M1)--in context of the modern paradigm of acrosome exocytosis. We describe how these various- species are precisely segregated into membrane macrodomains and microdomains, simultaneously preventing premature exocytosis while acting as foci for organizing regulatory and effector molecules that will enable exocytosis. Although the mechanisms responsible for these domains are poorly defined, there is substantial evidence for their composition and functions. We present diverse ways that lipids and lipid modifications regulate capacitation and acrosome exocytosis, describing in more detail how removal of cholesterol plays a master regulatory role in enabling exocytosis through at least two complementary pathways. First, cholesterol efflux leads to proteolytic activation of phospholipase B, which cleaves both phospholipid tails. The resultant changes in membrane curvature provide a mechanism for the point fusions now known to occur far before a sperm physically interacts with the zona pellucida. Cholesterol efflux also enables G(M1) to regulate the voltage-dependent cation channel, Ca(V)2.3, triggering focal calcium transients required for acrosome exocytosis in response to subsequent whole-cell calcium rises. We close with a model integrating functions for lipids in regulating acrosome exocytosis.

  11. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices. (United States)

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha


    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  12. Analyzing and Understanding Lipids of Yeast: A Challenging Endeavor. (United States)

    Kohlwein, Sepp D


    Lipids are essential biomolecules with diverse biological functions, ranging from building blocks for all biological membranes to energy substrates, signaling molecules, and protein modifiers. Despite advances in lipid analytics by mass spectrometry, the extraction and quantitative analysis of the diverse classes of lipids are still an experimental challenge. Yeast is a model organism that provides several advantages for studying lipid metabolism, because most biosynthetic pathways are well described and a great deal of information is available on the regulatory mechanisms that control lipid homeostasis. In addition, the composition of yeast lipids is much less complex than that of mammalian lipids, making yeast an excellent reference system for studying lipid-associated cell functions. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Permeation of Molecules through Skin Lipid Bilayer. (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh; Sridhar, D B; Rai, Beena


    Stratum Corneum (SC), the outermost layer of skin, is mainly responsible for skin's barrier function. The complex lipid matrix of SC determines these barrier properties. In this study, the lipid matrix is modeled as an equimolar mixture of ceramide (CER), cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acid (FFA). The permeation of water, oxygen, ethanol, acetic acid, urea, butanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene, phenol, styrene, and ethylbenzene across this layer is studied using a constrained MD simulations technique. Several long constrained simulations are performed at a skin temperature of 310 K under NPT conditions. The free energy profiles and diffusion coefficients along the bilayer normal have been calculated for each molecule. Permeability coefficients are also calculated and compared with experimental data. The main resistance for the permeation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic permeants has been found to be in the interior of the lipid bilayer and near the lipid-water interface, respectively. The obtained permeability is found to be a few orders of magnitude higher than experimental values for hydrophilic molecules while for hydrophobic molecules more discrepancy was observed. Overall, the qualitative ranking is consistent with the experiments.

  14. Lipid membranes on nanostructured silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, Andrea Lynn; Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ista, Linnea K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); O' Brien, Michael J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bisong, Paul (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Zeineldin, Reema R. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Last, Julie A.; Brueck, Stephen R. J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    A unique composite nanoscale architecture that combines the self-organization and molecular dynamics of lipid membranes with a corrugated nanotextured silicon wafer was prepared and characterized with fluorescence microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. The goal of this project was to understand how such structures can be assembled for supported membrane research and how the interfacial interactions between the solid substrate and the soft, self-assembled material create unique physical and mechanical behavior through the confinement of phases in the membrane. The nanometer scale structure of the silicon wafer was produced through interference lithography followed by anisotropic wet etching. For the present study, a line pattern with 100 nm line widths, 200 nm depth and a pitch of 360 nm pitch was fabricated. Lipid membranes were successfully adsorbed on the structured silicon surface via membrane fusion techniques. The surface topology of the bilayer-Si structure was imaged using in situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane was observed to drape over the silicon structure producing an undulated topology with amplitude of 40 nm that matched the 360 nm pitch of the silicon structure. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments found that on the microscale those same structures exhibit anisotropic lipid mobility that was coincident with the silicon substructure. The results showed that while the lipid membrane maintains much of its self-assembled structure in the composite architecture, the silicon substructure indeed influences the dynamics of the molecular motion within the membrane.

  15. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus


    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  16. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids. (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana


    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  17. Surfactant-modified yeast whole-cell biocatalyst displaying lipase on cell surface for enzymatic production of structured lipids in organic media. (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Yoshida, Ayumi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Noda, Hideo; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko


    The cell surface engineering system, in which functional proteins are genetically displayed on microbial cell surfaces, has recently become a powerful tool for applied biotechnology. Here, we report on the surfactant modification of surface-displayed lipase to improve its performance for enzymatic synthesis reactions. The lipase activities of the surfactant-modified yeast displaying Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were evaluated in both aqueous and nonaqueous systems. Despite the similar lipase activities of control and surfactant-modified cells in aqueous media, the treatment with nonionic surfactants increased the specific lipase activity of the ROL-displaying yeast in n-hexane. In particular, the Tween 20-modified cells increased the cell surface hydrophobicity significantly among a series of Tween surfactants tested, resulting in 8-30 times higher specific activity in organic solvents with relatively high log P values. The developed cells were successfully used for the enzymatic synthesis of phospholipids and fatty acid methyl esters in n-hexane, whereas the nontreated cells produced a significantly low yield. Our results thus indicate that surfactant modification of the cell surface can enhance the potential of the surface-displayed lipase for bioconversion.

  18. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia: The influence of lipid content and trophic position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deribe, Ermias, E-mail: [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Hawassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia); Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Borgstrom, Reidar [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Gebremariam, Zinabu [Higher Education Strategy Center (HESC) P.O. Box 32742, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Hawassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia); Dadebo, Elias [Hawassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia); Norli, Hans Ragnar [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Plant Health and Plant Protection Division, Pesticide Chemistry Section, Hogskoleveien 7, N-1432 As (Norway); Eklo, Ole Martin [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Plant Health and Plant Protection Division, Pesticide Chemistry Section, Hogskoleveien 7, N-1432 As (Norway)


    The concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in four fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia, representing 2-3 levels in the food chain of the lake. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorpyrifos were identified, with DDTs as the most predominant pesticide, with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 72.53 ng g{sup -1} wet weight (ww). All fish tissue samples collected from different species of the lake contained residues of DDTs. The maximum level of DDTs was found in the fattiest, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sampled from the lake, with a mean concentration of 15.15 ng g{sup -1}ww. The significant (P < 0.05) relationship between concentrations of DDTs and {delta}{sup 15}N indicates that DDTs biomagnified in the food web of the lake. The 4,4 Prime -DDE to 4,4 Prime -DDT ratio in Oreochromis niloticus (0.6) and Cyprinus carpio (0.5) were below 1, indicating ongoing use of DDTs in the study area and recent exposure of these fish species.

  19. Metabolic engineering of lipid catabolism increases microalgal lipid accumulation without compromising growth (United States)

    Trentacoste, Emily M.; Shrestha, Roshan P.; Smith, Sarah R.; Glé, Corine; Hartmann, Aaron C.; Hildebrand, Mark; Gerwick, William H.


    Biologically derived fuels are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and microalgae are a particularly promising source, but improvements are required throughout the production process to increase productivity and reduce cost. Metabolic engineering to increase yields of biofuel-relevant lipids in these organisms without compromising growth is an important aspect of advancing economic feasibility. We report that the targeted knockdown of a multifunctional lipase/phospholipase/acyltransferase increased lipid yields without affecting growth in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antisense-expressing knockdown strains 1A6 and 1B1 exhibited wild-type–like growth and increased lipid content under both continuous light and alternating light/dark conditions. Strains 1A6 and 1B1, respectively, contained 2.4- and 3.3-fold higher lipid content than wild-type during exponential growth, and 4.1- and 3.2-fold higher lipid content than wild-type after 40 h of silicon starvation. Analyses of fatty acids, lipid classes, and membrane stability in the transgenic strains suggest a role for this enzyme in membrane lipid turnover and lipid homeostasis. These results demonstrate that targeted metabolic manipulations can be used to increase lipid accumulation in eukaryotic microalgae without compromising growth. PMID:24248374

  20. Evaluation of skin surface hydration state and barrier function of stratum corneum of dorsa of hands and heels treated with PROTECT X2 skin protective cream. (United States)

    Kubota, Takahiro


    Skin roughness is a term commonly used in Japan to describe a poor skin condition related to a rough and dry skin surface that develops as a result of various damaging effects from the environment or skin inflammation. Recovery from skin roughness requires skin care for a long period, thus it is important to prevent development of such skin changes. PROTECT X2 contains agents used for a protective covering of the skin from frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based disinfectants. These unique components are also thought to be effective to treat skin roughness of the dorsa of the hands and heels. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PROTECT X2 to increase skin surface hydration state, as well as enhance the barrier function of the stratum corneum of the dorsa of the hands and heels in elderly individuals. A total of 8 elderly subjects and their caretakers without any skin diseases participated in the study. They applied PROTECT X2 by themselves to the dorsum area of 1 hand and heel 3 to 5 times daily for 1 month, while the opposite sides were left untreated. We measured stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before beginning treatment, then 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment to compare between the treated and untreated skin. SC hydration state after applications of PROTECT X2 was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than that of the untreated skin in the dorsa of both hands and heels, indicating that the moisturizing ingredients accompanied by water were replenished in those areas where the cream was applied. Also, TEWL in the dorsum of the hands was 17.0-27.9% lower on the treated side, indicating improvement in SC barrier function. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that PROTECT X2 enhances water-holding in the SC and aids the barrier function of the skin in the dorsum of the hands. In addition, we consider that this formulation is useful for not only protecting the hands from the effects of such agents

  1. DNA nanostructures interacting with lipid bilayer membranes. (United States)

    Langecker, Martin; Arnaut, Vera; List, Jonathan; Simmel, Friedrich C


    CONSPECTUS: DNA has been previously shown to be useful as a material for the fabrication of static nanoscale objects, and also for the realization of dynamic molecular devices and machines. In many cases, nucleic acid assemblies directly mimic biological structures, for example, cytoskeletal filaments, enzyme scaffolds, or molecular motors, and many of the applications envisioned for such structures involve the study or imitation of biological processes, and even the interaction with living cells and organisms. An essential feature of biological systems is their elaborate structural organization and compartmentalization, and this most often involves membranous structures that are formed by dynamic assemblies of lipid molecules. Imitation of or interaction with biological systems using the tools of DNA nanotechnology thus ultimately and necessarily also involves interactions with lipid membrane structures, and thus the creation of DNA-lipid hybrid assemblies. Due to their differing chemical nature, however, highly charged nucleic acids and amphiphilic lipids do not seem the best match for the construction of such systems, and in fact they are rarely found in nature. In recent years, however, a large variety of lipid-interacting DNA conjugates were developed, which are now increasingly being applied also for the realization of DNA nanostructures interacting with lipid bilayer membranes. In this Account, we will present the current state of this emerging class of nanosystems. After a brief overview of the basic biophysical and biochemical properties of lipids and lipid bilayer membranes, we will discuss how DNA molecules can interact with lipid membranes through electrostatic interactions or via covalent modification with hydrophobic moieties. We will then show how such DNA-lipid interactions have been utilized for the realization of DNA nanostructures attached to or embedded within lipid bilayer membranes. Under certain conditions, DNA nanostructures remain mobile on

  2. The application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the stratum corneum. (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Craig, Duncan Q M; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E


    Drug permeation through the intercellular lipids, which pack around and between corneocytes, may be enhanced by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the active in a formulation. However, this may also result in unwanted drug crystallisation on and in the skin. In this work, we explore the combination of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the skin. Ex vivo permeation studies of saturated solutions of diclofenac sodium (DF Na) in two vehicles, propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), were carried out in porcine ear skin. Tape stripping and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were conducted simultaneously to collect spectral data as a function of skin depth. Multivariate data analysis was applied to visualise and categorise the spectral data in the region of interest (1700-1500cm-1) containing the carboxylate (COO-) asymmetric stretching vibrations of DF Na. Spectral data showed the redshifts of the COO- asymmetric stretching vibrations for DF Na in the solution compared with solid drug. Similar shifts were evident following application of saturated solutions of DF Na to porcine skin samples. Multivariate data analysis categorised the spectral data based on the spectral differences and drug crystallisation was found to be confined to the upper layers of the skin. This proof-of-concept study highlights the utility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis as a simple and rapid approach in the investigation of drug deposition in the skin. The approach described here will be extended to the study of other actives for topical application to the skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.


    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  4. Lipid self-assemblies and nanostructured emulsions for cosmetic formulations


    Kulkarni, C


    A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formula...

  5. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim


    Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  6. Dry skin in the winter is related to the ceramide profile in the stratum corneum and can be improved by treatment with a Eucalyptus extract. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Junko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ito, Shotaro; Naoe, Ayano; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Zerweck, Charles; Grove, Gary Lee


    Dry skin in the winter has been reported to involve scaling, defects in water holding and barrier functions, and decreased ceramide (CER) levels in the stratum corneum (SC). We previously reported that a Eucalyptus extract promotes CER synthesis in cultured keratinocytes and accelerates the recovery of hydration in a barrier-disrupted model of human skin. One of the objectives was to examine the CER profile and its contribution to the relief of dry skin. The other objective was to assess the efficacy of a Eucalyptus extract to treat dry skin. Twenty subjects with dry skin on their legs were assessed and their CER profiles were analyzed using tape-stripping. A moisturizer with a Eucalyptus extract was assessed for its effects on dry skin using a leg regression methodology comprising 28 days of treatment and 14 days of regression. Indicators of dry skin conditions (conductance, dryness, roughness, and scaliness) strongly correlated with the level of CER, CER [NP], and CER[NH]. Treatment with the Eucalyptus extract significantly improved conductance (3 days after regression) and transepidermal water loss (14 days after regression) compared with the placebo. After 28 days of treatment with the Eucalyptus extract, the level of CER in the SC did not increase, but CER [NP] did increase. These results suggest that not only the level of CER, but also specific CER species strongly contribute to dry skin relief and products that increase those are useful to improve dry skin conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Changes in hydration of the stratum corneum are the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin. (United States)

    Fujimura, T; Shimotoyodome, Y; Nishijima, T; Sugata, K; Taguchi, H; Moriwaki, S


    Irritancy levels of surfactants on human skin have not been clarified completely. The relationships between skin damage and changes of skin properties caused by various surfactants were investigated using non-invasive measurements. Aqueous solutions of seven kinds of anionic, non-ionic, and amphoteric surfactants were exposed to the inside of forearm skin of 20 human subjects in two separate studies using the cup method. Hydration of the stratum corneum (SC), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, skin surface roughness, and contents of the SC were measured before and after one exposure and after five and nine consecutive exposures to various surfactants. The discontinuation ratio of subjects for testing in each surfactant was determined by skin irritation symptoms and was defined as the degree of skin damage. Significant changes were observed only in hydration, TEWL, and natural moisturizing factors (NMF) content in the SC following surfactant exposure. A significant correlation was observed between the discontinuation ratio of each surfactant and the changes of hydration, TEWL, and NMF. Especially, the change of SC hydration showed an excellent correlation with the discontinuation ratio both for single (r = 0.942, P surfactants, and therefore is the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Function and regulation of lipid biology in Caenorhabditis elegans aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Shangming Hou


    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding aging populations and a concomitant increase in the prevalence of age-related diseases are global health problems today. Over the past three decades, a large body of work has led to the identification of genes and regulatory networks that affect longevity and health span, often benefitting from the tremendous power of genetics in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Interestingly, many of these factors appear linked to lipids, important molecules that participate in cellular signaling, energy metabolism, and structural compartmentalization. Despite the putative link between lipids and longevity, the role of lipids in aging remains poorly understood. Emerging data from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that lipid composition may change during aging, as several pathways that influence aging also regulate lipid metabolism enzymes; moreover, some of these enzymes apparently play key roles in the pathways that affect the rate of aging. By understanding how lipid biology is regulated during C. elegans aging, and how it impacts molecular, cellular and organismal function, we may gain insight into novel ways to delay aging using genetic or pharmacological interventions. In the present review we discuss recent insights into the roles of lipids in C. elegans aging, including regulatory roles played by lipids themselves, the regulation of lipid metabolic enzymes, and the roles of lipid metabolism genes in the pathways that affect aging.

  9. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.


    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  10. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues (United States)

    Jain, Mohit; Ngoy, Soeun; Sheth, Sunil A.; Swanson, Raymond A.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Liao, Ronglih; Clish, Clary B.; Mootha, Vamsi K.


    Lipids are a diverse collection of macromolecules essential for normal physiology, but the tissue distribution and function for many individual lipid species remain unclear. Here, we report a mass spectrometry survey of lipid abundance across 18 mouse tissues, detecting ∼1,000 mass spectrometry features, of which we identify 179 lipids from the glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, lysophospholipids, acylcarnitines, sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester classes. Our data reveal tissue-specific organization of lipids and can be used to generate testable hypotheses. For example, our data indicate that circulating triglycerides positively and negatively associated with future diabetes in humans are enriched in mouse adipose tissue and liver, respectively, raising hypotheses regarding the tissue origins of these diabetes-associated lipids. We also integrate our tissue lipid data with gene expression profiles to predict a number of substrates of lipid-metabolizing enzymes, highlighting choline phosphotransferases and sterol O-acyltransferases. Finally, we identify several tissue-specific lipids not present in plasma under normal conditions that may be of interest as biomarkers of tissue injury, and we show that two of these lipids are released into blood following ischemic brain injury in mice. This resource complements existing compendia of tissue gene expression and may be useful for integrative physiology and lipid biology. PMID:24518676

  11. Interaction Forces between Lipid Rafts. (United States)

    Kurniawan, James; Ventrici, João; Kittleson, Gregory; Kuhl, Tonya L


    Cellular membranes containing sphingolipids and cholesterol have been shown to self-organize into lipid rafts-specialized domains that host integral membrane proteins and modulate the bioactivity of cells. In this work, force-distance profiles between raft membranes in the liquid-ordered phase consisting of singly unsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), a complex mixture of brain sphingomyelin (BSM), and cholesterol were measured using the surface force apparatus (SFA). Two distinct force profiles were detected corresponding to uniform raft membranes and raft membranes with a higher level of topological membrane defects (heterogeneous) as corroborated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) scans. In all cases a weak, long-range electrostatic repulsion was observed with some variation in the surface charge density. The variation in electrostatic repulsion was attributed to charged lipid species primarily from the constituent lipids in the BSM mixture. The adhesion between the uniform raft membranes was comparable to our previous work with pure component, liquid-ordered POPC-DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine)-cholesterol membranes. Raft membranes with more topological defects adhered more strongly owing to hydrophobic attraction between exposed acyl chains. Even though the rafts were in the liquid-ordered phase and membrane defects were present in the contact region, the raft membranes were stable, and no structural rearrangement was observed throughout the measurements. Our findings demonstrate that liquid-ordered membranes are stable to mechanical loading and not particularly sensitive to compositional variation.

  12. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu


    Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are compose...

  13. Analysis of Lipid Experiments (ALEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Tarasov, Kirill; Katafiasz, Maciej


    , and an auxiliary workflow using database exploration tools for integration of sample information, computation of lipid abundance and lipidome visualization. A key feature of the platform is the organization of lipidomics data in "database table format" which provides the user with an unsurpassed flexibility...... phosphatase PRG-1 (plasticity related gene-1). The presented framework is generic, extendable to processing and integration of other lipidomic data structures, can be interfaced with post-processing protocols supporting statistical testing and multivariate analysis, and can serve as an avenue...... for disseminating lipidomics data within the scientific community. The ALEX software is available at

  14. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a water- based medium at room ... Keywords. Manganese oxide; supported lipid bilayers; nanoparticles; organized assemblies. 1. Introduction .... before coating with two layers of the lipid DOMA,. DOMA+DPPC or ...

  15. Cambios temporales en el origen de la materia orgánica en las marismas del Río Miño (NW Península Ibérica) mediante marcadores lipídicos. Temporal changes in the organic matter sources in the Minho River tidal marshes (NW Iberian Península): A lipid biomarker approach.


    Rosa Arranz, José M. de la; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Fatela, F.; Araújo, María Fátima


    [EN]: The lipid biomarker distribution in a sediment core fromMinho river tidal-marshes (NW Iberian Peninsula) was studiedusing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in order to evaluate changes in the sources and distribution of organic matter (OM) in the estuary during the last centuries. The distribution of terrestrial and phytoplankton biomarker inventory reflected an heterogeneous mixture of OM from marine and terrestrial sources. Lignin derived phenols, triterpenoids and long cha...

  16. Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans lipid droplets and identification of ACS-4 as a lipid droplet-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrablik, Tracy L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Petyuk, Vladislav A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Emily M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Watts, Jennifer [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)


    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids for membrane synthesis and energy reserves. In this study, we characterized the lipid and protein composition of purified C. elegans lipid droplets. These lipid droplets are composed mainly of triacylglycerols, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer composed primarily of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols was rich in fatty acid species obtained from the dietary E. coli, including cyclopropane fatty acids and cis-vaccenic acid. Unlike other organisms, C. elegans lipid droplets contain very little cholesterol or cholesterol esters. Comparison of the lipid droplet proteomes of wild type and high-fat daf-2 mutant strains shows a relative decrease of MDT-28 abundance in lipid droplets isolated from daf-2 mutants. Functional analysis of lipid droplet proteins identified in our proteomic studies indicated an enrichment of proteins required for growth and fat homeostasis in C. elegans.

  17. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body; Radiazioni ionizzanti e perossidazione lipidica nell`organismo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Roma (Italy)


    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons.

  18. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng


    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed.

  19. Lake Superior lipids (United States)

    Fish chemistry data (d13C, d15N, C:N, lipid content) published in Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 29, 2069??2077 DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7367This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hoffman , J., M. Sierszen , and A. Cotter. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Wiley InterScience, Silver Spring, MD, USA, 29(21): 2069–2077, (2015).

  20. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana


    Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment. PMID:22988444

  1. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.


    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  2. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids. (United States)

    Bodner, George M.


    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  3. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection (United States)

    ... lipid complex is also in combination with another chemotherapy drug to treat multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow) that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other ...

  4. Performance characteristics, plasma lipids and copper residue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper proteinate) and inorganic (Copper sulphate) Cu source on growth performance, plasma lipids and copper residue in organs and tissues of cockerel chickens. 240 day-old commercial Black-Harco cockerel chicks were randomly distributed to ...

  5. Thermal Adaptation of the Archaeal and Bacterial Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Koga


    Full Text Available The physiological characteristics that distinguish archaeal and bacterial lipids, as well as those that define thermophilic lipids, are discussed from three points of view that (1 the role of the chemical stability of lipids in the heat tolerance of thermophilic organisms: (2 the relevance of the increase in the proportion of certain lipids as the growth temperature increases: (3 the lipid bilayer membrane properties that enable membranes to function at high temperatures. It is concluded that no single, chemically stable lipid by itself was responsible for the adaptation of surviving at high temperatures. Lipid membranes that function effectively require the two properties of a high permeability barrier and a liquid crystalline state. Archaeal membranes realize these two properties throughout the whole biological temperature range by means of their isoprenoid chains. Bacterial membranes meet these requirements only at or just above the phase-transition temperature, and therefore their fatty acid composition must be elaborately regulated. A recent hypothesis sketched a scenario of the evolution of lipids in which the “lipid divide” emerged concomitantly with the differentiation of archaea and bacteria. The two modes of thermal adaptation were established concurrently with the “lipid divide.”

  6. Occurrence of fatty acid chlorohydrins in jellyfish lipids. (United States)

    White, R H; Hager, L P


    Fatty acid chlorohydrins are characterized as lipid components of an edible jellyfish. The four isomers 9-chloro-10-hydroxypalmitic acid, 10-chloro-9-hydroxypalmitic acid, 9-chloro-10-hydroxystearic acid, and 10-chloro-9-hydroxystearic acid were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry comparison of the methyl esters and their trimethylsilyl derivatives with known synthetic samples. Two additional isomers, 11-chloro-12-hydroxystearic acid and 12-chloro-11-hydroxystearic acid, were also found in the lipid by the identification of the expected mass spectral fragments of the trimethylsilyl (Me3Si) derivative of their methyl esters. These six isomeric compounds represented approximately 1.4% of the total extractable jellyfish lipid and were released from the lipid as methyl esters by boron trifluoride-methanol treatment. These isomers account for only about 30% of the organic chlorine in the lipid. Evidence is given that the remaining organic chlorine is also present as fatty acid chlorohydrins containing more than one hydroxyl group.

  7. Topical Delivery of Withania somnifera Crude Extracts in Niosomes and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Lissinda H; du Preez, Jan L; Hamman, Josias H; du Plessis, Jeanetta


    Withania somnifera is a medicinal plant native to India and is known to have anticancer properties. It has been investigated for its anti-melanoma properties, and since melanoma presents on the skin, it is prudent to probe the use of W. somnifera in topical formulations. To enhance topical drug delivery and to allow for controlled release, the use of niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as delivery vesicles were explored. The objective of this study is to determine the stability and topical delivery of W. somnifera crude extracts encapsulated in niosomes and SLNs. Water, ethanol, and 50% ethanol crude extracts of W. somnifera were prepared using 24 h soxhlet extraction which were each encapsulated in niosomes and SLNs. Franz cell diffusion studies were conducted with the encapsulated extracts to determine the release and skin penetration of the phytomolecules, withaferin A, and withanolide A. The niosome and SLN formulations had average sizes ranging from 165.9 ± 9.4 to 304.6 ± 52.4 nm with the 50% ethanol extract formulations having the largest size. A small particle size seemed to have correlated with a low encapsulation efficiency (EE) of withaferin A, but a high EE of withanolide A. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the amount of withaferin A and withanolide A that were released from each of the formulations, but only the SLN formulations managed to deliver withaferin A to the stratum corneum-epidermis and epidermis-dermis layers of the skin. SLNs and niosomes were able to encapsulate crude extracts of W. somnifera and release the marker compounds, withaferin A, and withanolide A, for delivery to certain layers in the skin. Withania somnifera crude extracts were prepared using ethanol, water, and 50% ethanol as solvents. These three extracts were then incorporated into niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for use in skin diffusion studies, thus resulting in six formulations (ethanol niosome, water niosome, 50% ethanol

  8. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids (United States)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.


    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  9. A new look at lipid-membrane structure in relation to drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent


    and theoretical studies. Special attention is paid to trans-bilayer structure, lateral molecular organization of the lipid bilayer, lipid-mediated protein assembly, and lipid-bilayer permeability. It is argued that lipids play a major role in lipid membrane-organization and functionality.......Lipid-bilayer membranes are key objects in drug research in relation to (i) interaction of drugs with membrane-bound receptors, (ii) drug targeting, penetration, and permeation of cell membranes, and (iii) use of liposomes in micro-encapsulation technologies for drug delivery. Rational design...... of new drugs and drug-delivery systems therefore requries insight into the physical properties of lipid-bilayer membranes. This mini-review provides a perspective on the current view of lipid-bilayer structure and dynamics based on information obtained from a variety of recent experimental...

  10. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru


    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.

  11. Thyroid and lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Pucci, E; Chiovato, L; Pinchera, A


    Thyroid hormones influence all major metabolic pathways. Their most obvious and well-known action is an increase in basal energy expenditure obtained acting on protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. With specific regard to lipid metabolism, thyroid hormones affect synthesis, mobilization and degradation of lipids, although degradation is influenced more than synthesis. The main and best-known effects on lipid metabolism include: (a) enhanced utilization of lipid substrates; (b) increase in the synthesis and mobilization of triglycerides stored in adipose tissue; (c) increase in the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA); and (d) increase of lipoprotein-lipase activity. While severe hypothyroidism is usually associated with an increased serum concentration of total cholesterol and atherogenic lipoproteins, the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in hypothyroid patients is not frequent. However, hypothyroid patients appear to have an increased incidence of residual myocardial ischemia following AMI. Even in subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by raised serum TSH levels with normal serum thyroid hormone concentrations, mild hyperlipidemia is present and may contribute to an increased risk of atherogenesis. Prudent substitution therapy with L-thyroxine is indicated in patients with both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, with or without angina, to counteract the cardiovascular risk resulting from hyper-dyslipidemia.

  12. Lipid Binding Proteins from Parasitic Platyhelmithes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela eAlvite


    Full Text Available Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs. Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesise their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms.HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates.Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organisation, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localisation, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  13. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Entraps Amitriptyline into Plasma and Can Lower its Brain Concentration – An Experimental Intoxication Study in Pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Rosenberg, Per H


    ...s. We investigated the effect of lipid infusion on plasma and tissue concentrations of amitriptyline and haemodynamic recovery, when lipid was given after amitriptyline distribution into well‐perfused organs...

  14. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas


    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  15. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  16. Supported lipid bilayer nanosystems: stabilization by undulatory-protrusion forces and destabilization by lipid bridging. (United States)

    Savarala, Sushma; Monson, Frederick; Ilies, Marc A; Wunder, Stephanie L


    Control of the stabilization/destabilization of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on nanoparticles is important for promotion of their organized assembly and for their use as delivery vehicles. At the same time, understanding the mechanism of these processes can yield insight into nanoparticle-cell interactions and nanoparticle toxicity. In this study, the suspension/precipitation process of zwitterionic lipid/SiO(2) nanosystems was analyzed as a function of ionic strength and as a function of the ratio of lipid/SiO(2) surface areas, at pH = 7.6. Salt is necessary to induce supported lipid bilayer (SLB) formation for zwitterionic lipids on silica (SiO(2)) (Seantier, B.; Kasemo, B., Influence of Mono- and Divalent Ions on the Formation of Supported Phospholipid Bilayers via Vesicle Adsorption. Langmuir 2009, 25 (10), 5767-5772). However, for zwitterionic SLBs on SiO(2) nanoparticles, addition of salt can cause precipitation of the SLBs, due to electrostatic shielding by both the lipid and the salt and to the suppression of thermal undulation/protrusion repulsive forces for lipids on solid surfaces. At ionic strengths that cause precipitation of SLBs, it was found that addition of excess SUVs, at ratios where there were equal populations of SUVs and SLBs, restored the undulation/protrusion repulsive forces and restabilized the suspensions. We suggest that SUVs separate SLBs in the suspension, as observed by TEM, and that SLB-SLB interactions are replaced by SLB-SUV interactions. Decreasing the relative amount of lipid, to the extent that there was less lipid available than the amount required for complete bilayer coverage of the SiO(2), resulted in precipitation of the nanosystem by a process of nanoparticle lipid bridging. For this case, we postulate a process in which lipid bilayer patches on one nanoparticle collide with bare silica patches on another SiO(2) nanoparticle, forming a single bilayer bridge between them. TEM data confirmed these findings, thus

  17. Lipid intolerance in smokers. (United States)

    Axelsen, M; Eliasson, B; Joheim, E; Lenner, R A; Taskinen, M R; Smith, U


    Smokers have recently been shown to be insulin resistant and to exhibit several characteristics of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). In this study, we assessed fasting and postprandial lipid levels in healthy, normolipidaemic, chronic smokers and a matched group of non-smoking individuals. A standardized mixed meal (containing 3.78 MJ and 51 g of fat) was given in the morning after an overnight fast. The smokers were either abstinent from tobacco for 48 h or were allowed to smoke freely, including being allowed to smoke six cigarettes during the study. Twenty-two middle-aged, healthy male subjects, nine habitual smokers and 13 non-smoking control subjects, were recruited to the study. The smokers had all been smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day for at least 10 years. The smokers exhibited a lipid intolerance in that their postprandial increase in triglyceride levels was more than 50% higher than in the non-smokers' group. This lipid intolerance could not be discerned in the postabsorptive state because the fasting triglyceride levels were the same in both groups, while the smokers had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The peak postprandial triglyceride level correlated closely and negatively with fasting HDL cholesterol, indicating an impaired lipolytic removal capacity in smokers. Healthy, normotriglyceridaemic smokers exhibit an abnormal postprandial lipid metabolism consistent with lipid intolerance. It is suggested that postprandial hyperlipidaemia is a characteristic trait of the insulin resistance syndrome and that the defect in lipid removal is related to the low HDL cholesterol in this syndrome. The insulin resistance syndrome is likely to be an important reason for the increased propensity for cardiovascular disease in smokers.

  18. The protein and neutral lipid composition of lipid droplets isolated from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (United States)

    Meyers, Alex; Chourey, Karuna; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Pfiffner, Susan; Dunlap, John R; Hettich, Robert L; Dalhaimer, Paul


    Lipid droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer with bound proteins. Much of the information on lipid droplet function comes from proteomic and lipodomic studies that identify the components of droplets isolated from organisms throughout the phylogenetic tree. Here, we add to that important inventory by reporting lipid droplet factors from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Unique to this study was the fact that cells were cultured in three different environments: 1) late log growth phase in glucose-based media, 2) stationary phase in glucosebased media, and 3) late log growth phase in media containing oleic acid. We confirmed colocalization of major factors with lipid droplets using live-cell fluorescent microscopy. We also analyzed droplets from each of the three conditions for sterol ester (SE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) content, along with their respective fatty acid compositions. We identified a previously undiscovered lipid droplet protein, Vip1p, which affects droplet size distribution. The results provide further insight into the workings of these ubiquitous organelles.

  19. Ethnicity and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars


    -skinned individuals having intermediate values, and Africans having the lowest values. No statistically significant differences were found between any of the ceramide subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: We found different ceramide/cholesterol ratios in comparable groups of different ethnicity, pointing to unknown genetic...... method and analysed using high-performance thin layer chromatography. RESULTS: For the ceramide/cholesterol ratio we found statistically significant differences between groups, with Asians having the highest ratio (P

  20. How proteins move lipids and lipids move proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; van der Sluijs, P.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368


    Cells determine the bilayer characteristics of different membranes by tightly controlling their lipid composition. Local changes in the physical properties of bilayers, in turn, allow membrane deformation, and facilitate vesicle budding and fusion. Moreover, specific lipids at specific locations

  1. Lipids in Cryptomonas CR-1. I. Occurrence of Betaine Lipids


    Naoki, Sato; Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo


    Polar lipids of the cryptophyte Cryptomonas CR-1 were analyzed in detail. In addition to glycolipids and phospholipids, three Dragendorff-positive lipids were found. Two of these lipids were identified as diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS) and diacylglycerylhydroxymethyltrimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA), a recently discovered isomer of DGTS, while the least abundant lipid remains to be identified. The presence of both DGTS and DGTA, which have been widely found in green algae and brown algae, ...

  2. Self-assembly between biomacromolecules and lipids (United States)

    Liang, Hongjun

    Anionic DNA and cationic lipsomes can self-assemble into a multi-lamellar structure where two-dimensional (2-D) lipid sheets confine a periodic one-dimensional (1-D) lattice of parallel DNA chains, between which Cd2+ ions can condense, and be subsequently reacted with H 2S to template CdS nanorods with crystallographic control analogous to biomineralization. The strong electrostatic interactions align the templated CdS (002) polar planes parallel to the negatively charged sugar-phosphate DNA backbone, which indicates that molecular details of the DNA molecule are imprinted onto the inorganic crystal structure. The resultant nanorods have (002) planes tilted by ˜60° with respect to the rod axis, in contrast to all known II-VI semiconductor nanorods. Rational design of the biopolymer-membrane templates is possible, as demonstrated by the self-assembly between anionic M13 virus and cationic membrane. The filamentous virus has diameter ˜3x larger but similar surface charge density as DNA, the self-assembled complexes maintain the multi-lamellar structure, but pore sizes are ˜10x larger in area, which can be used to package and organize large functional molecules. Not only the counter-charged objects can self-assemble, the like-charged biopolymer and membrane can also self-assemble with the help of multivalent ions. We have investigated anionic lipid-DNA complexes induced by a range of divalent ions to show how different ion-mediated interactions are expressed in the self-assembled structures, which include two distinct lamellar phases and an inverted hexagonal phase. DNA can be selectively organized into or expelled out of the lamellar phases depending on membrane charge density and counterion concentration. For a subset of ion (Zn2+ etc.) at high enough concentration, 2-D inverted hexagonal phase can be formed where DNA strands are coated with anionic lipid tubes via interaction with Zn2+ ions. We suggest that the effect of ion binding on lipid's spontaneous

  3. Lipids in cheese (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  4. Salivary lipids: A review. (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof


    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  5. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas


    , studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of lipid in living plants. (United States)

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy; Neuberger, Thomas


    This review highlights technological developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are creating opportunities for the three dimensional visualization and quantification of lipids in plant materials. A major feature of MRI is that it is a non-invasive platform, and thus can be used for the analysis of living organisms. An overview of the theoretical aspects of MRI is provided, followed by a description of the various analytical modes available, and an explanation of how MRI can be applied to plant samples and what it can achieve. Various lipid maps and three dimensional models of seeds and fruits are included to demonstrate the potential of MRI and to exemplify recent cutting-edge advances in the field. The importance and prospects of the imaging of lipids in living plants, as well as the integration of lipid imaging with other emerging techniques, are outlined to provide impetus for future plant lipid research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Kulkarni


    Full Text Available A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications.

  8. Homeoviscous adaptation and the regulation of membrane lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Robert; Ejsing, Christer S; Antonny, Bruno


    Biological membranes are complex and dynamic assemblies of lipids and proteins. Poikilothermic organisms including bacteria, fungi, reptiles, and fish do not control their body temperature and must adapt their membrane lipid composition in order to maintain membrane fluidity in the cold....... This adaptive response was termed homeoviscous adaptation and has been frequently studied with a specific focus on the acyl chain composition of membrane lipids. Massspectrometry-based lipidomics can nowadays provide more comprehensive insights into the complexity of lipid remodeling during adaptive responses....... Eukaryotic cells compartmentalize biochemical processes in organelles with characteristic surface properties, and the lipid composition of organelle membranes must be tightly controlled in order to maintain organelle function and identity during adaptive responses. Some highly differentiated cells...

  9. The rational design of biomimetic skin barrier lipid formulations using biophysical methods. (United States)

    Bulsara, P A; Varlashkin, P; Dickens, J; Moore, D J; Rawlings, A V; Clarke, M J


    The focus of this communication was to study phospholipid-structured emulsions whose phase behaviour is modified with monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles. Ideally, these systems would mimic key physical and structural attributes observed in human stratum corneum (SC) so that they better alleviate xerotic skin conditions. Phosphatidylcholine-structured emulsions were prepared, and their phase behaviour modified with monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles. The effect of molecular volume, acyl chain length and head-group interactions was studied using a combination of physical methods. Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) was used as a primary test to assess occlusive character. Changes in the vibrational modes observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and bilayer spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) were then applied to elucidate the lateral and lamellar microstructural characteristics in the systems. Water vapour transmission rate demonstrated that as the phosphatidylcholine acyl chain length increased from C14, to C18, to C22, there was a corresponding increase in occlusive character. The addition of monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles such as behenic acid, behenyl alcohol or cetostearyl alcohol to a base formulation incorporating dipalmitoyl and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (C18) was seen to further increase barrier characteristics of the emulsions. FTIR methods used to probe lipid-chain conformational ordering demonstrated that as phosphatidylcholine acyl chain lengths increased, there was a corresponding improvement in acyl chain ordering, with an increase in thermal transition temperatures. The addition of a monoalkyl fatty amphiphile resulted in conformational order and thermal transition temperature improvements trending towards those observed in stratum corneum. FTIR also demonstrated that systems containing behenic acid or behenyl alcohol exhibited features associated with orthorhombic character. X-ray diffraction data showed that addition of monoalkyl fatty

  10. Optimal composition of intravenous lipids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal composition of intravenous lipids. The composition of an intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion is of great importance in parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, as most of its effects depend on the kind of fatty acids included and their respective ratio to each other. Today´s lipid emulsions may include four classes of different fatty ...

  11. Lipid domains in bicelles containing unsaturated lipids and cholesterol. (United States)

    Cho, Hyo Soon; Dominick, Johnna L; Spence, Megan M


    We have created a stable bicelle system capable of forming micrometer-scale lipid domains that orient in a magnetic field, suitable for structural biology determination in solid-state NMR. The bicelles consisted of a mixture of cholesterol, saturated lipid (DMPC), and unsaturated lipid (POPC), a mixture commonly used to create domains in model membranes, along with a short chain lipid (DHPC) that allows formation of the bicelle phase. While maintaining a constant molar ratio of long to short chain lipids, q = ([POPC]+[DMPC])/[DHPC] = 3, we varied the concentrations of the unsaturated lipid, POPC, and cholesterol to observe the effects of the components on bicelle stability. Using (31)P solid-state NMR, we observed that unsaturated lipids (POPC) greatly destabilized the alignment of the membranes in the magnetic field, while cholesterol stabilized their alignment. By combining cholesterol and unsaturated lipids in the bicelles, we created membranes aligning uniformly in the magnetic field, despite very high concentrations of unsaturated lipids. These bicelles, with high concentrations of both cholesterol and unsaturated lipid, showed similar phase behavior to bicelles commonly used in structural biology, but aligned over a wider temperature range (291-314 K). Domains were observed by measuring time-dependent diffusion constants reflecting restricted diffusion of the lipids within micrometer-scale regions of the bicelles. Micron-scale domains have never been observed in POPC/DMPC/cholesterol vesicles, implying that bilayers in bicelles show different phase behavior than their counterparts in vesicles, and that bilayers in bicelles favor domain formation.

  12. Hormones regulating lipid metabolism and plasma lipids in childhood obesity. (United States)

    Gil-Campos, M; Cañete, R; Gil, A


    To review the mechanisms by which leptin, insulin and adiponectin influence lipid metabolism and plasma lipids in obesity, as well as to describe the associations between these hormones in prepubertal children. Revision of relevant papers published in the last 5 y related to the interactions of leptin, insulin and adiponectin, with special emphasis on those reporting potential mechanisms by which these hormones regulate lipid metabolism and plasma lipids. We also provide original results concerning the relationships found between plasma lipids and leptin, and insulin and adiponectin in prepubertal obese children. Recent data in the literature shed new light to explain the effects of both leptin and adiponectin in the regulation of lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues. Activation of the AMP-dependent kinase pathway and subsequent increased fatty acid oxidation seems to be the main mechanism of action of these hormones in the regulation of lipid metabolism. In addition, we have found that insulin plasma levels are positively associated to leptin but negatively correlated with adiponectin in obese children. Adiponectin is negatively associated to plasma lipid markers of metabolic syndrome but positively related to HDL-cholesterol, whereas insulin and leptin show opposite patterns. These results support the effect of adiponectin in increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma triglycerides. Leptin, insulin and adiponectin are associated hormones that regulate lipid metabolism in childhood. Adiponectin appears to be the missing link to explain the alterations in lipid metabolism and plasma lipids seen in obesity.

  13. Proving lipid rafts exist: membrane domains in the prokaryote Borrelia burgdorferi have the same properties as eukaryotic lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J LaRocca

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease [LaRocca et al. (2010 Cell Host & Microbe 8, 331-342]. Here, we show that these prokaryote membrane domains have the hallmarks of eukaryotic lipid rafts, despite lacking sphingolipids. Substitution experiments replacing cholesterol lipids with a set of sterols, ranging from strongly raft-promoting to raft-inhibiting when mixed with eukaryotic sphingolipids, showed that sterols that can support ordered domain formation are both necessary and sufficient for formation of B. burgdorferi membrane domains that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy or in living organisms by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. Raft-supporting sterols were also necessary and sufficient for formation of high amounts of detergent resistant membranes from B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, having saturated acyl chains was required for a biotinylated lipid to associate with the cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in B. burgdorferi, another characteristic identical to that of eukaryotic lipid rafts. Sterols supporting ordered domain formation were also necessary and sufficient to maintain B. burgdorferi membrane integrity, and thus critical to the life of the organism. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of lipid rafts and show that the same principles of lipid raft formation apply to prokaryotes and eukaryotes despite marked differences in their lipid compositions.

  14. The role of lipids in host microbe interactions. (United States)

    Lang, Roland; Mattner, Jochen


    Lipids are one of the major subcellular constituents and serve as signal molecules, energy sources, metabolic precursors and structural membrane components in various organisms. The function of lipids can be modified by multiple biochemical processes such as (de-)phosphorylation or (de-)glycosylation, and the organization of fatty acids into distinct cellular pools and subcellular compartments plays a pivotal role for the morphology and function of various cell populations. Thus, lipids regulate, for example, phagosome formation and maturation within host cells and thus, are critical for the elimination of microbial pathogens. Vice versa, microbial pathogens can manipulate the lipid composition of phagosomal membranes in host cells, and thus avoid their delivery to phagolysosomes. Lipids of microbial origin belong also to the strongest and most versatile inducers of mammalian immune responses upon engagement of distinct receptors on myeloid and lymphoid cells. Furthermore, microbial lipid toxins can induce membrane injuries and cell death. Thus, we will review here selected examples for mutual host-microbe interactions within the broad and divergent universe of lipids in microbial defense, tissue injury and immune evasion.

  15. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens. (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K


    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rab32 is important for autophagy and lipid storage in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of all organisms. Within cells, lipids are mainly stored in a specific type of organelle, called the lipid droplet. The molecular mechanisms governing the dynamics of lipid droplets have been little explored. The protein composition of lipid droplets has been analyzed in numerous proteomic studies, and a large number of lipid droplet-associated proteins have been identified, including Rab small GTPases. Rab proteins are known to participate in many intracellular membranous events; however, their exact role in lipid droplets is largely unexplored. Here we systematically investigate the roles of Drosophila Rab family proteins in lipid storage in the larval adipose tissue, fat body. Rab32 and several other Rabs were found to affect the size of lipid droplets as well as lipid levels. Further studies showed that Rab32 and Rab32 GEF/Claret may be involved in autophagy, consequently affecting lipid storage. Loss-of-function mutants of several components in the autophagy pathway result in similar effects on lipid storage. These results highlight the potential functions of Rabs in regulating lipid metabolism.

  17. Enhancement of the in vitro penetration of quercetin through pig skin by combined microneedles and lipid microparticles. (United States)

    Paleco, Roberto; Vučen, Sonja R; Crean, Abina M; Moore, Anne; Scalia, Santo


    Silicon microneedle patches were investigated, alone or in combination with lipid microparticles (LMs), as a system to improve the in vitro skin penetration of the antioxidant flavonoid, quercetin. LMs loaded with quercetin were prepared by melt emulsification and sonication. The flavonoid content of LMs was 11.7±0.3% and their mean diameter and polydispersity index were 8.1 μm and 0.66, respectively. Emulsions containing quercetin, free or microencapsulated, were applied to untreated- or microneedle-treated pig skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells. The amount of flavonoid penetrated into the stratum corneum and viable epidermis were measured by HPLC, after validated tape-stripping and bead mill homogenization procedures, respectively. Compared to intact skin, a marked increase in quercetin levels permeated into the stratum corneum (from 1.19 ± 0.12 μg/cm(2) to 2.23 ± 0.54 μg/cm(2)) and viable epidermis (from 0.10 ± 0.01 μg/cm(2) to 0.56 ± 0.27 μg/cm(2)) was achieved when skin was treated with the flavonoid-loaded LMs in combination with microneedle arrays. Conversely, perforation of the cutaneous surface by microneedles did not produce any significant improvement in the skin penetration of non-encapsulated quercetin. The enhanced (5.5-fold) intra-epidermal delivery of quercetin attained by the LM/microneedle strategy described here, is particularly relevant since the main quercetin site of action is in the epidermis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical Skin Cancer Therapy Using Doxorubicin-Loaded Cationic Lipid Nanoparticles and lontophoresis. (United States)

    Huber, Lucas A; Pereira, Tatiana A; Ramos, Danielle N; Rezende, Lucas C D; Emery, Flávio S; Sobral, Lays Martin; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Lopez, Renata F V


    The topical administration of chemotherapeutics is a promising approach for the treatment of skin cancer; however, different pharmaceutical strategies are required to allow large amounts of drug to penetrate tumors. This work examined the potential of the anodic iontophoresis of doxorubicin-loaded cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (DOX-SLN) to increase the distribution and tumor penetration of DOX. A double-labeled cationic DOX-SLN composed of the lipids stearic acid and monoolein and a new BODIPY dye was prepared and characterized. The skin distribution and penetration of DOX were evaluated in vitro using confocal microscopy and vertical diffusion cells, respectively. The antitumor potential was evaluated in vivo through the anodic iontophoresis of DOX-SLN in squamous cell carcinoma induced in nude BALB/c mice. The encapsulation of DOX drastically altered the DOX partition coefficient and increased the distribution of DOX in the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). The association with iontophoresis created high-concentration drug reservoir zones in the follicles of the skin. Although the iontophoresis of a DOX solution increased the penetration of DOX in the viable epidermis by approximately 4-fold, the iontophoresis of cationic DOX-SLN increased the DOX penetration by approximately 50-fold. In vivo, the DOX-SLN iontophoretic treatment was effective in inhibiting tumor cell survival and tumor growth and was accompanied by an increase in keratinization and consequent cell death. These results indicate a strong and synergic effect of iontophoresis with DOX-SLN and provide a potential strategy for the treatment of skin cancer.

  19. Tear Film Lipids (United States)

    Butovich, Igor A.


    Human meibomian gland secretions (MGS, or meibum) are formed from a complex mixture of lipids of different classes such as wax esters, cholesteryl esters, (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA) and their esters, acylglycerols, diacylated diols, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and a smaller amount of other polar and nonpolar lipids, whose chemical nature and the very presence in MGS have been a matter of intense debates. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent results that were obtained using different experimental techniques, estimate limitations of their usability, and discuss their biochemical, biophysical, and physiological implications. To create a lipid map of MGS and tears, the results obtained in the author’s laboratory were integrated with available information on chemical composition of MGS and tears. The most informative approaches that are available today to researchers, such as HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and proton NMR, are discussed in details. A map of the meibomian lipidome (as it is seen in reverse phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments) is presented. Directions of future efforts in the area are outlined. PMID:23769846

  20. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.


    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  1. Lysosomal exocytosis and lipid storage disorders (United States)

    Samie, Mohammad Ali; Xu, Haoxing


    Lysosomes are acidic compartments in mammalian cells that are primarily responsible for the breakdown of endocytic and autophagic substrates such as membranes, proteins, and lipids into their basic building blocks. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of metabolic disorders caused by genetic mutations in lysosomal hydrolases required for catabolic degradation, mutations in lysosomal membrane proteins important for catabolite export or membrane trafficking, or mutations in nonlysosomal proteins indirectly affecting these lysosomal functions. A hallmark feature of LSDs is the primary and secondary excessive accumulation of undigested lipids in the lysosome, which causes lysosomal dysfunction and cell death, and subsequently pathological symptoms in various tissues and organs. There are more than 60 types of LSDs, but an effective therapeutic strategy is still lacking for most of them. Several recent in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that induction of lysosomal exocytosis could effectively reduce the accumulation of the storage materials. Meanwhile, the molecular machinery and regulatory mechanisms for lysosomal exocytosis are beginning to be revealed. In this paper, we first discuss these recent developments with the focus on the functional interactions between lipid storage and lysosomal exocytosis. We then discuss whether lysosomal exocytosis can be manipulated to correct lysosomal and cellular dysfunction caused by excessive lipid storage, providing a potentially general therapeutic approach for LSDs. PMID:24668941

  2. Microemulsion extrusion technique: a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Marcelo Bispo de, E-mail:; Radaic, Allan [University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology (Brazil); Zuhorn, Inge S. [University of Groningen, Department of Membrane Cell Biology, University Medical Center (Netherlands); Paula, Eneida de [University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology (Brazil)


    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization is the standard technique that is adopted nowadays. Although this method has a high efficiency, does not require the use of organic solvents, and allows large-scale production, some limitations impede its application at laboratory scale: the equipment is expensive, there is a need of huge amounts of surfactants and co-surfactants during the preparation, and the operating conditions are energy intensive. Here, we present the microemulsion extrusion technique as an alternative method to prepare lipid nanoparticles. The parameters to produce lipid nanoparticles using microemulsion extrusion were established, and the lipid particles produced (SLN, NLC, and liposomes) were characterized with regard to size (from 130 to 190 nm), zeta potential, and drug (mitoxantrone) and gene (pDNA) delivery properties. In addition, the particles' in vitro co-delivery capacity (to carry mitoxantrone plus pDNA encoding the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN) was tested in normal (BALB 3T3 fibroblast) and cancer (PC3 prostate and MCF-7 breast) cell lines. The results show that the microemulsion extrusion technique is fast, inexpensive, reproducible, free of organic solvents, and suitable for small volume preparations of lipid nanoparticles. Its application is particularly interesting when using rare and/or costly drugs or ingredients (e.g., cationic lipids for gene delivery or labeled lipids for nanoparticle tracking/diagnosis)

  3. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems (United States)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  4. Lipid peroxidation in cell death. (United States)

    Gaschler, Michael M; Stockwell, Brent R


    Disruption of redox homeostasis is a key phenotype of many pathological conditions. Though multiple oxidizing compounds such as hydrogen peroxide are widely recognized as mediators and inducers of oxidative stress, increasingly, attention is focused on the role of lipid hydroperoxides as critical mediators of death and disease. As the main component of cellular membranes, lipids have an indispensible role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells. Excessive oxidation of lipids alters the physical properties of cellular membranes and can cause covalent modification of proteins and nucleic acids. This review discusses the synthesis, toxicity, degradation, and detection of lipid peroxides in biological systems. Additionally, the role of lipid peroxidation is highlighted in cell death and disease, and strategies to control the accumulation of lipid peroxides are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chlorosome lipids from Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Grove; Cox, Raymond Pickett; Miller, Mette


    We have extracted polar lipids and waxes from isolated chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum and determined the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. Polar lipids amounted to 4.8 mol per 100 mol bacteriochlorophyll in the chlorosomes, while non-polar lipids (waxes......) were present at a ratio of 5.9 mol per 100 mol bacteriochlorophyll. Glycolipids constitute 60 % of the polar lipids while phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an aminoglycosphingolipid make up respectively 15, 3, 8 and 12 %. A novel glycolipid was identified...... as a rhamnose derivative of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, while the other major glycolipid was monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Tetradecanoic acid was the major fatty acid in the aminoglycosphingolipid, while the other polar lipids contained predominantly hexandecanoic acid. The chlorosome waxes are esters...

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of designer lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B.L.A. Prabhavathi


    Full Text Available Even though natural oils and fats play an important role in human nutrition, its excessive intake became major cause for so many health related problems and hence designer lipids came into focus. Designed or structured lipids are nothing but tailor-made oils and fats with improved physical and organoleptic properties to enhance the role of fats and oils in food, nutrition, and health applications. These designer lipids can be produced by chemical- or enzymatic (interesterification reactions and genetic engineering of oilseed crops. This review gives a general idea about the enzymatic modifications of natural lipids and their derivatives for the preparation of designer lipids. The commercialization outlook, food, nutritional and pharmaceutical applications of designer lipids are also briefly discussed.

  7. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus) (United States)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.


    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  8. Enzymatic synthesis of designer lipids


    Devi B.L.A. Prabhavathi; Zhang Hong; Damstrup Marianne L.; Guo Zheng; Zhang Long; Lue Bena-Marie; Xu Xuebing


    Even though natural oils and fats play an important role in human nutrition, its excessive intake became major cause for so many health related problems and hence designer lipids came into focus. Designed or structured lipids are nothing but tailor-made oils and fats with improved physical and organoleptic properties to enhance the role of fats and oils in food, nutrition, and health applications. These designer lipids can be produced by chemical- or enzymatic (inter)esterification reactions ...

  9. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates (United States)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick


    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  10. Studies on lipid artificial tears


    Torrent Burgués, Juan


    Report-review sobre llàgrima artificial, llàgrima lipídica. The use of artificial tears is related with dry eye problems or ocular irritations. It exist different types of artificial tears. One type of them is the lipid artificial tears which tray to repair or improve the lipid layer present in the outermostpart of the tear film. Several lipid artificial tears are present in the market and commercialised by several companies. In the composition of some of these lipid tears occurs as a prin...

  11. New worldwide lipid guidelines. (United States)

    Saraf, Smriti; Ray, Kausik K


    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most countries. Modification of common risk factors such as dyslipidaemia can result in significant reduction of ASCVD incidence in the population and improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss and compare the latest worldwide lipid guidelines, and to demonstrate the variation in practice in different parts of the world. The lipid guidelines have recently been updated in different countries. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines in the United Kingdom were issued in July 2014, are risk based and are broadly similar to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force guidelines that were published in November 2013. Both these guidelines are in variance with both the Canadian Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society guidelines 2011, which are target based and have different risk scoring systems, which results in significant variation in practice and increased healthcare costs in certain countries. The difference in guidelines in different countries makes it difficult for the clinician to standardize the treatment provided to individuals. The variance in risk scoring systems makes it difficult to compare risk prediction tools across countries and hence the optimum treatment available for a given population. Standardization of guidelines based on randomized controlled trial data and validation and calibration of various risk scoring systems could help improve clinical outcomes in this high-risk group of individuals at risk of ASCVD within individual countries.

  12. Yeast lipids can phase separate into micrometer-scale membrane domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Christian; Ejsing, Christer S; Garcia-Saez, Ana J


    The lipid raft concept proposes that biological membranes have the potential to form functional domains based on a selective interaction between sphingolipids and sterols. These domains seem to be involved in signal transduction and vesicular sorting of proteins and lipids. Although...... there is biochemical evidence for lipid raft-dependent protein and lipid sorting in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, direct evidence for an interaction between yeast sphingolipids and the yeast sterol ergosterol, resulting in membrane domain formation, is lacking. Here we show that model membranes formed from yeast...... total lipid extracts possess an inherent self-organization potential resulting in Ld-Lo phase coexistence at physiologically relevant temperature. Analyses of lipid extracts from mutants defective in sphingolipid metabolism as well as reconstitution of purified yeast lipids in model membranes of defined...

  13. Nuclear Lipids in the Nervous System: What they do in Health and Disease. (United States)

    Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Albi, Elisabetta


    In the last 20 years it has been widely demonstrated that cell nucleus contains neutral and polar lipids localized in nuclear membranes, nucleoli, nuclear matrix and chromatin. Nuclear lipids may show specific organization forming nuclear lipid microdomains and have both structural and functional roles. Depending on their localization, nuclear lipids play different roles such as the regulation of nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix fluidity but they also can act as platforms for vitamin and hormone function, for active chromatin anchoring, and for the regulation of gene expression, DNA duplication and transcription. Crosstalk among different kinds of lipid signalling pathways influence the physiopathology of numerous cell types. In neural cells the nuclear lipids are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, migration and apoptosis. Abnormal metabolism of nuclear lipids might be closely associated with tumorigenesis and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease among others.

  14. On the lipid composition of human meibum and tears: comparative analysis of nonpolar lipids. (United States)

    Butovich, Igor A


    To qualitatively compare the nonpolar lipids present in meibomian gland (MG) secretions (samples T1) with aqueous tears (AT) collected from the lower tear menisci of healthy, non-dry eye volunteers using either glass microcapillaries (samples T2) or Schirmer test strips (samples T3). Samples T1 to T3 were analyzed with the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography/positive ion mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Where possible, the unknown lipids were compared with known standards. Samples T1 had the simplest lipid composition among all the tested specimens. Samples T2 and T3 were similar to each other but were noticeably different from samples T1. In addition to all the compounds detected in samples T1, lower molecular weight wax esters and other compounds were found in samples T2 and T3. No appreciable amounts of fatty acid amides (e.g., oleamide), ceramides, or monoacyl glycerols were routinely detected. The occasionally observed minor signals of oleamide (m/z 282) in samples T3 were attributed to the contamination of the samples with common plasticizers routinely found in plastic ware extractives and organic solvents. The MG is a prominent source of lipids for the tear film. However, it would have been a mistake to exclude from consideration other likely sources of lipids such as conjunctiva, cornea, and tears produced by the lacrimal glands. These data showed that lipids in AT are more complex than MG secretions, which necessitates more cautious interpretation of the functions of the latter in the tear film.

  15. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of loratadine (LRT) for the treatment of allergic skin reactions. Methods: SLN and NLC were prepared by high pressure homogenization method. Their entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) were determined.

  16. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid. Carriers of Loratadine for Topical Application: Physicochemical Stability and Drug Penetration through. Rat Skin. Melike Üner1*, Ecem Fatma Karaman1 and Zeynep Aydoğmuş2. Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, ...

  17. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.


    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin

  18. Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and immunologic factor in coronary artery disease in East Azarbijan. Khaki-khatibi F1*, Yaghoubi A.R2, Rahbani N.M1. 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, 2Cardiovascular Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz. University of Medical Sciences. Tabriz ...

  19. Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle: The Chase for the Culprit Goes from Total Intramuscular Fat to Lipid Intermediates, and Finally to Species of Lipid Intermediates. (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y


    The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. It plays a particularly pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, as it can account for up to 40% of the body and for up to 80%-90% of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Hence, insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle has been a focus of much research and review. The fact that skeletal muscle IR precedes β-cell dysfunction makes it an ideal target for countering the diabetes epidemic. It is generally accepted that the accumulation of lipids in the skeletal muscle, due to dietary lipid oversupply, is closely linked with IR. Our understanding of this link between intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and glycemic control has changed over the years. Initially, skeletal muscle IR was related to total IMCL. The inconsistencies in this explanation led to the discovery that particular lipid intermediates are more important than total IMCL. The two most commonly cited lipid intermediates for causing skeletal muscle IR are ceramides and diacylglycerol (DAG) in IMCL. Still, not all cases of IR and dysfunction in glycemic control have shown an increase in either or both of these lipids. In this review, we will summarise the latest research results that, using the lipidomics approach, have elucidated DAG and ceramide species that are involved in skeletal muscle IR in animal models and human subjects.

  20. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties. (United States)

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L


    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  1. Lipid mobility in supported lipid bilayers by single molecule tracking (United States)

    Kohram, Maryam; Shi, Xiaojun; Smith, Adam


    Phospholipid bilayers are the main component of cell membranes and their interaction with biomolecules in their immediate environment is critical for cellular functions. These interactions include the binding of polycationic polymers to lipid bilayers which affects many cell membrane events. As an alternative method of studying live cell membranes, we assemble a supported lipid bilayer and investigate its binding with polycationic polymers in vitro by fluorescently labeling the molecules of the supported lipid bilayer and tracking their mobility. In this work, we use single molecule tracking total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) to study phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids with and without an adsorbed polycationic polymer, quaternized polyvinylpyridine (QPVP). Individual molecular trajectories are obtained from the experiment, and a Brownian diffusion model is used to determine diffusion coefficients through mean square displacements. Our results indicate a smaller diffusion coefficient for the supported lipid bilayers in the presence of QPVP in comparison to its absence, revealing that their binding causes a decrease in lateral mobility.

  2. Food processing and lipid oxidation. (United States)

    German, J B


    Food lipids are principally triacylglycerides, phospholipids and sterols found naturally in most biological materials consumed as food and added as functional ingredients in many processed foods. As nutrients, lipids, especially triglycerides, are a concentrated caloric source, provide essential fatty acids and are a solvent and absorption vehicle for fat-soluble vitamins and other nutrients. The presence of fat significantly enhances the organoleptic perception of foods, which partly explains the strong preference and market advantage of fat-rich foods. As a class, lipids contribute many desirable qualities to foods, including attributes of texture, structure, mouthfeel, flavor and color. However, lipids are also one of the most chemically unstable food components and will readily undergo free-radical chain reactions that not only deteriorate the lipids but also: (a) produce oxidative fragments, some of which are volatile and are perceived as the off-flavors of rancidity, (b) degrade proteins, vitamins and pigments and (c) cross-link lipids and other macromolecules into non-nutritive polymers. Free-radical chain reactions are thermodynamically favorable, and as a result, evolutionary selection has strongly influenced the chemistry, metabolism and structure of biological cells to prevent these reactions kinetically. However, the loss of native structure and the death of cells can dramatically accelerate the deteriorative reactions of lipid oxidation. The effects of all processing steps, including raw product selection, harvesting, storage, refining, manufacturing and distribution, on the quality of lipids in the final commodity are considerable. Certain key variables now known to influence oxidative processes can be targeted to increase food lipid stability during and after processing. Retention of or addition of exogenous antioxidants is a well-known consideration, but the presence and activity of catalysts, the integrity of tissues and cells, the quantity of

  3. The effects of a topical lipid complex therapy on dogs with atopic dermatitis: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Hobi, Stefan; Klinger, Christoph; Classen, Janine; Mueller, Ralf S


    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common clinical presentation. The skin barrier seems to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis. Therefore a topical spot-on product containing a mixture of lipids may improve clinical signs without adverse effects if it were to improve stratum corneum barrier function. Twenty six privately owned atopic dogs of different breed, age, gender and weight were included in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. To evaluate potential clinical benefits and influence on skin barrier function of a topical lipid-containing product applied to the skin of atopic dogs. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed by adequate testing and the exclusion of other possible pruritic diseases. Dogs were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. A spot-on product containing different types of lipids was applied twice weekly to predisposed and affected areas. The placebo preparation contained only the excipients. The clinical effects were regularly verified with a Visual Analog Score and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index. A medication score was calculated and barrier function was evaluated by means of transepidermal water loss and pH measurements. Twenty three dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the evaluated parameters. Adverse effects were not noted. This study could not confirm significant clinical improvement when using the product compared to the placebo, although its use was not associated with adverse effects. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Electrowetting on dielectric-based microfluidics for integrated lipid bilayer formation and measurement (United States)

    Poulos, Jason L.; Nelson, Wyatt C.; Jeon, Tae-Joon; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''; Schmidt, Jacob J.


    We present a microfluidic platform for the formation and electrical measurement of lipid bilayer membranes. Using electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD), two or more aqueous droplets surrounded by a lipid-containing organic phase were manipulated into contact to form a lipid bilayer at their interface. Thin-film Ag/AgCl electrodes integrated into the device enabled electrical measurement of membrane formation and the incorporation of gramicidin channels of two bilayers in parallel.

  5. Kandungan Lipid Beberapa Jenis Sianobakteria Laut Sebagai Bahan Sumber Penghasil Biodiesel


    Sobari, Rifana; Susanto, Antonius Budi; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Rahma, Delicia Yunita


    Microalgae are an organism that contains of chlorophyll, so it can make the process of photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis is the content of lipid producing microalgae as a potential feedstock biodiesel producer. Microalgae have the ability to generate huge natural oils (lipids). The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristic of morfologi and growth of microalgae marine cyanobacteria of Indonesian water that have the most lipid content, so it can be used as raw material ...

  6. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts. (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe


    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji


    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  8. Lipid Mediators in Acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ottaviani


    Full Text Available Multiple factors are involved in acne pathogenesis, and sebum secretion is one of the main ones. The role sebum plays in acne development has not been completely elucidated yet; however, increasing amounts of data seem to confirm the presence of alterations in sebum from acne patients. Altered ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids has been indicated as an important feature to be considered in addition to the altered amount of specific fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Furthermore, particular attention has been focused on squalene peroxide that seems to be able to induce an inflammatory response beyond cytotoxicity and comedones formation. Moreover, recent data suggest that lipid mediators are able to interfere with sebocytes differentiation and sebogenesis through the activation of pathways related to peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for acne treatment.

  9. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P


    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...

  10. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  11. Lipids in liver transplant recipients (United States)

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H


    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  12. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids. (United States)

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel


    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  13. Aspirin inhibits formation of cholesterol rafts in fluid lipid membranes. (United States)

    Alsop, Richard J; Toppozini, Laura; Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Harroun, Thad A; Rheinstädter, Maikel C


    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have a high affinity for phospholipid membranes, altering their structure and biophysical properties. Aspirin has been shown to partition into the lipid head groups, thereby increasing membrane fluidity. Cholesterol is another well known mediator of membrane fluidity, in turn increasing membrane stiffness. As well, cholesterol is believed to distribute unevenly within lipid membranes leading to the formation of lipid rafts or plaques. In many studies, aspirin has increased positive outcomes for patients with high cholesterol. We are interested if these effects may be, at least partially, the result of a non-specific interaction between aspirin and cholesterol in lipid membranes. We have studied the effect of aspirin on the organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes containing cholesterol. Through Langmuir-Blodgett experiments we show that aspirin increases the area per lipid and decreases compressibility at 32.5 mol% cholesterol, leading to a significant increase of fluidity of the membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry provides evidence for the formation of meta-stable structures in the presence of aspirin. The molecular organization of lipids, cholesterol and aspirin was studied using neutron diffraction. While the formation of rafts has been reported in binary DPPC/cholesterol membranes, aspirin was found to locally disrupt membrane organization and lead to the frustration of raft formation. Our results suggest that aspirin is able to directly oppose the formation of cholesterol structures through non-specific interactions with lipid membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methanol-Promoted Lipid Remodelling during Cooling Sustains Cryopreservation Survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanpeng Yang

    Full Text Available Cryogenic treatments and cryoprotective agents (CPAs determine the survival rate of organisms that undergo cryopreservation, but their mechanisms of operation have not yet been characterised adequately. In particular, the way in which membrane lipids respond to cryogenic treatments and CPAs is unknown. We developed comparative profiles of the changes in membrane lipids among cryogenic treatments and between the CPAs dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and methanol (MeOH for the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We found that freezing in liquid nitrogen led to a dramatic degradation of lipids, and that thawing at warm temperature (35°C induced lipid remodelling. DMSO did not protect membranes, but MeOH significantly attenuated lipid degradation. The presence of MeOH during cooling (from 25°C to -55°C at a rate of 1°C/min sustained the lipid composition to the extent that membrane integrity was maintained; this phenomenon accounts for successful cryopreservation. An increase in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and a decrease in diacylglycerol were the major changes in lipid composition associated with survival rate, but there was no transformation between these lipid classes. Phospholipase D-mediated phosphatidic acid was not involved in freezing-induced lipid metabolism in C. reinhardtii. Lipid unsaturation changed, and the patterns of change depended on the cryogenic treatment. Our results provide new insights into the cryopreservation of, and the lipid metabolism in, algae.

  15. Cyclohexane Rings Reduce Membrane Permeability to Small Ions in Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids. (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takaoki; Leriche, Geoffray; Onofrei, David; Holland, Gregory P; Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry


    Extremophile archaeal organisms overcome problems of membrane permeability by producing lipids with structural elements that putatively improve membrane integrity compared to lipids from other life forms. Herein, we describe a series of lipids that mimic some key structural features of archaeal lipids, such as: 1) single tethering of lipid tails to create fully transmembrane tetraether lipids and 2) the incorporation of small rings into these tethered segments. We found that membranes formed from pure tetraether lipids leaked small ions at a rate that was about two orders of magnitude slower than common bilayer-forming lipids. Incorporation of cyclopentane rings into the tetraether lipids did not affect membrane leakage, whereas a cyclohexane ring reduced leakage by an additional 40 %. These results show that mimicking certain structural features of natural archaeal lipids results in improved membrane integrity, which may help overcome limitations of many current lipid-based technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sensing Lipids with Mincle: Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer J. Williams


    Full Text Available Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that has emerged as an important player in innate immunity through its capacity to recognize a wide range of lipidic species derived from damaged/altered self and foreign microorganisms. Self-ligands include sterols (e.g., cholesterol, and β-glucosylceramides, and the protein SAP130, which is released upon cell death. Foreign lipids comprise those from both microbial pathogens and commensals and include glycerol, glucose and trehalose mycolates, and glycosyl diglycerides. A large effort has focused on structural variation of these ligands to illuminate the structure–activity relationships required for the agonism of signaling though Mincle and has helped identify key differences in ligand recognition between human and rodent Mincle. These studies in turn have helped identify new Mincle ligands, further broadening our understanding of the diversity of organisms and lipidic species recognized by Mincle. Finally, progress toward the development of Mincle agonists as vaccine adjuvants providing humoral and cell-mediated immunity with reduced toxicity is discussed.

  17. Gene delivery into human skin in vitro using biphasic lipid vesicles. (United States)

    Foldvari, Marianna; Kumar, Praveen; King, Martin; Batta, Ravinder; Michel, Deborah; Badea, Ildiko; Wloch, Mary


    Topical gene delivery to the skin shows great potential for painless, non-invasive administration of novel vaccines and therapeutic agents. The challenge is to develop a pharmaceutically acceptable system that can deliver suitable amounts of plasmid DNA to produce the desired level of response. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess DNA delivery by a novel lipid-based biphasic delivery system into the viable layers of excised human skin. Biphasic lipid vesicle formulations, incorporating plasmid DNA were evaluated in vitro in flow-through diffusion cells. Fifty mg DNA formulation containing 10 microg DNA was applied to full-thickness human breast skin for 24 hours. Residual formulation was removed and the skin was washed with PBS, then tape-stripped, followed by DNase treatment to remove surface bound DNA. Skin samples were homogenised and digested overnight with Proteinase K. The resulting supernatant was used as a template for quantitative PCR. Three formulations yielded a significant degree of dermal absorption compared to the controls. Formulation 26-3-2-DNA indicated that approximately 1x10(9) copies of plasmid were absorbed per cm2 skin. Other formulations resulted in 5x10(6) copies/cm2 skin (17C3-1-DNA) and 5x10(8) copies/cm2 skin (26-3-1-DNA). Biphasic vesicles delivered significant quantities of plasmid DNA into the 'viable' layers of human skin in vitro. The successful delivery of this large (approximately 4,400 kDa) charged molecule through intact stratum corneum represents a major advance in transdermal macromolecule delivery.

  18. Ovarian Lipid Metabolism Modulates Circulating Lipids in Premenopausal Women. (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Addis, Ilana B; Hennebold, Jon D; Bogan, Randy L


    The premenopausal circulating lipid profile may be linked to the hormonal profile and ovarian lipid metabolism. Assess how estradiol, progesterone, and ovarian lipid metabolism contributes to the premenopausal lipid profile; and evaluate the acute effects of a common hormonal oral contraceptive (OC) on circulating lipids. Experimental crossover with repeated measures. Academic hospitals. Eight healthy, regularly menstruating women. Participants underwent periodic serum sampling during a normal menstrual cycle; a standard 21-day, monophasic combined hormonal OC cycle (30 µg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 µg of levonorgestrel per day); menopause simulated by leuprolide acetate (22.5-mg depot); and an artificial menstrual cycle achieved via transdermal estradiol (50 to 300 µg/d) and vaginal micronized progesterone (100 to 300 mg/d). Primary outcomes included evaluation of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. To estimate the effect of estradiol, progesterone, and ovarian lipid metabolism, all specimens except those from the OC cycle were analyzed. Subgroup analysis was conducted on the follicular and luteal phases. In a separate analysis, the effect of the OC was evaluated relative to the normal menstrual cycle. Estradiol was significantly associated with increased levels of HDL cholesterol throughout the menstrual cycle and in the follicular phase. Ovarian effects were associated with reduced lipid levels, especially during the luteal phase. The OC was associated with an increased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and triglycerides. Previously unappreciated factors including ovarian lipid metabolism may contribute to the premenopausal lipid profile.

  19. Association of lipid metabolism with ovarian cancer


    Tania, M.; Khan, M A; Y. Song


    Defects in lipid metabolism have been found to be linked to several diseases, among which atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are the most important. Although cancer is chiefly a genetic disease, dietary lipid intake and metabolism are related to some cancer risks, including the risk for ovarian cancer. Higher intake of dietary lipids, systemic lipid metabolism malfunction, and abnormal serum lipid levels are somehow related to ovarian cancer. Overexpression of some lipid met...

  20. An environmentally-friendly fluorescent method for quantification of lipid contents in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severo Poli, Jandora; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov


    lipid and the calibration curve showed linearity (R2 = 0.994) between 0.50 and 25 mg/L. Compared with traditional gravimetric analysis, the developed method is much faster and uses less organic solvents. Lipid contents determined by fluorescence and gravimetry were the same for some strains...

  1. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian


    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high...... amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine...... in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking....

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction of lipid from fish waste (United States)

    Rahimi, M. A.; Omar, R.; Ethaib, S.; Siti Mazlina, M. K.; Awang Biak, D. R.; Nor Aisyah, R.


    Processing fish waste for extraction of value added products such as protein, lipid, gelatin, amino acids, collagen and oil has become one of the most intriguing researches due to its valuable properties. In this study the extraction of lipid from sardine fish waste was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and compared with Soxhlets and Hara and Radin methods. A mixture of two organic solvents isopropanol/hexane and distilled water were used for MAE and Hara and Radin methods. Meanwhile, Soxhlet method utilized only hexane as solvent. The results show that the higher yield of lipid 80.5 mg/g was achieved using distilled water in MAE method at 10 min extraction time. Soxhlet extraction method only produced 46.6 mg/g of lipid after 4 hours of extraction time. Lowest yield of lipid was found at 15.8 mg/g using Hara and Radin method. Based on aforementioned results, it can be concluded MAE method is superior compared to the Soxhlet and Hara and Radin methods which make it an attractive route to extract lipid from fish waste.

  3. The role of lipids in activated sludge floc formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liza Kretzschmar


    Full Text Available Activated sludge is widely used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater globally and the formation of activated sludge flocculates (flocs underpins the ability to separate sludge from treated water. Despite the importance of activated sludge flocs to human civilization there have been precious few attempts to rationally design fit for purpose flocs using a bottom-up approach based on a solid scientific foundation. Recently we have been developing experimental models for activated sludge floc formation based on the colonization and consumption of particulate organic matter (chitin and cellulose. In this study we lay the foundation for investigation of activated sludge floc formation based on biofilm formation around spheres of the lipid glycerol trioleate (GT that form spontaneously when GT is introduced into activated sludge incubations. Sludge biomass was observed to associate tightly with the lipid spheres. An increase in extracellular lipase activity was associated with a decrease in size of the colonized lipid spheres over a 25 day incubation. Bacterial community composition shifted from predominantly Betaproteobacteria to Alphaproteobacteria in GT treated sludge. Four activated sludge bacteria were isolated from lipid spheres and two of them were shown to produce AHL like quorum sensing signal activity, suggesting quorum sensing may play a role in lipid spheres colonization and biodegradation in activated sludge. The development of this experimental model of activated sludge floc formation lays the foundation for rational production of flocs for wastewater treatment using lipids as floc nuclei and further development of the flocculate life-cycle concept.

  4. Dengue virus infection perturbs lipid homeostasis in infected mosquito cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushika Perera

    Full Text Available Dengue virus causes ∼50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  5. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.


    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  6. Extraction, chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods for lipid analysis. (United States)

    Pati, Sumitra; Nie, Ben; Arnold, Robert D; Cummings, Brian S


    Lipids make up a diverse subset of biomolecules that are responsible for mediating a variety of structural and functional properties as well as modulating cellular functions such as trafficking, regulation of membrane proteins and subcellular compartmentalization. In particular, phospholipids are the main constituents of biological membranes and play major roles in cellular processes like transmembrane signaling and structural dynamics. The chemical and structural variety of lipids makes analysis using a single experimental approach quite challenging. Research in the field relies on the use of multiple techniques to detect and quantify components of cellular lipidomes as well as determine structural features and cellular organization. Understanding these features can allow researchers to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms by which lipid-lipid and/or lipid-protein interactions take place within the conditions of study. Herein, we provide an overview of essential methods for the examination of lipids, including extraction methods, chromatographic techniques and approaches for mass spectrometric analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ether lipids of planktonic archae in the marine water column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hoefs, M.J.L.; Schouten, S.; King, L.L.; Wakeham, S.G.; Leeuw, J.W. de


    Acyclic and cyclic biphytanes derived from the membrane ether lipids of archaea were found in water column particulate and sedimentary organic matter from several oxic and anoxic marine environments. Compound-specific isotope analyses of the carbon skeletons suggest that planktonic archaea utilize

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Brassica nectar lipid transfer protein (United States)

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide an ancient, innate immunity conserved in all multicellular organisms. In plants, there are several large families of AMPs defined by sequence similarity. The nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP) family is defined by a conserved signature of eight cysteines a...

  9. Lipid effects of endocrine medications. (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Vora, Avni; Mazzone, Theodore


    Various alterations of lipid homeostasis have a significant role in the pathophysiology of the artherosclerotic process. The effects of usual lipid-lowering agents such as statins, fibrates, or niacin are well known, but other endocrine therapeutic agents could also affect the blood levels of various lipoproteins and, in turn, influence atheroma formation. In this review, we attempt to summarize the effect of several hormonal and non-hormonal endocrine agents on lipid metabolism, including insulin, thyroid hormone, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, growth hormone, and several anti-diabetic agents.

  10. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.


    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  11. Membrane lipid segregation in endocytosis (United States)

    Nowak, Sarah A.; Chou, Tom


    We explore the equilibrium mechanics of a binary lipid membrane that wraps around a spherical or cylindrical particle. One of the lipid membrane components induces a positive spontaneous curvature, while the other induces a negative local curvature. Using a Hamiltonian approach, we derive the equations governing the membrane shape and lipid concentrations near the wrapped object. Asymptotic expressions and numerical solutions for membrane shapes are presented. We determine the regimes of bending rigidity, surface tension, intrinsic lipid curvature, and effective receptor binding energies that lead to efficient wrapping and endocytosis. Our model is directly applicable to the study of invagination of clathrin-coated pits and receptor-induced wrapping of colloids such as spherical virus particles.

  12. The lipids of Agaricus bisporus. (United States)

    Byrne, P F; Brennan, P J


    A comparison of the lipid composition of the vegetative and reproductive stages of Agaricus bisporus revealed no major qualitative differences, although quantitative divergence exist. The glycolipids consisted of acylglucoses, acylmannitol, acyltrehalose and a glucosyloxyfatty acid. Two of the acylglucoses corresponded to a tetra-acylglucose and to either a di- or a triacylglucose. The phospholipids were distinctive in that phosphatidylcholine could not be detected. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine were the major phosphoglycerides. Examination of the neutral lipids revealed the expected array of acylglycerols, free and esterified sterols, and free fatty acids. A substantial amount (26 to 33%) of the fatty acids of the neutral lipids from both sporophore and mycelium were apparently of chain length greater than C18. Linoleic acid was a minor component of the total neutral-lipid fatty acids but comprised about one-half of the total free fatty acids.

  13. Gene therapy for lipid disorders


    Rader Daniel J; Kawashiri Masa-aki


    Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysi...

  14. Serum lipids and diabetic retinopathy


    Shoja; Mahdavi M; Manaviat MR


    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease in human and retinopathy is one of the most common complications. Etiology of this complication is yet unknown but one of the factors that can be effective on its production or progression is serum lipid. We aim to study the relationship between different degrees of diabetic retinopathy and serum lipids levels. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study designed to study over 37 patients with diabetes mellitus type o...

  15. The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions. (United States)

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A


    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen.

  16. Revisiting the algal "chloroplast lipid droplet": the absence of an entity that is unlikely to exist. (United States)

    Moriyama, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Saito, Masakazu; Wada, Hajime; Sato, Naoki


    The precise localization of the lipid droplets and the metabolic pathways associated with the oil production are crucial to the engineering of microalgae for biofuel production. Several studies have reported detecting lipid droplets within the chloroplast of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas), which accumulates considerable amount of triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch within the cell under nitrogen deprivation or high-light stress conditions. Starch undoubtedly accumulates within the chloroplast, but there have been debates on the localization of the lipid droplets, which are cytosolic organelles in other organisms. Although it is impossible to deny what never existed, we tried to repeat the experiments that pretended to find "chloroplast lipid droplets". Here, we present microscopic results showing no evidence for the presence of lipid droplets within the chloroplast stroma, even though some lipid droplets existed in close association with the chloroplast or were even largely engulfed by the chloroplasts. Therefore, lipid droplets are cytosolic structures, distinct from the plastoglobules present in the chloroplast stroma. These results not only contrast with the old ideas, but also point out that the presumptive "chloroplast lipid droplets" are, in fact, lipid droplets embedded within chloroplast invaginations in association with the outer envelope of the chloroplast without intervention of the endoplasmic reticulum. This points to an intriguing possibility of a tight metabolic flow from the chloroplast to the lipid droplet through a close association rather than direct contact of both organelles. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2. (United States)

    Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G


    The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21 mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon sources in the Beaufort Sea revealed by molecular lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotope analysis


    Tolosa, Imma; Fiorini, S.; Gasser, Beat; Martín, Jacobo; Miquel, J.C.


    Molecular lipid biomarkers (hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and fatty acids) and compound specific isotope analysis of suspended particulate organic matter (SPM) and surface sediments of the Mackenzie Shelf and slope (Southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean), were studied in summer 2009. The concentrations of the molecular lipid markers, characteristic of known organic matter sources, were grouped and used as proxies to evaluate the relative importance of fresh algal, detrital algal, foss...

  19. Effect of melatonin on cellular composition of the spleen and parameters of lipid metabolism in rats with alimentary obesity. (United States)

    Trufakin, V A; Shurlygina, A V; Dushkin, M I; Khrapova, M V; Michurina, S V; Mel'nikova, E V; Panteleeva, N G; Tenditnik, M V


    We studied the effects of melatonin on the status of immune organs and parameters of lipid metabolism in rats with alimentary obesity and parameters of lipid metabolism and immune status in Wistar rats kept on high-fat diet and receiving melatonin solution per os. Melatonin leveled the changes in blood and liver parameters of lipid metabolism, which was paralleled by normalization of cellular composition of immune organs. We conclude that melatonin can be a promising agent for the treatment of lipid metabolism and immune status disorders in alimentary obesity.

  20. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds]. (United States)

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V


    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  1. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  2. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies. (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C


    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial lipids reveal carbon assimilation patterns on hydrothermal sulfide chimneys. (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Pjevac, Petra; Goldenstein, Nadine I; Peplies, Jörg; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Bach, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Sulfide 'chimneys' characteristic of seafloor hydrothermal venting are diverse microbial habitats. ¹³C/¹²C ratios of microbial lipids have rarely been used to assess carbon assimilation pathways on these structures, despite complementing gene- and culture-based approaches. Here, we integrate analyses of the diversity of intact polar lipids (IPL) and their side-chain δ¹³C values (δ¹³ C(lipid)) with 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny to examine microbial carbon flow on active and inactive sulfide structures from the Manus Basin. Surficial crusts of active structures, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, yield bacterial δ¹³C(lipid) values higher than biomass δ¹³C (total organic carbon), implicating autotrophy via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our data also suggest δ¹³C(lipid) values vary on individual active structures without accompanying microbial diversity changes. Temperature and/or dissolved substrate effects - likely relating to variable advective-diffusive fluxes to chimney exteriors - may be responsible for differing ¹³C fractionation during assimilation. In an inactive structure, δ¹³C(lipid) values lower than biomass δ¹³C and a distinctive IPL and 16S rRNA gene diversity suggest a shift to a more diverse community and an alternate carbon assimilation pathway after venting ceases. We discuss here the potential of IPL and δ¹³C(lipid) analyses to elucidate carbon flow in hydrothermal structures when combined with other molecular tools. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lipid functionalized biopolymers: A review. (United States)

    Qurat-Ul-Ain; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zia, Fatima; Ali, Muhammad; Rehman, Saima; Zuber, Mohammad


    Lipids are the main source of energy and widely used for various applications. In this review, the modification of lipids by using them in combination with other biomaterials like natural and synthetic polymers is elaborated. These new blends have characteristic features of both polymers and are characterized by different techniques (NMR, DSC, TGA, IR and Raman spectroscopy etc.) to understand their structure, properties and functional behavior. Lipids are hydrophobic, have anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial properties and thus impart hydrophobicity and flexibility to the polymers. While the polymers, on the other hand, make the lipids tougher. Properties of few polymers such as starch, polyethylene protein and chitosan that have brittleness, low combustion rate and hydrophobicity, are improved by incorporation of lipids ultimately increased their flexibility, combustion rate and hydrophobicity respectively. This review article is also focused on emerging fields for the applications of these composite materials. The most notable application of composite materials are in the field of paint industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipid peroxidation in women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa D


    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxidation is an indicator of free radical metabolism and oxidative stress in human beings and other organisms. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation, is a metabolite that can be readily estimated in serum samples. Excess oxidative stress may be a final common pathway through which anti epileptic drugs may exert their teratogenic potential in pregnant women with epilepsy. Our objective in this study was to ascertain the variations in malondialdehyde (MDA in women with epilepsy. Material and Methods: This study was carried out in the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and pregnancy after obtaining clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The quantitative examination of MDA was performed according to standard procedures. The ideal plasma level of MDA is below 2 nmol/ml. Results: Fifteen women with confirmed epilepsy (mean age 26.9 ± 3.5 were included in the study. Two women were pregnant. MDA levels ranged from 1.7 to 2.8 nmol/ml (mean level = 2.13 ± 0.37 nmol/ml. Eight women (53 % had MDA levels above the upper limit of normal. Three patients had levels above 2.5 nmol/ml, which corresponded to the 75 centile. Conclusions: This study had shown that the estimation of MDA levels in plasma is a convenient method to study lipid peroxidation and thereby oxidative stress in women with epilepsy. Over half of Women With Epilepsy (WWE have excess oxidative stress as indicated by high levels of MDA in the plasma. Correlations between MDA level and characteristics of epilepsy, AED therapy, nutritional status and other medical conditions need to be observed in a larger cohort.

  6. Physiological Roles for mafr-1 in Reproduction and Lipid Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshat Khanna


    Full Text Available Maf1 is a conserved repressor of RNA polymerase (Pol III transcription; however, its physiological role in the context of a multicellular organism is not well understood. Here, we show that C. elegans MAFR-1 is functionally orthologous to human Maf1, represses the expression of both RNA Pol III and Pol II transcripts, and mediates organismal fecundity and lipid homeostasis. MAFR-1 impacts lipid transport by modulating intestinal expression of the vitellogenin family of proteins, resulting in cell-nonautonomous defects in the developing reproductive system. MAFR-1 levels inversely correlate with stored intestinal lipids, in part by influencing the expression of the lipogenesis enzymes fasn-1/FASN and pod-2/ACC1. Animals fed a high carbohydrate diet exhibit reduced mafr-1 expression and mutations in the insulin signaling pathway genes daf-18/PTEN and daf-16/FoxO abrogate the lipid storage defects associated with deregulated mafr-1 expression. Our results reveal physiological roles for mafr-1 in regulating organismal lipid homeostasis, which ensure reproductive success.

  7. The central clock neurons regulate lipid storage in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R DiAngelo

    Full Text Available A proper balance of lipid breakdown and synthesis is essential for achieving energy homeostasis as alterations in either of these processes can lead to pathological states such as obesity. The regulation of lipid metabolism is quite complex with multiple signals integrated to control overall triglyceride levels in metabolic tissues. Based upon studies demonstrating effects of the circadian clock on metabolism, we sought to determine if the central clock cells in the Drosophila brain contribute to lipid levels in the fat body, the main nutrient storage organ of the fly. Here, we show that altering the function of the Drosophila central clock neurons leads to an increase in fat body triglycerides. We also show that although triglyceride levels are not affected by age, they are increased by expression of the amyloid-beta protein in central clock neurons. The effect on lipid storage seems to be independent of circadian clock output as changes in triglycerides are not always observed in genetic manipulations that result in altered locomotor rhythms. These data demonstrate that the activity of the central clock neurons is necessary for proper lipid storage.

  8. Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. (United States)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Vianey-Saban, Christine


    Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism may involve intramyocellular triglyceride degradation, carnitine uptake, long-chain fatty acids mitochondrial transport, or fatty acid β-oxidation. Three main diseases leading to permanent muscle weakness are associated with severe increased muscle lipid content (lipid storage myopathies): primary carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage disease and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. A moderate lipidosis may be observed in fatty acid oxidation disorders revealed by rhabdomyolysis episodes such as carnitine palmitoyl transferase II, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiencies, and in recently described phosphatidic acid phosphatase deficiency. Respiratory chain disorders and congenital myasthenic syndromes may also be misdiagnosed as fatty acid oxidation disorders due to the presence of secondary muscle lipidosis. The main biochemical tests giving clues for the diagnosis of these various disorders are measurements of blood carnitine and acylcarnitines, urinary organic acid profile, and search for intracytoplasmic lipid on peripheral blood smear (Jordan's anomaly). Genetic analysis orientated by the results of biochemical investigation allows establishing a firm diagnosis. Primary carnitine deficiency and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be treated after supplementation with carnitine, riboflavine and coenzyme Q10. New therapeutic approaches for fatty acid oxidation disorders are currently developed, based on pharmacological treatment with bezafibrate, and specific diets enriched in medium-chain triglycerides or triheptanoin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. T cells specific for lipid antigens. (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro


    Lipid-specific T cells are important participants in human immune responses. Recognition of lipid antigens contributes to host defense against pathogens that can cause debilitating diseases, including mycobacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Lipid-specific T cells also play important roles in various autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, and in tumor surveillance. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lipid-reactive T-cell functions will enable the development of novel therapies across a wide range of diseases. In recent years, our laboratory has investigated lipid antigen specificities, mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, molecular interaction of lipid antigens with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, and the pathogenic and regulatory functions of lipid-specific T cells in a variety of disease settings. In this review, we present recent data that illustrate the critical role played by lipid-specific immune responses in host protection, with a particular focus on human studies.

  10. Fuel from microalgae lipid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.M.; Feinberg, D.A.


    The large-scale production of microalgae is a promising method of producing a renewable feedstock for a wide variety of fuel products currently refined from crude petroleum. These microalgae-derived products include lipid extraction products (triglycerides, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons) and catalytic conversion products (paraffins and olefins). Microalgal biomass productivity and lipid composition of current experimental systems are estimated at 66.0 metric tons per hectare year and 30% lipid content. Similar yields in a large-scale facility indicate that production costs are approximately six times higher than the average domestic price for crude, well-head petroleum. Based on achievable targets for productivity and production costs, the potential for microalgae as a fuel feedstock is presented in context with selected process refining routes and is compared with conventional and alternative feedstocks (e.g., oilseeds) with which microalgae must compete. 24 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Alcohol Interactions with Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kondela


    Full Text Available We investigate the structural changes to lipid membrane that ensue from the addition of aliphatic alcohols with various alkyl tail lengths. Small angle neutron diffraction from flat lipid bilayers that are hydrated through water vapor has been employed to eliminate possible artefacts of the membrane curvature and the alcohol’s membrane-water partitioning. We have observed clear changes to membrane structure in both transversal and lateral directions. Most importantly, our results suggest the alteration of the membrane-water interface. The water encroachment has shifted in the way that alcohol loaded bilayers absorbed more water molecules when compared to the neat lipid bilayers. The experimental results have been corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations to reveal further details. Namely, the order parameter profiles have been fruitful in correlating the mechanical model of structural changes to the effect of anesthesia.

  12. Dietary lipid emulsions and endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Marie-Caroline


    Full Text Available The low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance. Among factors triggering such inflammation, recent works revealed the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, so-called endotoxins. LPS are naturally present in the gut via the intestinal microbiota. Recent studies show that they can induce in plasma a metabolic endotoxemia after the consumption of unbalanced hyperlipidic meals. This article reviews recent knowledge gained on the role of intestinal lipid absorption and the composition of dietary lipids on: (i the induction of metabolic endotoxemia, (ii the types of plasma transporters of LPS and (iii associated low-grade inflammation. Notably, lipids are present in foods under various physicochemical structures and notably in emulsified form. Our recent works reveal that such structure and the type of emulsifier can modulate postprandial lipemia; recent results on the possible consequences on metabolic endotoxemia will be discussed.

  13. Different composition and distribution patterns of mineral-protected versus hydrolyzable lipids in shrubland soils (United States)

    Cai, Yue; Tang, Zhiyao; Xiong, Gaoming; Xie, Zongqiang; Liu, Zongguang; Feng, Xiaojuan


    Mineral protection is known as an important mechanism stabilizing soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the composition, sources, and variations of mineral-protected SOC remain poorly constrained. To fill this knowledge gap, we used hydrofluoric acid to demineralize soil matrix and compared the sources and distribution of mineral-protected lipids (ML) versus hydrolyzable lipids (HL) of four typical Chinese shrubland soils. ML was found to represent a sizable fraction (9-32%) of total aliphatic lipids (including n-alkanols; n-alkanoic acids; α,ω-alkanedioic acids; hydroxyalkanoic acids; and midchain-substituted acids) in all soils. Based on carbon chain length and branch positions, microbe- and plant-derived lipids were distinguished. No significant difference was found in the ratio of microbe- to plant-derived lipids in ML versus HL, implying that plant and microbial inputs are equally important for the mineral-associated soil lipids. However, ML contained a higher proportion of nonspecific lipids, especially at depths. Furthermore, to evaluate key environmental variable(s) controlling the distribution of different lipid components, a multiple stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Notably, ML was mainly affected by SOC-to-nitrogen ratio instead of mineralogical properties, implying that the accrual of mineral-associated soil lipids relies strongly on organic matter properties. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights on sources and accumulation mechanisms of mineral-protected soil lipids. SOC decomposition and subsequent accretion of degradation products appear to be vital for the sequestration of mineral-associated soil lipids and warrant better recognition in the investigations of stable soil carbon accumulation mechanisms.

  14. Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes: Formation, Stability and Applications (United States)

    Goh, Haw Zan

    This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of the formation of supported lipid membranes with vesicle hemifusion, their stability under detergents and organic solvents and their applications in molecular biology. In Chapter 3, we describe how isolated patches of DOPC bilayers supported on glass surfaces are dissolved by various detergents (decyl maltoside, dodecyl maltoside, CHAPS, CTAB, SDS, TritonX-100 and Tween20) at their CMC, as investigated by fluorescence video microscopy. In general, detergents partition into distal leaflets of bilayers and lead to the expansion of the bilayers through a rolling motion of the distal over the proximal leaflets, in agreement with the first stage of the established 3-stage model of lipid vesicle solubilization by detergents. Subsequently, we study the partitioning of organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, acetone and chloroform) into isolated bilayer patches on glass in Chapter 4 with fluorescence microscopy. The area expansion of bilayers due to the partitioning of organic solvents is measured. From the titration of organic solvents, we measured the rate of area expansion as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvents, which is proposed to be a measure of strength of interactions between solvents and membranes. From the same experiments, we also measure the maximum expansion of bilayers (or the maximum binding stoichiometry between organic solvents and lipids) before structural breakdown, which depends on the depth of penetration of solvents to the membranes. In Chapter 5, we investigate the formation of sparsely-tethered bilayer lipid membranes (stBLMs) with vesicle hemifusion. In vesicle hemifusion, lipid vesicles in contact with a hydrophobic alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) deposit a lipid monolayer to the SAM surface, thus completing the bilayer. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Neutron Reflectivity are used to probe the integrity of stBLMs in terms of their

  15. Probing the subcellular localization of hopanoid lipids in bacteria using NanoSIMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Doughty

    Full Text Available The organization of lipids within biological membranes is poorly understood. Some studies have suggested lipids group into microdomains within cells, but the evidence remains controversial due to non-native imaging techniques. A recently developed NanoSIMS technique indicated that sphingolipids group into microdomains within membranes of human fibroblast cells. We extended this NanoSIMS approach to study the localization of hopanoid lipids in bacterial cells by developing a stable isotope labeling method to directly detect subcellular localization of specific lipids in bacteria with ca. 60 nm resolution. Because of the relatively small size of bacterial cells and the relative abundance of hopanoid lipids in membranes, we employed a primary (2H-label to maximize our limit of detection. This approach permitted the analysis of multiple stable isotope labels within the same sample, enabling visualization of subcellular lipid microdomains within different cell types using a secondary label to mark the growing end of the cell. Using this technique, we demonstrate subcellular localization of hopanoid lipids within alpha-proteobacterial and cyanobacterial cells. Further, we provide evidence of hopanoid lipid domains in between cells of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. More broadly, our method provides a means to image lipid microdomains in a wide range of cell types and test hypotheses for their functions in membranes.

  16. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster—Assembly, Function, and Influence on Tissue Lipid Composition (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Sampaio, Julio L.; Brankatschk, Marko; Carvalho, Maria; Mahmoud, Ali; Shevchenko, Andrej; Eaton, Suzanne


    Interorgan lipid transport occurs via lipoproteins, and altered lipoprotein levels correlate with metabolic disease. However, precisely how lipoproteins affect tissue lipid composition has not been comprehensively analyzed. Here, we identify the major lipoproteins of Drosophila melanogaster and use genetics and mass spectrometry to study their assembly, interorgan trafficking, and influence on tissue lipids. The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier. It is produced as a phospholipid-rich particle by the fat body, and its secretion requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP). Lpp acquires sterols and most diacylglycerol (DAG) at the gut via Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP), another fat body-derived apoB-family lipoprotein. The gut, like the fat body, is a lipogenic organ, incorporating both de novo–synthesized and dietary fatty acids into DAG for export. We identify distinct requirements for LTP and Lpp-dependent lipid mobilization in contributing to the neutral and polar lipid composition of the brain and wing imaginal disc. These studies define major routes of interorgan lipid transport in Drosophila and uncover surprising tissue-specific differences in lipoprotein lipid utilization. PMID:22844248

  17. Mapping Condition-Dependent Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C.; Workman, Christopher T.; Nookaew, Intawat; Pizarro, Francisco A.; Agosin, Eduardo; Hellgren, Lars I.; Nielsen, Jens


    Lipids play a central role in cellular function as constituents of membranes, as signaling molecules, and as storage materials. Although much is known about the role of lipids in regulating specific steps of metabolism, comprehensive studies integrating genome-wide expression data, metabolite levels, and lipid levels are currently lacking. Here, we map condition-dependent regulation controlling lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring 5636 mRNAs, 50 metabolites, 97 lipids, and 57 13C-reaction fluxes in yeast using a three-factor full-factorial design. Correlation analysis across eight environmental conditions revealed 2279 gene expression level-metabolite/lipid relationships that characterize the extent of transcriptional regulation in lipid metabolism relative to major metabolic hubs within the cell. To query this network, we developed integrative methods for correlation of multi-omics datasets that elucidate global regulatory signatures. Our data highlight many characterized regulators of lipid metabolism and reveal that sterols are regulated more at the transcriptional level than are amino acids. Beyond providing insights into the systems-level organization of lipid metabolism, we anticipate that our dataset and approach can join an emerging number of studies to be widely used for interrogating cellular systems through the combination of mathematical modeling and experimental biology. PMID:24062529

  18. Charge-reversal Lipids, Peptide-based Lipids, and Nucleoside-based Lipids for Gene Delivery (United States)

    LaManna, Caroline M.; Lusic, Hrvoje; Camplo, Michel; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Barthélémy, Philippe; Grinstaff, Mark W.


    Conspectus Twenty years after gene therapy was introduced in the clinic, advances in the technique continue to garner headlines as successes pique the interest of clinicians, researchers, and the public. Gene therapy’s appeal stems from its potential to revolutionize modern medical therapeutics by offering solutions to a myriad of diseases by tailoring the treatment to a specific individual’s genetic code. Both viral and non-viral vectors have been used in the clinic, but the low transfection efficiencies when utilizing non-viral vectors have lead to an increased focus on engineering new gene delivery vectors. To address the challenges facing non-viral or synthetic vectors, specifically lipid-based carriers, we have focused on three main themes throughout our research: 1) that releasing the nucleic acid from the carrier will increase gene transfection; 2) that utilizing biologically inspired designs, such as DNA binding proteins, to create lipids with peptide-based headgroups will improve delivery; and 3) that mimicking the natural binding patterns observed within DNA, by using lipids having a nucleoside headgroup, will give unique supramolecular assembles with high transfection efficiency. The results presented in this Account demonstrate that cellular uptake and transfection efficacy can be improved by engineering the chemical components of the lipid vectors to enhance nucleic acid binding and release kinetics. Specifically, our research has shown that the incorporation of a charge-reversal moiety to initiate change of the lipid from positive to negative net charge during the transfection process improves transfection. In addition, by varying the composition of the spacer (rigid, flexible, short, long, and aromatic) between the cationic headgroup and the hydrophobic chains, lipids can be tailored to interact with different nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, siRNA) and accordingly affect delivery, uptake outcomes, and transfection efficiency. Introduction of a peptide

  19. Les lipides en alimentation animale


    Lefebvre, Sébastien


    École thématique; Les lipides sont une famille hétérogène de nutriments. Ils sont une source non négligeable d'énergie et des précurseurs essentiels d'hormones et de molécules nécessaires à la bonne physiologie des animaux. Ce cours présente les propriétés nutritionelles des lipides et leur importance dans l'alimentation animale.

  20. Lipid Peroxidation and lipid Profile in Hypertensive Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension and dyslipidaemia are associated with oxidative stress and are major causes of cardiovascular disease amounting to 30% of global death rate. In the current work, malondialdehyde and lipid profile were estimated in sixty hypertensive patients attending outpatient clinic of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University ...

  1. Distribution of neutral lipids in the lipid droplet core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu


    Cholesteryl esters (CEs) are a form of cholesterol (CHOL) storage in the living cells, as opposed to free CHOL. CEs are major constituents of low density lipoprotein particles. Therefore, CEs are implicated in provoking atherosclerosis. Arranged into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), CEs are stored...

  2. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo


    Jun 19, 2017 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must ... The effect of fat type in broiler diets on blood triacylglycerol and ..... probably had more pronounced effects on lipid contents in adipose tissue .... Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: A critical review. J.

  3. Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: In the present study, we assessed the association of MDA, antioxidant markers, high sensitive Creactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid status parameters in the patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Significant risk factors such as cigarette and diabetes were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods: Oxidative ...

  4. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin


    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  5. Role of Alcohols in Growth, Lipid Composition, and Membrane Fluidity of Yeasts, Bacteria, and Archaea ▿ (United States)

    Huffer, Sarah; Clark, Melinda E.; Ning, Jonathan C.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.


    Increased membrane fluidity, which causes cofactor leakage and loss of membrane potential, has long been documented as a cause for decreased cell growth during exposure to ethanol, butanol, and other alcohols. Reinforcement of the membrane with more complex lipid components is thus thought to be beneficial for the generation of more tolerant organisms. In this study, organisms with more complex membranes, namely, archaea, did not maintain high growth rates upon exposure to alcohols, indicating that more complex lipids do not necessarily fortify the membrane against the fluidizing effects of alcohols. In the presence of alcohols, shifts in lipid composition to more saturated and unbranched lipids were observed in most of the organisms tested, including archaea, yeasts, and bacteria. However, these shifts did not always result in a decrease in membrane fluidity or in greater tolerance of the organism to alcohol exposure. In general, organisms tolerating the highest concentrations of alcohols maintained membrane fluidity after alcohol exposure, whereas organisms that increased membrane rigidity were less tolerant. Altered lipid composition was a common response to alcohol exposure, with the most tolerant organisms maintaining a modestly fluid membrane. Our results demonstrate that increased membrane fluidity is not the sole cause of growth inhibition and that alcohols may also denature proteins within the membrane and cytosol, adversely affecting metabolism and decreasing cell growth. PMID:21784917

  6. How T lymphocytes recognize lipid antigens. (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia


    Recognition of lipid antigens by T lymphocytes is well established. Lipids are recognized by T cells when presented in association with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. Both microbial and self lipids stimulate specific T lymphocytes, thus participating in immune reactions during infections and autoimmune diseases. The immune system uses a variety of strategies to solubilise lipid antigens, to facilitate their internalization, processing, and loading on CD1 molecules. Recent studies in the field of lipid antigen presentation have revealed new mechanisms which allow the immune system to sense lipids as stimulatory antigens.

  7. Triglyceride Blisters in Lipid Bilayers: Implications for Lipid Droplet Biogenesis and the Mobile Lipid Signal in Cancer Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Duelund, Lars; Pakkanen, Kirsi Inkeri


    Triglycerides have a limited solubility, around 3%, in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. Using millisecond-scale course grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the model lipid bilayer can accommodate a higher concentration of triolein (TO) than earlier anticipated, by sequestering ...

  8. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Mariano Silveira e Souza


    Full Text Available Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization.

  9. Skin penetration behavior of lipid-core nanocapsules for simultaneous delivery of resveratrol and curcumin. (United States)

    Friedrich, Rossana B; Kann, Birthe; Coradini, Karine; Offerhaus, Herman L; Beck, Ruy C R; Windbergs, Maike


    Polyphenols, which are secondary plant metabolites, gain increasing research interest due to their therapeutic potential. Among them, resveratrol and curcumin are two agents showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial as well as anticarcinogenic effects. In addition to their individual therapeutic effect, increased activity was reported upon co-delivery of the two compounds. However, due to the poor water solubility of resveratrol and curcumin, their clinical application is currently limited. In this context, lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) composed of an oily core surrounded by a polymeric shell were introduced as drug carrier systems with the potential to overcome this obstacle. Furthermore, the encapsulation of polyphenols into LNC can increase their photostability. As the attributes of the polyphenols make them excellent candidates for skin treatment, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of co-delivery of resveratrol and curcumin by LNC upon topical application on excised human skin. In contrast to the formulation with one polyphenol, resveratrol penetrated into deeper skin layers when the co-formulation was applied. Based on vibrational spectroscopy analysis, these effects are most likely due to interactions of curcumin and the stratum corneum, facilitating the skin absorption of the co-administered resveratrol. Furthermore, the interaction of LNC with primary human skin cells was analyzed encountering a cellular uptake within 24h potentially leading to intracellular effects of the polyphenols. Thus, the simultaneous delivery of resveratrol and curcumin by LNC provides an intelligent way for immediate and sustained polyphenol delivery for skin disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation during Lipid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants (United States)

    Kahmen, A.; Gamarra, B.; Cormier, M. A.


    Although hydrogen isotopes (δ2H) of leaf wax lipids are increasingly being applied as (paleo-) hydrological proxies, we still do not understand some of the basic processes that shape the δ2H values of these compounds. In general, it is believed that three variables shape the δ2H values of leaf wax lipids: source water δ2H values, evaporative deuterium (2H) enrichment of leaf water and the biosynthetic fractionation (ɛbio) during the synthesis of organic compounds. While the influences of source water δ2H values and leaf water evaporative 2H enrichment have been well documented, very little is known how ɛbio shapes the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids. I will present the results from recent experiments, where we show that the magnitude of ɛbio, and thus the δ2H value of plant-derived lipids, strongly depends on the carbon (C) metabolism of a plant. Specifically, I will show that plants that rely for their tissue formation on recently assimilated C have δ2H values in their n-alkanes that are up to 60‰ more negative than plants that depend for their tissue formation on stored carbohydrates. Our findings can be explained by the fact that NADPH is the primary source of hydrogen in plant lipids and that the δ2H value of NADPH differs whether NADPH was generated directly in the light reaction of photosynthesis or whether it was generated by processing stored carbohydrates. As such, the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids will directly depend on whether the tissue containing these lipids was synthesized using recent assimilates, e.g. in a C autonomous state or, if it was synthesized from stored or otherwise aquired C sources, e.g. in a not C autonomous state. Given the magnidude of this effect, our results have important implications for interpretation of plant-derived lipid δ2H values when used as (paleo-) hydrological proxies. In addition, our results suggest, that δ2H values of plant-derived lipids could be employed as a new tools to assess the C

  11. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection (United States)

    ... medications, or any of the ingredients in amphotericin B lipid complex injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  12. You Sank My Lipid Rafts! (United States)

    Campbell, Tessa N.


    The plasma membrane is the membrane that serves as a boundary between the interior of a cell and its extracellular environment. Lipid rafts are microdomains within a cellular membrane that possess decreased fluidity due to the presence of cholesterol, glycolipids, and phospholipids containing longer fatty acids. These domains are involved in many…

  13. Lipid profile in cerebrovascular accidents. (United States)

    Togha, Mansoureh; Gheini, Mohamad Reza; Ahmadi, Babak; Khashaiar, Patricia; Razeghi, Soodeh


    Changes in the lipid profile have been suggested as a risk factor for developing ischemic stroke. Their role in intra-cerebral hemorrhage, however, is not clear. The present study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile levels of patients who had experienced an acute stroke during the first 24-hour and to compare these levels in different patients suffering from the stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 258 consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to the neurology department of our center during September 2006 and September 2007 were studied. As for the control group, 187 apparently healthy subjects living in the same community and matched for age and sex were selected. Lipid profile was measured and compared between the three groups. In the patients' group, 65 suffered from hemorrhagic stroke (group 1) and the other 193 had ischemic stroke (group 2). Except for TG values, there was no significant difference among the ischemic and hemorrhagic lipid profile. Age, cholesterol, and LDL influenced the risk of developing an ischemic stroke; TG was not reported as a risk factor or a protective one. While the comparison of data retrieved from patients suffering from hemorrhagic strokes with the controls, revealed LDL as the risk factor contributing to the development of ICH whereas TG was reported as a protective factor. It could be concluded that LDL level can be considered as a risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral events.

  14. Lipids of the Golgi membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.


    The thin membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum matures into the thick plasma membrane in the Golgi apparatus. Along the way, the concentrations of cholesterol and sphingolipids increase. Here, Gerrit van Meer discusses how this phenomenon may reflect an intricate lipid-protein sorting machinery.

  15. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ


    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  16. Lipids in critical care medicine. (United States)

    Ott, Juliane; Hiesgen, Christopher; Mayer, Konstantin


    While enteral nutrition is the basis for the critically ill, parenteral nutrition is often used when a sufficient enteral nutrition is not or not fully achievable. Lipids are a mainstay of caloric supply in both cases as they combine the provision of building blocks for the membranes and are precursors for function molecules including lipid mediators bearing the ability to influence immunity. Pro-inflammatory lipid mediators as prostaglandins and leukotrienes are generated from arachidonic acid (AA), a key member of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, lipid mediators derived from the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may exhibit less inflammatory properties compared to their AA-derived counterparts. Furthermore, intercellular mediators as resolvins and protectins are generated from n-3 fatty acids. They induce the resolution of inflammation, hence the name resolution phase interaction product-resolvin. Modulating the amount of PUFA and the n-6/n-3 ratio were investigated as means to change the inflammatory response and improve the outcome of patients. Experimental data showed that n-3 fatty acids may improve acute lung injury and sepsis in animal models. Studies in patients undergoing major surgery with application of n-3 fatty acids demonstrated beneficial effects in terms of reduction of length of stay and infectious complications. Clinical data hints that this concept may also improve outcome in critically ill patients. Additionally, experimental and clinical data suggest that a reduction in n-6 PUFA may change the immune response. In conclusion, modulating the amount of PUFA, the n-6/n-3 ratio and the composition of lipid emulsions may prove to be a useful means to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipids and essential oils as antimicrobial agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thormar, Halldor


    ... of Antimicrobial Lipids on Cell Membranes 20 1.7 Conclusions 21 Acknowledgements 21 References 22 2 Antibacterial Effects of Lipids: Historical Review (1881 to 1960) Halldor Thormar 2.1 Introduction 2....

  18. Recognition of lipid antigens by T cells. (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia


    Recent studies have shown that the recognition of lipid antigens by the immune system is important for defence against infection and other diseases, and that lipid-specific responses occur at higher frequencies than previously suspected. Thanks to several recent advances in this field, we now have a better appreciation of the molecular and cellular requirements of T-cell stimulation by lipids. These findings have raised new questions about the mechanisms of lipid presentation, the priming and clonal expansion of lipid-specific T cells, and their differentiation into memory cells. A greater understanding of lipid-specific T cells and the molecular mechanisms of lipid immunogenicity should facilitate the development of lipid-based vaccines.

  19. Transport and sorting of membrane lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368


    The lipid composition of cellular membranes may seem unnecessarily complex. However, the lipid composition of each membrane is carefully regulated by local metabolism and specificity in transport, marking the functional significance for the cell. Recent research has revealed unexpected discoveries

  20. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuerschner

    Full Text Available Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

  1. Differential degradation of intact polar and core glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids upon post-depositional oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Kraaij, M.; Tjallingii, R.; Baas, M.; Stuut, J.-B.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.


    Archaeal and bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) are used in various proxies, such as TEX86 and the BIT index. In living organism, they contain polar head groups (intact polar lipids – IPLs). IPL GDGTs have also been detected in ancient marine sediments and it is unclear

  2. Lipid domains in model membranes: a brief historical perspective. (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G; Bagatolli, Luis A


    All biological membranes consist of a complex composite of macromolecules and macromolecular assemblies, of which the fluid lipid-bilayer component is a core element with regard to cell encapsulation and barrier properties. The fluid lipid bilayer also supports the functional machinery of receptors, channels and pumps that are associated with the membrane. This bilayer is stabilized by weak physical and colloidal forces, and its nature is that of a self-assembled system of amphiphiles in water. Being only approximately 5 nm in thickness and still encapsulating a cell that is three orders of magnitude larger in diameter, the lipid bilayer as a material has very unusual physical properties, both in terms of structure and dynamics. Although the lipid bilayer is a fluid, it has a distinct and structured trans-bilayer profile, and in the plane of the bilayer the various molecular components, viz different lipid species and membrane proteins, have the capacity to organize laterally in terms of differentiated domains on different length and time scales. These elements of small-scale structure and order are crucial for the functioning of the membrane. It has turned out to be difficult to quantitatively study the small-scale structure of biological membranes. A major part of the insight into membrane micro- and nano-domains and the concepts used to describe them have hence come from studies of simple lipid bilayers as models of membranes, by use of a wide range of theoretical, experimental and simulational approaches. Many questions remain to be answered as to which extent the result from model studies can carry over to real biological membranes.

  3. Cord Serum Lipid Profile of Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Almusawi


    Full Text Available Background: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM is a critical issue in pediatrics, which is regarded as a major risk factor for birth trauma, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, birth asphyxia, transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN and jaundice. IDM is also a risk factor for microvascular (e.g., ocular and renal complications and macrovascular complications (e.g., cerebrovascular accident, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of hydrophobic organic molecules which can be extracted from tissues using non-polar solvents. Lipids, due to their hydrophobic property, are mainly found in membranes enclosing various cell organelles. Diabetes mellitus management with insulin (nowadays also with oral hypoglycemic medications has improved the outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM (most infants born to diabetic mother are large for gestational age. The neonatal mortality rate in IDM is over five times higher than that of infants of non-diabetic mothers. In this study, therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of maternal diabetes on cord serum lipid profile. Methods: This prospective (case-control study was carried out on 60 infants born in Al-Zahra teaching hospital during February 2014–October 2014. The study group consisted of 30 randomly chosen IDM, and the control group comprised 30 infants who were born to healthy mothers. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there are significant differences between IDM and infants of healthy mothers regarding lipid profile and birth weight. Conclusion: This study confirms that cord serum lipid profile (serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein is higher at birth in IDM. Moreover, this study shows a significant association between lipid profile and body weight.

  4. Lipid nanotechnologies for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins. (United States)

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Grushin, Kirill; Dalm, Daniela; Miller, Jaimy


    We present a methodology of lipid nanotubes (LNT) and nanodisks technologies optimized in our laboratory for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins at close to physiological conditions. The application of these lipid nanotechnologies for structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is fundamental for understanding and modulating their function. The LNTs in our studies are single bilayer galactosylceramide based nanotubes of ∼20 nm inner diameter and a few microns in length, that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. The lipid nanodisks (NDs) are self-assembled discoid lipid bilayers of ∼10 nm diameter, which are stabilized in aqueous solutions by a belt of amphipathic helical scaffold proteins. By combining LNT and ND technologies, we can examine structurally how the membrane curvature and lipid composition modulates the function of the membrane-associated proteins. As proof of principle, we have engineered these lipid nanotechnologies to mimic the activated platelet's phosphtaidylserine rich membrane and have successfully assembled functional membrane-bound coagulation factor VIII in vitro for structure determination by cryo-EM. The macromolecular organization of the proteins bound to ND and LNT are further defined by fitting the known atomic structures within the calculated three-dimensional maps. The combination of LNT and ND technologies offers a means to control the design and assembly of a wide range of functional membrane-associated proteins and complexes for structural studies by cryo-EM. The presented results confirm the suitability of the developed methodology for studying the functional structure of membrane-associated proteins, such as the coagulation factors, at a close to physiological environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How Do Lipids Localize in Lewy Bodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhary, Himanshu; Subramaniam, Vinod; Claessens, Mireille


    Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). While fibrillar α-synuclein (αS) is the main protein component of Lewy bodies, these structures also contain lipids. To elucidate the presence of lipids in Lewy bodies, we investigated the interaction of lipids with monomeric and

  6. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving ...... distinct self assembling property and find useful application in surfactant industry....

  7. Myoglobin-induced lipid oxidation : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Andersen, H.J.


    An overview of myoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation in simple model systems, muscle, and muscle-based foods is presented. The potential role of myoglobin spin and redox states in initiating lipid oxidation is reviewed. Proposed mechanisms for myoglobin- initiated lipid oxidation in muscle tissue (p...

  8. Cell-to-cell heterogeneity in lipid droplets suggests a mechanism to reduce lipotoxicity. (United States)

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Ariotti, Nicholas; Reddy, Babu J N; Fajardo, Alba; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Fernández-Rojo, Manuel Alejandro; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Geli, María-Isabel; Parton, Robert G; Gross, Steven P; Pol, Albert


    Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that collect, store, and supply lipids [1]. LDs have a central role in the exchange of lipids occurring between the cell and the environment and provide cells with substrates for energy metabolism, membrane synthesis, and production of lipid-derived molecules such as lipoproteins or hormones. However, lipid-derived metabolites also cause progressive lipotoxicity [2], accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial malfunctioning, and cell death [2]. Intracellular accumulation of LDs is a hallmark of prevalent human diseases, including obesity, steatosis, diabetes, myopathies, and arteriosclerosis [3]. Indeed, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of abnormal hepatic function among adults [4, 5]. Lipotoxicity gradually promotes cellular ballooning and disarray, megamitochondria, accumulation of Mallory's hyaline in hepatocytes, and inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis in the liver. Here, using confocal microscopy, serial-block-face scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we show that LD accumulation is heterogeneous within a cell population and follows a positive skewed distribution. Lipid availability and fluctuations in biochemical networks controlling lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and protein synthesis contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Critically, this reversible variability generates a subpopulation of cells that effectively collect and store lipids. This high-lipid subpopulation accumulates more LDs and more ROS and reduces the risk of lipotoxicity to the population without impairing overall lipid homeostasis, since high-lipid cells can supply stored lipids to the other cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate fat storage compartmentalization within a cell population and propose that this is a protective social organization to reduce lipotoxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural characterization of ether lipids from the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus by high-resolution shotgun lipidomics. (United States)

    Jensen, Sara Munk; Brandl, Martin; Treusch, Alexander H; Ejsing, Christer S


    The molecular structures, biosynthetic pathways and physiological functions of membrane lipids produced by organisms in the domain Archaea are poorly characterized as compared with that of counterparts in Bacteria and Eukaryota. Here we report on the use of high-resolution shotgun lipidomics to characterize, for the first time, the lipid complement of the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. To support the identification of lipids in S. islandicus, we first compiled a database of ether lipid species previously ascribed to Archaea. Next, we analyzed the lipid complement of S. islandicus by high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry using an ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. This analysis identified five clusters of molecular ions that matched ether lipids in the database with sub-ppm mass accuracy. To structurally characterize and validate the identities of the potential lipid species, we performed structural analysis using multistage activation on the ion trap-orbitrap instrument as well as tandem mass analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight machine. Our analysis identified four ether lipid species previously reported in Archaea, and one ether lipid species that had not been described before. This uncharacterized lipid species features two head group structures composed of a trisaccharide residue carrying an uncommon sulfono group (-SO3) and an inositol phosphate group. Both head groups are linked to a glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether core structure having isoprenoid chains with a total of 80 carbon atoms and 4 cyclopentane moieties. The shotgun lipidomics approach deployed here defines a novel workflow for exploratory lipid profiling of Archaea. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Wheat leaf lipids during heat stress: II. Lipids experiencing coordinated metabolism are detected by analysis of lipid co-occurrence. (United States)

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Prasad, P V Vara; Welti, Ruth


    Identifying lipids that experience coordinated metabolism during heat stress would provide information regarding lipid dynamics under stress conditions and assist in developing heat-tolerant wheat varieties. We hypothesized that co-occurring lipids, which are up-regulated or down-regulated together through time during heat stress, represent groups that can be explained by coordinated metabolism. Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) were subjected to 12 days of high day and/or night temperature stress, followed by a 4-day recovery period. Leaves were sampled at four time points, and 165 lipids were measured by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis of lipid levels in 160 leaf samples from each of two wheat genotypes revealed 13 groups of lipids. Lipids within each group co-occurred through the high day and night temperature stress treatments. The lipid groups can be broadly classified as groups containing extraplastidic phospholipids, plastidic glycerolipids, oxidized glycerolipids, triacylglycerols, acylated sterol glycosides and sterol glycosides. Current knowledge of lipid metabolism suggests that the lipids in each group co-occur because they are regulated by the same enzyme(s). The results suggest that increases in activities of desaturating, oxidizing, glycosylating and acylating enzymes lead to simultaneous changes in levels of multiple lipid species during high day and night temperature stress in wheat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Formation of monodisperse hierarchical lipid particles utilizing microfluidic droplets in a nonequilibrium state. (United States)

    Mizuno, Masahiro; Toyota, Taro; Konishi, Miki; Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru


    A new microfluidic process was used to generate unique micrometer-sized hierarchical lipid particles having spherical lipid-core and multilamellar-shell structures. The process includes three steps: (1) formation of monodisperse droplets in a nonequilibrium state at a microchannel confluence, using a phospholipid-containing water-soluble organic solvent as the dispersed phase and water as the continuous phase; (2) dissolution of the organic solvent of the droplet into the continuous phase and concentration of the lipid molecules; and (3) reconstitution of multilamellar lipid membranes and simultaneous formation of a lipid core. We demonstrated control of the lipid particle size by the process conditions and characterized the obtained particles by transmission electron microscopy and microbeam small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. In addition, we prepared various types of core-shell and core-core-shell particles incorporating hydrophobic/hydrophilic compounds, showing the applicability of the presented process to the production of drug-encapsulating lipid particles.

  12. Formation of supported lipid bilayers containing phase-segregated domains and their interaction with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melby, Eric S.; Mensch, Arielle C.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Murphy, Catherine J.; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.


    The cell membrane represents an important biological interface that nanoparticles may encounter after being released into the environment. Interaction of nanoparticles with cellular membranes may alter membrane structure and function, lead to their uptake into cells, and elicit adverse biological responses. Supported lipid bilayers have proven to be valuable ex vivo models for biological membranes, allowing investigation of their mechanisms of interaction with nanoparticles with a degree of control impossible in living cells. To date, the majority of research on nanoparticle interaction with supported lipid bilayers has employed membranes composed of single or binary mixtures of phospholipids. Cellular membranes contain a wide variety of lipids and exhibit lateral organization. Ordered membrane domains enriched in specific membrane components are referred to as lipid rafts and have not been explored with respect to their interaction with nanoparticles. Here we develop model lipid raft-containing membranes amenable to investigation by a variety of surface-sensitive analytical techniques and demonstrate that lipid rafts influence the extent of nanoparticle attachment to model membranes. We determined conditions that allow reliable formation of bilayers containing rafts enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol and confirmed their morphology by structured illumination and atomic force microscopies. We demonstrate that lipid rafts increase attachment of cationic gold nanoparticles to model membranes under near physiological ionic strength conditions (0.1 M NaCl) at pH 7.4. We anticipate that these results will serve as the foundation for and motivate further study of nanoparticle interaction with compositionally varied lipid rafts.

  13. Polydopamine-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souryvanh Nirasay


    Full Text Available We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on the polydopamine cushion by fusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC vesicles. Polydopamine films preserved the lateral mobility of the phospholipids as shown by fluorescence microscopy recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments. Diffusion coefficients of ~5.9 and 7.2 µm2 s−1 were respectively determined for DMPC and DOPC at room temperature, values which are characteristic of lipids in a free standing bilayer system.

  14. Polydopamine-Supported Lipid Bilayers (United States)

    Nirasay, Souryvanh; Badia, Antonella; Leclair, Grégoire; Claverie, Jerome P.; Marcotte, Isabelle


    We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on the polydopamine cushion by fusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles. Polydopamine films preserved the lateral mobility of the phospholipids as shown by fluorescence microscopy recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Diffusion coefficients of ~5.9 and 7.2 µm2 s−1 were respectively determined for DMPC and DOPC at room temperature, values which are characteristic of lipids in a free standing bilayer system.

  15. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites (United States)

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C.; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C.


    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments. PMID:26308719

  16. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Salvo

    Full Text Available A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13% but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments.

  17. Disaccharides Impact the Lateral Organization of Lipid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiset, Gemma; López, Cesar A; Bartelds, Rianne; Syga, Lukasz; Rijpkema, Egon; Cukkemane, Abhishek; Baldus, Marc; Poolman, Bert; Marrink, Siewert J


    Disaccharides are well known for their membrane protective ability. Interaction between sugars and multi-component membranes, however, remains largely unexplored. Here, we combine molecular dynamics simulations and fluorescence microscopy to study the effect of mono- and disaccharides on membranes

  18. Lipids in monogastric animal meat


    Mourot, Jacques; HERMIER, Dominique


    International audience; Meat from monogastric animals, essentially pigs and poultry, is from afar the most consumed of all meats. Meat products from every species have their own characteristics. For a long time, pig meat has been presented as a fatty meat because of the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Actually, when the visible fat is separated, this meat is rather poor in lipids: pieces eaten as fresh meat and without transformation, such as roasts, contain less then 2% total lipi...

  19. Polydopamine-Supported Lipid Bilayers


    Souryvanh Nirasay; Antonella Badia; Grégoire Leclair; Claverie, Jerome P.; Isabelle Marcotte


    We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on the polydopamine cushion by fusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles. Polydopamine...

  20. Anesthetics interacting with lipid rafts. (United States)

    Bandeiras, Cátia; Serro, Ana Paula; Luzyanin, Konstantin; Fernandes, Anabela; Saramago, Benilde


    The exact mechanism by which anesthetics induce cell membrane-mediated modifications is still an open question. Although the fluidization effect of the anesthetic molecules on the cellular membrane is widely recognized, it is not known if anesthetics show any preference for specific membrane domains, namely the lipid rafts. The importance of these membrane micro-domains derives from the fact that they have been associated with cell signaling pathways, as well as with specific drug interactions. The objective of this work is to contribute for the elucidation of this question through the comparison of the anesthetic interactions with membranes of various lipid compositions. Liposomes prepared with an equimolar mixture of POPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, were chosen as models for lipid rafts. The interactions of these liposomes with two local anesthetics, tetracaine and lidocaine, and one general anesthetic, propofol, were studied. The effect of cholesterol was investigated by comparing anesthetic interactions with POPC/SM liposomes and POPC/SM/CHOL liposomes. The following experimental techniques were used: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, differential scanning calorimetry and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance. Although the liposomes investigated by the different techniques are not in the same conditions, it is possible to assemble the information obtained from all experimental techniques employed to reach a general conclusion. Tetracaine interacts more with raftlike domains, lidocaine induces stronger modifications on POPC/SM liposomes and the results for propofol are not fully conclusive but it seems to be the least prone to lipid interactions. The results were compared with those obtained with DMPC-containing liposomes, reported in a previous work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential alteration of lipid antigen presentation to NKT cells due to imbalances in lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Schümann, Jens; Facciotti, Federica; Panza, Luigi; Michieletti, Mario; Compostella, Federica; Collmann, Anthony; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro


    Deficiencies in enzymes of the lysosomal glycosphingolipid degradation pathway or in lysosomal lipid transfer proteins cause an imbalance in lipid metabolism and induce accumulation of certain lipids. A possible impact of such an imbalance on the presentation of lipid antigens to lipid-reactive T cells has only been hypothesized but not extensively studied so far. Here we demonstrate that presentation of lipid antigens to, and development of, lipid-reactive CD1d-restricted NKT cells, are impaired in mice deficient in the lysosomal enzyme beta-galactosidase (betaGal) or the lysosomal lipid transfer protein Niemann-Pick C (NPC) 2. Importantly, the residual populations of NKT cells selected in betaGal-/- and NPC2-/- mice showed differential TCR and CD4 repertoire characteristics, suggesting that differential selecting CD1d:lipid antigen complexes are formed. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that accumulation of lipids impairs lipid antigen presentation in both cases. However, the mechanisms by which imbalanced lipid metabolism affected lipid antigen presentation were different. Based on these results, the impact of lipid accumulation should be generally considered in the interpretation of immunological deficiencies found in mice suffering from lipid metabolic disorders.

  2. Pressure effects on lipids and bio-membrane assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Brooks


    Full Text Available Membranes are amongst the most important biological structures; they maintain the fundamental integrity of cells, compartmentalize regions within them and play an active role in a wide range of cellular processes. Pressure can play a key role in probing the structure and dynamics of membrane assemblies, and is also critical to the biology and adaptation of deep-sea organisms. This article presents an overview of the effect of pressure on the mesostructure of lipid membranes, bilayer organization and lipid–protein assemblies. It also summarizes recent developments in high-pressure structural instrumentation suitable for experiments on membranes.

  3. Lipids in monogastric animal meat. (United States)

    Mourot, J; Hermier, D


    Meat from monogastric animals, essentially pigs and poultry, is from afar the most consumed of all meats. Meat products from every species have their own characteristics. For a long time, pig meat has been presented as a fatty meat because of the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Actually, when the visible fat is separated, this meat is rather poor in lipids: pieces eaten as fresh meat and without transformation, such as roasts, contain less then 2% total lipids. Poultry meat has always had a reputation of leanness because of its low content in intramuscular lipids. In addition, adipose tissues, localised in the abdominal cavity, are easily separable. The progress in genetics and a better knowledge of dietary needs has allowed to improve growth performances, to increase muscle weight and, in the pig, to strongly decrease carcass adiposity. However, strong contradictions appear between transformers and nutritionists, especially concerning the pig: the former wish to have meat with adipose tissues containing a high percentage of saturated fatty acids and the latter wish meat with more unsaturated fatty acids. The consumer, however, regrets the pigs of yesteryear or the poultry bred on farmyard that had tastier meat. At the same time, however, they request meat with a low fat content, which is paradoxical.

  4. Lipid reorganization induced by Shiga toxin clustering on planar membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Windschiegl

    Full Text Available The homopentameric B-subunit of bacterial protein Shiga toxin (STxB binds to the glycolipid Gb(3 in plasma membranes, which is the initial step for entering cells by a clathrin-independent mechanism. It has been suggested that protein clustering and lipid reorganization determine toxin uptake into cells. Here, we elucidated the molecular requirements for STxB induced Gb(3 clustering and for the proposed lipid reorganization in planar membranes. The influence of binding site III of the B-subunit as well as the Gb(3 lipid structure was investigated by means of high resolution methods such as fluorescence and scanning force microscopy. STxB was found to form protein clusters on homogenous 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC/cholesterol/Gb(3 (65:30:5 bilayers. In contrast, membranes composed of DOPC/cholesterol/sphingomyelin/Gb(3 (40:35:20:5 phase separate into a liquid ordered and liquid disordered phase. Dependent on the fatty acid composition of Gb(3, STxB-Gb(3 complexes organize within the liquid ordered phase upon protein binding. Our findings suggest that STxB is capable of forming a new membrane phase that is characterized by lipid compaction. The significance of this finding is discussed in the context of Shiga toxin-induced formation of endocytic membrane invaginations.

  5. Avocado oils and hepatic lipid metabolism in growing rats. (United States)

    Werman, M J; Neeman, I; Mokady, S


    The effect of various avocado oils on liver metabolism was studied in growing female rats. The rats were fed diets containing 10% (w/w) avocado oil for 4 wk. In comparison with rats fed refined avocado oil obtained from cored fruit by centrifugal separation, rats fed unrefined avocado oil obtained by organic solvent extraction from intact fruit, or its unsaponifiable components, showed a significant increase in total liver lipogenesis as well as in phospholipid and triglceride synthesis. Rats fed avocado-seed oil exhibited enhanced [1-14C]acetate incorporation into total liver lipids but showed the same distribution of label in the three main lipid classes as that of rats fed refined avocado oil. In addition, a significant reduction of triglycerides and protein content of plasma very-low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein fractions was observed in rats fed avocado-seed oil as compared with rats fed refined oil. Electron micrographs suggested that the alterations in hepatic lipogenesis are related to the marked proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is known to be associated with induction of enzymes involved with lipid biosynthesis. The differences between the animals fed seed oil and those fed the unrefined oils, in the distribution of label within the main lipid classes, indicate that more than one factor is involved in the alterations caused by these oils.

  6. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro


    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  7. Lipid residues preserved in sheltered bedrock features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Buonasera


    Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.

  8. A Lipid-Specific Toxin Reveals Heterogeneity of Sphingomyelin-Containing Membranes (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Reiko; Yamaji-Hasegawa, Akiko; Makino, Asami; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Toshihide


    Little is known about the heterogenous organization of lipids in biological membranes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is a major plasma membrane lipid that forms lipid domains together with cholesterol and glycolipids. Using SM-specific toxin, lysenin, we showed that in cultured epithelial cells the accessibility of the toxin to SM is different between apical and basolateral membranes. Apical membranes are highly enriched with glycolipids. The inhibitory role of glycolipids in the binding of lysenin to SM was confirmed by comparing the glycolipid-deficient mutant melanoma cell line with its parent cell. Model membrane experiments indicated that glycolipid altered the local density of SM so that the affinity of the lipid for lysenin was decreased. Our results indicate that lysenin recognizes the heterogenous organization of SM in biomembranes and that the organization of SM differs between different cell types and between different membrane domains within the same cell. Isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that lysenin binding to SM is presumably the result of a SM-lysenin complex formation of specific stoichiometry, thus supporting the idea of the existence of small condensed lipid complexes consisting of just a few lipid molecules in living cells. PMID:14695271

  9. Simultaneous assay of pigments, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in microalgae. (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman


    Biochemical compositional analysis of microbial biomass is a useful tool that can provide insight into the behaviour of an organism and its adaptational response to changes in its environment. To some extent, it reflects the physiological and metabolic status of the organism. Conventional methods to estimate biochemical composition often employ different sample pretreatment strategies and analytical steps for analysing each major component, such as total proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, making it labour-, time- and sample-intensive. Such analyses when carried out individually can also result in uncertainties of estimates as different pre-treatment or extraction conditions are employed for each of the component estimations and these are not necessarily standardised for the organism, resulting in observations that are not easy to compare within the experimental set-up or between laboratories. We recently reported a method to estimate total lipids in microalgae (Chen, Vaidyanathan, Anal. Chim. Acta, 724, 67-72). Here, we propose a unified method for the simultaneous estimation of the principal biological components, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, chlorophyll and carotenoids, in a single microalgae culture sample that incorporates the earlier published lipid assay. The proposed methodology adopts an alternative strategy for pigment assay that has a high sensitivity. The unified assay is shown to conserve sample (by 79%), time (67%), chemicals (34%) and energy (58%) when compared to the corresponding assay for each component, carried out individually on different samples. The method can also be applied to other microorganisms, especially those with recalcitrant cell walls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A


    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  11. Lipid Biomarkers for a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger


    The use of lipid biomarkers and their carbon isotopic compositions are valuable tools for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Various lipids associated with specific microbial groups can serve as biomarkers for establishing organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids), and by analogy, potential relevance to ancient organic-rich sedimentary rocks (geolipids). As witnessed by the stromatolite record, benthic microbial mats grew in shallow water lagoonal environments. Our recent work has focused on lipid biomarker analysis of a potential analogue for such ancient mats growing in a set of hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aerobic, surface layer of this mat (0 to 1 mm) contained a variety of ester-bound fatty acids (FA) representing a diverse bacterial population including cyanobacteria, sulphate reducers (SRB) and heterotrophs. Biomarkers for microeukaryotes detected in this layer included sterols, C-20 polyunsaturated FA and a highly branched isoprenoid, diagnostic for diatoms. Cyanobacteria were also indicated by the presence of a diagnostic set of mid-chain methylalkanes. C-28, to C-34 wax esters (WXE) present in relatively small amounts in the upper 3 mm of the mat are considered biomarkers for green non-sulphur bacteria. Ether-bound isoprenoids were also identified although in considerably lower abundance than ester-bound FA (approx. 1:l0). These complex ether lipids included archatol, hydroxyarchaeol and a C-40 tetraether, all in small amounts. After ether cleavage with boron tribromide, the major recovered isoprenyl was a C-30:1. This C(sub 30;1) yelded squalane after hydrogenation, a known geobiomarker for hypersaline environments in ancient oils and sediments. In this mat, it represents the dominant Archaeal population. The carbon isotopic composition of biomarker lipids were generally depleted relative to the bulk organic material (delta C-13 TOC -10%). Most

  12. The evolution of lipids part 2. Which was comfortable isoprenoid alcohol or fatty acid as the membrane lipids of the common ancestral cell? (United States)

    Itoh, Y.; Itoh, T.

    A cell is the most fundamental and essential structural unit of all living organisms on the Earth. Even though we will disclose many genomic DNA sequences, the structures and functions of their products, and interactions of them, it isn't possible to create an organism in vitro without cell membrane or barriers with which separate an inner water part from the outer environments. What kinds of molecule were concentrated in the prebiotic soup to be the cradle of genetic materials? Which was comfortable isoprenoid alcohol or fatty acid as the membrane lipids of the common ancestral cell? The struct u ral units of DNA, RNA, and proteins are simple, well organized and common in all the living organisms on the Earth. On the other hand, a great number of molecular species of the membrane lipids are present and each of them is specific for the individual species. Major lipids of all living organisms are derived from a variety of glycerophospholipids, s ulfolipids , glycolipid, phosphosulfoglycolipids, or triterpen family. Where do these molecules distribute in a phylogenetic tree? Among procaryotes, bacterial membrane glycerolipids basically consist of fatty acids as hydrocarbon chains, however, archaeal that do isoprenoid alcohol chains. How did the number of carbon in a fatty acid chain or an isoprenoid chain select ? Which might have an advantage for an easy way to obtain enough length of the membrane lipids, fatty acid or isoprenoid, in the prebiotic soup ? Precursor of an isoprenoid , a mevalonic acid, that is easily soluble in water and also soluble in polar organic solvent. The characteristics of the molecules should be suitable for their functions. In this presentation, based on the comparison of the molecular species of lipids in widespread living organisms including Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, the evolutional position of each molecule will be discussed.

  13. The effect of repeated lateral compression and expansions mimicking blinking on selected tear film polar lipid monofilms. (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew; Vogel, Hans J; Prenner, Elmar J


    The tear film lipid layer is formed on the anterior surface of the eye, functioning as a barrier to excess evaporation and foreign particles, while also providing stability to the tear film. The lipid layer is organized into a polar lipid layer consisting of phospholipids, ceramides, and free fatty acids that act as a surfactant to a non-polar multilayer of wax and cholesterol esters. Due to shear forces from eye movement and the compression and expansion of blinking, the tear lipids are under constant stress. However, tear film is able to resist immediate rupture and remains intact over multiple blinks. This work aimed to better understand the lateral organization of selected tear film polar lipids. The polar lipid biomimetic studied here consisted of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), palmitoyl glucosylceramide (PGC), and palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM). Surface pressure-area isocycles mimicked blinking and films were visualized by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). All lipid systems formed relatively reversible films as indicated by limited hysteresis. However, pure DPPC and PSM films experienced greater changes in lipid packing upon compression and expansion compared to pure PGC and DPPE. This suggests that the driving force behind maintaining the lateral organization of the polar lipids from tear film may be the hydrogen bonding propensities of the head groups. Additionally, isocycles of films containing DPPC, DPPE, and PGC mixtures exhibited evidence for reversible multilayer formation or folding. This was supported by 3D analysis of structures that formed during compression but reintegrated back into the bulk lipid film during expansion near the in vitro tear film surface pressure of the open eye. Therefore, the polar lipids of tear film may be directly involved in preventing film rupture during a blink. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Specificity of Intramembrane Protein–Lipid Interactions (United States)

    Contreras, Francesc-Xabier; Ernst, Andreas Max; Wieland, Felix; Brügger, Britta


    Our concept of biological membranes has markedly changed, from the fluid mosaic model to the current model that lipids and proteins have the ability to separate into microdomains, differing in their protein and lipid compositions. Since the breakthrough in crystallizing membrane proteins, the most powerful method to define lipid-binding sites on proteins has been X-ray and electron crystallography. More recently, chemical biology approaches have been developed to analyze protein–lipid interactions. Such methods have the advantage of providing highly specific cellular probes. With the advent of novel tools to study functions of individual lipid species in membranes together with structural analysis and simulations at the atomistic resolution, a growing number of specific protein–lipid complexes are defined and their functions explored. In the present article, we discuss the various modes of intramembrane protein–lipid interactions in cellular membranes, including examples for both annular and nonannular bound lipids. Furthermore, we will discuss possible functional roles of such specific protein–lipid interactions as well as roles of lipids as chaperones in protein folding and transport. PMID:21536707

  15. Comparative lipid profiling of the cnidarian Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Garrett

    Full Text Available Corals and other cnidarians house photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts within membrane-bound compartments inside gastrodermal cells. Nutritional interchanges between the partners produce carbohydrates and lipids for metabolism, growth, energy stores, and cellular structures. Although lipids play a central role in the both the energetics and the structural/morphological features of the symbiosis, previous research has primarily focused on the fatty acid and neutral lipid composition of the host and symbiont. In this study we conducted a mass spectrometry-based survey of the lipidomic changes associated with symbiosis in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, an important model system for coral symbiosis. Lipid extracts from A. pallida in and out of symbiosis with its symbiont Symbiodinium were prepared and analyzed using negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Through this analysis we have identified, by exact mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS, several classes of glycerophospholipids in A. pallida. Several molecular species of di-acyl phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as well as 1-alkyl, 2-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidycholine were identified. The 1-alkyl, 2-acyl PEs are acid sensitive suggestive that they are plasmalogen PEs possessing a double bond at the 1-position of the alkyl linked chain. In addition, we identified several molecular species of phosphonosphingolipids called ceramide aminoethylphosphonates in anemone lipid extracts by the release of a characteristic negative product ion at m/z 124.014 during MS/MS analysis. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG, an anionic lipid often found in photosynthetic organisms, was identified as a prominent component of Symbiodinium lipid extracts. A comparison of anemone lipid profiles revealed a subset of lipids that show dramatic differences in abundance when anemones are in the symbiotic state as

  16. Spectrin-like Repeats 11–15 of Human Dystrophin Show Adaptations to a Lipidic Environment* (United States)

    Sarkis, Joe; Hubert, Jean-François; Legrand, Baptiste; Robert, Estelle; Chéron, Angélique; Jardin, Julien; Hitti, Eric; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Vié, Véronique


    Dystrophin is essential to skeletal muscle function and confers resistance to the sarcolemma by interacting with cytoskeleton and membrane. In the present work, we characterized the behavior of dystrophin 11–15 (DYS R11–15), five spectrin-like repeats from the central domain of human dystrophin, with lipids. DYS R11–15 displays an amphiphilic character at the liquid/air interface while maintaining its secondary α-helical structure. The interaction of DYS R11–15 with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) depends on the lipid nature, which is not the case with large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). In addition, switching from anionic SUVs to anionic LUVs suggests the lipid packing as a crucial factor for the interaction of protein and lipid. The monolayer model and the modulation of surface pressure aim to mimic the muscle at work (i.e. dynamic changes of muscle membrane during contraction and relaxation) (high and low surface pressure). Strikingly, the lateral pressure modifies the protein organization. Increasing the lateral pressure leads the proteins to be organized in a regular network. Nevertheless, a different protein conformation after its binding to monolayer is revealed by trypsin proteolysis. Label-free quantification by nano-LC/MS/MS allowed identification of the helices in repeats 12 and 13 involved in the interaction with anionic SUVs. These results, combined with our previous studies, indicate that DYS R11–15 constitutes the only part of dystrophin that interacts with anionic as well as zwitterionic lipids and adapts its interaction and organization depending on lipid packing and lipid nature. We provide strong experimental evidence for a physiological role of the central domain of dystrophin in sarcolemma scaffolding through modulation of lipid-protein interactions. PMID:21712383

  17. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  18. Stratum corneum biomarkers for inflammatory skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S.A.


    This thesis focusses on development of biomarkers, obtained by a non-invasive sampling method, for skin inflammatory diseases relevant for occupational settings; irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In various studies, in which different

  19. Characterization of lipid rafts in human platelets using nuclear magnetic resonance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F. Ceñido


    temperature produced decreases in the 1.3 ppm peak intensity and a discontinuity at ~18 °C, for which the simplest explanation is a phase transition from Ld to Lo phases indicative of raft formation. Rates of lateral diffusion of the acyl chain lipid signal at 1.3 ppm, a quantitative measure of microdomain size, were consistent with lipid molecules organized in rafts. These results show that HRMAS NMR can characterize lipid microdomains in human platelets, a methodological advance that could be extended to other tissues in which membrane biochemistry may have physiological and pathophysiological relevance.

  20. Phase diagrams and lipid domains in multicomponent lipid bilayer mixtures. (United States)

    Feigenson, Gerald W


    Understanding the phase behavior of biological membranes is helped by the study of more simple systems. Model membranes that have as few as 3 components exhibit complex phase behavior that can be well described, providing insight for biological membranes. A number of different studies are in agreement on general findings for some compositional phase diagrams, in particular, those that model the outer leaflet of animal cell plasma membranes. These model mixtures include cholesterol, together with one high-melting lipid and one low-melting lipid. An interesting finding is of two categories of such 3-component mixtures, leading to what we term Type I and Type II compositional phase diagrams. The latter have phase regions of macroscopic coexisting domains of [Lalpha+Lbeta+Lo] and of [Lalpha+Lo], with domains resolved under the light microscope. Type I mixtures have the same phase coexistence regions, but the domains seem to be nanoscopic. Type I mixtures are likely to be better models for biological membranes.

  1. Nanointaglio fabrication of optical lipid multilayer diffraction gratings with applications in biosensing (United States)

    Lowry, Troy Warren

    The dynamic self-organization of lipids in biological systems is a highly regulated process that enables the compartmentalization of living systems at microscopic and nanoscopic levels. Exploiting the self-organization and innate biofunctionality of lyotropic liquid crystalline phospholipids, a novel nanofabrication process called "nanointaglio" was invented in order to rapidly and scalably integrate lipid nanopatterns onto the surface. The work presented here focuses on using nanointaglio fabricated lipid diffraction micro- and nanopatterns for the development of new sensing and bioactivity studies. The lipids are patterned as diffraction gratings for sensor functionality. The lipid multilayer gratings operate as nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. To demonstrate the label free detection capabilities, lipid nanopatterns are shown to be suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone) in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering, indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose. A second main application is demonstrated for the study of membrane binding proteins. Although in vitro methods for assaying the catalytic activity of individual enzymes are well established, quantitative methods for assaying the kinetics of

  2. Simultaneously Propagating Voltage and Pressure Pulses in Lipid Monolayers of pork brain and synthetic lipids

    CERN Document Server

    Griesbauer, J; Wixforth, A; Schneider, M F


    Hydrated interfaces are ubiquitous in biology and appear on all length scales from ions, individual molecules to membranes and cellular networks. In vivo, they comprise a high degree of self-organization and complex entanglement, which limits their experimental accessibility by smearing out the individual phenomenology. The Langmuir technique, however, allows the examination of defined interfaces, whose controllable thermodynamic state enables one to explore the proper state diagrams. Here we demonstrate that voltage and pressure pulses simultaneously propagate along monolayers comprised of either native pork brain or synthetic lipids. The excitation of pulses is conducted by the application of small droplets of acetic acid and monitored subsequently employing timeresolved Wilhelmy plate and Kelvin probe measurements. The isothermal state diagrams of the monolayers for both lateral pressure and surface potential are experimentally recorded, enabling us to predict dynamic voltage pulse amplitudes of 0,1 to 3mV...

  3. [Activation of lipid peroxidation in patients with renal hypertension]. (United States)

    Demikhova, N; Sukhonos, V; Vynnychenko, L; Psareva, V; Prikhodko, O


    The study involved 53 patients with arterial hypertension in chronic kidney disease (chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN)). Lipid peroxidation was studied based on the content of diene conjugates and malondialdehyde. Protein peroxidation was studied based on the content of 2,4-dinitphenyl-aldogidrazons. The patients in all clinical variants of the CGN revealed increased activity of lipid peroxidation and the protein peroxidation, which is most pronounced in patients with nephrotic variant of CGN: increased levels of serum malondialdehyde medians occurred in 3.92 times and diene conjugates in 1.52 times (plipids and proteins has a negative impact on the organization of cell membranes of the renal structures and leads to loss of membrane barrier function.

  4. Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid. (United States)

    Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka


    This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rape embryogenesis. V. Accumulation of lipid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available In embryo of winter rape var. Górczański lipid bodies have been observed in the light microscope starting from two-celled proembryo. Their number and size increase in the course of embryogenesis, especially since greening of endosperm and embryo. Lipid bodies, either single or in clusters, are present in all embryo cells, the clusters occur in various parts of the cytoplasm. During embryo maturation lipid bodies move and locate in a number of layers by the cell wall. At the same time their appearance change. Typical storage lipids originate. Lipid bodies are unevenly distributed within the embryo: their number and size decrease along the embryo axis from its part below cotyledons towards root apex. Moreover, they are histologically diversified: the biggest are located in epidermis and cortex, whereas the smallest -in central cylinder. In columella there are fewest lipid bodies.

  6. Droplet Microfluidics for Artificial Lipid Bilayers (United States)

    Punnamaraju, Srikoundinya; Steckl, Andrew


    Droplet interface bilayer is a versatile approach that allows formation of artificial lipid bilayer membrane at the interface of two lipid monolayer coated aqueous droplets in a lipid filled oil medium. Versatility exists in the form of voltage control of DIB area, ability of forming networks of DIBs, volume control of droplets and lipid-oil, and ease of reformation. Significant effect of voltage on the area and capacitance of DIB as well as DIB networks are characterized using simultaneous optical and electrical recordings. Mechanisms behind voltage-induced effects on DIBs are investigated. Photo induced effect on the DIB membrane porosity is obtained by incorporating UVC-sensitive photo-polymerizable lipids in DIB. Photo-induced effects can be extended for in-vitro studies of triggered release of encapsulated contents across membranes. A droplet based low voltage digital microfluidic platform is developed to automate DIB formation, which could potentially be used for forming arrays of lipid bilayer membranes.

  7. Rôles émergents des lipides naturels et artificiels dans l'élaboration de la fonction catalytique, la stabilité et l'état d'oligomerisation des protéines membranaires


    Srour, Batoul


    The study of biological membranes involves the examination of the different properties of its main components: as lipids and proteins. In this manuscript, the lipid-lipid interaction and the lipid-protein interaction were monitored by vibrational spectroscopy (Raman and Infrared). We have been interested in the first part in studying the structure and organization of phospholipids in the gel phase and the liquid crystalline phase using mid infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the effect of the...

  8. Imaging of lipids in rat heart by MALDI-MS with silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jackson, Shelley N; Baldwin, Kathrine; Muller, Ludovic; Womack, Virginia M; Schultz, J Albert; Balaban, Carey; Woods, Amina S


    Lipids are a major component of heart tissue and perform several important functions such as energy storage, signaling, and as building blocks of biological membranes. The heart lipidome is quite diverse consisting of glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), cardiolipins (CLs), and glycerolipids, mainly triacylglycerols (TAGs). In this study, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enabled by matrix implantation of ionized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was used to map several classes of lipids in heart tissue. The use of AgNP matrix implantation was motivated by our previous work showing that implantation doses of only 10(14)/cm(2) of 2 nm gold nanoparticulates into the first 10 nm of the near surface of the tissue enabled detection of most brain lipids (including neutral lipid species such as cerebrosides) more efficiently than traditional organic MALDI matrices. Herein, a similar implantation of 500 eV AgNP(-) across the entire heart tissue section results in a quick, reproducible, solvent-free, uniform matrix concentration of 6 nm AgNP residing near the tissue surface. MALDI-MSI analysis of either positive or negative ions produce high-quality images of several heart lipid species. In negative ion mode, 24 lipid species [16 PEs, 4 PIs, 1 PG, 1 CL, 2 sphingomyelins (SMs)] were imaged. Positive ion images were also obtained from 29 lipid species (10 PCs, 5 PEs, 5 SMs, 9 TAGs) with the TAG species being heavily concentrated in vascular regions of the heart.

  9. Life as a matter of fat : lipids in a membrane biophysics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mouritsen, Ole G


    The present book gives a multi-disciplinary perspective on the physics of life and the particular role played by lipids (fats) and the lipid-bilayer component of cell membranes. The emphasis is on the physical properties of lipid membranes seen as soft and molecularly structured interfaces. By combining and synthesizing insights obtained from a variety of recent studies, an attempt is made to clarify what membrane structure is and how it can be quantitatively described. Furthermore, it is shown how biological function mediated by membranes is controlled by lipid membrane structure and organization on length scales ranging from the size of the individual molecule, across molecular assemblies of proteins and lipid domains in the range of nanometers, to the size of whole cells. Applications of lipids in nanotechnology and biomedicine are also described.   The first edition of the present book was published in 2005 when lipidomics was still very much an emerging science and lipids about to be recognized as being...

  10. Unique roles for lipids in Schistosoma mansoni. (United States)

    Furlong, S T


    The dynamic interplay among lipids has been exploited by S. mansoni to evolve some unique processes that are vital for its long-term survival within the mammalian host. Lipids are required by the parasite not only to maintain its surface integrity and structural requirements but also for egg production and cell-cell signalling. However, S. mansoni is incapable of synthesizing essential lipids and must obtain these from its host. In this review, Stephen Furlong describes the roles and routes of acquisition o f lipids by this parasite.

  11. Lipid droplet functions beyond energy storage. (United States)

    Welte, Michael A; Gould, Alex P


    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids and are critically important for energy metabolism. Their function in energy storage is firmly established and increasingly well characterized. However, emerging evidence indicates that lipid droplets also play important and diverse roles in the cellular handling of lipids and proteins that may not be directly related to energy homeostasis. Lipid handling roles of droplets include the storage of hydrophobic vitamin and signaling precursors, and the management of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress. Roles of lipid droplets in protein handling encompass functions in the maturation, storage, and turnover of cellular and viral polypeptides. Other potential roles of lipid droplets may be connected with their intracellular motility and, in some cases, their nuclear localization. This diversity highlights that lipid droplets are very adaptable organelles, performing different functions in different biological contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent Advances in Lipid Droplet Biology edited by Rosalind Coleman and Matthijs Hesselink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. How the immune system detects lipid antigens. (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia


    T lymphocytes are the cells of the immune system that may recognize glycolipids as antigens. T cells recognize lipids associated with the non-polymorphic molecules of the CD1 family present on the membrane of antigen-presenting cells. CD1 molecules contain hydrophobic pockets, which bind a large variety of lipid molecules in various manners. Lipid antigenicity is determined by their mode of uptake, membrane trafficking properties, degradation within endosomal compartments and capacity to form stable complexes with CD1. Extracellular and intracellular lipid binding proteins participate in lipid handling and loading on CD1 molecules within antigen-presenting cells. Recent crystal structures have disclosed how the T cell receptor contacts CD1-lipid complexes, revealing the contribution of both CD1 and lipid residues in making functionally relevant contacts. Lipid-specific T cells are important in autoimmunity, cancer surveillance, protection during infections, and in immunoregulation. The immunogenicity of lipids is being exploited in novel approaches to immunotherapy, including inhibition of autoimmunity and anti-cancer and bacterial vaccines. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfa Huang


    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy.

  14. Lipid peroxidation induced by phenylbutazone radicals. (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Muraoka, Sanae; Fujimoto, Yukio


    Lipid peroxidation was investigated to evaluate the deleterious effect on tissues by phenylbutazone (PB). PB induced lipid peroxidation of microsomes in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H2O2). The lipid peroxidation was completely inhibited by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase. Mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide had no effect. These results indicated no paticipation of superoxide and hydroxyl radical in the lipid peroxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) efficiently inhibited the lipid peroxidation. PB radicals emitted electron spin resonance (ESR) signals during the reaction of PB with HRP-H2O2. Microsomes and arachidonic acid strongly diminished the ESR signals, indicating that PB radicals directly react with unsaturated lipids of microsomes to cause thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. GSH sharply diminished the ESR signals of PB radicals, suggesting that GSH scavenges PB radicals to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Also, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropan strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation. R-Phycoerythrin, a peroxyl radical detector substance, was decomposed by PB with HRP-H2O2. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation of microsomes is induced by PB radicals or peroxyl radicals, or both.

  15. Lipid peroxides level in the Indonesian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwantyastuti Purwantyastuti


    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was done to see the possible association of plasma lipid peroxides in the elderly with age and other factors. Plasma lipid peroxides is a product of free radical reactions which according to the latest theory of aging is the cause of aging process. Lipid peroxides were also found high in coronary heart disease. Four hundred forty relatively healthy elderly, age 55-85 years, were randomly chosen from free living elderly under guidance of health care centers (PUSKESMAS in Jakarta. Anamnesis and physical examination were done in the morning in the health centers. Blood samples were taken in fasting conditions, plasma lipids and lipid peroxides were measured according to standard methods. There was an age difference of lipid peroxides level in the elderly, which increased with age up to 70 years old. Elderly 70 years old and over had low plasma lipid peroxides. The level was not related to high plasma lipids. Higher level was found when more chronic degenerative diseases were found. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 71-7Keywords: lipid peroxides, aging

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of structured lipids. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yugo; Yamane, Tsuneo


    Structured lipids (SLs) are defined as lipids that are modified chemically or enzymatically in order to change their structure. This review deals with structured triacylglycerols (STGs) and structured phospholipids (SPLs). The most typical STGs are MLM-type STGs, having medium chain fatty acids (FAs) at the 1- and 3-positions and a long chain fatty acid at the 2- position. MLM-type STGs are synthesized by: 1) 1,3-position-specific lipase-catalyzed acyl exchange of TG with FA or with FA ethylester (FAEt); 2) 1,3-position-specific lipase-catalyzed acylation of glycerol with FA, giving symmetric 1,3-diacyl-sn-glycerol, followed by chemical acylation at the sn-2 position, and; 3) 1,3-position-specific lipase-catalyzed deacylation of TG, giving 2-monoacylglycerol, followed by reacylation at the 1- and 3-positions with FA or with (FAEt). Enzymatic preparation of SPLs requires: 1) acyl group modification, and 2) head group modification of phospholipids. Acyl group modification is performed using lipases or phospholipase A2-mediated transesterification or ester synthesis to introduce arbitrary fatty acid to phospholipids. Head group modification is carried out by phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation. A wide range of compounds can be introduced into the polar head of phospholipids, making it possible to prepare various SPLs.

  17. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Meng


    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  18. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei


    nutrient restriction and genetic factors involving regulators that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Given that lipid metabolism is involved in many diseases but is also vital to the development of microbial cell factories that can provide us with sustainable fuels and oleochemicals, we envision......The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a potent accumulator of lipids, and lipogenesis in this organism can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics and environmental conditions. Using a multifactorial study, we elucidated the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on regulation...... factors can influence lipid metabolism, including the environment and genetics. We demonstrated, using a multi-omics and multifactorial experimental setup, that multiple factors affect lipid accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Using integrative analysis, we identified novel interactions between...

  19. Effect of nutrients on growth and lipid accumulation in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Tang, Haiying; Ma, Hongzhi; Holland, Thomas C; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O


    Production of biofuel from algae is dependent on the microalgal biomass production rate and lipid content. Both biomass production and lipid accumulation are limited by several factors, of which nutrients play a key role. In this research, the marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta was used as a model organism and a profile of its nutritional requirements was determined. Inorganic phosphate PO4(3-) and trace elements: cobalt (Co2+), iron (Fe3+), molybdenum (Mo2+) and manganese (Mn2+) were identified as required for algae optimum growth. Inorganic nitrogen in the form of nitrate NO3- instead of ammonium (NH4+) was required for maximal biomass production. Lipids accumulated under nitrogen starvation growth condition and this was time-dependent. Results of this research can be applied to maximize production of microalgal lipids in optimally designed photobioreactors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calibrating passive sampling and passive dosing techniques to lipid based concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Annika, A.


    external partitioning standards in vegetable or fish oil for the complete calibration of equilibrium sampling techniques without additional steps. Equilibrium in tissue sampling in three different fish yielded lipid based PCB concentrations in good agreement with those determined using total extraction...... and lipid normalization. These results support the validity of the in tissue sampling technique, while at the same time confirming that the fugacity capacity of these lipid-rich fish tissues for PCBs was dominated by the lipid fraction. Equilibrium sampling of PCB contaminated lake sediments with PDMS......Equilibrium sampling into various formats of the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is increasingly used to measure the exposure of hydrophobic organic chemicals in environmental matrices, and passive dosing from silicone is increasingly used to control and maintain their exposure in laboratory...

  1. Lipid peroxidation and water penetration in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elena; Megli, Francesco Maria; Khandelia, Himanshu


    Lipid peroxidation plays a key role in the alteration of cell membrane's properties. Here we used as model systems multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) made of the first two products in the oxidative cascade of linoleoyl lecithin, namely 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecanedienoyl)-lecithin (Hp......(zz) parameters revealed that OHPLPC, but mostly HpPLPC, induced a measurable increase in polarity and H-bonding propensity in the central region of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulation performed on 16-DSA in the PLPC-HpPLPC bilayer revealed that water molecules are statistically favored with respect...... to the hydroperoxide groups to interact with the nitroxide at the methyl-terminal, confirming that the H-bonds experimentally observed are due to increased water penetration in the bilayer. The EPR and MD data on model membranes demonstrate that cell membrane damage by oxidative stress cause alteration of water...

  2. Single cell synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals a link between neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jamme

    Full Text Available In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins. We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated.

  3. Natural lipids in nanostructured lipid carriers and its cytotoxicity (United States)

    Lima, Paula A.; Rampazo, Caroline A. D.; Costa, Amanda F.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Watashi, Carolina M.; Durán, Nelson


    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are active carrier systems which modulate the sustained release of actives and protect unstable compounds against degradation. NLCs can also protect skin from sun light, due to its particulates nature, which gives them intrinsic scattering properties. In this work, we present the preparation of NLCs using natural lipids and its cytotoxicity profile. It was used a vegetal butter with melting point (m.p.) ~32-40°C, an animal wax (m.p. 35-40°C) and a vegetal oil (boiling point ~120-150°C). NLCs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method and particles were characterized by average size (Zave), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (PZ) (Fig.1). The thermal behavior of the NLCs was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). All the formulations were followed up for 60 days in order to evaluate their stability. NLCs exhibited a Zave around 150-200 nm, PDI less than 0.2 and PZ varying from -25 to -40 mV. The m.p. for the lyophilized NLCs was about 40-56°C. Cytotoxicity of the formulations were evaluated for human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and melanocytes (Melan-A) in the exponential growth phase. Cell viability was used as indicator of cytotoxicity and determined after 4 days of culture by MTT assay. It was found that the NLC formulations were not toxic against HaCaT and Melan-A cells. Results showed that the NLCs produced are potential carriers for nanocosmetics and sunscreen products.

  4. Characterization of 3D Voronoi Tessellation Nearest Neighbor Lipid Shells Provides Atomistic Lipid Disruption Profile of Protein Containing Lipid Membranes (United States)

    Cheng, Sara Y.; Duong, Hai V.; Compton, Campbell; Vaughn, Mark W.; Nguyen, Hoa; Cheng, Kwan H.


    Quantifying protein-induced lipid disruptions at the atomistic level is a challenging problem in membrane biophysics. Here we propose a novel 3D Voronoi tessellation nearest-atom-neighbor shell method to classify and characterize lipid domains into discrete concentric lipid shells surrounding membrane proteins in structurally heterogeneous lipid membranes. This method needs only the coordinates of the system and is independent of force fields and simulation conditions. As a proof-of-principle, we use this multiple lipid shell method to analyze the lipid disruption profiles of three simulated membrane systems: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, and beta-amyloid/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol. We observed different atomic volume disruption mechanisms due to cholesterol and beta-amyloid Additionally, several lipid fractional groups and lipid-interfacial water did not converge to their control values with increasing distance or shell order from the protein. This volume divergent behavior was confirmed by bilayer thickness and chain orientational order calculations. Our method can also be used to analyze high-resolution structural experimental data. PMID:25637891

  5. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  6. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice [Mus Musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Hil, van den E.F.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.


    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism and detailed serum lipid profiles, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w)

  7. Inclusion of the helper lipid dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine in solid lipid nanoparticles inhibits their transfection efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Radaic, Allan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Ferreira, Carmen V; de Paula, Eneida; Hoekstra, Dirk; Zuhorn, Inge S

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are a promising system for the delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. They consist of a solid lipid core that is stabilized by a layer of surfactants. By the incorporation of cationic lipids in the formulation, positively charged SLNs can be generated, that

  8. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-Zeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR – attenuated total reflection (ATR detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  9. New aspects of phloem-mediated long-distance lipid signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Florian Benning


    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and cannot move to appropriate hiding places or feeding grounds to escape adverse conditions. As a consequence, they evolved mechanisms to detect changes in their environment, communicate these to different organs, and adjust development accordingly. These adaptations include two long-distance transport systems which are essential in plants: the xylem and the phloem. The phloem serves as a major trafficking pathway for assimilates, viruses, RNA, plant hormones, metabolites, and proteins with functions ranging from synthesis to metabolism to signaling. The study of signaling compounds within the phloem is essential for our understanding of plant communication of environmental cues. Determining the nature of signals and the mechanisms by which they are communicated through the phloem will lead to a more complete understanding of plant development and plant responses to stress. In our analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates, we had identified several lipid-binding proteins as well as fatty acids and lipids. The latter are not typically expected in the aqueous environment of sieve elements. Hence, lipid transport in the phloem has been given little attention until now. Long-distance transport of hydrophobic compounds in an aqueous system is not without precedence in biological systems: a variety of lipids is found in human blood and are often bound to proteins. Some lipid-protein complexes are transported to other tissues for storage, use, modification, or degradation, others serve as messengers and modulate transcription factor activity. By simple analogy it raises the possibility that lipids and the respective lipid-binding proteins in the phloem serve similar functions in plants and play an important role in stress and developmental signaling. Here, we introduce the lipid-binding proteins and the lipids we found in the phloem and discuss the possibility that they may play an important role in developmental and stress signaling.

  10. Neutron scattering to study membrane systems: from lipid vesicles to living cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F. [ORNL; Stanley, Christopher B. [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Elkins, James G. [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Nickels, Jonathan D. [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sneha [ORNL


    The existence and role of lateral lipid organization in biological membranes has been studied and contested for more than 30 years. Lipid domains, or rafts, are hypothesized as scalable compartments in biological membranes, providing appropriate physical environments to their resident membrane proteins. This implies that lateral lipid organization is associated with a range of biological functions, such as protein co-localization, membrane trafficking, and cell signaling, to name just a few. Neutron scattering techniques have proven to be an excellent tool to investigate these structural features in model lipids, and more recently, in living cells. I will discuss our recent work using neutrons to probe the structure and mechanical properties in model lipid systems and our current efforts in using neutrons to probe the structure and organization of the bilayer in a living cell. These efforts in living cells have used genetic and biochemical strategies to generate a large neutron scattering contrast, making the membrane visible. I will present our results showing in vivo bilayer structure and discuss the outlook for this approach.

  11. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells (United States)

    Krasnov, I. V.


    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  12. Chemically Stable Lipids for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Peng, Lingling; Zinovev, Egor; Vlasov, Alexey; Lee, Sung Chang; Kuklin, Alexander; Mishin, Alexey; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Zhang, Qinghai; Cherezov, Vadim (MIPT); (USC); (Scripps)


    The lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has been widely recognized as a promising membrane-mimicking matrix for biophysical studies of membrane proteins and their crystallization in a lipidic environment. Application of this material to a wide variety of membrane proteins, however, is hindered due to a limited number of available host lipids, mostly monoacylglycerols (MAGs). Here, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of chemically stable lipids resistant to hydrolysis, with properties complementary to the widely used MAGs. In order to assess their potential to serve as host lipids for crystallization, we characterized the phase properties and lattice parameters of mesophases made of two most promising lipids at a variety of different conditions by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Both lipids showed remarkable chemical stability and an extended LCP region in the phase diagram covering a wide range of temperatures down to 4 °C. One of these lipids has been used for crystallization and structure determination of a prototypical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin at 4 and 20 °C.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea and lipid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Karkinski


    CONCLUSION:OSA and obesity are potent risk factors for dyslipidemias. OSA could play a significant role in worsening of lipid metabolism in non-obese patients. But in obese patients, the extra weight makes the metabolic changes of lipid metabolism, and the role of OSA is not that very important like in non-obese patients.

  14. A comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Brown, H.A.; Glass, C.K.; Merrill, A.H.; Murphy, R.C.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Russell, D.W.; Seyama, Y.; Shaw, W.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; VanNieuwenhze, M.S.; White, S.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304843539; Witztum, J.; Dennis, E.A.


    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, “lipidomics,” in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology;

  15. Improving lipid control following myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Ankam, Jyoti; Feldman, David I; Blaha, Michael J; Martin, Seth S


    Following a myocardial infarction, lipid-lowering therapy is an established intervention to reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Prior studies show a need to improve clinical practice in this area. Here, we review the latest research and perspectives on improving postmyocardial infarction lipid control. Dyslipidemia and myocardial infarction remain leading causes of global disability and premature mortality throughout the world. The processes of care in lipid control involve multiple patient-level, provider-level, and healthcare system-level factors. They can be challenging to coordinate. Recent studies show suboptimal use of early high-intensity statin therapy and overall lipid control following myocardial infarction. Encouragingly, lipid control has improved over the last decade. Implementation science has identified checklists as an effective tool. At the top of the checklist for reducing atherogenic lipids and recurrent event risk postmyocardial infarction is early high-intensity statin therapy. Smoking cessation and participation in cardiac rehabilitation are also priorities, as are lifestyle counseling, promotion of medication adherence, ongoing lipid surveillance, and medication management. Optimizing lipid control could further enhance clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction.

  16. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process? (United States)

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo


    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1-like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism, and peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J. A.


    Peroxisomes catalyse a large variety of different cellular functions of which most have to do with lipid metabolism. This paper deals with the role of peroxisomes in three key pathways of lipid metabolism, including: (1) etherphospholipid biosynthesis, (2) fatty acid beta-oxidation, and (3) fatty

  18. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine. (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P


    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum lipids and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja MR


    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease in human and retinopathy is one of the most common complications. Etiology of this complication is yet unknown but one of the factors that can be effective on its production or progression is serum lipid. We aim to study the relationship between different degrees of diabetic retinopathy and serum lipids levels. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study designed to study over 37 patients with diabetes mellitus type one and 157 patients with diabetes mellitus type two. Former was selected as sensus and latter was selected randomly from diabetic patients attending the diabetes clinic in Yazd during 2002. Inclusion criteria was duration of diabetes at least seven years from diagnosis. Statistical analysis performed by SPSS package edition 11 and wit statistical tests as Chi square, Fisher Exact and ANOVA. Results: Among 194 cases, 74 cases were males and 120 females. 90 cases (46.4% have normal total serum cholesterol and 104 (53.6% hypercholestrolemia. In case of triglyceride 94 cases (48.4% have normal serum triglyceride and 100 (51.6% hypertriglyceridemia. Distribution of different degrees of diabetic retinopathy was statistically significant due to cholesterol and triglycerides (P-Value<0.05. In different groups of sex, diabetic retinopathy was more prevalent if there was hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia. This was correct about different groups of age and type of diabetes. This means that in different groups of age and type of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy was more prevalent if there was hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is higher in cases with hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia than cases with normal serum triglyceride or cholesterole.

  20. Functionality of lipids and lipid-protein interactions in cereal-derived food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Didier


    Full Text Available Lipids and especially cereal lipids play a significant role in the processing and quality of cereals and baked cereal foods (bread, biscuits and beverages (beer. Most of the physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for the lipid functionality has been investigated and recently the specific role of lipid-binding proteins, e.g. lipid transfer proteins and puroindolines, has been highlighted. The state of the researches performed in this field are briefly presented in this review and the data obtained until now show that new perspectives are opened in cereal breeding and processing for improving the quality of cereals and cereal products.

  1. Novel insights into lipid antigen presentation. (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia


    T cells recognizing lipid antigens are present in large numbers in circulating blood. They exert multiple functions including immunoregulation, tumour surveillance and protection during infection. Here, we review the latest information on the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation by CD1 molecules. Recent studies have provided insight into CD1 trafficking within the cell, lipid distribution and handling, CD1 maturation, lipid antigen processing and loading. The structural resolution of all human CD1 molecules has revealed unique features that correlate with function. Molecular mechanisms regulating CD1 expression and multiple evasion mechanisms evolved by viral and bacterial pathogens have been disclosed. With rapid progression, these studies have decoded lipid-specific immunity and have revealed the important immunological role of this type of antigen recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O. G.


    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental ...... to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology....... scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones...

  3. Interaction of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) with lipid membranes. (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew A; Zheng, Songbo; Roshankar, Golnaz; Alsop, Richard J; Belanger, Randy K R; Huynh, Chris; Kučerka, Norbert; Rheinstädter, Maikel C


    We studied the interaction of Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) with lipid membranes using x-ray diffraction for bilayers containing up to 50 mol% of aspirin. From 2D x-ray intensity maps that cover large areas of reciprocal space we determined the position of the ASA molecules in the phospholipid bilayers and the molecular arrangement of the molecules in the plane of the membranes. We present direct experimental evidence that ASA molecules participate in saturated lipid bilayers of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and preferably reside in the head group region of the membrane. Up to 50 mol% ASA molecules can be dissolved in this type of bilayer before the lateral membrane organization is disturbed and the membranes are found to form an ordered, 2D crystal-like structure. Furthermore, ASA and cholesterol were found to co-exist in saturated lipid bilayers, with the ASA molecules residing in the head group region and the cholesterol molecules participating in the hydrophobic membrane core.

  4. Interaction of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid with lipid membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Barrett

    Full Text Available We studied the interaction of Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid with lipid membranes using x-ray diffraction for bilayers containing up to 50 mol% of aspirin. From 2D x-ray intensity maps that cover large areas of reciprocal space we determined the position of the ASA molecules in the phospholipid bilayers and the molecular arrangement of the molecules in the plane of the membranes. We present direct experimental evidence that ASA molecules participate in saturated lipid bilayers of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and preferably reside in the head group region of the membrane. Up to 50 mol% ASA molecules can be dissolved in this type of bilayer before the lateral membrane organization is disturbed and the membranes are found to form an ordered, 2D crystal-like structure. Furthermore, ASA and cholesterol were found to co-exist in saturated lipid bilayers, with the ASA molecules residing in the head group region and the cholesterol molecules participating in the hydrophobic membrane core.

  5. Characterization of major lipid droplet proteins from Dunaliella. (United States)

    Davidi, Lital; Katz, Adriana; Pick, Uri


    Many green algal species can accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerides (TAG) under nutrient deprivation, making them a potential source for production of biodiesel. TAG are organized in cytoplasmic lipid bodies, which contain a major lipid droplet protein termed MLDP. Green algae MLDP differ in sequence from plant oleosins and from animal perilipins, and their structure and function are not clear. In this study, we describe the isolation of MLDP from three species of the extreme halotolerant green algae Dunaliella. Sequence alignment with other green algae MLDP proteins identified a conserved 4-proline domain that may be considered as a signature domain of Volvocales green algae MLDP. Gold immunolabeling localized MLDP at the surface of lipid droplets in D. salina. The induction of MLDP by nitrogen deprivation is kinetically correlated with TAG accumulation, and inhibition of TAG biosynthesis impairs MLDP accumulation suggesting that MLDP induction is co-regulated with TAG accumulation. These results can lead to a better understanding of the structure and function of Volvocales green algae MLDP proteins.

  6. Agrobacteria lacking ornithine lipids induce more rapid tumour formation (United States)

    Vences-Guzmán, Miguel Ángel; Guan, Ziqiang; Bermúdez-Barrientos, José Roberto; Geiger, Otto; Sohlenkamp, Christian


    Summary Ornithine lipids (OLs) are phosphorus-free membrane lipids that are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Their basic structure consists of a 3-hydroxy fatty acyl group attached in amide linkage to the α-amino group of ornithine and a second fatty acyl group ester-linked to the 3-hydroxy position of the first fatty acid. It has been shown that OLs can be hydroxylated within the amide-linked fatty acyl moiety, the secondary fatty acyl moiety or within the ornithine moiety. These modifications have been related to increased stress tolerance and symbiotic proficiency in different organisms such as Rhizobium tropici or Burkholderia cenocepacia. Analysing the membrane lipid composition of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens we noticed that it forms two different OLs. In the present work we studied if OLs play a role in stress tolerance and pathogenicity in A. tumefaciens. Mutants deficient in the OLs biosynthesis genes olsB or olsE were constructed and characterized. They either completely lack OLs (ΔolsB) or only form the unmodified OL (ΔolsE). Here we present a characterization of both OL mutants under stress conditions and in a plant transformation assay using potato tuber discs. Surprisingly, the lack of agrobacterial OLs promotes earlier tumour formation on the plant host. PMID:22958119

  7. Intravital imaging of intestinal lacteals unveils lipid drainage through contractility. (United States)

    Choe, Kibaek; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Park, Intae; Kim, Yeseul; Ahn, Soyeon; Park, Dae-Young; Hong, Young-Kwon; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Pilhan


    Lacteals are lymphatic vessels located at the center of each intestinal villus and provide essential transport routes for lipids and other lipophilic molecules. However, it is unclear how absorbed molecules are transported through the lacteal. Here, we used reporter mice that express GFP under the control of the lymphatic-specific promoter Prox1 and a custom-built confocal microscope and performed intravital real-time visualization of the absorption and transport dynamics of fluorescence-tagged fatty acids (FAs) and various exogenous molecules in the intestinal villi in vivo. These analyses clearly revealed transepithelial absorption of these molecules via enterocytes, diffusive distribution over the lamina propria, and subsequent transport through lacteals. Moreover, we observed active contraction of lacteals, which seemed to be directly involved in dietary lipid drainage. Our analysis revealed that the smooth muscles that surround each lacteal are responsible for contractile dynamics and that lacteal contraction is ultimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system. These results indicate that the lacteal is a unique organ-specific lymphatic system and does not merely serve as a passive conduit but as an active pump that transports lipids. Collectively, using this efficient imaging method, we uncovered drainage of absorbed molecules in small intestinal villus lacteals and the involvement of lacteal contractibility.

  8. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?


    Hjørland, Birger


    Are the terms “information organization” (IO), “organization of information” (OI) and “information architecture” (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study use bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are,...

  9. Effect of tension and curvature on the chemical potential of lipids in lipid aggregates. (United States)

    Grafmüller, Andrea; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Knecht, Volker


    Understanding the factors that influence the free energy of lipids in bilayer membranes is an essential step toward understanding exchange processes of lipids between membranes. In general, both lipid composition and membrane geometry can affect lipid exchange rates between bilayer membranes. Here, the free energy change ΔG(des) for the desorption of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipids from different lipid aggregates has been computed using molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling. The value of ΔG(des) is found to depend strongly on the local properties of the aggregate, in that both tension and curvature lead to an increase in ΔG(des). A detailed analysis shows that the increased desorption free energy for tense bilayers arises from the increased conformational entropy of the lipid tails, which reduces the favorable component -TΔS(L) of the desorption free energy.

  10. Using fluorescent lipids in live zebrafish larvae: From imaging whole animal physiology to subcellular lipid trafficking. (United States)

    Anderson, J L; Carten, J D; Farber, S A


    Lipids serve essential functions in cells as signaling molecules, membrane components, and sources of energy. Defects in lipid metabolism are implicated in a number of pandemic human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Many aspects of how fatty acids and cholesterol are absorbed and processed by intestinal cells remain unclear and present a hurdle to developing approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown that the zebrafish is an excellent model for vertebrate lipid metabolism. In this chapter, we review commercially available fluorescent lipids that can be deployed in live zebrafish to better understand lipid signaling and metabolism. In this chapter, we present criteria one should consider when selecting specific fluorescent lipids for the study of digestive physiology or lipid metabolism in larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal—A Bioactive Lipid Peroxidation Product † (United States)

    Schaur, Rudolf J.; Siems, Werner; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.


    This review on recent research advances of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE) has four major topics: I. the formation of HNE in various organs and tissues, II. the diverse biochemical reactions with Michael adduct formation as the most prominent one, III. the endogenous targets of HNE, primarily peptides and proteins (here the mechanisms of covalent adduct formation are described and the (patho-) physiological consequences discussed), and IV. the metabolism of HNE leading to a great number of degradation products, some of which are excreted in urine and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26437435

  12. [The relationship between bone and glucose/lipid metabolism]. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu


    The fracture risks are increased in patients with lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Bone has been recognized as an endocrine organ to regulate glucose and fat metabolism. Hyperglycemia, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) , and insulin signal are involved in diabetes-related bone disease. Previous studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia may increase the risk of fractures. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin derived from fat tissue, which are important regulators for glucose and lipid metabolism, regulate bone metabolism. On the other hand, it has been revealed that osteocalcin, which is secreted from bone tissue into the circulation, has a hormonal function in glucose and fat metabolism.

  13. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation. (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo


    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural characterization of ether lipids from the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus by high-resolution shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sara Munk; Brandl, Martin; Treusch, Alexander H


    The molecular structures, biosynthetic pathways and physiological functions of membrane lipids produced by organisms in the domain Archaea are poorly characterized as compared with that of counterparts in Bacteria and Eukaryota. Here we report on the use of high-resolution shotgun lipidomics......-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry using an ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. This analysis identified five clusters of molecular ions that matched ether lipids in the database with sub-ppm mass accuracy. To structurally characterize and validate the identities of the potential lipid species, we...... performed structural analysis using multistage activation on the ion trap-orbitrap instrument as well as tandem mass analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight machine. Our analysis identified four ether lipid species previously reported in Archaea, and one ether lipid species that had not been described...

  15. Comprehensive Metabolomic, Lipidomic and Microscopic Profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during Lipid Accumulation Identifies Targets for Increased Lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R Pomraning

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  16. Peroxisome-derived lipids are self antigens that stimulate invariant natural killer T cells in the thymus. (United States)

    Facciotti, Federica; Ramanjaneyulu, Gundimeda S; Lepore, Marco; Sansano, Sebastiano; Cavallari, Marco; Kistowska, Magdalena; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Ni, Guanghui; Colone, Alessia; Singhal, Amit; Berger, Johannes; Xia, Chengfeng; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro


    The development and maturation of semi-invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) rely on the recognition of self antigens presented by CD1d restriction molecules in thymus. The nature of the stimulatory thymic self lipids remains elusive. We isolated lipids from thymocytes and found that ether-bonded mono-alkyl glycerophosphates and the precursors and degradation products of plasmalogens stimulated iNKT cells. Synthetic analogs showed high potency in activating thymic and peripheral iNKT cells. Mice deficient in the peroxisomal enzyme glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT), essential for the synthesis of ether lipids, had significant alteration of the thymic maturation of iNKT cells and fewer iNKT cells in both thymus and peripheral organs, which confirmed the role of ether-bonded lipids as iNKT cell antigens. Thus, peroxisome-derived lipids are nonredundant self antigens required for the generation of a full iNKT cell repertoire.

  17. Improved aqueous extraction of microalgal lipid by combined enzymatic and thermal lysis from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis oceanica. (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Li, Runzhi; Ren, Xiaoli; Liu, Tianzhong


    High moisture content in wet algal biomass hinders effective performance of current lipid extraction methods. An improved aqueous extraction method combing thermal and enzymatic lysis was proposed and performed in algal slurry of Nannochloropsis oceanica (96.0% moisture) in this study. In general, cell-wall of N. oceanica was disrupted via thermal lysis and enzymatic lysis and lipid extraction was performed using aqueous surfactant solution. At the optimal conditions, high extraction efficiencies for both lipid (88.3%) and protein (62.4%) were obtained, which were significantly higher than those of traditional hexane extraction and other methods for wet algal biomass. Furthermore, an excessive extraction of polar lipid was found for wet biomass compared with dry biomass. The advantage of this method is to efficiently extract lipids from high moisture content algal biomass and avoid using organic solvent, indicating immense potential for commercial microalgae-based biofuel production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Switchable hydrophilicity solvents for lipid extraction from microalgae for biofuel production. (United States)

    Boyd, Alaina R; Champagne, Pascale; McGinn, Patrick J; MacDougall, Karen M; Melanson, Jeremy E; Jessop, Philip G


    A switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) was studied for its effectiveness at extracting lipids from freeze-dried samples of Botryococcus braunii microalgae. The SHS N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine extracted up to 22 wt.% crude lipid relative to the freeze-dried cell weight. The solvent was removed from the extract with water saturated with carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure and recovered from the water upon de-carbonation of the mixture. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that the extracted lipids contained high concentrations of long chain tri-, di- and mono-acylglycerols, no phospholipids, and only 4-8% of residual solvent. Unlike extractions with conventional organic solvents, this new method requires neither distillation nor the use of volatile, flammable or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acids, lipid and protein oxidation, metmyoglobin reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of chronic diseases in humans substantiates efforts to modify its lipid profile. ... the lipid profile of ruminant meat could affect its quality attributes and shelf life. ... colour, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and lipid and protein oxidation in ...

  20. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports (United States)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  1. Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aguirre-Portolés


    Full Text Available Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC. Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision

  2. A robust and efficient method for the extraction of plant extracellular surface lipids as applied to the analysis of silks and seedling leaves of maize (United States)

    Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily ...

  3. Material Utilization of Organic Residues. (United States)

    Peinemann, Jan Christoph; Pleissner, Daniel


    Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.

  4. Bioactive lipids in osteoarthritis: risk or benefit? (United States)

    Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Kloppenburg, Margreet


    Lipids are bioactive molecules that can affect several biological functions. Technological developments allowing identification of novel lipid species and the study of their function have led to a significant advance in our understanding of lipid biology and their involvement in various diseases. This is particularly relevant for diseases associated with obesity in which lipid accumulation could be involved in pathogenesis. Here, we focus on osteoarthritis, a chronic joint disease aggravated by obesity, and will present the latest findings regarding the involvement of lipids in disease development and progression. Recent studies indicate a possible involvement of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid and their anti-inflammatory and proresolving derivatives in osteoarthritis. These lipids were identified in the osteoarthritis joint, were found to have beneficial effects on cartilage in vitro and reduced pain in humans and animal models. Moreover, increased levels of cholesterol transport molecules, such as LDL particles, were recently associated with a higher risk of developing hand osteoarthritis in women and with more severe inflammation and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis animal models. Together, these findings indicate that lipids are a promising target for future therapeutic intervention in osteoarthritis and open exciting possibilities for future research.

  5. Lipid emulsion improves survival in animal models of local anesthetic toxicity: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Fettiplace, Michael R; McCabe, Daniel J


    The Lipid Emulsion Therapy workgroup, organized by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, recently conducted a systematic review, which subjectively evaluated lipid emulsion as a treatment for local anesthetic toxicity. We re-extracted data and conducted a meta-analysis of survival in animal models. We extracted survival data from 26 publications and conducted a random-effect meta-analysis based on odds ratio weighted by inverse variance. We assessed the benefit of lipid emulsion as an independent variable in resuscitative models (16 studies). We measured Cochran's Q for heterogeneity and I2 to determine variance contributed by heterogeneity. Finally, we conducted a funnel plot analysis and Egger's test to assess for publication bias in studies. Lipid emulsion reduced the odds of death in resuscitative models (OR =0.24; 95%CI: 0.1-0.56, p = .0012). Heterogeneity analysis indicated a homogenous distribution. Funnel plot analysis did not indicate publication bias in experimental models. Meta-analysis of animal data supports the use of lipid emulsion (in combination with other resuscitative measures) for the treatment of local anesthetic toxicity, specifically from bupivacaine. Our conclusion differed from the original review. Analysis of outliers reinforced the need for good life support measures (securement of airway and chest compressions) along with prompt treatment with lipid.

  6. A curvature-mediated mechanism for localization of lipids to bacterial poles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwyn Casey Huang


    Full Text Available Subcellular protein localization is a universal feature of eukaryotic cells, and the ubiquity of protein localization in prokaryotic species is now acquiring greater appreciation. Though some targeting anchors are known, the origin of polar and division-site localization remains mysterious for a large fraction of bacterial proteins. Ultimately, the molecular components responsible for such symmetry breaking must employ a high degree of self-organization. Here we propose a novel physical mechanism, based on the two-dimensional curvature of the membrane, for spontaneous lipid targeting to the poles and division site of rod-shaped bacterial cells. If one of the membrane components has a large intrinsic curvature, the geometrical constraint of the plasma membrane by the more rigid bacterial cell wall naturally leads to lipid microphase separation. We find that the resulting clusters of high-curvature lipids are large enough to spontaneously and stably localize to the two cell poles. Recent evidence of localization of the phospholipid cardiolipin to the poles of bacterial cells suggests that polar targeting of some proteins may rely on the membrane's differential lipid content. More generally, aggregates of lipids, proteins, or lipid-protein complexes may localize in response to features of cell geometry incapable of localizing individual molecules.

  7. [The level of lipid peroxidation in milk replacer formulas for initial feeding of infants]. (United States)

    Czeczot, Hanna; Cichosz, Grażyna; Ambroziak, Adam


    The products of lipids oxidation: peroxides, hydroxides, aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and others show harmful activity against human organism. Presence of the compounds in baby's and children's food creates potential health hazard. Many of them cause infant's and children's diarrhoea, also, negatively influence development of nervous system, show cytotoxic, mutagenic and cancerogenic activity (e.g. malonicdialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and others). The aim of the work was to assess the level of lipids peroxidation in milk substitute preparations for initial stage baby feeding, before their end of shelf-life. The level of lipids peroxidation measured as TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) concentrations was determined in 6 available on the Polish market milk substitute infant formulas. The determinations was carried out before the end of the shelf-life after 1,2,3,6,9 and 12 months after purchase. The level of lipid peroxidation was also determined after 3-4 and 21 days post opening. TBARS content in the infants food ready to be eaten depended on the time of preparation storage. The highest level of lipids peroxidation was observed in all the studied food after 12 months of storage and after 21 days after opening of the hermetical wrapping. Various level of lipids peroxidation in milk substitutes for infant nutrition resulted from different amounts and quality of plant oils used in production (different content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, presence of lack of linoleic and α-linolenic acids). © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. The supramolecular chemistry of lipid oxidation and antioxidation in bulk oils (United States)

    Budilarto, Elizabeth S; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf


    The microenvironment formed by surface active compounds is being recognized as the active site of lipid oxidation. Trace amounts of water occupy the core of micro micelles and several amphiphilic minor components (e.g., phospholipids, monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, etc.) act as surfactants and affect lipid oxidation in a complex fashion dependent on the structure and stability of the microemulsions in a continuous lipid phase such as bulk oil. The structures of the triacylglycerols and other lipid-soluble molecules affect their organization and play important roles during the course of the oxidation reactions. Antioxidant head groups, variably located near the water-oil colloidal interfaces, trap and scavenge radicals according to their location and concentration. According to this scenario, antioxidants inhibit lipid oxidation not only by scavenging radicals via hydrogen donation but also by physically stabilizing the micelles at the microenvironments of the reaction sites. There is a cut-off effect (optimum value) governing the inhibitory effects of antioxidants depending inter alias on their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and their concentrations. These complex effects, previously considered as paradoxes in antioxidants research, are now better explained by the supramolecular chemistry of lipid oxidation and antioxidants, which is discussed in this review. PMID:26448722

  9. Biodiesel from mixed culture algae via a wet lipid extraction procedure. (United States)

    Sathish, Ashik; Sims, Ronald C


    Microalgae are a source of renewable oil for liquid fuels. However, costs for dewatering/drying, extraction, and processing have limited commercial scale production of biodiesel from algal biomass. A wet lipid extraction procedure was developed that was capable of extracting 79% of transesterifiable lipids from wet algal biomass (84% moisture) via acid and base hydrolysis (90 °C and ambient pressures), and 76% of those extracted lipids were isolated, by further processing, and converted to FAMEs. Furthermore, the procedure was capable of removing chlorophyll contamination of the algal lipid extract through precipitation. In addition, the procedure generated side streams that serve as feedstocks for microbial conversion to additional bioproducts. The capability of the procedure to extract lipids from wet algal biomass, to reduce/remove chlorophyll contamination, to potentially reduce organic solvent demand, and to generate feedstocks for high-value bioproducts presents opportunities to reduce costs of scaling up algal lipid extraction for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and in silico analysis of helical lipid binding regions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In supplementary figure 1 the complete alignment results are depicted. In grey the full sequence homology is indicated, in red the predicted lipid binding regions are highlighted. In some cases a particular region is found in a remarkably high number of organisms (like region 616-632 in E.coli) while it seems absent in one or ...

  11. Changes in the serum profiles of lipids and cholesterol in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 17, 2008 ... In an effort to further elucidate the possible effect of trypanosome infection on serum levels of some lipids and cholesterol, five sheep (the infected group) were each intravenously inoculated with 2 ml of blood containing 1 x 106 Trypanosoma congolense organisms. Another five uninfected sheep served as.

  12. The applicability of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) to extract lipid biomarkers from soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Kotte, M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Verstraten, J.M.


    We investigated the ability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) to extract selected lipid biomarkers (C-19=C-34 n-alkanes, n-alcohols and n-fatty acids as well as dehydroabietic acid and P-sitosterol) from a sandy soil profile under Corsican pine. Two organic layers (moss and F1) as well as two

  13. Cinnamon extract regulates intestinal lipid metabolism related gene expression in primary enterocytes of rats (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests that the small intestine is not a passive organ, but is actively involved in the regulation of lipid absorption, intracellular transport, and metabolism, and is closely linked to systemic lipoprotein metabolism. We have reported previously that the water-soluble components...

  14. Process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.


    The present invention is directed to a process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon like material or mixtures thereof by conversion of a suitable substrate using micro-organisms, in which process the said substrate is continuously, anaerobically fermented to

  15. Capturing suboptical dynamic structures in lipid bilayer patches formed from free-standing giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatia, Tripta; Cornelius, Flemming; Ipsen, John H.


    treatment with magnesium chloride, they collapse to form planar lipid bilayer (PLB) patches. Rapid GUV collapse onto the mica preserves the lateral organization of freestanding membranes and thus makes it possible to image 'snapshots' of GUVs up to nanometer resolution by high-resolution microscopy...

  16. Distribution of membrane lipids of planktonic Crenarchaeota in the Arabian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Prahl, F.G.


    Intact core tetraether membrane lipids of marine planktonic Crenarchaeota were quantified in water column-suspended particulate matter obtained from four depth intervals (70, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m) at seven stations in the northwestern Arabian Sea to investigate the distribution of the organisms at

  17. Lipid nanoscaffolds in carbon nanotube arrays (United States)

    Paukner, Catharina; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V.


    We present the fabrication of lipid nanoscaffolds inside carbon nanotube arrays by employing the nanostructural self-assembly of lipid molecules. The nanoscaffolds are finely tunable into model biomembrane-like architectures (planar), soft nanochannels (cylindrical) or 3-dimensionally ordered continuous bilayer structures (cubic). Carbon nanotube arrays hosting the above nanoscaffolds are formed by packing of highly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes which facilitate the alignment of lipid nanostructures without requiring an external force. Furthermore, the lipid nanoscaffolds can be created under both dry and hydrated conditions. We show their direct application in reconstitution of egg proteins. Such nanoscaffolds find enormous potential in bio- and nano-technological fields.We present the fabrication of lipid nanoscaffolds inside carbon nanotube arrays by employing the nanostructural self-assembly of lipid molecules. The nanoscaffolds are finely tunable into model biomembrane-like architectures (planar), soft nanochannels (cylindrical) or 3-dimensionally ordered continuous bilayer structures (cubic). Carbon nanotube arrays hosting the above nanoscaffolds are formed by packing of highly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes which facilitate the alignment of lipid nanostructures without requiring an external force. Furthermore, the lipid nanoscaffolds can be created under both dry and hydrated conditions. We show their direct application in reconstitution of egg proteins. Such nanoscaffolds find enormous potential in bio- and nano-technological fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data on the alignment of lipid nanostructures, control and time resolved 2-d images of egg ovalbumin encapsulation and a summary picture of the present work. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02068a

  18. A lipid E-MAP identifies Ubx2 as a critical regulator of lipid saturation and lipid bilayer stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Peng, Debby


    Biological membranes are complex, and the mechanisms underlying their homeostasis are incompletely understood. Here, we present a quantitative genetic interaction map (E-MAP) focused on various aspects of lipid biology, including lipid metabolism, sorting, and trafficking. This E-MAP contains ∼250......,000 negative and positive genetic interaction scores and identifies a molecular crosstalk of protein quality control pathways with lipid bilayer homeostasis. Ubx2p, a component of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway, surfaces as a key upstream regulator of the essential fatty acid (FA......) desaturase Ole1p. Loss of Ubx2p affects the transcriptional control of OLE1, resulting in impaired FA desaturation and a severe shift toward more saturated membrane lipids. Both the induction of the unfolded protein response and aberrant nuclear membrane morphologies observed in cells lacking UBX2...

  19. Lipides et comportement alimentaire chez les enfants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklaus Sophie


    Full Text Available Cet article analyse la place des lipides dans l’alimentation des jeunes enfants. Premièrement, il montre d’une part la contribution importante que devraient avoir les lipides aux apports énergétiques totaux des enfants de moins de deux ans, en raison de leur intérêt fonctionnel dans le développement neuronal et de leur effet potentiellement protecteur d’une obésité ultérieure; d’autre part, il souligne la faible contribution des lipides aux apports énergétiques totaux chez les enfants français, d’après les estimations disponibles, avec une minorité d’enfants pour lesquels les apports en lipides sont satisfaisants. Deuxièmement, il rapporte les connaissances disponibles concernant le contrôle « sensoriel » de la consommation de lipides. Chez les nouveau-nés et les nourrissons, quelques travaux portent sur les préférences pour les lipides, et indiquent l’absence d’une préférence pour les lipides. Chez les enfants, une teneur augmentée en lipides a parfois (mais pas toujours un effet positif sur l’appréciation d’un aliment, avec souvent une teneur optimale; mais elle n’est pas associée à une consommation plus élevée de l’aliment. Des teneurs élevées en lipides ont deux effets sur les apprentissages alimentaires. Chez des enfants de moins de 3 ans, un triplement de la densité énergétique par l’ajout de lipides est associé à la mise en place d’un rassasiement conditionné pour l’aliment concerné; chez des enfants plus âgés, un doublement de la densité énergétique par l’ajout de lipides, est associé à une augmentation de l’appréciation des flaveurs associées aux versions les plus riches en lipides. Des pistes d’études complémentaires sont discutées.

  20. [Characteristics of the lipid spectrum in miners]. (United States)

    Zhasminova, V G; Sokolova, M A; El'garov, A A


    Serum lipids were studied in workers of a mining enterprise situated in mid-altitude areas who were affected by some unfavourable occupational factors (noise, vibration, dustiness, psychological and physical stresses). They were compared with those in a number- and age-matched group of employees of an instrument-making plant who resided in the plain and were unexposed to the above adverse factors. The miners were found to have greater mean levels of triglycerides and potentially atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol. The mean lipid levels were higher with the miners' age and length of occupation whereas the duration of residence in mid-altitude areas had no noticeable influence on lipid levels.