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Sample records for corn zea mays

  1. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

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    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  2. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

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    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  3. Compositional equivalency of Cry1F corn event TC6275 and conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

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    Herman, Rod A; Phillips, Amy M; Collins, Randy A; Tagliani, Laura A; Claussen, Fred A; Graham, Christopher D; Bickers, Brenda L; Harris, Travis A; Prochaska, Lee M

    2004-05-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants have been transformed to express a Cry1F insecticidal crystal protein originally isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This protein controls lepidopteran pests of maize, including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). As part of the safety assessment for crops containing transgenes, a compositional analysis of the food and feed is conducted. This analysis is designed to detect unintended changes in the nutrient and antinutrient content of the raw commodities produced by the crop due to the insertion of the genes into the genomic DNA of the plant (pleotropic effects). Samples of transgenic and nontransgenic maize forage and grain were collected from six field sites located in the U.S. and Canada. Forage samples were analyzed for proximates and minerals, and grain was further analyzed for fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients. Results demonstrated that maize expressing the Cry1F protein was equivalent to nontransgenic maize with respect to these important components. Comparison of the variability within the nontransgenic and transgenic hybrid, as compared to composition values reported in the literature, suggest that factors other than transgenes may contribute more substantially to the composition of crops.

  4. Extração de corantes de milho (Zea mays L. Extraction of corn colorants (Zea mays L.

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    Felix Martin Cabajal Gamarra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os corantes naturais foram amplamente utilizados de forma artesanal até antes do surgimento dos corantes sintéticos. O estudo e uso dos corantes naturais voltaram a ter importância nestes últimos anos devido aos questionamentos dos organismos internacionais da saúde e dos consumidores pelo uso indiscriminado dos corantes sintéticos, ligados ao desenvolvimento de doenças degenerativas e ao impacto ambiental. O corante extraído do milho roxo (Zea mays L. tem sido utilizado ao longo da história pela civilização Inca na preparação de alimentos e no tingimento de fibras têxteis. Neste trabalho, os pigmentos do grupo das antocianinas foram extraídos das variedades de milho roxo e do milho vermelho (Z. mays L. e depois foram caracterizados. Três métodos de extração foram utilizados: imersão, lixiviação com algumas modificações e extração supercrítica (ESC. O melhor método para extração foi o da lixiviação que alcançou 88% (m/m de rendimento, em função da massa do corante extraído e da matéria-prima. Também utilizando a lixiviação modificada, foi possível concentrar em 3% os compostos acilados, assim como recuperar 85% dos solventes utilizados. Um indicador de pH foi obtido pela fixação das antocianinas num papel de filtro, com base na estabilidade das antocianinas, ferramenta que pode ser utilizada em laboratórios de ensino de química.Natural colorants were craftly made and widely used before the discovery of the synthetic colorants. The study and the use of natural colorants have become important again in the last few years due to questions raised by the international health organizations and consumers related to the indiscriminate use of synthetic colorants which were linked to the development of degenerative illnesses and environmental impact. The colorant extracted from purple corn (Zea Mays L. was used by the Inca civilization to prepare food and to dye textile fibers. In this work, pigments from the

  5. Critical Period of Weed Control in Corn (Zea mays L.

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    R Alizadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the critical peroid of weed control (CPWC in grain maize, a field study was conducted in 2008 in Agricultural Research Station of Esfahan province using a randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, a critical weed-free period and a critical time of weed removal were imposed at V3, V6, V9, V12, and R1 (based on phenological stages of corn development with a weedy check and a weed-free check. The CPWC was determined by fitting non-linear regression models of logistic and gompertz equations to the data in range of 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% of acceptable yield loss levels. The CPWC was from 1- to 13-leaf stage (2-54 DAE, 3- to 11-leaf stage (10-46 DAE, 5- to 8-leaf stage (20-35 DAE and 6-leaf stage (27 DAE in Esfahan condition to prevent yield losses of 2.5%, 5% , 10% and 15% respectively.

  6. [Influence of NTA on accumulation and subcellular distribution of copper and zinc in corn (Zea mays)].

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    Zhou, Jian-min; Dang, Zhi; Tao, Xue-qin; Zhou, Yong-zhang

    2005-11-01

    The differential centrifugation method was used to study the subcellular distribution of Cu and Zn in the roots, stems and leaves of corn (zea mays) growing on multi-metal contaminated soil with the addition of chelator Nitrilotriacetic Acid (NTA). The results show that the subcellular distributions of Cu and Zn have significant relationship with the ability of metal uptake and accumulation in corn. NTA could evidently promote the uptake and accumulation of Cu and Zn in corn and affect on their distribution in cell wall and vacuole. Most of Cu was bound to the cell wall fraction and secondly cytoplasm fraction and only a small quantity of Cu bound to organelle fractions. For Zn, however, most of Zn was bound to cytoplasm fraction and there was more Zn bound to organelles than Cu. Under the inducement of NTA, there were increasing Cu and Zn bound to cytoplasm fraction, which mostly came from cell wall fraction and partly came from organelle fractions.

  7. Zea mays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr kelechi

    It involved the extraction of the chlorophyll of 1 g of each leaf with 10 ml of 80% acetone. .... photosynthesis level in the plant with resultant poor performance of ... on germination, early seedling growth and pigment content in maize. (Zea mays ...

  8. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

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    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  9. Influence of Corn (Zea mays L. Cultivar Development on Grain Nutrient Concentration

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    Carla Fernanda Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While corn productivity has been increased by the adoption of high-yield hybrids, there are concerns that increased grain potential may be associated with diminished grain nutrient concentration. Ten corn (Zea mays L. cultivars representing five technological levels (landrace variety, commercial variety, and double, triple, and single cross-hybrids were cropped on a Rhodic Ferralsol Eutric soil with high fertility in 2006 (dry year and 2007 (normal year in Rolândia County, Brazil. At maturity, grain was evaluated for concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu. In general, differences among cultivars were noted for all nutrients in both years. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, and Mn were lower in the dry year, while Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn were higher. Soil water availability appeared to exert more influence on grain nutrient concentration than did cultivar development; nutrient removal due to grain harvest was also greatly influenced by rainfall patterns and their impact on corn productivity. Even though genetic differences were noted, which may be useful to breeding programs, long-term testing in subtropical environments will be required to clarify the interaction between genetics and climate events on grain nutrient quality and exportation.

  10. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

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    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  11. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

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    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  12. Promoting Student Inquiry Using "Zea Mays" (Corn) Cultivars for Hypothesis-Driven Experimentation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course

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    Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.

    2014-01-01

    The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…

  13. Promoting Student Inquiry Using "Zea Mays" (Corn) Cultivars for Hypothesis-Driven Experimentation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course

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    Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.

    2014-01-01

    The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…

  14. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

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    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance.

  15. Corn (Zea mays growth in petroleum contaminated soil, remediated with orange (Citrus sinensis peel extract

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    Tomás Darío Marín Veláquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has a strong impact when oil activity takes place within a savanna ecosystem. Any oil spill affects agricultural soils. Biostimulation with orange peel extract (Citrus sinensis is an alternative for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil and in this research the corn plant (Zea mays was used as a biomarker of contamination level of a savanna soil after their treatment. Three samples of savannah soil contaminated with oil light crude were treated with dissolutions 1, 3 and 5% of extract of orange peel in water at a dose of 150 mL per kg of soil treated. The content of oils and fats was measured every 7 days, up to 42 days. Corn seeds were planted in soil samples, their growth was measured every 5 days for a period of 35 consecutive days, comparing their growth with seeds planted in a soil sample without contamination. According to an analysis of rank contrast, the plant growth was statistically the same in all samples up to 20 days; from there, evident differences regarding the pattern were shown.

  16. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

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    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  17. Evaluating Corn (Zea Mays L.) N Variability Via Remote Sensed Data

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    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Wersinger, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Transformations and losses of nitrogen (N) throughout the growing season can be costly. Methods in place to improve N management and facilitate split N applications during the growing season can be time consuming and logistically difficult. Remote sensing (RS) may be a method to rapidly assess temporal changes in crop N status and promote more efficient N management. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of three different RS platforms to predict N variability in corn (Zea mays L.) leaves during vegetative and early reproductive growth stages. Plots (15 x 15m) were established in the Coastal Plain (CP) and Appalachian Plateau (AP) physiographic regions each spring from 2000 to 2002 in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of four N rates (0, 56, 112, and 168 kg N/ha) applied as ammonium nitrate (NH4N03) replicated four time. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (lambda = 350 - 1050 nm), Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) (lambda = 400 - 12,500 nm), and the IKONOS satellite (lambda = 450 - 900 nm). Spectroradiometer data were collected on a biweekly basis from V4 through R1. Due to the nature of - satellite and aircraft acquisitions, these data were acquired per availability. Chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and tissue N were collected as ancillary data along with each RS acquisition. Results showed vegetation indices derived from hand-held spectroradiometer measurements as early as V6-V8 were linearly related to yield and tissue N content. ATLAS data was correlated with tissue N at the AP site during the V6 stage (r2 = 0.66), but no significant relationships were observed at the CP site. No significant relationships were observed between plant N and IKONOS imagery. Using a combination of the greenness vegetation index (GNDVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), RS data acquired via ATLAS and the spectroradiometer could be used to evaluate tissue N variability and estimate corn yield variability

  18. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phytoextraction by corn (Zea mays) of lead-contaminated soil.

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    Hovsepyan, A; Greipsson, S

    2004-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in lead (Pb) uptake by corn (Zea mays) grown in soil supplemented with Pb was examined. Plants were subjected to four Pb levels: 0 (control); 10 (low); 100 (medium); and 500 mg L(-1) (high). At each Pb level, plants were grown in soil without and with fungicide (benomyl) (20 mg kg(-1)) to suppress AMF activity. Benomyl significantly reduced AMF colonization at high. medium, and zero Pb exposures. Benomyl application resulted in significantly lower concentrations of phosphorus in leaves at low and medium Pb exposures. The benomyl-treated plants had higher Pb and manganese concentrations in leaves than plants not treated with benomyl. In addition, benomyl-treated plants had generally lower concentrations of zinc and copper in leaves than plants not treated with benomyl. These results suggest that the role of AMF in heavy metal uptake is metal specific. Based on this work, the use of benomyl on soils contaminated with Pb can be recommended in phytoextraction.

  19. Effect of salt stress on some sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata genotypes

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    Shtereva Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out hydroponically under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of salt stress on several physiological and biochemical parameters of three sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata genotypes: lines 6-13, C-6 (pollen source and their heterotic F1 hybrid “Zaharina”. The degree of salinity tolerance among these genotypes was evaluated at three different sodium chloride (NaCl concentrations: 0 mM, 100 mM, 125 mM and 150 mM. Seed germination, plant growth and biochemical stress determining parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, proline content and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels were compared between seedlings of lines and hybrid. The obtained results indicated that both lines and hybrid have similar responses at different salinity levels for all examined traits. All the seedlings’ growth parameters, such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, decreased with increasing salinity level. MDA, proline and H2O2 increased at different saline conditions in comparison to the control. Based on the results, of the three genotypes examined, the hybrid Zaharina, followed by line C-6, was more salt-sensitive than line 6-13 in salt stress condition.

  20. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

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    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  1. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

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    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions.

  2. Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in corn (Zea mays) infected by common smut Ustilago maydis

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    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis (common smut) produces galls that are valued food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Field studies conducted in Elizabeth, Mississippi used near isogenic Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin were determined i...

  3. Weed Control and Corn (Zea mays Response to Planting Pattern and Herbicide Program with High Seeding Rates in North Carolina

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    Mitchell K. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective weed control in corn (Zea mays L. is important to optimize yield. Concern over environmental impact of atrazine and selection for glyphosate resistance has increased the need to develop alternative strategies that use herbicides other than atrazine and glyphosate and appropriate cultural practices to control weeds. Research was conducted during 2011 and 2012 to determine weed and corn response to herbicide programs containing dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate applied postemergence alone or with atrazine in single- and twin-row planting patterns. Planting pattern had no effect on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Texas panicum (Panicum texanum L. population and did not interact with herbicide program. Effective weed control hastened maturity in some but not all instances. Under weed-free conditions, corn grain yield was higher in 5 of 7 trials when planted in twin rows versus single rows at equivalent corn populations (141,000 plants ha−1. These results suggest that while planting pattern may not impact weed control dramatically, planting corn in twin rows may be an effective alternative to single-row planting patterns because of increased yield under high corn populations.

  4. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

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    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  5. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

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    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  6. Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 84 flint corn (Zea mays L. indurata) genotypes were used. Twelwe agronomical characteristics of 84 flint local corn genotypes were examined. Local corn genotypes were collected from 12 cities in the Black Sea Region in 2008 and field and laboratuary studies were completed in 2009. Variance analysis showed that there were high variations in most of the agronomical characteristics. At this study, plant height, ear height, stalk diameter, number of leaf per plant, ear length, ear ...

  7. Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ONER, Fatih; GULUMSER, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 84 flint corn (Zea mays L. indurata) genotypes were used. Twelwe agronomical characteristics of 84 flint local corn genotypes were examined. Local corn genotypes were collected from 12 cities in the Black Sea Region in 2008 and field and laboratuary studies were completed in 2009. Variance analysis showed that there were high variations in most of the agronomical characteristics. At this study, plant height, ear height, stalk diameter, number of leaf per plant, ear length, ear ...

  8. Vasodilatador effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (Andean purple corn) hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Loaiza, Oscar; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Agustinos, Arequipa, Perú. Estudiante de medicina.; Paz-Aliaga, Azael; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Biólogo, PhD en Fisiología y Biofísica.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH), and vasomotor activity was recorded with ...

  9. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  10. MONOMERIC ANTHOCYANIN COMPOSITION OF FIVE PHENOTYPES OF COLORED CORN (Zea mays FROM CENTRAL REGION OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quiñones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia cuenta con variedades nativas de maíz (Zea mays L. que lentamente se han ido perdiendo, a pesar de su interés potencial para programas de mejoramiento genético y uso nutracéutico. En Colombia, el maíz coloreado es poco conocido y escasamente aprovechado, el cual si ha sido investigado en otros países. Como parte de nuestros estudios del aprovechamiento de materiales vegetales nativos, cinco accesiones locales de maíz coloreado, provenientes de la región cundiboyacense colombiana, fueron recuperadas y cultivadas en condiciones agroecológicas. Se caracterizaron los extractos metanólicos obtenidos de sus granos, evaluando el contenido de antocianinas totales y la capacidad captadora de radicales DPPH•, cuyos valores estuvieron entre 21-168 mg eq cianidina 3-glucósido/kg grano seco y 195-412 µM Trolox/g grano seco, respectivamente. Se determinaron los perfiles de antocianinas de cada fenotipo mediante HPLC-DAD-MS. Se identificaron tentativamente nueve antocianinas, cuatro de ellas presentes en todos los fenotipos. Tales perfiles permitieron realizar una discriminación de los cinco fenotipos a partir de análisis multivariado. La información estructural se apoyó en el aislamiento y elucidación de cuatro de las antocianinas a partir del extracto enriquecido del fenotipo púrpura.

  11. Effect of Row Circle Method and Variety of Hybrid Corn on Yield of Corn (Zea mays L

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    Use Etica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn yield improved by genetic improving, plant population and fertilizer. The experiment aims to knowing the effect off row circle planting method and hybrid corn variety toward population and yield of corn. The experiment was conducted on August- November 2015 in Siman, Ponorogo, altitude 140 amsl and textured clay grumosol soil types. The experiment was a factorial experiment in a complete block randomized design with two factor and three replications. The first factor was hybrid corn varieties (Bisi-18, NK-7328, Pertiwi-3, and Pioneer-27. The second factor was row circle planting method (single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm; row circle planting method with interval planting of 60x100 cm and 100x50x50 cm. The result showed not significantly interaction between row circle planting method and hybrid corn varieties with respect to population total and corn yield. Row circle planting method with interval planting 100x50x50 cm increased plant population about 164.413 plants/ha and significantly different with single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm (62,881 plants/ha and row circle planting method with interval planting 60x100 cm (136,774 plants/ha. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly increased plant population. Pioneer-27 variety of hybrid corn produced weight of wet corn logs by 17,22 ton/Ha and significantly different with Bisi-18, NK-7328 and Pertiwi-3. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly affects to increasing produce of dry corn kernels. Variety of Pioneer-27 produced dry corn kernels 7,28 ton/ha and was not significantly different with varieties of Bisi-18, NK-7328, and Pertiwi-3. Variety of NK-7328 had percentage weight of wet corn logs into dry corn kernels as big as 55,38% bigger than varieties of Bisi-18, Pertiwi-3 and Pioneer-27.

  12. Effect of Zinc Sulfate on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Corn (Zea Mays) in Drought Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Vazin

    2012-01-01

    .... To study the effect of drought stress and zinc spray on the yield and yield components of corn, an experiment was carried out during the crop seasons of 2010 and 2011 on Research Farm, Islamic Azad...

  13. Irrigation frequencies and corn (Zea mays L.) yield relation in northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Tekin; Biber, Cigdem

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2005 at the Research Station (altitude 180 m above sea level, 41 degrees 21' N and 36 degrees 15'E) Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Experiment consisted of three irrigation levels and a non-irrigation level. Drip irrigation treatments consisted of three soil water deficits in the 90 cm soil profile depth was replenished to field capacity. Irrigation treatments were A: no irrigation, B: irrigation at 50% of available soil water capacity, C: irrigation at 30% of available soil water capacity, D: irrigation at 15% of available soil water capacity. The average seasonal water use values ranged from 257.14 to 285.71 mm in corn treatments. Irrigation frequencies (intervals) significantly affected corn crop yields. The average corn grain yields varied from 7.98 to 29.16 t ha(-1). The treatment D was recorded significantly higher corn grain yield 29.16 t ha(-1) compared to B (21.59 t ha(-1)); C (19.15 t ha(-1)) and A (7.98 t ha(-1)), respectively. According to research results, the maximum corn grain yield was obtained when the corn plants were irrigated at 15% of available soil water capacity to field capacity.

  14. Prediction models for transfer of arsenic from soil to corn grain (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Zhaojun; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao; Xue, Jianming; Davis, Murray; He, Wenxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the transfer of arsenic (As) from soil to corn grain was investigated in 18 soils collected from throughout China. The soils were treated with three concentrations of As and the transfer characteristics were investigated in the corn grain cultivar Zhengdan 958 in a greenhouse experiment. Through stepwise multiple-linear regression analysis, prediction models were developed combining the As bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958 and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The possibility of applying the Zhengdan 958 model to other cultivars was tested through a cross-cultivar extrapolation approach. The results showed that the As concentration in corn grain was positively correlated with soil pH. When the prediction model was applied to non-model cultivars, the ratio ranges between the predicted and measured BCF values were within a twofold interval between predicted and measured values. The ratios were close to a 1:1 relationship between predicted and measured values. It was also found that the prediction model (Log [BCF]=0.064 pH-2.297) could effectively reduce the measured BCF variability for all non-model corn cultivars. The novel model is firstly developed for As concentration in crop grain from soil, which will be very useful for understanding the As risk in soil environment.

  15. Effect of Organic Amendments and Chemical Fertilization in Production of Corn (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Emilio Forero Ulloa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn is grown in 135 countries, and because of its uses and nutritional benefits is the world's most important cereal. In Colombia it is grown in various agro-ecological conditions of production. The bagasse is an organic residue resulting from the grinding of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L., used for the production of jaggery (solid resulting of boiling and evaporation of the juice from sugar cane, which can be used as an amendment and is a soil conditioner, as a rich source of phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of bagasse against the application of other organic sources and chemical fertilization in maize, variety ICA-V-305. For this, a completely random statistical design with four treatments and absolute control was established. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey comparison test. Applying Bagasse + Abimgra® produced the greatest number of ears of corn, while the use of only bagasse, presented the second best results in terms of number of grains / ear and weight of 100 grains of corn, therefore bagasse becomes , through time, an important option as organic amendment, which would favor the production of corn, and an option as organic fertilizer.

  16. Effect of biochanin A on corn grain (Zea mays) fermentation by bovine rumen amylolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Flythe, M D; Aiken, G E

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of biochanin A (BCA), an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), on corn fermentation by rumen micro-organisms. When bovine rumen bacterial cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39°C) with ground corn, amylolytic bacteria including group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Streptococcus bovis; enterococci) proliferated, cellulolytic bacteria were inhibited, lactate accumulated and pH declined. Addition of BCA (30 μg ml(-1) ) inhibited lactate production, and pH decline. BCA had no effect on total amylolytics, but increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC. The initial rate and total starch disappearance was decreased by BCA addition. BCA with added Strep. bovis HC5 supernatant (containing bacteriocins) inhibited the amylolytic bacteria tested (Strep. bovis JB1; Strep. bovis HC5; Lactobacillus reuteri, Selenemonas ruminatium) to a greater extent than either addition alone. BCA increased cellulolytics and dry matter digestibility of hay with corn starch. These results indicate that BCA mitigates changes associated with corn fermentation by bovine rumen bacteria ex vivo. BCA could serve as an effective mitigation strategy for rumen acidosis. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of BCA on mitigating rumen acidosis in vivo. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.: Fresh ear yield in dependance of genotype and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is used as food in the milky stage of endosperm, when its kernel is tender, succulent and sweet. It is consumed in form of fresh ears, or it is industrially processed. Breeding of sweet corn has several equally important aims that are directed by the market demands and different modes of consumption. The ear yield, in sweet corn is the most important but not the only main goal of breeding. In the two year study (2013, 2014 we observed the effect of the genotype, year and their interactions on the yields of 8 sweet corn hybrids. Two of the hybrids were commercial and six were experimental hybrids. The field experiment was arranged according to the RCBD with four replications. Hybrids were harvested 23 days after pollination, i.e. silking. Average yield in 2013 was significantly higher (12.19 t ha-1 than in 2014 (11.49 t ha- 1. In 2013 it ranged from 10.21 t ha-1 for the experimental hybrid ZP 489/1su, up to 13.52 t ha-1 for the commercial hybrid ZP 355su. In 2014 the lowest yielding hybrid was ZP 485/1su (10.14 t ha-1 while the highest yielding was ZP 486/1su (13.41 t ha-1. On average those two were also the highest (13.19 t ha-1 and the lowest yielding (10.66 t ha-1 hybrids. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of genotype and the year, as well as their interactions had significant impact on the yield performances of sweet corn hybrids.

  18. The critical period of weed control in corn Zea mays at Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid abaspoor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the critical period of weed control in corn, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2000. The experiment consisted of two discrete periods, a weed-free and a weed infested period. The weed-free period consisted of removing all weeds till 4th (19 days after planting, 7th (34 days after planting, 11th (48 days after planting, 13th (52 days after planting, and 17th (59 days after planting, leaf growth stages and weed free check for growing season (123 days after planting, and the critical time of weed infested consisted of removing all weeds from fourth (19 days after planting, 7th (34 days after planting, 11th (48 days after planting, 13th (52 days after planting, and 17th (59 days after planting, leaf growth stages and weedy infested check for growing season. All treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that by prolonging weed-infested period, dry matter and leaf surface area of weeds per square meter were increased, but by increasing weed-infested period, weed density was decreased. The lowest weed density (23 weed plants per m2 was shown at infested all period of corn growing season. By passing the growing season, C4 weed species such as red root pigweed and barnyard grass were dominant compared with C3 weed species. At weed infested all period of corn growing season, red root pigweed had the highest dry matter (93% of all weeds dry matter and leaf surface area (86% of all weeds leaf surface compared with other weed species. At the first treatment of critical weed-free (19 days after planting the regrowth of weeds were substantial which resulted in decreasing growth of corn. Grain yield of corn were significantly higher at 52, 59 and 123 days after planting in weed free treatments compared with 48, 52, 59 and 123 days after planting in weed infested treatments. However, there were no

  19. Chemical Composition Profile of Canned and Frozen Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahmadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the oldest and most productive popular grains and can be consumed as food at various developmental stages from baby corn to mature grain. The maize can be processed in different products at traditional level as well as industrial scale. Due to vast corn consumption by people in this research the concentration of histamine ,some trace and essential mineral and also heavy metals has been determined in 120 samples of popular brands of canned and frozen sweet corn in 2014. These samples (60 of them were canned corn and the rest were frozen were collected from different local markets of Tehran, Iran. For reliable, accurate and precise measurements, all canned and frozen samples had the same date of producing. Samples were randomly purchased for analysis and analyzed according to standardized international protocols by wet digestion method. Histamine content was determined by Capillary Electrophoresis while metals were determined by Atomic absorption spectrometer. The results obtained revealed that, the mean ranges of the elements analyzed in (μg.g-1 between the frozen and canned food are as follows: Ni (0.31 – 17.44, Zn (204.14 – 266.76, Cu (6.22 – 8.03, Ca (1611 –8557, Mg (1063 – 1208, Fe (1.98-87.23, Sn (19.01- 350.8 respectively. Some of the measured values found, not only relatively high in canned compared to frozen food samples, but also exceeds the international tolerance levels. Histamine content in 95% of samples was lower than maximum level set by WHO. According to variance analyses of data, there was a positive correlation between the storage time and heavy metal contents especially tin, zinc and iron and they were varied significantly (p ­< 0.001 after 3 months of storage .The monitoring of mineral and heavy metals in frozen and canned food samples is vital important challenge to control and improve the food industry strategies.

  20. Weed Control in Corn (Zea mays L. as Influenced by Preemergence Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Janak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in central and south-central Texas from 2013 through 2015 to evaluate crop tolerance and efficacy of various preemergence herbicides alone and in combination for weed control in field corn. Acetochlor and pendimethalin alone, S-metolachlor plus mesotrione, and the three-way combination of S-metolachlor plus atrazine plus mesotrione provided the most consistent control of annual grasses including browntop panicum (Panicum fasciculatum L., Texas millet (Urochloa texana L., barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., and sprawling signalgrass (Brachiaria reptans L.. Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S. Wats.] control was at least 90% with fluthiacet-methyl plus pyroxasulfone, atrazine plus either acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid-P, S-metolachlor, or S-metolachlor plus mesotrione, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P, and S-metolachlor plus mesotrione. Hophornbeam copperleaf (Acalypha ostryifolia L. was difficult to control; however, acetochlor, saflufenacil or pyroxasulfone alone, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P, and S-metolachlor plus mesotrione provided at least 90% control. Acetochlor or saflufenacil alone, thiencarbazone-methyl plus isoxaflutole, dimethenamid-P plus atrazine, rimsulfuron plus mesotrione, and saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P controlled common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at least 90%. Corn injury was minimal (≤3% with all herbicides. In general, corn grain yield was greatest with herbicide treatments containing more than one active ingredient compared with a single active ingredient.

  1. The critical period of weed control in corn) Zea mays) at Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    majid abaspoor; parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the critical period of weed control in corn, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2000. The experiment consisted of two discrete periods, a weed-free and a weed infested period. The weed-free period consisted of removing all weeds till 4th (19 days after planting), 7th (34 days after planting), 11th (48 days after planting), 13th (52 days after planting), and 17th (59 days after planting), leaf gr...

  2. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  3. Milk line as an indicator of the harvesting time of three hybrid seeds of corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Trzeciak dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the time for harvesting seeds of three hybrids of corn (Zea mays L. at their best physiological quality and the use of the milk line as an indicator of the physiological seed maturity. Single hybrids CD 1723 and CD 5501 and double hybrid OC 705 seeds were collected for 59 days, every four days, starting 23 days after female flowering. Seed dry weight, moisture content, germination, vigour (cold and accelerated aging tests, black layer formation and seed milk line development were analysed. The harvesting time started 47 days after female flowering with high physiological quality of the seeds identified by a joint analysis of those seven characteristics of them. The milk line at stage 4 proved to be the best indicator of the time to harvest corn seeds for maximum physiological quality, because different stages of milk line development in corn seeds could be easily identified in the filed without any special equipment.O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1996/97 em área experimental da Cooperativa de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Tecnológico (Coodetec, em Cascavel, Paraná, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da época de colheita de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. na qualidade fisiológica das sementes e o uso da linha de solidificação do endosperma como indicativo da maturidade fisiológica das sementes. O plantio foi realizado em 30 de setembro de 1996. Amostras de sementes dos híbridos simples CD 1723 e CD 5501, bem como do híbrido duplo OC 705, foram colhidas em intervalos de quatro dias, durante 59 dias, iniciando-se a colheita no vigésimo terceiro dia após o florescimento feminino. As características avaliadas nas sementes foram o acúmulo de matéria seca, o conteúdo de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (pelos testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado, a formação da camada preta e o desenvolvimento da linha de solidificação do endosperma. A colheita dos tr

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Seed Priming and Seedbed on Characteristic of Transplant Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Manzari-Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn (Zea mays L. is one of the main cereals in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Sweet corn obtained from a genetic mutation on chromosome 4 locus SU conventional maize resulting accumulation of sugars and polysaccharides which are soluble in seed endosperm. Unlike other types of corn, sweet corn endosperm contains a lot of sugar to starch, which is called Amylodextrin and it is soluble in water. Producing healthy and uniform plants is one of the requirements of modern agriculture. Considering the unsuitable climatic condition in Iran (arid and semiarid transplantation is one of the requirements for sustainable agriculture particularly in sweet corn production with high water requirement where transplantation is able to save at least 2-3 times of irrigations. Therefore, producing high quality transplants is an important practice for successful seedling establishment. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed priming and substrate types on the characteristics of sweet corn transplants. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted as factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were three levels of seeds pretreatment: no priming (p1, hydropriming (p2 and biopriming (p3, and another factor was seedbeds types in seven levels including: vermicompost (b1, perlite (b2, cocopeat(b3, vermicompost+perlite(b4, vermicompost+ cocopeat (b5, perlite+ cocopeat (b6 and vermicompost+ cocopeat +perlite (b7. Biopriming using bioaminopalis biological fertilizer applied on the seeds for 24hours in a solution containing micro-organisms such azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Then the non-primed and the primed seeds were sown in the plastic pots and grown in a greenhouse with average temperature of 22-25° C. Samples were taken three weeks after planting. Results and Discussion Mean emergence time Emergence is shoot elongation and growth leading the shoots out of the

  5. Sensory and Quality Evaluation of Traditional Compared with Power Ultrasound Processed Corn (Zea Mays) Tortilla Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janve, Bhaskar; Yang, Wade; Sims, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Power ultrasound reduces the traditional corn steeping time from 18 to 1.5 h during tortilla chips dough (masa) processing. This study sought to examine consumer (n = 99) acceptability and quality of tortilla chips made from the masa by traditional compared with ultrasonic methods. Overall appearance, flavor, and texture acceptability scores were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The baked chips (process intermediate) before and after frying (finished product) were analyzed using a texture analyzer and machine vision. The texture values were determined using the 3-point bend test using breaking force gradient (BFG), peak breaking force (PBF), and breaking distance (BD). The fracturing properties determined by the crisp fracture support rig using fracture force gradient (FFG), peak fracture force (PFF), and fracture distance (FD). The machine vision evaluated the total surface area, lightness (L), color difference (ΔE), Hue (°h), and Chroma (C*). The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and means were separated using Tukey's test. Machine vision values of L, °h, were higher (P BFG, BPD, PFF, and FD. Fried tortilla chips texture were higher significantly (P BFG and PFF for ultra-sonication than traditional processing. However, the instrumental differences were not detected in sensory analysis, concluding possibility of power ultrasound as potential tortilla chips processing aid.

  6. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  7. Slow release chelate enhancement of lead phytoextraction by corn (Zea mays L.) from contaminated soil--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifeng; Wang, Qingren; Cui, Yanshan; Dong, Yiting; Christie, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Short-term enhancement of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) uptake by corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings from a contaminated soil was compared using slow-release coated EDTA granules-a coated chelating agent (CCA), uncoated EDTA granules, and EDTA solution in a greenhouse experiment. Soil Pb and Zn fractions were determined using a sequential extraction scheme. Release of the metals in the soil was examined in a column leaching study. After only 7 days of seedling growth, shoot biomass was decreased by all EDTA treatments compared with the zero-EDTA control. The amount of shoot biomass produced was highest with uncoated EDTA, intermediate with CCA, and lowest with the EDTA solution. Shoot Pb contents were highest with solid EDTA, intermediate with CCA, and lowest with EDTA solution, and they were always higher with EDTA treatments than in controls. In contrast, shoot Zn contents following EDTA treatments were lower than in the control. Levels of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aqueous soil extracts were much lower after CCA application than following treatments with solid EDTA and EDTA solution. After 17 days of plant growth, when most of the chelating agent had been released from the CCA, soil organic carbon levels remained relatively constant and similar to those in the control, indicating that a relatively low chelating agent concentration can be maintained for the plants to take up the metals. The distribution of Pb in the sequential extraction procedure showed that the Pb level in the exchangeable+carbonate-bound fraction with CCA was significantly lower than that with solid EDTA or EDTA solution, further indicating that slow release of CCA improves the bioavailability of metals in the soil to match plant uptake of those metals. The results suggest that CCA can enhance shoot content of Pb but not of Zn from the contaminated soil in the short term, and may also reduce the risk of metal leaching from the soil.

  8. ZnO nanoparticle fate in soil and zinc bioaccumulation in corn plants (Zea mays) influenced by alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose Angel; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Peng, Bo; Munoz, Berenice; Keller, Arturo A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) can interact with naturally occurring inorganic and organic substances in soils, which may change their transport behavior in soil and plants. This study was performed in two steps. In the first step, corn (Zea mays) plants were cultivated for one month in soil amended with 10 nm commercial spheroid ZnO NPs at 0–800 mg kg−1 and sodium alginate at 10 mg kg−1. In the second step, the plants were grown with ZnO NPs at 400 mg kg−1 and alginate at 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg−1. The dynamics of Zn concentrations in soil solution and Zn accumulation in plant tissues were determined by ICP-OES. Biomass accumulation, chlorophyll concentration, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves were also quantified. Results indicate that ZnO NPs coexisting with Zn dissolved species were continuously released to the soil solution to replenish the Zn ions or ZnO NPs scavenged by roots. At 400 and 800 mg kg−1, without alginate, ZnO NPs significantly reduced the root and shoot biomass production; however, plants treated with these NP concentrations, plus alginate, had significantly more Zn in tissues with no reduction in biomass production. Alginate significantly reduced the activity of stress enzymes catalase and peroxidase, which could indicate damage in the defense system. The effects of ZnO NPs in a food crop grown in alginate enriched soil, showing an excess of Zn in the aerial parts, are yet to be reported.

  9. Biology and natural enemies of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead in corn (Zea mays L., in systems of polycrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tulio García González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in Fomento municipality, Sancti Spíritus, in Cuba, from 2011 through 2013 in two ecosystems and in two sowing times (rainy and dry seasons. The objectives were to describe the life cycle of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead and the damage caused to corn (Zea mays L., to identify the main pest bio-regulators naturally occurring in two agro-ecosystems, and to determine the predator-prey relationship. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The data were collected through observation at weekly intervals. In order to estimate the number of pest insects and bio-regulators occurring on the plants, 25 plants per parcel were selected for a total of 100 plants per treatment (maize/squash, maize/beans, maize/ Sesame, maize/sunflower, and maize monoculture. Once the research was accomplished, it was concluded that P maidis had been present since the first week, and reached its population peak in week six. The lower indexes of affectation occurred in the pre-mountain agro-ecosystems, and with more frequency in the maize/sesame and maize/squash polyculture, which depended on the time of the year and the season. Fifteen species of P. maidis control insects of were identified, and Scymnus sp was found in all treatments. The life cycle of P maidis averaged 5.4 days more in the dry season than in rain season. The predator-prey relationship showed relatively superior indexes in the polyculture systems than in monocrops systems.

  10. Estimation of heterosis for grain yield and quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Dagla, R. N. Gadag, O. P. Sharma, Narendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate heterosis for yield and biochemical quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata crosses. Forty five hybrids using diallel mating design excluding reciprocals were generated. These hybrids along with their ten parents and one standard check (Madhuri were grown at IARI, New Delhi during kharif-2008 in randomized block design (RBD. Estimation of heterosis over standard check (HSC ‘Madhuri’, mid-parent (HMP, and better parent (HBP was calculated. The significant heterosis over standard check for grain yield was found in five crosses, and for sugar content in twelve crosses out of forty five. The HMP for grain yield was found in eighteen crosses and for sugar content in nine crosses. The HMP for grain yield and sugar content was found in IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142. One cross IPSA-6137 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for protein content and grain yield. One cross IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for sugar content and protein content. The HBP was observed in IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6138 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6139 × IPSA-6140 and IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6141 for sugar content and IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6137, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6142, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6142, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 for grain yield. Two crosses IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136 and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 have the HBP for grain yield and sugar content. One cross IPSA 6137 × IPSA 6139 showed the HBP for protein and grain yield.

  11. Effects of selected surfactants on nutrient uptake in corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants with solvent and wetting abilities are used in the formulation of herbicides to enhance spraying capabilities. These chemicals eventually enter into the soil and may disrupt different chemical, physical and biological processes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on nutrien...

  12. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  13. Progresso da ferrugem tropical do milho (Zea mays L., sob diferentes tratamentos fungicidas Progress of the tropical rust of corn Zea mays L., under different fungicide treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Magno da Costa

    2008-09-01

    dados. Não foi observado diferença significativa entre os efeitos dos tratamentos, no que se refere a produtividade.Among the three rusts diseases in the of corn crop, the tropical rust caused by Physopella zeae (Mains Cummins & Ramachar is highlighting by its aggressiveness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fungicides mixtures action azoxystrobin + cyproconazole and epoxiconazole + pyraclosytrobin in the control of the tropical rust of corn in the culture of the crop. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Department of crop protection of UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, during in the period of January to May of 2006. Were evaluated in the field plots were arranged in the complete randomized blocks, with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The used treatments were (mL of c.p./ha: 1- control; 2-epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin 500,; 3-epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin 750,; 4-azoxystrobin + cyproconazole 300 + mineral oil 0,50%,; 5-azoxystrobin + cyproconazole 300 + mineral oil 0,50% and 6 - azoxystrobin + cyproconazole 450 + mineral oil 0,50%. All the treatments fungicide spray were applied to maize at the stage V8, and the treatment 5 was replicated in the beginning of the tasseling. It was realized seven evaluations of the disease severity were performed every seven days. The curves of progress of the disease were analyzed by using three transformations models (monomolecular, logistico and of Gompertz. The AUDPC (Area Under the Disease Progress Curve was calculated from which the analysis of variance was performed and the averages were compared by the Tukey test at the level of 5% of probability. The analysis no found difference significant statistics among the treatments 6, 5 and 4, which these showed smaller AUDPC. We concluded that the monomolecular model it was best model adjusted to the data.

  14. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. They will remain a threat to the environment until they are removed or immobilized. We can test and improve these situation by using different plant species, as corn (Zea mays L.) x macro nutrients as phosphorous experimental methods. Maize has a very great biomass (B) production (P) potential (P)(BPP) and important role in soil fertility by the design of plant rotation to field plant production, the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high carbohydrate (70%) and protein (10%) content (70%) and via pytoremediation possibilities. Cd is considered to be a nonessential element for maize, it is effectively absorbed by both the root and leaf system. By these ways a great proportion of the cadmium is to be accumulated in root tissues, even when Cd enters the plant via foliar system from the polluted air and precipitation. The most chief geobiochemical property of cadmium ions is their strong affinity for sulfhydryl groups of several compounds (OSHA 1992; Richardson 1992; RAIS 1991; Sittig 1991; TAP 1999; WA 1996; WHO 1992, 2001). Furthermore Cd shows an affinity for other side chains of protein and for phosphate groups too. The Cd content of maize is of the highest concern as a Cd reservoir and as the patway of cadmium to soil-plant-animal-man chain (FOOD CHAIN). Thus, tolerance and adaptation of corn to higher Cd levels, although important from the environmental poin of view, create a helth risc. Material and Method The phosphorus (P2O5) mineral fertilization and cadmium loading effects were studied in a long-term field experiment set up at Experimental Station of the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on a calcareous chernozem soil at Nagyhörcsök in 1977. The soil had the following agrogeochemical characteristics: pH (KCl) 7.3, humus 3.0%, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 60

  15. Soil properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production under manure application combined with deep tillage management in solonetzic soils of Songnen Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-feng; LI Da-wei; ZHANG Juan; ZHOU Lian-ren; MA Xian-fa; WANG Hong-yan; WANG Guang-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Poor soil structure and nutrients, excessive exchangeable Na+, high pH as wel as low enzyme activities are common in the solonetz, and signiifcantly restrict corn (Zea mays L.) production. Cattle manure application combined with deep tilage is an important management practice that can affect soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities as wel as corn yield in the solonetz. Field experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design comprising four treatments: Corn with conventional tilage was used as a control, and corn with manure application combined with deep tilage as wel as iflm mulching and aluminium sulfate were used as the experimental treatments, respectively. The relationship between corn yield and measured soil properties was determined using stepwise regression analysis. Manure application combined with deep tilage management was more effective than conventional tilage for increasing corn yield and for improving soil properties in the solonetz. The highest corn yield was obtained in the treatments with manure application+deep tilage+plastic iflm mulching (11472 and 12228 kg ha–1), and increased by 38 and 43% comparing with the control treatment (8343 and 8552 kg ha–1) both in the 2013 and 2014 experiments, respectively. Using factor analysis, three factors were obtained, which represented soil fertility status, soil saline-alkaline properties and soil structural properties both in the 2013 and 2014 experiments, respectively. Manure and deep tilage management resulted in two distinct groups of soil properties: (1) soils with manure application combined with deep tilage and (2) soils with conventional tilage. Stepwise regression analysis showed that corn yield was signiifcantly and positively correlated to urease and available P, as wel as negatively correlated to pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchange sodium percentage (ESP), and bulk density (ρb). We concluded that ρb was dominant factor for corn yield on the basis of

  16. Seletividade de herbicidas para híbridos simples de milho (Zea mays L. Herbicide selectivity to corn (Zea mays L. hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Signori

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a seletividade de herbicidas, aplicados isolados ou em mistura, foram realizados quatro experimentos em vasos, com híbridos simples de milho IAC 7777 (dentado, C-72 (dentado e IAC 1227 (duro, em solos argiloso e barrento. Em cada experimento foram aplicados dois herbicidas e sua mistura, como segue: I atrazine a 2,40 kg de i.a./ha, pendimethalm a 1,75 kg e atrazine a 2,00 kg + pendimethalin a 1,25 kg; II atrazine a 2,40 kg, metolachlor a 3,24 kg e atrazine a 2,00 kg + metolachlor a 2,52 kg; III cianazine a 2,25 kg, pendimethalin a 1,50 kg e cianazine a 1,75 kg + pendimethalin a 1,00 kg; IV atrazine a 2,40 kg, alachlor a 2,40 kg e atrazine a 1,60 kg + alachlor a 1,68 kg. Em cada experimento havia um tratamento testemunha. Foram obtidos os pesos de maté ria seca e os comprimentos de raízes e folhas, em quatro épocas, dentro dos períodos iniciais de 36, 49, 27 e 37 dias, respectivamente, para os experimentos I, II, II I e IV. Havia duas repetições para cada trata mento, cada época de amostragem e cada híbrido sendo adotado o delineamento totalmente casualizado. Ós herbicidas pendimethalin e cianazine, isolados ou em mistura, não causaram qualquer efeito no crescimento inicial das plantas de milho. Nos três expe rimentos em que fo i apli cado, o atrazine mostrou efeito estimulante em várias das amostragens, pelo aumento de peso de matéria seca ou de comprimento de raízes. Ó metolachlor e o alachlor apresentaram efeitos fitotóxicos em raízes e folhas, nas primeiras amostragens, com redução de peso e comprimento de folhas e de caules. Dos híbridos estudados, o IAC 7777 e o C-72 aprese ntaram o crescimento mais vigoroso . Ó IAC 1227 apresentou menor tolerância aos herbicidas usados. Ó solo barrento possibilitou melhores condições de crescimentos às plantas de milho que o argiloso, devido à sua fertilidade e textura.Four experiments in pots, in greenhouse, were performed with the corn hybrids IAC

  17. Comparative study of Peruvian purple corn (Zea mays L.) and simvastatin in serum lipids reduction in normotense dyslipidemic diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ronceros, Gerardo; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Departamento de Patología Clínica. Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Ramos, Willy; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas. Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Laboratorios Schüler. Lima, Perú; Arroyo, Jorge; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Galarza, Carlos; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas. Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Departamento de Enfermería, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú; Gutiérrez, Ericson L.; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G.; Department of Internal Medicine. Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.; La Rosa, Christian; Departamento de Patología Clínica. Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo.; Cucho, Carolina; Departamento de Patología Clínica. Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo.; Palma, Luis; Departamento de Patología Clínica. Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la eficacia de la administración del maíz morado (Zea mays) en la reducción de los niveles de lípidos séricos (efecto hipolipemiante) en pacientes diabéticos no hipertensos con dislipidemia. Comparar el efecto hipolipemiante del maíz morado con simvastatina. Diseño: Ensayo clínico. Institución: Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Pacientes diabéticos dislipidémicos no hipertenso...

  18. The effects of selenium and other micronutrients on the antioxidant activities and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Nour Ali; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Madani, Hamid; Naderi, Ahmad; Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    The effects of selenium (Se) on plant growth under drought stress and in the presence of micronutrients are yet to be investigated. Hence, in a field experiment in 2007 the effects of Se and micronutrients including iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), boron (B) and molybdenum (Mo) were evaluated on corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield under drought stress. Main- and sub-plots were devoted to irrigation (control and water stressed at the eight-leaf, blister and grain filling stages) and micronutrients treatments, respectively. Micronutrients were foliarly applied at 2 l ha(-1) at the six-leaf stage, one week before tasseling, using a corn fertilizer, called biomin containing (on the basis of dry weight percentage) Fe (2.6), Zn (4.1), Cu (1.5), Mn (2.6), B (1.5), Mo (0.5) and Mg (4.1). Se was used as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), at the rate of 20 g ha(-1) two weeks before treating the plants with drought stress. Effects of drought stress on plant growth were determined based on the activity or level of antioxidants. With increasing the stress level, addition of Se or micronutrients significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity and level as well as corn grain yield. The interaction effects between Se and micronutrients adversely affected antioxidant activity as well as corn grain yield. Se addition at the grain filling stage resulted in the highest grain yield under drought stress. The single but not the combined use of Se or micronutrients can alleviate the unfavorable effects of drought stress on corn yield by affecting plant metabolism including antioxidant activity.

  19. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn ( Zea mays L. in response to cultivar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes in quantity and quality of corn crop stover can have a large impact on soil conservation and soil carbon (C sequestration over large areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in production, concentration and amount of C and nitrogen (N in corn stover fractions due to cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná State, Brazil using ten cultivars representing five technological levels: single cross hybrids, double or triple hybrids, commercial varieties, and creole cultivars. Plant heights and stalk, leaf, cob, husk and tassel weights were determined at final harvest. Elemental C and N analyses were performed in triplicate for each stover fraction. In general, the creole cultivars had greater height, more dry matter (kg ha-1 and C content (kg ha-1 in husks, leaves, tassels and stalks, particularly when compared to single cross hybrids or others hybrids. There was a direct relationship between C/N ratio and corn selection for husks in both years and for the others fractions in one study year. This was due to the combined effects of increasing C and decreasing N due to crop selection. Large differences were observed within the same technological levels for the evaluated properties, suggesting a wide variation in genetic background. The quantity and quality of stover fractions vary among cultivars and may affect their use for soil cover, animal feed, biomass energy and other applications.

  20. VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AVALIADO PELA PRECOCIDADE DE EMISSÃO DA RAIZ PRIMÁRIA EVALUATION OF CORN (Zea mays L. SEED VIGOR THROUGH THE PRECOCITY OF PRIMARY ROOT EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferraz de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido trabalho baseado na determinação da precocidade da emissão da raiz primária de sementes de milho, em dez lotes de um mesmo cultivar. Este processo constou da distribuição de 200 sementes de cada lote sobre folhas de papel umedecido e, também, rolos de papel, que permaneceram em germinador a 25 °C; de 12 em 12 horas, aquelas que apresentaram emissão da raiz primária foram removidas, contadas e anotadas. Para estabelecer comparação entre os métodos e os lotes, paralelamente, as sementes eram avaliadas através da determinação do grau de umidade, dos testes de germinação e de vigor (primeira contagem, teste de frio com solo e emergência de plântulas em campo. Concluiu-se que há possibilidade de se utilizar o teste de emissão da raiz primária, em rolos de papel, para a avaliação do vigor de sementes de milho.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability of the emission of seed radicle of corn (Zea mays L. and to establish indexes of primary root emission to test the vigor of commercial seed lots. Samples of corn seeds not treated with fungicides, were taken from ten lots of the same cultivar. Two hundred seeds from each lot were distributed on wetted paper towels and also within paper rolles at 25 °C. Each 12 hours, seeds with primary root emission were counted and removed. Indexes of primary root emission were calculated and compared to conventional laboratory tests (first count; accelerated aging; cold test and field emergence. It was concluded that the primary root emission test, in rolled paper towels can be of great value for evaluating the vigor of corn seeds.

  1. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  2. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  3. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.

  4. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn (Zea mays L.) in response to cultivar development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of genetic selection of corn to quantity and quality of stover is still poor-known. The aim of the study was to evaluate production, C and N in fractions of corn stover in response to the cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná - Br...

  5. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L.) to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saad Drissi; Abdelhadi Aït Houssa; Ahmed Bamouh; Mohamed Benbella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn) fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions...

  6. Modeling Light Interception and Distribution in Mixed Canopy of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus in Competition with Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid VAZIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To model light interception and distribution in the mixed canopy of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus rertoflexus with corn, an experiment was carried out in randomized complete blocks design with factorial arrangement in Gonabad during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 growing seasons. The factors used in this experiment was consisted of three corn densities (7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 plants per meter of row and three densities of redroot pigweed (zero, 2, 4, 6 and 8 plants per meter of row. INTERCOM model was used through replacing parabolic function with triangular function of leaf area density. Vertical distribution of the species� leaf area showed that corn had concentrated the most leaf area in layer of 50 to 150 cm, while redroot pigweed has concentrated in 40-60 cm of canopy height. Model sensitivity analysis showed that leaf area index, species� height, height where maximum leaf area is seen (hm, and extinction coefficient had influenced on light interception rate of any species. In both species, the distribution density of leaf area at the canopy length fit a triangular function, and the height in which maximum leaf area was observed change by increasing the density. There was a correlation between percentage of the radiation absorbed by the weed and percentage of corn seed yield loss (r2 = 0.89. Ideal type of corn was determined until the stage of tasseling in competition with weed. This determination indicates that the corn needs more height and leaf area, as well as less extinction coefficient to successfully fight against the weed.

  7. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Effect of mungbean (Vigna radiate) living mulch on density and dry weight of weeds in corn (Zea mays) field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, M Bakhtiari; Vazan, S; Darvishi, B; Golzardi, F; Farahani, M Esfini

    2011-01-01

    Living mulch is a suitable solution for weeds ecological management and is considered as an effective method in decreasing of weeds density and dry weight. In order to evaluate of mungbean living mulch effect on density and dry weight of weeds in corn field, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four blocks in Research Field of Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University in 2010. Main plots were time of mungbean suppression with 2,4-D herbicide in four levels (4, 6, 8 and 10 leaves stages of corn) and control without weeding and sub plots were densities of mungbean in three levels (50%, 100% and 150% more than optimum density). Density and dry weight of the weeds were measured in all plots with a quadrate (60 x 100 cm) in 10 days after tasseling. Totally, 9 species of weeds were identified in the field, which included 4 broad leave species that were existed in all plots. The results showed that the best time for suppression of mungbean is the 8 leaves stage of corn, which decreased density and dry weight of weeds, 53% and 51% in comparison with control, respectively. Increase of density of mungbean from 50% into 150% more than optimum density, decrease the density and dry weight of weeds, 27.5% and 22%, respectively. It is concluded that the best time and density for suppression mungbean was 8 leaves stage of corn, and 150% more than optimum density, which decreased density and dry weight of the weeds 69% and 63.5% in comparison with control, respectively.

  9. Effects of Cultural System (Organic and Conventional on Growth, Photosynthesis and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. under Semi-Arid Environment

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    Aspasia EFTHIMIADOU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic sweet maize consists of a new industrial crop product. Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cultural systems on growth, photosynthesis and yield components of sweet maize crop (Zea mays L. F1 hybrid Midas. A randomized complete block design was employed with four replicates per treatment (organic fertilization: cow manure (5, 10 and 20 t ha1, poultry manure (5, 10 and 20 t ha1 and barley mulch (5, 10 and 20 t ha1, synthetic fertilizer (240 kg N ha1: 21-0-0 and control. The lowest dry weight, height and leaf area index and soil organic matter were measured in the control treatment. Organic matter content was proportionate to the amount of manure applied. The control plots had the lowest yield (1593 kg ha-1 and the double rate cow manure plots the had greatest one. (6104 kg ha-1. High correlation between sweet corn yield and organic matter was registered. Moreover, the lowest values of 1000-grain weight were obtained with control plot. The fertilizer plot gave values, which were similar to the full rate cow manure treatment. The photosynthetic rate of the untreated control was significantly lower than that of the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate increased as poultry manure and barley mulch rates decreased and as cow manure increased. Furthermore, the untreated control had the lowest stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content. Our results indicated that sweet corn growth and yield in the organic plots was significantly higher than those in the conventional plots.

  10. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

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    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  11. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossipium hirsitum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ávila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar

  12. Effect of various soil salinity level on the antioxidant and physiological properties of corn plant (Zea mays

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    Ramin Ezzati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of various soil salinity levels on the antioxidant enzymes and physiological characteristics of corn as an indicator of salt stress resistance, present study was conducted in 2013 at Research lab of environmental, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kharazmi, Iran. Furthermore, desert soils of Libya, India, Iraq and Karaj were used for testing the effect of soil salinity on the quantity of oxidant enzymes and various properties of maize plant. For providing favorable atmospheric conditions 33000 lux light and spray of perlite medium was used. Corn crop is highly sensitive to soil salinity so all the cultivation was carried out under conditions of soil EC lower than 20 ds/m and 8.5 pH. Results of the study revealed that the salt stress significantly affect the amount of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase and malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it was reported that saline soil did not have any negative effect on the physiological characteristics and growth of corn plant growth.

  13. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar.

  14. Effect of zinc (Zn and auxin (IBA foliar application on phytohormonal variation and growth of corn (Zea mays L.

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    Foad Moradi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess corn responses to zinc compounds and auxin (Indole Butyric Acid foliar application in shoots and roots, a pot experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design in three replications. Results showed that, zinc and auxin increased auxin and abscisic acid concentration both in shoots and roots. Also, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root increased model to foliar application, because protein synthesis was increased. On the other hand, according to unusual case, auxin and ABA showed positive parallel variation both in shoot and root, but this relation was more noticable in shoots.

  15. The Effect of Nozzle Types and Time of Herbicide Incorporation in Soil on Corn (Zea mays L. Weed Control

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    K Gerami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of nozzle types and the time of herbicide incorporation in soil on weed control, using split plot design by randomized block design. The main plots were soil and herbicide mixing time and the subplots were nozzle types with three replications. This study was performed in Karaj station of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, located 25 km west of Tehran, in 2008. Treatments were including: T-Jet standard nozzle, Flood-Jet nozzle and Air induction nozzle as well as mixing with the soil immediately, three, six and nine hours after spraying. The parameters were measured includes: the number of weeds before spraying, 15 days and 30 days after spraying; dry weed at two stages of 15 and 30 days after the spraying; and yield of corn. The results revealed that the spraying quality coefficient was greater for T-jet nozzle compared to the other types. However Flood-jet nozzle had a wide range of corn weeds control in comparison to other treatments. Regardless of the nozzle type, the immediate incorporation of herbicide in soil after spraying significantly increased the yield. The time of herbicide incorporation in soil and poison intermixture with soil, from zero to 4.5 hours after spraying was superior to the other times. This was mainly due to different weeds reactions to the times of herbicide incorporation in soil after spraying, and also treatments effect on yield and weed dry weight. Combined data analysis showed that treatment combination of T-Jet nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately and three hours after spraying, Flood-jet nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately after spraying and air induction nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately, three and six hours after spraying produced the highest yield than the other treatment combinations.

  16. Growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) near a high voltage transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, G; Kunsch, B; Gerzabek, M; Reichenauer, T; Soja, A-M; Rippar, G; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an electromagnetic field from a high voltage transmission line on the yield of agricultural crops cultivated underneath and near the transmission line. For 5 years, experiments with winter wheat and corn were carried out near the 380 kV transmission line Dürnrohr (Austria)-Slavetice (Czech Republic). Different field strengths were tested by planting the crops at different distances from the transmission line. The plants were grown in experimental plots (1.77 m2), aligned to equal electric field strengths, and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practice. The soil for all plots was homogenized layer-specifically to a depth of 0.5 m to guarantee uniform soil conditions in the plant root environment. The soil was sampled annually for determinations of carbon content and the behavior of microbial biomass. During development of the vegetation, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses. At physiological maturity, the plots (n = 8) were harvested for grain and straw yield determinations. The average electric and magnetic field strengths at four distances from the transmission line (nominal distances: 40, 14, 8, and 2 m) were between 0.2 and 4.0 kV/m and between 0.4 and 4.5 micro T, respectively. No effect of the field exposures on soil microbial biomass could be detected. The wheat grain yields were 7% higher (average of 5 years) in the plots with the lowest field exposure than in the plots nearer to the transmission line (P plants were more pronounced in years with drought episodes during grain filling than in humid years. No significant yield differences were found for corn yields. The extent of the yield variations attributed to the distance from the transmission line was small compared to the observed annual variations in climatic or soil specific site characteristics. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  18. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L. to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

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    Saad Drissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1 were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i 50% immediately after sowing, (ii 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a solution of Zn sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O. Zn deficiency symptoms appeared at an earlier stage (4–5 leaf stage as white stripes between the midrib and the margin of leaves for a Zn rate below or equal to 5 mg kg−1. Severity of these symptoms manifested more in container than in field. For both experiments, Zn supply induced a significant increase in stem height and leaf area. Furthermore, in both experiments, control plants showed a notable delay in achieving anthesis, silking, pollination and kernels maturity. The maximum shoot dry weight at harvest was recorded with Zn supply of 5 mg kg−1 in field experiment and 10 mg kg−1 in containers experiment. The shoot dry weight was especially linked to kernels dry weight. This latter was mainly enhanced through two compounds: 1000 kernels dry weight and pollination rate. On the other hand, outdoor container results can be used to help predict field plant responses to Zn except for control treatment.

  19. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  20. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  1. Determination of uptake, accumulation, and stress effects in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in single-wall carbon nanotube contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Amanda M; Kohl, Kristina; Deleon, Sabrina; Payton, Paxton; Irin, Fahmida; Saed, Mohammad; Shah, Smit Alkesh; Green, Micah J; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E

    2016-06-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are projected to increase in usage across many industries. Two studies were conducted using Zea L. (corn) seeds exposed to SWNT spiked soil for 40 d. In Study 1, corn was exposed to various SWNT concentrations (0, 10, and 100 mg/kg) with different functionalities (non-functionalized, OH-functionalized, or surfactant stabilized). A microwave induced heating method was used to determine SWNTs accumulated mostly in roots (0-24 μg/g), with minimal accumulation in stems and leaves (2-10 μg/g) with a limit of detection at 0.1 μg/g. Uptake was not functional group dependent. In Study 2, corn was exposed to 10 mg/kg SWNTs (non-functionalized or COOH-functionalized) under optimally grown or water deficit conditions. Plant physiological stress was determined by the measurement of photosynthetic rate throughout Study 2. No significant differences were seen between control and SWNT treatments. Considering the amount of SWNTs accumulated in corn roots, further studies are needed to address the potential for SWNTs to enter root crop species (i.e., carrots), which could present a significant pathway for human dietary exposure.

  2. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  3. The influence of microbial-based inoculants on N2O emissions from soil planted with corn (Zea mays L.) under greenhouse conditions with different nitrogen fertilizer regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Pamela; Watts, Dexter B; Kloepper, Joseph W; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are increasing at an unprecedented rate owing to the increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Thus, new innovative management tools are needed to reduce emissions. One potential approach is the use of microbial inoculants in agricultural production. In a previous incubation study, we observed reductions in N2O emissions when microbial-based inoculants were added to soil (no plants present) with N fertilizers under laboratory incubations. This present study evaluated the effects of microbial-based inoculants on N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions when applied to soil planted with corn (Zea mays L.) under controlled greenhouse conditions. Inoculant treatments consisted of (i) SoilBuilder (SB), (ii) a metabolite extract of SoilBuilder (SBF), and (iii) a mixture of 4 strains of plant-growth-promoting Bacillus spp. (BM). Experiments included an unfertilized control and 3 N fertilizers: urea, urea - ammonium nitrate with 32% N (UAN-32), and calcium - ammonium nitrate with 17% N (CAN-17). Cumulative N2O fluxes from pots 41 days after planting showed significant reductions in N2O of 15% (SB), 41% (BM), and 28% (SBF) with CAN-17 fertilizer. When UAN-32 was used, reductions of 34% (SB), 35% (SBF), and 49% (BM) were obtained. However, no reductions in N2O emissions occurred with urea. Microbial-based inoculants did not affect total CO2 emissions from any of the fertilized treatments or the unfertilized control. N uptake was increased by an average of 56% with microbial inoculants compared with the control (nonmicrobial-based treatments). Significant increases in plant height, SPAD chlorophyll readings, and fresh and dry shoot mass were also observed when the microbial-based treatments were applied (with and without N). Overall, results demonstrate that microbial inoculants can reduce N2O emissions following fertilizer application depending on the N fertilizer type used and can enhance N uptake and plant growth. Future studies are planned to

  4. INFLUENCE OF CROP SEQUENCES ON AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN (Zea mays L. UNDER NO-TILLAGE INFLUÊNCIA DE SUCESSÃO DE CULTURAS SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DO MILHO (Zea mays L. EM PLANTIO DIRETO

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    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Evoluated agronomic characteristics of corn in six crop sequences (corn-corn, soybean-corn, sunflower-corn, pearl milletcorn, sorghum-corn and pigeon pea-corn under no-tillage for three years, in Rio Verde, Goiás State. Significance was observed by the test F for plant height, 100 grain weight and grain moisture. Pigeon pea, soybean, sunflower and pearl millet, resulted in taller corn plants. No statistical differences were found between crop sequences for corn grain yield and other characteristics.

    KEY-WORDS: Crop sequences; corn; agronomic characteristics.

    Avaliaram-se características agronômicas na cultura do milho em seis sucessões de culturas (milho-milho, soja-milho,girassol-milho, milheto-milho, sorgo-milho e guandu milho em plantio direto, durante três anos, em Rio Verde, Goiás. Observou-se significância, pelo teste F, para altura de planta, peso de 100 grãos e umidade dos grãos na colheita. Guandu, soja, girassol e milheto proporcionaram maior altura da planta de milho. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre as sucessões para produtividades de grãos e demais características avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sucessão de culturas; milho; características agronômicas.

  5. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  6. EFEK PERLAKUAN KIMIAWI DAN HIDROTERMOLISIS PADA BIOMAS TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L. SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT PRODUKSI BIOETANOL The Effects of Chemical and Hydrothermolysis Pretreatment of Corn Stover Biomass (Zea mays L. as The Bioethanol Production Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagiman Wagiman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to obtain a fermentation substrate with a high content of cellulose and hemicellulose, as well as to decrease the cellulose cystalinity. Dried corn stover was crushed to pass 40 mesh, added by Ca(OH and water, then heated at a certain time. The experimental design was prepared using a four-factor central composite design (CCD. The results of the chemical pretreatment were treated using hydrothermolysis methods for enhancing the lignin removal and decreasing cellulose crystalinity. The suitable process condition for chemical pretreatment was achieved at the loading of 0.075 g Ca(OH /g corn stover and 6.25 ml water/g corn stover, temperature 74.6 OC at 2 hours. After hydrothermolysis, cellulose and hemicellulose were dissolved at the percentages of 52.40 % and 31.84 % respectively, while the fraction of solid substrate had a composition of cellulose of 42.68 % and hemicellulosa of 34.68 %. The crystalinity of cellulose from the leaves, cobs, and cornhusk decreased significantly. The SEM results indicated that the surface of cell wall of corn stover had been perforated by these pretreatment processes. These pores might increase the enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic corn stover. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan substrat fermentasi dengan kandungan selulosa dan hemiselulosa tinggi serta menurunkan kristalinitas komponen selulosa. Limbah tanaman jagung yang sudah kering dihancurkan hingga lolos 40 mesh, ditambah Ca(OH dan air, kemudian dipanaskan pada suhu dan waktu tertentu. Rancangan percobaan disusun dengan menggunakan central composite design (CCD dengan empat faktor. Hasil terbaik tahap ini diberi perlakuan hidrotermolisis untuk meningkatkan penyisihan komponen lignin dan menurunkan kristalinitas selulosa. Hasil pene­ litian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi proses terbaik adalah penambahan 0,075 g Ca(OH /g biomas dan 6,25 ml air/g biomas, suhu pemanasan 74,6 OC dengan waktu 2 jam

  7. Estudo quantitativo e qualitativo da proteína do grão de milho (Zea Mays L. A quantitative and qualitative study on corn (Zea Mays L. kernel protein

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    Dietrich Gerhard Quast

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho constitui estudo quantitativo e qualitativo da proteína do grão de milhos nacionais e estrangeiros. Os trabalhos de análise foram conduzidos separadamente para o germe e para o endosperma. Descrevem-se os métodos de análise química utilizados, com especial destaque ao método de determinação do triptofano. Foram as seguintes as principais observações feitas: a Foi bastante elevado o teor médio em proteína bruta das amostras examinadas quando comparado com o teor médio dos híbridos comerciais norte-americanos; b os milhos duros apresentaram superioridade significativa aos milhos dentados em relação ao teor de proteína bruta (11,09 e 10,09%; c não houve diferença significativa entre milhos duros e dentados quanto à relação triptofano/proteína ; d a proteína dos grãos ricos em proteína apresentou, em média, 1,10% de triptofano, enquanto aquela dos grãos pobres em proteína apresentou 1,20% de triptofano; c a proteína do germe apresentou mais triptofano que a maioria das proteínas animais e vegetais de elevado valor biológico; f a seleção no sentido de aumentar a percentagem de germe no grão parece recomendável para aumentar não sòmente a quantidade como, principalmente, a qualidade da proteína do milho.The paper studies the quantitative and qualitative content of protein in 49 samples of corn. Independent chemical analyses were made on the protein of germ and endosperm. The description of the method of the chemical analysis is presented, giving special emphasis to the method used, with good results, for the determination of tryptophan. The following observations were made: a the average total protein content is fairly high in the studied samples as compared to American corn hybrids; b flint corn samples showed higher total protein content than the dent corn samples; c between flint and dent corns the difference is not significant in the proportion in tryptophan over total protein; d the

  8. Valor nutritivo do triticale (Triticum turgidosecale e do milho (Zea mays para suínos em crescimento Nutrition value of triticale (Triticum turgidosecale and corn (Zea mays for growing swine

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    Cláudio Scapinello

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio de digestibilidade foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparentes da matéria seca (CDMS, matéria orgânica (CDMO, proteína bruta (CDPB e energia bruta (CDEB e o coeficiente de metabolização da energia bruta (CMEB do triticale e do milho. Foram utilizados 12 suínos machos castrados com peso vivo médio inicial de 30,17 kg, alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo. O método utilizado foi o da coleta total de fezes e urina. Os CDMS, CDMO, CDPB, CDEB, CMEB foram, respectivamente, 89,04, 93,69; 68,91; 89,27 e 86,83% para o triticale e 87,12; 87,11; 85,79; 85,80 e 83,93% para o milho. Os valores de energia digestível e energia metabolizável, na matéria natural, foram, respectivamente, 3404 e 3311 kcal/kg para o triticale e 3320 e 3248 kcal/kg para o milho.A metabolism assay was conducted to determine the digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DMDC, organic matter (OMDC, gross protein (GPDC, gross energy (GEDC and the gross energy metabolization coefficient (GEMC of triticale and corn. Twelve barrows averaging 30.17 kg BW were placed in metabolic cages. The method employed consisted of total feces and urine collection. DMDC, OMDC, GPDC, GEDC, and GEMC were, respectively, 89.04, 93.69, 68.91, 89.27, 86.83 for triticale, and 87.12, 87.11, 85.79, 85.80 and 83.93 for corn. On a feeding bases, values of digestible energy and metabolizable energy were, respectively, 3404 and 3311 kcal/kg for triticale and 3320 and 3248 kcal/kg for corn.

  9. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplement on rumen fermentation in sheep fed a diet of sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), corn stubble (Zea mays) and King grass (Pennisetum purpureum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, D C.; Galina, H M.; Pérez-Gil, R F.; Sanginés, G L.; Aguilera, B A.; Haenlein, G F.W.

    2001-03-01

    Four cannulated sheep were used to study ruminal fermentation of a diet consisting of 60% sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), 30% corn stubble (Zea mays), 10% King grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 0% (control), 10, 20 or 30% controlled-release urea supplement (CRUS) (diets 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Average ruminal pH did not differ among diets (P>0.05), but during the first 6h of sampling tended to be higher for CRUS diets. Ammonia concentrations were higher (P0.05). Total amounts of ruminal VFA were lowest (P<0.01) in controls, while CRUS diets produced more of these energy sources. Supplementation of the high fiber diets with 10, 20 or 30% CRUS increasingly improved rumen fermentation, ammonia supply and VFA production. The results show that low quality forages (up to 70% DMI) can be used efficiently by sheep when conditions for ruminal microorganism are improved with a controlled-release urea supplement.

  10. Seletividade de herbicidas para a cultura de milho (Zea mays aplicados em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura Selectivity to corn crop (Zea mays of herbicides applied in different crop phenological stages

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    R.F. López-Ovejero

    2003-12-01

    -emergence herbicides on corn crop under no-tillage system, kept weed-free throughout the crop cycle. The corn hybrid Pioneer 3027 was sown and the experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with 22 treatments and 3 replications. The following herbicide treatments (in g a.i. ha-1 were applied in the respective phenological stages (number of definitive leaves = NF: atrazine + metolachlor (1,400 + 2,100 under pre-emergence conditions of the crop; (atrazine + metolachlor + nicosulfuron [(1,000 + 1,500 + 20] with the crop presenting NF = 2; atrazine + vegetal oil (2,400 + 1,800, NF = 2, 4 and 8, atrazine + simazine (1,250 + 1,250, NF = 2, 4 and 8; nicosulfuron (40 - NF = 2, 4 and 8; 20 _ NF = 4 and 8 and 52 _ NF = 4 and 8; (atrazine + vegetal oil + nicosulfuron [(800 + 600 + 20; (800 + 600 + 40 e (800 + 600 + 52, NF = 4 and 8. Visual evaluations of the phytotoxicity symptoms were performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after each herbicide application, adopting the European Weed Research Council grading, besides parameters related to crop yield components and final yield. The results indicated that the herbicides did not affect the duration of the phenological stage of the crop. When sprayed at the phenological stage 2 (NF = 8, some herbicides reduced crop yield due to the decrease in total number of corn grain rows per ear, total number of grains per row, and mass of 1,000 grains; being thus advisable to apply herbicides in the corn crop from seeding through the phenological stage 1 (NF = 4, in order to avoid phytotoxicity to the corn crop.

  11. Granules morphology and rheological behavior of green banana (Musa cavendishii and corn (Zea mays starch gels Morfologia dos grânulos e comportamento reológico dos géis de amido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e milho (Zea mays

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    Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was used starch obtained from green banana (Musa cavendishii and commercial corn (Zea mays starch in order to compare the granule morphology and the rheological behavior of these gel-starches. Images of starch granules morphology were obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. The banana starch granules presented an oval and ellipsoidal shape with irregular diameters. Neverthless, the granules of corn starch showed a poliedric shape, with different sizes. The rheological behavior of gel starch solutions showed a non-newtonian character with a pseudoplastic behavior. Herschel-Bulkley model gave a good description on the rheological behavior of the gel starch. Banana gel-starch solutions showed higher values of shear stress and apparent viscosity when compared with corn gel-starch solutions. A progressive decrease in shear stress and viscosity occurred with the addition of sodium chloride and sucrose.No presente trabalho foi utilizado amido obtido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e amido de milho (Zea mays comercial, com o objetivo de comparar a morfologia dos grânulos e o comportamento reológico dos géis. As imagens da morfologia dos grânulos foram obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os grânulos de amido da banana apresentaram forma oval e elipsoidal com diâmetros irregulares, todavia, os grânulos do amido de milho mostraram forma poliédrica e diferentes tamanhos. As análises reológicas dos géis das soluções de amido mostraram caráter não-newtoniano, pseudoplástico. O modelo de Herschel-Bulkley foi o que melhor representou comportamento reológico dos géis. O gel de amido de banana verde obteve maiores valores de tensão de cisalhamento e viscosidade aparente quando comparada ao gel de amido de milho. Ocorreu um decréscimo progressivo na tensão de cisalhamento e na viscosidade com a adição de cloreto de sódio e sacarose aos géis.

  12. Resposta da cultura do milho (Zea mays L. à aplicação de boro e de zinco no solo = Corn (Zea mays L. culture response to boron and zinc soil application

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    Nestor Jamami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo sob condições de campo, com milho híbrido AG 1043, utilizandose3 doses de boro (0, 1 e 2 kg ha1 e 3 doses de zinco (0, 2 e 4 kg ha1. Foram feitas avaliações aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a emergência (DAE do conteúdo foliar de nutrientes, características químicas do solo aos 60 DAE e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados indicaram que a aplicação de boro e de zinco não resultou em elevação dos teores foliares desses nutrientes, nem em ganhos de produtividade, sendo os teores iniciais de B e Zn do solo suficientes para a produtividade atingida. The present work was carried out on Oxisol under field conditions, with hybrid corn (AG 1043, using three doses of boron (0, 1 and 2 kg/ha and three doses of zinc (0, 2 and 4 kg/ha. On the thirtieth, sixtieth and ninetieth days of emergency, chemical analysis was performed to verify the content of nutrients in the leaves and also analysis to verify chemical characteristics in the soil in the sixtieth day after emergency. The results of the application of boron and zinc showed that there was an increase neither in the content of both leaves’ nutrients, nor in productivity, being the initial content of boron and zinc in the soil before the experiment enough to the yield reached.

  13. Valor nutritivo de silagens de milho (Zea mays L. produzidas com inoculantes enzimo-bacterianos Nutritive value of corn silage (Zea mays L. produced with enzymatic-bacterial inoculants

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    Karina Dosualdo Rocha

    2006-04-01

    valor para a silagem tratada com o inoculante Biomax (66,0%. A adição de inoculantes à planta de milho não promoveu alterações na composição química e no consumo dos nutrientes das silagens.Two inoculated corn silage experiments are reported. In the first one, pH value, ammonia nitrogen in total nitrogen (N-NH3/Total N, chemical composition and in vitro drymatter digestibility of corn silages with or without enzymatic-bacterial inoculants were evaluated in laboratory silos. A 6 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with six fermentation periods (01, 03, 07, 14, 28 and 56 days x three inoculants (control and two commercial inoculants: Maize All (Alltech of Brazil and Biomax (Christian Hansen was used in a completely randomized design, with three replications. Effect of the inoculant × fermentation period interaction was detected on silages DM content, larger values corresponding to the inoculated silages, independent of the fermentation period. Inoculants favored silage crude protein (CP concentration, the smallest value (6.23% being observed in control silage. It was also observed an effect of fermentation period on neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, which decreased by 0.302353 and 0.063321 units/fermentation day, respectively. The in vitro dry matter digestibility increased with fermentation period, with increments of 0.0546305 unit/day. In the second experiment, intake and total apparent digestibility of silage nutrients were evaluated with rams. Eighteen castrated adult rams were assigned to three treatments, in a randomized blocks design, with six replicates. The diets consisted of 90:10 forage to concentrate ratio in a dry matter basis. The intake of nutrients was not influenced by the experimental diets, being observed mean values of 1.26; 0.14 and 0.84 kg/day for dry matter (DM, crude protein intake (CP and total digestive nutrients (TDN intake, respectively. An inoculant effect was observed on CP apparent digestibility

  14. Efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en las propiedades físicas y la actividad de deshidrogenasas en suelos cultivados con maíz dulce (Zea mays L. Effect of vinasse application on physical properties and dehydrogenases activity in soils under sweet corn (Zea mays L. cultivation

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    Magda Narváez Castillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en algunas propiedades físicas y en la actividad de las deshidrogenasas en un Entic dystropept y en un Fluventic haplustoll del Valle de Cauca, Colombia. Para suplir los requerimientos de K+ del cultivo de maíz dulce (Zea mays L. se utilizaron seis tratamientos (T1 = 100% de K+ como vinaza, T2 = 100% de K+ con KCl; T3 = 50% de K+ como vinaza y KCl, T4 = 75% de K+ con vinaza y 25% de K+ como KCl, T5 = testigo absoluto sin planta, T6 = testigo más planta que fueron dispuestos en un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. En el Entic dystropept la densidad aparente disminuyó y en consecuencia la porosidad total aumentó, mientras que en el Fluventic haplustoll sucedió lo contrario. La actividad de las deshidrogenasas fue significativamente mayor (P The effect of vinasse application was assessed on physical properties and dehydrogenases activity in Entic Dystropept and Fluventic Haplustoll of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. To meet the requirements of K+ in sweet corn (Zea mays L. six treatments were used (T1 = 100% of K+ as vinasse; T2 = 100% of K+ with KCl; T3 = 50% of K+ as vinasse and KCl; T4 = 75% of K+ with vinasse and 25% of K+ as KCl; T5 = absolute control without plants; T6 = control plus plants arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications. In Dystropept Entic bulk density decreased and consequently the total porosity increased, while the opposite happened in Haplustoll Fluventic. The dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher (P <0.05 in the Dystropept Entic than in Haplustoll Fluventic presenting low values. The results showed that the changes that are generated as a result of the application of vinasse are different for each type of soil.

  15. Double-Mutated 5-Enol Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Protein Expressed in MZHG0JG Corn (Zea mays L.) Has No Impact on Toxicological Safety and Nutritional Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bethany A; Launis, Karen L; Bauman, Patricia A; Juba, Nicole C

    2017-09-27

    MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment. In addition to the safety data available for these proteins, further studies were conducted on MZHG0JG corn to assess levels of mEPSPS as compared to previously registered genetically modified (GM) corn. The results support the conclusion of no impact on toxicological safety or nutritional composition.

  16. Yield and yield components of hybrid corn (Zea mays L.) as affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis and zinc sulfate under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, N A; Ardakani, M R; Rejali, F; Mohabbati, F; Miransari, Mohammad

    2010-12-01

    With respect to the significance of improving hybrid corn performance under stress, this experiment was conducted at the Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Iran. A complete randomized block design with three levels of irrigations (at 100%, 75% and 50% crop water requirement), two levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glumus intraradisis) (including control), and three levels of zinc (Zn) sulfate (0, 25 and 45 kg ha(-1)), was performed. Results of the 2-year experiments indicated that irrigation treatment significantly affected corn yield and its components at P = 1%. AM fungi and increasing Zn levels also resulted in similar effects on corn growth and production. Although AM fungi did not significantly affect corn growth at the non-stressed irrigation treatment, at moderate drought stress AM fungi significantly enhanced corn quality and yield relative to the control treatment. The combined effects of AM fungi and Zn sulfate at 45 kg ha(-1) application significantly affected corn growth and production. In addition, the tripartite treatments significantly enhanced corn yield at P = 1%. Effects of Zn and AM fungi on plant growth under drought stress is affected by the stress level.

  17. ANÁLISIS ECOFISIOLÓGICO DEL CULTIVO ASOCIADO MAÍZ (Zea mays L. - FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (Phaselus vulgaris L. ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CORN (Zea mays L. - CLIMBIMG COMMON BEAN (Phaselus vulgaris L. INTERCROPPING

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    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2007-12-01

    explain the effects. The few investigations on mechanisms studies performance of morphological and yield components of both species within the association, and they give few importance to the growing and development. Within the association, bean is the specie most affected; however, it has high morphophysiological plasticity that gives it advantages in the association. The knowledge of these mechanisms may add to understanding of association performance and the selection of genotypes and population densities, and in this way, it may to contribute of the improvement of the intercropping maize-bean.

  18. Growth and Yield Responses of Three Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccharata Varieties to Local-based Liquid Organic Fertilizer

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    - Fahrurrozi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid organic fertilizing for organically sweet corn production should be combined with foliar application to improve fertilizing effectiveness. Each sweet corn variety had different response to particular liquid organic fertilizer (LOF. This experiment aimed to determine growth and yields of three sweet corn varieties to local-based LOF was conducted at CAPS research station (950 m above sea level from March to June 2015, arranged in a factorial completely randomized block design with three replicates. The first factor was three sweet corn varieties, i.e. Talenta, Jambore and Asian Honey, and the second factor was five LOF concentrations, i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm, respectively. Result indicated that sweet corn varieties significantly affected plant height, plant leaf-area, root fresh-weight, weight of green ears, weight of dehusk ears, but did not affect diameter of dehusk ear and shoot fresh-weight. LOF concentrations did not affect all observed parameters. So did the interaction between varieties and LOF concentrations, except on shoot fresh-weight.  Asian Honey variety had the highest plant height, plant leaf-area, root fresh-weight, weight of green ears, weight of dehusk ears. There were no different in plant diameter and shoot fresh weight among the tested varieties. Further research should be focused on the use of higher concentration of local-based LOF to provide effective complementary organic fertilizing in sweet corn production

  19. Efecto vasodilatador mediado por óxido nítrico del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado en anillos aórticos de rata Vasodilator effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (andean purple corn hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

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    Oscar Moreno-Loaiza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta vasodilatadora e inhibidora de la vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado y determinar si esta respuesta es mediada por óxido nítrico (NO. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvo un extracto de las corontas de maíz morado maceradas durante ocho días en etanol al 70%, y posterior concentración del producto. Se trabajó con anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados, bañada con solución Krebs-Hensleit (K-H y se registró la actividad vasomotora con un transductor de tensión isométrica. Se produjo una contracción basal con KCl 120 mM sobre la cual determinó el efecto vasodilatador de tres dosis del extracto: 0,1; 0,5 y 1,0 mg/mL. Se utilizó L-NG-Nitroarginina metil ester (L-NAME para comprobar que la vasodilatación depende de la óxido nítrico sinteasa (NOs. Luego se comparó la inhibición de la contracción vascular tras la incubación durante 30 minutos, con extracto de maíz morado y captopril 10-5 M. Resultados. Se observó una reducción de la contracción máxima (100% a 85,25 ± 2,60%, 77,76 ± 3,23% y 73,3 ± 4,87%, para las dosis de 0,1; 0,5 y 1,0 mg/mL, respectivamente. La vasodilatación fue inhibida por la incubación previa con L-NAME. El extracto de maíz morado no inhibió la contracción vascular, a diferencia del captopril (reducción a 75,27 ± 8,61%. Conclusión. El extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L produce vasodilatación dependiente de la síntesis de NO.Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO. Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH, and vasomotor activity was recorded

  20. An investigation on different harvesting methods on young pods of KKU # 922 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar for baby corn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikranan, S

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to search for the best indicator to be used for the harvest of maize pods for baby corn production. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. The treatments are: T1 (Control) Taking sample when silks of female flower had extended from tip of pod up to 3 cm long T2, silks had extended 1 cm long T3, silks had extended 2 cm long T4, blooming of female flower for 2 days T5, blooming of female flowers for 4 days T6, blooming of female flower for 6 days T7, one third blooming of male flower T8, two third blooming of male flower and T9, full bloom of male flower. Five baby corn Characteristics were used i.e., (1) fresh weight of whole ears, (2) fresh weight of ears without husk, (3) commercial standard ears, (4) off standard ears and (5) disordered kernel-rows of ears. A range of scores from 1 to 9 was applied to judge quality and yield in each item of the five baby corn characteristics. A score of 1 = the best whilst further increases in scores indicated the decline in quality of baby corn. The results showed that an indicator for use in harvesting pods of maize for baby corn production was found with T6, i.e. the best time for the harvest of pods is when the female flowers had bloomed for 6 days after the appearance of silks.

  1. Effects of planting pattern and density on growth indices, yield and yield component of corn (Zea mays in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelexus(

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    alireza barkhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in 2002-2003 using split-split plot arrangement based on Rondomised Compelete Block Design with three replications at Feiz Abad Agricultural Research Station of Qazvin, in order to study of planting patterns and corn densitis effect in competition with redroot pigweed. Main plots inclouded two planting pattern of corn (P1: single row and P2: double row, sub plots inclouded two corn densities (D1:7 and D2:10 plant/m2 and sub sub plots inclouded 4 weed densities (C1:0, C2:2, C3:6, C4:12 plant/m2. Sampling conducted in 2-weekly intervals and growth indices evaluated. Results indicated that with increasing of weed density CGR, TDW, LAI, number of seeds in row, grain and ear yield decreased but plant height increased. Also LAI, CGR, TDW, number of weed seed and seed,s weight of weed increased. By increasing in corn density LAI, CGR, TDW, ear and grain yield increased, but length and diameter of ear and number of seeds in row decreased. Also LAI and CGR of weed increased, but TDW was decreased. In double row planting pattern just CGR, LAI, TDW of corn were higher significantly than single row planting pattern. But single row planting of weed caused higher LAI, NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW of weed in comparison with double row planting pattern. In 2-way interaction, double row planting pattern and zero densities and 2 weeds/m2 had highest grain yield respectively. There were no significant differences for 3-way interactions but double row planting pattern 10 plant density of corn/m2 zero weed/ m2 had highest grain yield.

  2. Efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate as Zn source for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) under hydroponic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustin

    2009-01-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) as Zn source for wheat and corn plants under hydroponic conditions. The Zn-complexing capacity of three commercial lignosulfonates (byproducts of the paper and pulp industry) was tested, and a LS-NH4, from spruce wood, was selected. Its efficacy as Zn fertilizer for wheat and corn plants was assessed at different pH values (7.0 and 8.0) in comparison with a chelate (ZnEDTA) and an inorganic salt (ZnSO4). For wheat at pH 7.0, it was concluded that the efficacy of the Zn fertilizers followed the sequence Zn-EDTA > Zn-LS approximately ZnSO4 > zero-Zn; and for wheat and corn at pH 8.0, similar results were obtained: Zn-LS > ZnSO4 approximately 0 Zn. These data give evidence that ZnLS could be used as Zn source to the roots of wheat and corn and seems to be more efficient than ZnSO4 to correct Zn deficiency in both plants.

  3. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests.

  4. Arsenic accumulation in maize crop (Zea mays): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Garza-González, M T; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that may represent a serious environmental threat, due to its wide abundance and the high toxicity particularly of its inorganic forms. The use of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for irrigation purposes in crop fields elevates the arsenic concentration in topsoil and its phytoavailability for crops. The transfer of arsenic through the crops-soil-water system is one of the more important pathways of human exposure. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, maize (Zea mays L.) is the most cultivated cereal in the world. This cereal constitutes a staple food for humans in the most of the developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Thus, this review summarizes the existing literature concerning the conditions involved in agricultural soil that leads to As influx into maize crops and the uptake mechanisms, metabolism and phytotoxicity of As in corn plants. Additionally, the studies of the As accumulation in raw corn grain and corn food are summarized, and the As biotransfer into the human diet is highlighted. Due to high As levels found in editable plant part for livestock and humans, the As uptake by corn crop through water-soil-maize system may represent an important pathway of As exposure in countries with high maize consumption.

  5. Effect of consolidate application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the physical and chemical traits of soil and qualitative index of corn (Zea mays L) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Namazi; Ebrahim Fatahi Nejad; Shahram Lak

    2015-01-01

    Present study was conducted to analysis the effect of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on physical and chemical traits of soil's and qualitative indexes of corn plant. A factorial test with complete random block designs with 4 repetitions was conducted in the year of 2012. Three doses of chemical nitrogen fertilizers viz 50, 75 & 100 kg/hectare and two level of vermicompost viz 5 & 10 tons/hectare were used either individually or in combination with each others. Resul...

  6. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  7. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  8. Chemical composition of the volatile extract and antioxidant activities of the volatile and nonvolatile extracts of Egyptian corn silk (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed; El-Massry, Khaled F; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2007-10-31

    A total of 36 compounds, which comprised 99.4% of the extract, were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the volatile dichloromethane extract obtained from Egyptian corn silk. The main constituents of the volatile extract were cis-alpha-terpineol (24.22%), 6,11-oxidoacor-4-ene (18.06%), citronellol (16.18%), trans-pinocamphone (5.86%), eugenol (4.37%), neo-iso-3-thujanol (2.59%), and cis-sabinene hydrate (2.28%). Dried Egyptian corn silk was also directly extracted with petroleum ether, ethanol, and water. All extracts from solvent extraction and the volatile extract described above exhibited clear antioxidant activities at levels of 50-400 microg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/linoleic acid assay. The ethanol extract inhibited DPPH activity by 84% at a level of 400 microg/mL. All samples tested via the beta-carotene bleaching assay also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity with clear dose responses. This study indicates that corn silk could be used to produce novel natural antioxidants as well as a flavoring agent in various food products.

  9. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  10. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  11. Variabilitas dan Heritabilitas Berbagai Karakter Tanaman Jagung ( Zea mays L.) Hasil Persilangan Sendiri (Selfing) Pada Generasi F2

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah

    2011-01-01

    ABDILLAH: Variability and Heritability some character a corn (Zea mays L) result selfing of second generation. Supervised by JENIMAR AND LUTHFI A.M SIREGAR. The objective of the research was to valuate variabilities of several characters affected by the genotype (σ2g), the interraction between genotype and environment (σ2p), studied heritability and also to see the effect resiprocal breeding of F2 with it’s parents of corn (Zea mays L.). The experiment was conduced at exprimental fi...

  12. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of atomized andean purple corn (Zea mayz L) hydroalcoholic extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Raez, Ernesto; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo.; Rodríguez, Miguel; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Chumpitaz, Víctor; Facultad Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Burga, Jonny; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; De la Cruz, Walter; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Valencia, José; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico Farmacéutico.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) in rats with induced hypertension. Material and methods. We used five groups of six Holtzmann rats each, one without hypertension (negative control) and four with hypertension induced by L-NAME: positive control and three groups for the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was carried out orally once a day for 25 days. Th...

  13. Effects of Exogenous Jasmonic Acid on Concentrations of Direct-Defense Chemicals and Expression of Related Genes in Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)Corn(Zea mays)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yuan-jiao; WANG Jian-wu; LUO Shi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Bt corn is one of the top three large-scale commercialized transgenic crops around the world.It is increasingly clear that the complementary durable approaches for pest control,which combine the endogenous defense of the crop with the introduced foreign genes,are promising alternative strategies for pest resistance management and the next generation of insect-resistant transgenic crops.In the present study,we tested the inducible effects of exogenous jasmonic acid(JA) on direct-defense chemical content,Bt protein concentration,and related gene expression in the leaves of Bt corn cultivar 34B24 and non-Bt cultivar 34B23 by chemical analysis,ELISA,and RT-PCR.The results show that the expression of LOX,PR-2αMPI,and PR-1 genes in the treated leaf(the first leaf)was promoted by exogenous JA both in 34B24 and 34B23.As compared with the control,the concentration of DIMBOA in the treated leaf was significantly increased by 63 and 18% for 34B24 and 34B23,respectively.The total phenolic acid was also increased by 24 and 12% for both 34B24 and 34B23.The Bt protein content of 34B24 in the treated leaf was increased by 13% but decreased significantly by 27% in the second leaf.The induced response of 34B24 was in a systemic way and was much stronger than that of 34B23.Those findings indicated that there is a synergistic interaction between Bt gene and internally induced chemical defense system triggered by externally applied JA in Bt corn.

  14. Efeitos da densidade e proporção de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. e caruru (Amaranhus retroflexus L. em competição Density and porportion effects among corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti

    1996-01-01

    plants in a mixture of species, nor the importance of intra and inter-specific competition and niche diferentiation. Therefore, this research was developed aiming to describe the competitive interaction and competitive indexes between corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. plants. The methodology was a replacement series experiment with a total density of 400 plants/m2 and 5 proportions, besides the monoculture that varied from 50 to 800 plants/m2, conducted in a randomized completely block desing, four replications. The results were analyzed through conventional replacement series analysis, using reciprocal total and per plant yield. Corn was the superior competitor and the intra-specific competition was more important than the inter-specific for this species. The reverse was true for pigweed. Both species were competing for the same natural resources since the niche diferentiation index was lower than 1,0. The influence of density and proportion of species in a competition study is very important in the understanding of competitive interactions.

  15. Production cost analysis and use of pesticides in the transgenic and conventional corn crop [Zea mays (L.)] in the valley of San Juan, Tolima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Kelly Avila; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro; Moreno, Giovanni Reyes; Castro, Carlos Silva

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 10 producers of conventional corn (Hybrids PAC 105 and Maximus) and 10 producers of transgenic corn (Pioneer Hybrid 30T17) was carried out in the municipality of Valle de San Juan in the territorial division of Tolima (Colombia), in order to analyze the differences in production costs and environmental impacts of these two agricultural technologies.  The environmental impacts were determined by calculating the field "Environmental Index Quotient" (EIQ). In the production cost analysis, a difference of 15% was found in benefit of the transgenic technology. The structure of costs of the transgenic technology was benefited by the reduced use of pesticides (insecticides and herbicides). In regards to production, the transgenic technology showed a greater yield, 5.22 ton/ha in comparison to 4.25 ton/ha the conventional technology, thus a 22% difference in yield. Finally, the EIQ calculation showed quantitative differences of 196.12 for the conventional technology (EIQ insecticides 165.14 + EIQ herbicides 30.98), while the transgenic technology was of 4.24 (EIQ insecticides 0 + EIQ herbicides 4.24). These results show a minor environmental impact when using the transgenic technology in comparison to the conventional technology, in regards to the use of insecticides and herbicides in a temporal, spatial and genotypical context analysis. :

  16. Effect of different calcium sources on the antioxidant stability of tortilla chips from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn (Zea mays L. flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Madrigal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop tortilla chips (TC high in antioxidants from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn flours prepared with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 and calcium lactate C6H10O6Ca. Tortilla chips were made with extruded flours [0.1% Ca(OH2; 0.9% C6H10O6Ca; without calcium] and nixtamalized flours [1% Ca(OH2; 2.95% C6H10O6Ca] using the frying process. Total anthocyanin, total phenolics content, antioxidant activity, color, texture, and oil content were determined. The color of tortilla chips from extruded flours (TCEF showed high values of the parameters a* and b* indicating a reduction in the blue color. These color parameters were significantly different from those observed in tortilla chips from nixtamalized flours (TCNF, which tended to be more blue. The TCEF retained 15% anthocyanins, 34% phenolics, and 54% antioxidant activity. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that anthocyanins and phenolics correlated significantly with antioxidant activity and color. TCEF with both calcium sources showed higher fracturability compared with that of TCNF. Oil absorption showed an opposite effect, with lower oil content in TCEF. Nixtamalization and extrusion with C6H10O6Ca resulted in flours and TC high in anthocyanins and antioxidant activity, representing an alternative production process for corn snack high in antioxidants.

  17. Selenium fractionation and speciation in agriculture soils and accumulation in corn (Zea mays L.) under field conditions in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songshan; Liang, Dongli; Wang, Dan; Wei, Wei; Fu, Dongdong; Lin, Zhiqing

    2012-06-15

    Upland and paddy soils, as well as corn samples, were collected in the selenosis area of Naore Village, Ziyang County, Shaanxi Province, China. A five-step sequential extraction procedure was used for selenium (Se) fractionation, including soluble Se, exchangeable Se and carbonate-bound Se, iron and manganese oxide-bound Se, organic matter-bound Se, and the residual Se fraction. Species of soluble Se in upland soils included Se(-2), Se(4+), and Se(6+). The results showed that soluble Se and exchangeable Se fractions accounted for less than 1% of the total Se in the upland soil, but approximately 16.1% in the paddy soil. Concentrations of residual Se were lower than those of iron and manganese oxide-bound Se and organic matter-bound Se in both upland and paddy soils. Iron- and manganese oxide-bound Se was the dominant fractions in upland soil, whereas organic matter-bound Se abounded in paddy soil. Concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of Se in the corn samples ranged from 0.05 to 14.5 in seed, 0.31 to 12.3in root, 0.09 to 9.15 in stalk, and 0.16 to 36.15 in leaf. Path analysis indicated that soluble Se(6+) significantly (Psoil Se. However, organic matter-bound Se was an important fraction and source of plant Se in agricultural soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. EVALUASI KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK TANAMAN JAGUNG MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALISIS SPASIAL Land Suitability Assessment Of Corn (Zea mays L. Using Spasial Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Wirosoedarmo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability assessment was needed to plan productive and sustainable land use. The aim of this research was to de- liver an informative data about land suitability of corn using spatial analysis model. The research was conducted from July 2007 to January 2008, located in Blitar district. The land survey and analysis covered several parameters needed for suitability assessment for corn such as temperature, rainfall, soil drainage, soil texture, pH, effective depth of soil, organic- C, soil content, Cation Exchange Capacity of clay, slope, altitude, and erosion endangered. The land suitability classes were classified into four classes, those were very suitable, suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable. The data were finally analyzed using Map Calculator in Arc View GIS Software.The results showed that there were three classes of land suitability for corn i.e. very suitable, suitable and marginally suitable which accounted for 85 %, 10 %, and 5 % of 150.96 hectare areas in Blitar. The suitable class mainly located in the northern of Blitar district, while the marginally suitable class mostly located in more than 1200 meters height above sea level covered 10, 117, and 52 hectares area of Wlingi, Gandusari, and Doko county area respectively. ABSTRAK Evaluasi kesesuaian lahan diperlukan untuk perencanaan penggunaan lahan yang produktif dan lestari. Tujuan peneli- tian adalah untuk menyajikan data dan informasi tentang evaluasi kesesuaian lahan bagi tanaman jagung menggunakan model analisa spasial. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Juli 2007 sampai bulan Januari 2008. Lokasi penelitian dilaksanakan di Blitar, Jawa Timur. Data yang diperlukan meliputi data spasial berupa peta kontur dan peta jenis tanah skala 1:25000 serta data atribut berupa data klimatologi wilayah dan hasil pengamatan lapangan terhadap sifat fisik, morfologi dan kimia tanah. Parameter kesesuaian untuk tanaman jagung yang ditetapkan meliputi temperatur, curah hujan

  19. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters.

  20. Influences of Chemical Fertilizers and a Nitrification Inhibitor on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Corn (Zea mays L.) Field in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Oslan; Hala, Yusminah; Muis, Abd; Ali, Alimuddin; Palennari, Muhiddin; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The influences of chemical fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor on greenhouse gas fluxes (N(2)O and CH(4)) in a corn field in Indonesia were investigated using a closed chamber. Plots received 45+45 kg-N ha(-1) of nitrogen fertilizer by split applications of urea, a single application of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF-LP30) or urea+dicyandiamide (DCD; a nitrification inhibitor), and no nitrogen application (control). Cumulative amounts of N(2)O emitted from the field were 1.87, 1.70, 1.06, and 0.42 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) season(-1) for the urea, CRF-LP30, urea+DCD, and control plots, respectively. The application of urea+DCD reduced the emission of N(2)O by 55.8% compared with urea. On the other hand, the soil acted as a sink for CH(4) in the CRL-LP30, control, and urea+DCD plots with value of -0.09, -0.06 and -0.06 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) season(-1), respectively. When the viability of AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) were monitored, AOB numbers were correlated with the N(2)O emission. These results suggest that 1) there is a potential for reducing emissions of N(2)O by applying DCD, and 2) corn fields treated with CRF or urea+DCD can act as a sink for CH(4) in a tropical humid climate.

  1. Growth and Production of Some Variety Corn (Zea mays L.). Planted under the Canopy of Palm Oil 12 Years Old in Swamp Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrullah; Marlina, N.; Rahim, S. E.; Aminah, R. I. S.; Midranisiah; Rosmiah; Sakalena, F.

    2017-06-01

    This research was conducted in wetlands Semambu Village, District of North Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia, which lasted from July 2015 to February 2016. The observation of a microclimate indicate that the average intensity of light outside the auspices of the plot 1968.9 m2s mol1, under waranet 1502.40 mol1 m2s, below paranet 721.99 mol1 m2s-1 and under waranet 439.25 μmol m2s-1 - equivalent to the light interception 1 or 100%, 76%, 37% and 22%. Results of soil chemical analysis that the soil has a low fertility study (H2O pH of 3.32, organic C 4.47%, total N 0.35%, Bray P 13.30 ppm, K-ea 0.26 me / 100g, CEC 19.6 rne / 100g and Al-ea 3.28 me / 100g). Tests on 22 genotypes of maize grown with light interception 100%, 76%. 37% and 22%, by calculating tolerance index based on the weight of dry seed cob-1 was found four genotypes of maize tend to be tolerant to low-intensity light that were genotype B 41, Pioneer 27, Sukmaraga and Sugihan. The test results of corn planted in beds shade with light interception 100%, 76%, 37% and 22% for groups of maize tolerant and sensitive, followed by application of urea 0 kg ha1, 100 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1 and 400 kg ha-1 indicate that maize and 41 and Pioneer 27 by Urea 300 kg ha-1 gives better results than other varieties at different intensities of light oil palm age of 12 years with applications Urea fertilizer 300 kg ha-1, indicating that the B 41 and Pioneer 27 tends to give better results compared with other varieties. The application of a polyculture system palm-maize can produce 1000 kg of dry grain of corn in a 1 ha of oil palm cultivation.

  2. [Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

    1976-03-01

    Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and

  3. Effect of consolidate application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the physical and chemical traits of soil and qualitative index of corn (Zea mays L plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Namazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analysis the effect of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on physical and chemical traits of soil's and qualitative indexes of corn plant. A factorial test with complete random block designs with 4 repetitions was conducted in the year of 2012. Three doses of chemical nitrogen fertilizers viz 50, 75 & 100 kg/hectare and two level of vermicompost viz 5 & 10 tons/hectare were used either individually or in combination with each others. Results of the study revealed that the use of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer caused a significant increase in the percentage of seed oil contents. At individual application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer highest increment in seed oil content was reported at 100 kg/hectare application, while in combination it was reported higher in the combination of 75 kg/hectare chemical Nitrogen fertilizer and 10ton/hectare vermicompost. The least effective treatment of was the combination of 100 kg/hectare chemical nitrogen fertilizer and 10 tons/hectare vermicompost combination. The most bulk gravity and real gravity is due to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at 50kg/hectare of soil test and without the use of vermicompost and the least bulk and real gravity of soil belong to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at the amount of 100kg/hectare of soil test and use of vermicompost at the amount of 10 tons in hectare.

  4. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore induced volatiles in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of atmospheric changes on this form of plant defense. To in...

  5. Selección de rizobios adaptados a ecosistemas ganaderos de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, inoculados en maíz (Zea mays, L.: Fase I: Invernadero Selection of rhizobia adapted to livestock production ecosystems of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, inoculated in corn (Zea mays L..: Stage I: Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J Bécquer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un ensayo en invernadero con el objetivo de seleccionar cepas de rizobio inoculadas en maíz (Zea mays, L.. Para ello se utilizaron 30 cepas nativas cubanas pertenecientes a Bradyrhizobium sp., así como 12 cepas comerciales, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros y especies de rizobio. Los inóculos se confeccionaron en medio CLM y fueron agitados hasta alcanzar un título de 10(6-10(8 cél./mL. Se utilizaron los métodos estándar para la inoculación de cereales. Se evaluaron las variables: peso seco aéreo (PSA, peso seco raíz (PSR, longitud del tallo (LT, diámetro del tallo (DT y presencia de mazorcas (PM. En las variables PSA, LT y DT se hallaron tratamientos superiores al control absoluto, y en el caso de la LT, dos tratamientos presentaron valores sin diferencias significativas a los del control fertilizado. No se detectaron diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos en la PM. En el PSR los tratamientos inoculados fueron inferiores al control fertilizado, excepto JI2, TD1, SP7 y SP12. Se obtuvo una agrupación en conglomerados, mediante la cual se selecciona­ron las cepas TD, JK, SP, SP, TE, JK, SP, USDA 110, JI, JJ, USDA 76, SP, 25B6, SP, NITRAGIN, ATCC 10317, que se destacaron para su posterior evaluación en condiciones de campo. Los tratamientos seleccionados en el dendrograma constituyeron el 69% para las cepas nativas y el 31% para las comerciales. Al evaluar los tratamientos inoculados en cuanto al grado de dependencia de las diferentes variables con respecto al PSR, se determinó que el índice de regresión fue débil, pero al analizarlos por separado, se observó una regresión fuerte en las variables DT (cepas nativas y PSA (cepas comerciales. Se recomienda la conti­nuación de estas investigaciones en condiciones de campo.A greenhouse trial was carried out with the objective of selecting rhizobia strains inoculated in corn (Zea mays, L.. Thirty Cuban native strains belonging to Bradyrhizobium sp. were used, as

  6. Avaliação do comportamento agronômico da planta e valor nutritivo da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. Evaluation of the agronomic behavior of the plant and nutritive value of silage from different corn (Zea mays, L. hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento agronômico produtivo da planta e as características químico-bromatológicas e fermentativas da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L.: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 e Cargill C-806. Para as avaliações agronômicas dos híbridos, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado e, para a avaliação das silagens, o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, sendo o critério de bloqueamento o período de utilização da silagem. O híbrido C-806 foi o mais precoce, com intervalo de 100 dias da semeadura à colheita para ensilagem, enquanto o híbrido XL-344 foi o mais tardio, com intervalo de 121 dias. As características fenotípicas da planta de milho determinaram o potencial produtivo dos híbridos, tendo o híbrido AG-5011 apresentado a maior altura de planta e potencial produtivo de matéria verde e matéria seca por hectare, em relação aos híbridos C-806 e XL-344. Verificou-se, nos híbridos AG-5011 e C-806, maior população final de plantas em relação ao híbrido XL-344. O híbrido C-806 apresentou menor proporção de grãos em relação à planta inteira. Com base nos teores de MS e DIVMS, as silagens dos híbridos AG-5011, C-806 e XL-344 são classificadas como de boa qualidade. Com relação às características fermentativas, N-NH3/NT e pH, as silagens dos três híbridos são classificadas como de muito boa qualidade.The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the agronomic production behavior of the plant and the chemical, qualitative and fermentation characteristics of silage from different corn (Zea mays, L. hybrids: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 and Cargill C-806. For the agronomic behavior of the hybrids a complete randomized experimental design was used, and for silages evaluation a randomized block design was used, where the silage utilization period was the blocking criterion. C-806 hybrid was

  7. Avaliação de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. em diferentes estádios de maturação: 3. Composição químico-bromatológica Evaluation of five corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. at different maturity stages: 3. Chemical-bromatology composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. Pioneer: superprecoce P32R21, os precoces P30R07, P3041 e P30F33 e o semiprecoce P30F80, quanto à composição química, em diferentes estádios de maturação. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. A colheita das amostras dos híbridos de milho foi adotada estimando-se os cinco estádios de maturação da planta: 30, 34, 38, 42 e 46% de matéria seca (MS. Para cada estádio de maturação, procedeu-se à separação de colmo + bainha, lâmina foliar e do grão para posteriores analises químicas. Da fração grão, foram determinados os teores de nitrogênio total e de amido, nos cinco estádios de maturação. Nas frações de lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha, foram determinados os teores de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, lignina, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA e nitrogênio total. Para os parâmetros avaliados observou-se diferença entre os híbridos de milho e efeito de dias pós-plantio. Com o avanço do estádio de maturação, observou-se que houve ligeira redução nos teores de proteína bruta (PB e os teores de amido praticamente não variaram no grão. Para a fração lâmina foliar, verificou-se que, com o aumento nos teores de matéria seca da planta, houve queda nos teores de PB e NIDA, ao contrário da fração colmo + bainha, cujos teores aumentaram. Os teores de FDN, FDA e lignina na lâmina foliar aumentaram, porém esses nutrientes na fração colmo + bainha dos híbridos de milho, praticamente, não variaram com o avanço do estádio de maturação.The objective of this study was evaluate, of the chemical composition of five corn (Zea mays L. hybrids Pioneer: P32R21, P30R07, P3041, P30F33 and P30F80, at different maturity stages. The treatments were used in plots of 7 x 8 m in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The samples

  8. Glucolipids of Zea mays and Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morohashi, Y.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1976-06-01

    The glucolipids formed upon feeding (U--/sup 14/C)glucose to embryos of Zea mays were partially characterized with respect to: (a) metabolic turnover, (b) acid lability, (c) phosphorus content, (d) chromatographic properties, and (e) hydrolysis products. The chloroform--methanol-soluble-assimilated radioactivity was examined specifically for occurrence of a glycosylated prenol phosphate. With the extraction conditions used, no evidence was found for formation of a glucosylated prenol phosphate. Several, as yet unidentified, acid-labile glucolipids undergoing metabolic turnover were observed. Four diglycerides were characterized as hydrolysis products of a fraction that contained /sup 14/C-glucose and phosphorus, and was subject to metabolic turnover. Examination of the 1-butanol-soluble glucolipids from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings also demonstrated anionic glucolipids, evidencing metabolic turnover but none with the properties of glucosylated prenol phosphate.

  9. Avaliação da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. por meio do desempenho de bezerros confinados em fase de crescimento Evaluation of silages of different corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. by feedlot performance of calves, during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar, por meio do desempenho animal, silagens de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L.: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 e Cargill C-806. Foram utilizados 27 machos, não-castrados, mestiços Nelore x Charolês, com idade média de 10 meses e peso médio inicial de 252 kg, confinados durante 84 dias, subdivididos em quatro períodos de 21 dias. As silagens dos híbridos testados corresponderam a 70% da matéria seca ofertada. Não houve interação do híbrido de milho testado com o período de avaliação em confinamento, para os parâmetros estudados. A dieta que incluiu a silagem do híbrido AG-5011 resultou em maior consumo voluntário médio diário de matéria seca, expresso por 100 kg de peso vivo e tamanho metabólico, e maior consumo médio diário de fibra em detergente ácido, expresso nas diferentes formas, em relação aos híbridos XL-344 e C-806, que, por sua vez, foram semelhantes entre si. As dietas que incluíram silagens dos híbridos AG-5011, XL-344 e C-806 apresentaram semelhanças quanto ao consumo voluntário de matéria seca, expresso em kg/animal/dia (6,73; 6,05; e 6,19, consumo médio diário de FDN, em kg/dia (3,054; 2,837; e 2,836, e energia digestível, expressa nas diferentes formas, ganho de peso médio diário, em kg/dia (1,283; 1,219; e 1,249, ganho em estado corporal, conversão alimentar (5,26; 4,98; e 4,97 e eficiência energética (14,02; 13,68; e 13,21. Os três híbridos são indicados como materiais genéticos de muito boa qualidade para produção de silagem, promovendo ganhos de peso diário superior a 1,2 kg/animal/dia, quando utilizados em dietas com relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate, through feedlot performance of calves, three corn hybrids (Zea mays, L.: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 and Cargill C-806. For the evaluation, 27 Nellore x Charolais non-castrated crossbred males with average age of 10 months and average initial

  10. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae.

  11. Feeding non-preference of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae to corn plants (Zea mays L. treated with silicon Não-preferência do pulgão-da-folha Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae para plantas de milho (Zea mays L. tratadas com silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Campos Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A tactic for control to corn leaf Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 would be the use of resistant materials, but, for not being a key pest of the crop, there are not yet corn genotypes availables with those characteristics. So, it was aimed in this work to evaluate the effect of silicon on the aphid's development on corn plants. Preference tests with leaves detached from the plants and on corn plants were accomplished. Its was found that the treatments where silicon was applied to the soil plus a foliar sprayed fertilization or through two foliar applications were the ones which contained a lower number of aphids, increasing the resistance of leaves and making the feeding of those insects difficult. In general, the results showed that silicon affected the leaf aphid's preference.Uma tática para o controle do pulgão-do-milho Rhopalosiphum maids (Fitch, 1856 seria a utilização de materiais resistentes, porém, por não se tratar de uma praga-chave da cultura, não há, ainda, disponibilidade de genótipos de milho com essas características. Assim com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do silício na preferência do pulgão-da-folha em plantas de milho. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de silício via solo e/ou foliar e testemunha. Foram realizados testes de não-preferência com folhas destacadas e diretamente em plantas de milho. Verificou-se que os tratamentos nos quais o silício foi aplicado via solo mais uma adubação foliar, ou mediante duas aplicações foliares, foram os que apresentaram menor número de pulgões, aumentando a resistência das folhas e dificultando a alimentação desses insetos. De modo geral, o silício afetou a preferência do pulgão-da-folha.

  12. Sensibilidade do clorofilômetro para diagnóstico nutricional de nitrogênio no milho Sensitivity of the chlorophyll meter for nutritional diagnostic of nitrogen in corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Manuel Carmelino Hurtado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de altas produtividades de milho (Zea mays L. torna-se difícil, dentre outros fatores, pela complexa quantificação dos requerimentos de nitrogênio (N da cultura do milho ao longo do seu ciclo, o que dificulta o seu dimensionamento, ainda mais, considerando a variada capacidade de suprimento de N em solos brasileiros. Nesse sentido, os teores relativos de clorofila surgem como uma opção para o manejo do N. Objetivou-se, neste estudo avaliar a sensibilidade do clorofilômetro em indicar o estado nutricional do milho em resposta ao N, em solos com teores de argila contrastantes e sob diferentes condições de suprimento de N. Para isso, foram realizados experimentos em condições controladas e de lavoura. Em condições controladas, foram testados três solos com teores de argila contrastantes e cinco doses de N, sendo avaliados, aos 55 dias após a emergência (estádio prévio ao VT, os teores relativos de clorofila, de N foliar e a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea. Em condições de lavoura foram avaliados seis tratamentos, resultantes da combinação de três doses de nitrogênio em cobertura, na presença e ausência de calcário, sendo a maior dose de N correspondente à condição na qual não haveria limitação de disponibilidade quanto ao suprimento do nutriente. A nutrição nitrogenada foi monitorada semanalmente com uso do clorofilômetro. Foram avaliados também os teores de N na folha e no grão, o N mineral no solo, a matéria seca da parte aérea e a produtividade de grãos. Os resultados permitiram concluir que há sensibilidade do clorofilômetro em detectar diferenças no estado nutricional do milho em resposta a diferentes características de solo e de suprimento de N, servindo como indicador da necessidade de adubação nitrogenada de cobertura.High corn yields are conditioned by the different factors involved in the quantification of nitrogen requirements for the crop throughout its cycle, which

  13. Comparative toxicity of mycotoxins to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guodong; Siegel, Joel; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-08-01

    Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins and ochratoxins, are widely distributed in nature and are frequently problematic crop contaminants that cause millions of dollars of annual losses in the United States. Insect infestations of crop plants significantly exacerbate mycotoxin contamination. Damage to a variety of nut species by Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm, NOW) is associated with infection by Aspergillus species and concomitant production of aflatoxins and ochratoxins. Resistance to aflatoxins in this lepidopteran is compared here with the levels of resistance in Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm, CEW), another lepidopteran that routinely encounters aflatoxins in its diet, albeit at lower levels. Measured as the developmental delay caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), it is apparent that the LC(50) (defined as the concentration preventing 50% of newly hatched larvae from entering the 2nd instar within 48 h) for AFB1 is 100 times greater for A. transitella than for H. zea. Similarly, A. transitella 1st instars display substantially higher tolerance to ochratoxin A, another mycotoxin contaminant produced by Aspergillus species, than do H. zea. Our studies indicate that A. transitella, although a hostplant generalist, may well be highly specialized for mycotoxin detoxification.

  14. Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Seedlings were grown for 8 weeks in nursery bags filled with sandy-loam soil in two categories.

  15. Effects of humic acids (carbovit on phosphorus, bases and micronutrients of a molisol, with corn as an indicator plant (Zea mays L. Efectos de los ácidos húmicos (Carbovit sobre el fosforo, las bases y los micronutrientes de un molisol, utilizando como planta indicadora el maíz (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarin Sandra

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the influence of humic substances (Carbovit on phosphorus, bases exchanges and microelements of a Molisol, greenhouse essays were peñormed at the College of Agriculture of the National Universityof Colombia located in Santafé de Bogotá, during the second semester of 1992. The experiment was taken into plastic vases using com (Zea mays L. as an indicator plant until sixty days after sowing. Resutts show that the humic acid molecule acts as a transport of solouble fertilizers appliedto the soil. Besides, elements like phosphorus,
    iron, magnesium and zinc showed increased levels of those elements in solution in to the soil. It was also found an equilibrium activity among bases relation ship, altributed to the humic acid molecule.
    Con el objeto de establecer la influencia de los ácidos húmicos (Carbovit sobre el fósforo, las bases de cambio y los micro elementos de un suelo calcáreo (Molisol, se realizó un ensayo en los invernaderos de la Facultad de Agronomla de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, durante el segundo semestre de 1992. El experimento se llevo a cabo en materas
    plasticas utilizando como planta indicadora el maíz (Zea mays L. hasta los 60dlas después de siembra. Los resultados muestran que la molécula del ácido húmico actua como transportadora de los fertilizantes solubles aplicados al suelo. Además, elementos como el fósforo, hierro, magnesio y zinc se solubilizaron apreciablemente elevando los niveles de dichos elementos en la solución del suelo. También, se encontró una actividad equilibrante entre las relaciones de las bases, atribuida a la molecula del ácido húmico.

  16. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  17. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  18. Produção e qualidade de silagens de híbridos de milho (Zea mays e de híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor Forage production and quality of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Moraes Genro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e a qualidade de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays e três híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia, UFSM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: híbridos de milho - Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 e Agroceres 213 (AG 213; sorgo -todos os híbridos foram da Agroceres: AG 2004E, AG 2002 e AG 2005E. A população estabelecida foi de 50.000 e 160.000 plantas/ha para milho e o sorgo, respectivamente. As plantas foram cortadas a 15cm do solo, quando atingiram o estádio de grão farináceo. Posteriormente, os híbridos foram picados e ensilados em vidros vedados, colocados em tubos de concreto e tapados com o material verde restante. Com relação à produção de Matéria Seca, o híbrido P 3072 destacou-se em relação aos demais, sendo superior (PA trial was conducted to evaluate forage production and quality of fíve comercial com hybrids (Zea mays and three sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replicates. The five com hybrids were: Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 and Agroceres 213 (AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids were: Agroceres 2004 E, 2002 and 2005 E (AG 2004 E, AG 2002 and AG 2005 E, respectively. Plant population was about 50.000 and 160,000 plants/ha for com and sorghum, respectively. The crops were havested at a height of 15cm of soil surface, at grain powdering stage. After the harvested, the forage were ensiled in glass recipients, wich were conserved in a higher silum. The dry matter production of the P 3072 was higher than AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids. Although all mean value results were adequate for silage conservation and quality, there was only significant difference for pH. The digestibility estimatives

  19. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kristine T; Caprio, Michael A; Allen, K Clint; Musser, Fred R

    2013-02-01

    Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decisions regarding resistance management in Bt-cropping systems have prompted concern in some experts that dual-gene Bt-corn (CrylA.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than single-gene Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn (CrylAb toxin). The concern is that Bt-toxin longevity could be significantly reduced with recent adoption of a natural refuge for dual-gene Bt-cotton (CrylAc and Cry2Ab2 toxins) and concurrent reduction in dual-gene corn refuge from 50 to 20%. A population genetics framework that simulates complex landscapes was applied to risk assessment. Expert opinions on effectiveness of several transgenic corn and cotton varieties were captured and used to assign probabilities to different scenarios in the assessment. At least 350 replicate simulations with randomly drawn parameters were completed for each of four risk assessments. Resistance evolved within 30 yr in 22.5% of simulations with single-gene corn and cotton with no volunteer corn. When volunteer corn was added to this assessment, risk of resistance evolving within 30 yr declined to 13.8%. When dual-gene Bt-cotton planted with a natural refuge and single-gene corn planted with a 50% structured refuge was simulated, simultaneous resistance to both toxins never occurred within 30 yr, but in 38.5% of simulations, resistance evolved to toxin present in single-gene Bt-corn (CrylAb). When both corn and cotton were simulated as dual-gene products, cotton with a natural refuge and corn with a 20% refuge, 3% of simulations evolved resistance to both toxins simultaneously within 30 yr, while 10.4% of simulations evolved resistance to CrylAb/c toxin.

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  1. Biology, Ecology, and Evolving Management of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sweet Corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Daniel L; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous pest found throughout the United States, where it attacks many field and vegetable crops. Although H. zea has long been a traditional pest of sweet corn, its importance to this crop has increased dramatically over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize information critical for current and future management of H. zea in sweet corn production in the United States. First, we discuss the pest status of H. zea and its life history, including migration, infestation and larval development, diapause, overwintering, and abiotic factors that affect its biology. Next we describe monitoring methods, crop protection decision-making processes, chemical control options, and the use of genetic technologies for control of H. zea Alternative H. zea management options including biological control, cultural controls, host plant resistance, and pheromone disruption are also reviewed. The role of climate change and its effects on H. zea and its ecology are discussed, as well as the recent invasion of its relative, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), which is a major pest of corn in other parts of the world. To conclude, we suggest future research opportunities for H. zea and H. armigera management in sweet corn.

  2. Induced cytomictic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been used for improving oligogenic and polygenic characters, disease resistance and quantitative characters including yielding ability. The cytological stability of maize inbred lines is an important consideration in view of their extensive use in genetics and plant breeding research. Investigation in Zea mays L. confirms that the migration of chromosomes is a real event that cannot be misunderstood as an artifact produced by fixation or mechanical injuries. During present investigation, we found that out of six inbred lines of Zea mays L. viz. CM-135, CM-136, CM-137, CM-138, CM-142 and CM-213 at various treatment doses of gamma irradiations viz. 200, 400 and 600 Gy, some of the plants of inbred line CM- 138 at 200 Gy dose displayed characteristic cytoplasmic connections during all the stages of meiosis. Four plants from this treatment set were found to be engaged in a rare phenomenon reported as "Cytomixis". It elucidates that in inbred of Zea mays L., induced cytomixis through gamma rays treatment may be considered to be a possible source of production of aneuploid and polyploid gametes. This phenomenon may have several applications in Zea mays L. improvement in the sense of diversity and ever yield potential.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

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    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN (Zea mays BY PEARL MILLETS (Pennisetun americanun IN RATIONS FOR FINISHING SWINE AVALIAÇÃO DA SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE MILHO (Zea mays PELO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM RAÇÕES PARA SUÍNOS NA FASE DE TERMINAÇÃO

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    Márcia Nunes Bandeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in order to evaluate the inclusion of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum in swine finisher ration. Twenty cross-bred swine (Landrace x Large White weighing 53.00kg had in their rations different levels of millet (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in substitution to the digestible energy furnished by corn. The experimental design used was the completely randomized in a factorial scheme (5 replacement levels x 2 sexes. With the results obtained in this experiment, one may infer that the substitution of corn by millet is possible to finisher swine rations.

    KEY-WORDS: Millets; pig; finishing.

    Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a substituição de diferentes níveis de milho pelo milheto na formulação de ração para suínos na fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 20 suínos mestiços (Landrace x Large White com peso médio inicial de 53,00kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 ( 5 níveis de substituição x 2 sexos. Com os resultados obtidos neste experimento, concluiu-se que é viável a substituição do milho pelo milheto em rações para suínos na fase de terminação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; suínos; terminação.

  5. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits.

  6. Efeitos da inclusão de forragem de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit na qualidade da silagem de milho (Zea mays L. Effects of the inclusion of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit forage on corn silage quality

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    Rosana Cristina Pereira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio foi realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da adição de níveis crescentes de forragem de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit no valor nutritivo da silagem de milho (Zea mays L.. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de silagens de milho contendo 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de forragem de leucena com base na matéria verde. O material permaneceu ensilado por 30 dias em silos experimentais de canos de PVC. Determinaram-se os valores de pH e poder-tampão (PT e os teores de MS, PB, FDN, FDA e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3. O aumento na proporção de leucena não alterou o teor de matéria seca das silagens e resultou em efeito linear positivo sobre os valores de pH, PT , PB e N-NH3 e efeito linear negativo sobre os teores de FDN e FDA. A inclusão de forragem de leucena até o nível de 40% é uma alternativa viável para a melhoria do valor nutritivo da silagem de milho.This assay was conducted at the Department of Animal Science of the University Federal of Lavras with the objective to evaluate the effects of the addition of growing levels of leucaena forage (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit in the nutritive value of the corn silage (Zea mays L.. The experimental design used was the completely randomized with five treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of leucaena forage. The material remained ensiled for 30 days in experimental silos of PVC tubes. The values of pH and buffering power (BP and the contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF and ammonium nitrogen (N-NH3 were determined. The dry matter contend of the silages was not affected by addition of leucaena. The increase in the ratio of leucaena resulted into a positive linear effect on the values of pH, BP, PB and N-NH3, and a negative effect on the contents of

  7. INFLUENCE OF SUCCESSIVE CULTURES WITH ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON PROTEIN LEVEL OF A CORN CULTIVAR (Zea mays L. INFLUÊNCIA DE SUCESSIVOS CULTIVOS COM ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA SOBRE O TEOR DE PROTEÍNA DE UMA CULTIVAR DE MILHO (Zea mays L.

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    Magda Beatriz A. Matteucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The corn grain is mainly used as energetic source, due to low levels of lisin and triptofane in protein. The corn protein level increases with nitrogenous fertilization. This study was carried out to verify the influence of successive cultures with organic fertilization on protein level of corn grain. The Demetria/EA/UFG cultivar is rustic and adapted to organic fertilization. It was observed significant effect every two successive cultures (Tukey 5% probability.

    KEY-WORDS: Organic fertilizer; protein; manure.

    O milho é utilizado principalmente como fonte de energia, tendo como característica proteínas pobres em usina e triptofano. Seu conteúdo protéico cresce com incrementos nas adubações nitrogenadas. A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a influência de sucessivos cultivos com adubação orgânica, na variação do teor de proteína nos grãos de milho, variedade Demétria/EA-UFG, uma cultivar rústica, própria para cultivos com adubação orgânica. Foi observado efeito significativo a cada dois cultivos sucessivos (teste de Tukey a 5 % de probabilidade.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; proteína; esterco.

  8. Pengelolaan Hara Kalium Berdasarkan Batas Kritis Untuk Tanaman Jagung (Zea mays L.) Pada Berbagai Status Hara di Tanah Inceptisol

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Irwan Agusnu

    2011-01-01

    IRWAN AGUSNU PUTRA, 2010. Potassium Based Nutrient Management of Critical Level For Maize (Zea mays L.) at Various Nutrient Status in the Inceptisol Soil. Under his guidance, Dr. Ir. Hamidah Hanum, MP as Chairman of the Commission of Advisors with members Dr. Ir. Chairani Hanum, MP. In North Sumatra, most of the planting area of corn in the ground Inceptisol widespread, also dominated by the relatively high clay content so that the fixation of potassium are very strong which resulted in the c...

  9. Atividade microbiana e produção de milho (Zea mays e de Brachiaria brizantha sob diferentes métodos de controle de plantas daninhas Microbial activity and production of corn (Zea mays and Brachiaria brizantha under different methods of weed control

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    A. Jakelaitis

    2007-03-01

    biomass production of corn and Brachiaria brizantha intercroping. The treatments were constituted of corn and B. brizantha intercropping, treated with atrazine (1,500 g ha-1, or with atrazine + nicosulfuron (0, 4 and 32 g ha-1 and two controls represented by intercropping control with and without weeds. Herbicides were applied 30 days after corn emergence (DAE. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with four replicates. Microbial biomass (MB, respiration and metabolic quotient (qCO2 obtained from soil samples seven days after herbicide application on corn flowerage and pre-harvesting were evaluated. No-treated soil samples were collected in field and treated with atrazine (1,500 g ha-1 + nicosulfuron (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g ha-1 under laboratory condition. Weed and B. brizantha dry matter and corn grain yield were evaluated at corn pre- harvesting. Methods of control did not influence respiration, MB nor qCO2 but higher MB in flowerage and higher qCO2 were observed after seven days of application. Higher weed dry matter production was observed in the control treated only with atrazine. Forage yield of B. brizantha was superior in the control plots without weeds, while corn grain yield was superior both in the control plots without weeds and treated with nicosulfuron.

  10. A comparative investigation of the metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate in cell cultures of transgenic glufosinate-resistant and non-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Monika; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Pawlizki, Karlheinz

    2002-10-01

    To obtain information on differences between the metabolic pathways of the herbicide glufosinate (trade names: BASTA, LIBERTY) in non-transgenic, glufosinate-sensitive plants and in transgenic, glufosinate-resistant plants, the metabolism of 14C-labeled glufosinate and its enantiomers L- and D-glufosinate was studied using cell cultures of oilseed rape and corn. Transformation of glufosinate in both sensitive and transgenic rape cells remained at a low rate of about 3-10% in contrast to corn cells, where 20% was transformed in sensitive and 43% in transgenic cells after 14 days of incubation, the rest remaining as unchanged glufosinate. In sensitive rape and corn cells the main metabolite was 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxo-butanoic acid (PPO) with 7.3 and 16.4%, respectively, together with low amounts of 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (MPP), 4-methylphosphinico-2-hydroxybutanoic acid (MHB), 4-methylphosphinicobutanoic acid (MPB) and 2-methylphosphinicoacetic acid (MPA). An additional metabolite formed in transgenic cell cultures was 2-acetamido-4-methylbutanoic acid (N-acetyl-L-glufosinate, NGA), which was formed at rates of 3.2% in rape and 16.1% in corn. A further minor metabolite, not yet identified, was detected in both cell types. The liberation of 0.2% 14CO2 indicates further metabolic steps prior to a limited mineralization in plant cell cultures. L-glufosinate was transformed into the same metabolites as the glufosinate racemate. D-glufosinate was not metabolized.

  11. Avaliação de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. em diferentes estádios de maturação: 1. Produtividade, características morfológicas e correlações Evaluation of five corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. at different maturity stages: 1. Productivity, morphologic traits and correlations

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    Juliano Ricardo Fontanini Beleze

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para se avaliarem produtividade e as características morfológicas de cinco híbridos de milho Pioneer: superprecoce P32R21, os precoces P30R07, P3041, P30F33 e o semiprecoce P30F80, em cinco estádios de maturação. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. A colheita das amostras dos híbridos de milho foi adotada estimando-se cinco estádios de maturidade da planta: 30, 34, 38, 42 e 46% de matéria seca. Por ocasião da colheita, no primeiro estádio de maturação, foram tomados alguns parâmetros para avaliação, como altura da planta, altura inserção de espiga, peso da planta, diâmetro de colmo e número médio de espigas. Para cada estádio de maturação, procedeu-se à separação de colmo + bainha, lâmina foliar, grão, sabugo e palha. Os híbridos superprecoce P32R21 e o precoce P3041 apresentaram maiores peso, diâmetro de colmo e altura de planta. As produções de matéria seca (MS, massa verde, grãos, lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha, expressas em toneladas/ha, diferiram entre os híbridos avaliados e houve efeito de dias pós-plantio (DPP. O aumento na produção de MS verificado com o avanço do estádio de maturidade dos híbridos foi correlacionado positivamente com o aumento da produção de grãos (R² = 64,3%. A produção de MS correlacionou-se positivamente com a percentagem de espiga (R² = 56,0% e negativamente (R² = -56,7% com a percentagem de colmo + bainha (em relação a planta inteira.This study was conducted to evaluate productivity and morphologic traits of five hybrids of Pioneer corn: P32R21, P30R07, P3041, P30F33 and P30F80 at different maturity stages. The treatments were used in plots of 7 x 8 m in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The samples collected, of corn hybrid, were adopted trying to estimate phases of maturity of the plant (30, 34, 38, 42 and 46% of dry matter [DM]. In the first maturation stage

  12. Épocas e extensões do período de convivência das plantas daninhas interferindo na produtividade da cultura do milho (Zea mays Times and extension of weed coexistence period of weeds interfering in corn (Zea mays yield

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    L.A. Kozlowski

    2009-01-01

    com o milho, em relação àquelas que cresceram na ausência da cultura, evidenciando assim um efeito supressivo do milho sobre as plantas infestantes.Q field experiment was carried out at the Gralha Azul Experimental Farm/PUCPR, in the municipality of Fazenda Rio Grande-PR, to evaluate the effect of different times and coexistence extension periods of weeds interfering in corn yield. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized complete block design and the treatments in a 4x5+2 factorial, with four replications. The treatments were as follows: four initial weed control periods (0-0, 0-7, 0-14 and 0-21 DAE and five restarted weed control periods until the harvest (28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 DAE and two checks, weedy and weed-free. The experiment was carried out under a no-till system. The period prior to weed interference (PBWI, the start of the critical period of weed interference (CPWI and the infesting community were evaluated. When the initial weed control period was 0-0 day, the PPWI was at 9 DAE of corn; however, with increasing initial weed control periods (0-7, 0-14 and 0-21 DAE the period prior to weed interference inncreased in relation to 0-0 day of the initial weed control, evidencing the existence of PPWI-S of 17, 24 and 28 DAE of corn, respectively. Thus CPWI initiates at the end of PPWI-S, the period when weed control is indispensable to prevent a significant reduction in corn yield. Coexistance with the weeds throughout the crop cycle reduced yield in 15%, compared to the weed-free check. Nine species of seven botanical families were assessed in the infesting community. Reduced density and dry mass were verified in the weeds that coexisted with corn, compared to those that grew without it, thus evidencing a suppressive effect of corn over the infesting plants.

  13. Caracterizacion de nueve genotipos de maiz (Zea mays L. en relacion a area foliar y coeficiente de extincion de luz Caracterização de nove genótipos de milho (Zea mays L. en relação à área foliar e coeficiente de extinção de luz Evaluation of nine corn (Zea mays L. genotypes in relation to leaf area and light extinction coefficient

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    R.G. Camacho

    1995-08-01

    .A field experiment was carried out to evaluate nine corn genotypes (Arichuna, Baraure, B raquitico, Expe-rimental-2, Foremaiz PB, FM-6, Obregón, Proseca-71 and Tocorón in relation to: mean leaf area per plant, total leaf area per plant (TLA, leaf area index (LAI, grain yield (Y and light extinction coefficient (K at 0.50m, 1.00m, 1.50m, 2.00m and 2.50m of plant height (from soil to flag leaf. Also, correlation and single regression between LAI and yield was performed. Significant genotypical differences for all variables were found, except for mean leaf area per plant Ranging was: mean leaf area per plant (471 cm² for Foremaiz PB and 606 cm² for Baraure; TLA (5,327 cm² for Foremaiz PB and 8,411 for Braquítico; LAI (4.26, Foremaiz PB and 6.67, Braquítico; K (0.23 for Braquítico and 0.42, Arichuna; Y (2, 877, Braquítico and 4,784 kg.ha-1 for Tocoron.The relationship between Y and LAI was not significant (r = 0.07. The relationship of LAI and K was described very well by Beer's law.

  14. Efeito do tamanho de partícula e da altura de colheita de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. para ensilagem na produção do novilho superprecoce Effect of particle size and cutting height of corn (Zea mays l. during silage processing on young beef cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tamanho de partícula (pequena: 0,2 a 0,6 cm ou grande: 1,0 a 2,0 cm e da altura de corte de plantas de milho para ensilagem (baixa: 15 cm ou alta: 39 cm sobre o consumo de MS e o desempenho de novilhos em confinamento. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos: silagem de partícula pequena com altura de corte baixo; silagem de partícula grande com altura de corte baixo; silagem de partícula pequena com altura de corte alto; e silagem de partícula grande com altura de corte alto. Não houve interação altura de corte ´ tamanho de partícula para os consumos diários de MS, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar e a digestibilidade das dietas experimentais. As variações no tamanho de partícula na colheita de plantas de milho não afetaram as características relacionadas ao consumo de MS, ao ganho de peso diário e à digestibilidade da MS. Animais alimentados com a dieta contendo silagem de corte alto apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar (5,67 vs 6,15 kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso em comparação aos alimentados com a dieta com silagem de corte baixo, utilizando-se de dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado de 67:33%. A inclusão de silagem de milho colhida à altura de 38,6 cm com partícula pequena na produção do novilho superprecoce determinou maior lucratividade no sistema de produção.The trial aimed to evaluate the effect of particle size (small: from 0.2 to 0.6 cm or large: from 1.0 to 2.0 cm and cutting height (low cut: 15 cm or high cut: 39 cm of the corn plant on dry matter intake and performance of steers in a feedlot. The treatments were: T1 - small particle size with low cutting height; T2 - large particle size with low cutting height; T3 - small particle size with high cutting height; and T4 - large particle size with high cutting height. No significant interaction was observed between cutting height and particle size for dry matter intake

  15. PATOGENICIDAD BACTERIANA EN MAÍZ (ZEA MAYS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Pérez-y-Terrón; Julio César Carmona Díaz; Jorge Alejandro Cebada Ruíz; José Antonio Munive Hernández

    2012-01-01

    El maíz es un grano de consumo mundial para alimento tanto humano como animal. México se encuentra en el séptimo lugar de la producción, China y Estados Unidos son los principales consumidores. Zea mays pertenece a la familia de las gramíneas y tiene producción anual. La planta se puede ver afectada por plagas principalmente de diferentes especies de insectos. Puede también desarrollar enfermedad debida a hongos y virus, así como a bacterias patogénicas. Dentro de estas la causada por organis...

  16. Optical Reflectance and Fluorescence for Detecting Nitrogen Needs in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrey, J. E.; Middleton, E. M.; Corp. L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Butcher, L. M.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) status in field grown corn (Zea mays L.) was assessed using spectral techniques. Passive reflectance remote sensing and, both passive and active fluorescence sensing methods were investigated. Reflectance and fluorescence methods are reported to detect changes in the primary plant pigments (chlorophylls a and b; carotenoids) in higher plant species. As a general rule, foliar chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b) usually exist in approx.3:l ratio. In plants under stress, Chl b content is affected before Chl a reductions occur. For reflectance, a version of the chlorophyll absorption in reflectance index (CARI) method was tested with narrow bands from the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (ASIA). CARI minimizes the effects of soil background on the signal from green canopies. A modified CARI (MCARI) was used to track total Chl a levels in the red dip of the spectrum from the corn canopy. A second MCARI was used to track the auxiliary plant pigments (Chl b and the carotenoids) in the yellow/orange/red edge part of the reflectance spectrum. The difference between these two MCARI indices detected variations in N levels across the field plot canopies using ASIA data. At the leaf level, ratios of fluorescence emissions in the blue, green, red and far-red wavelengths sensed responses that were associated with the plant pigments, and were indicative of energy transfer in the photosynthetic process. N stressed corn stands could be distinguish from those with optimally applied N with fluorescence emission spectra obtained from individual corn leaves. Both reflectance and fluorescence methods are sensitive in detecting corn N needs and may be especially powerful in monitoring crop conditions if both types of information can be combined.

  17. Valor nutritivo de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. sem espigas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1145 Nutritional value of corn plants (Zea mays L. without ears - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1145

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    Jean-Claude Emile

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A composição químico-bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro de cinco genótipos de milho (F2, Lu16, F271, Lu5 e Lu6 foram avaliados em Druelle-France, em parcelas de 150 m2 com duas repetições. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso. Todas as avaliações do estudo foram realizadas em plantas inteiras sem espigas. O genótipo Lu16 foi o que apresentou os maiores valores para a digestibilidade da matéria seca (69,82% e digestibilidade da parede celular (48,05%. O genótipo Lu6 apresentou o menor valor para a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (50,38%. Os teores de digestibilidade da matéria seca e da parede celular foram estimados por método indireto e foram afetados negativamente pelos teores de lignina, ácido p-cumárico e de ácidos ferúlicos totais, que servem de pontes para ligações fortes ou fracas entre ligninas e hemiceluloses. Por meio de análises de regressão múltiplas, verificou-se que a fração fibra em detergente ácido e a lignina em detergente ácido explicaram 98% dos resultados referentes à digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e 96% dos resultados referentes à digestibilidade da parede celular estimada por equação. O ácido p-cumárico esterificado e a lignina em detergente ácido explicaram 99% dos resultados referentes à digestibilidade da parede celularChemical-bromatologic composition and in vitro digestibility of five corn genotypes (F2, Lu16, F271, Lu5 and Lu6 were evaluated in Druelle-France, an area of in 150 m2 with two repetitions. All evaluations used whole corn plants without ears. A randomized experimental design was used. The Lu16 genotype showed higher values for in vitro dry matter digestibility (69.82% and cell wall digestibility (48.05%. Lu6 genotype showed the lowest value for in vitro dry matter digestibility (50.38%. Dry matter and cell wall digestibility were estimated by an indirect method and they were negatively affected by lignin contents, p

  18. Study Interactions of Competition between Climbing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L. Plants Sowed Associate Relaciones de Competencia entre el Fríjol Trepador (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y el Maíz (Zea mays L. Sembrados en Asocio

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    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Associated corn and bean is one of several systems to produce climbing bean. The main characteristic of the associated is the greater yield by area than monoculture of two species, although the competence between them reduces the yield bean in 40% and 20% in corn. Research about physiological processes affected by competence between these species is still scarce. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of competence on the physiological behavior of bean. In a randomized block design with 4 replications were established the following treatments: bean without competition, competition between bean and maíze by light, competition between bean and maíze by soil resources and simultaneous competition between bean and maíze by both resources light and soil. The variables measured were accumulated dry matter and its accumulation rate, leaf area, stem longitude, and the yield components of bean. The variance analysis, comparison of means and simple correlations were used. The types of competition significantly reduced the accumulated dry matter, the rates of accumulation, the yield and the yield components. The types of competence did not show significant differences on seed weigh and accumulated total dry matter of plants. Although during the plants ontogeny there were significant differences between them, feedback processes were established within each type of competition. Therefore, the effects of competence in the final stage were not distinguished. It suggests that bean plant is an integrated unit through the physiological processes.Una forma de cultivar fríjol trepador es en asocio con maíz. Su principal característica es el mayor rendimiento por unidad de área con respecto a los unicultivos de cada especie, aunque la competencia que se presenta entre ellas reduce los rendimientos del fríjol en más del 40% y los de maíz en 20%. La investigación sobre los procesos fisiológicos afectados por la competencia y su din

  19. CAMBIOS EN LAS PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS Y EN LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS FOSFATASAS EN SUELOS CULTIVADOS CON MAÍZ DULCE (ZEA MAYS L. FERTILIZADOS CON VINAZA CHANGES IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOSPHATASES ACTIVITY IN SOILS UNDER SWEET CORN (ZEA MAYS L. CULTIVATION FERTILIZED WITH VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Narváez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo el efecto de la aplicación de vinaza en las propiedades químicas y la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas y alcalinas de dos suelos del Valle del Cauca, Colombia (Typic Argiudoll y Fluventic Haplustoll en condiciones controladas. Se establecieron seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones distribuidos en un diseño completamente al azar, cuatro de ellos buscaban suplir los requerimientos de K+ del cultivo maíz dulce de la siguiente forma: T1, 100% del K+ con vinazas, T2 100% de K+ con KCl, T3 50% de K+ con Vinaza y 50% con KCl, y T4 75% del K+ con vinaza y 25% con KCl, T5 fue el testigo absoluto sin planta y T6 el testigo más planta. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en un periodo de 76 días y las muestras se tomaron entre 0-5 cm de profundidad. El pH, K+, B y relación Ca + Mg/K disminuyeron, muy significativamente (PIt was evaluated the effect of vinasse application on chemical properties and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases of two soils of Valle del Cauca Colombia (Typic Argiudoll and Fluventic Haplustoll under controlled conditions. Six treatments and five replicates arranged in a completely randomized design were stablished; four of them, sought meet the requirements of K+ crop sweet corn as follows: T1, 100% of K+ with vinasse, T2 100% K+ with KCl T3 50% of K+ with vinasse and 50% KCl, and T4 75% of K+ with vinasse and 25% with KCl, T5 was the absolute control without plant and T6 the witness more plant. The evaluations were conducted over a period of 76 days and samples were taken from 0 - 5 cm deep. The pH, K+, B and Ca + Mg / K decreased significantly (P<0.01, while the contents of K+ and B were increased in both soils The P, Cu, Na and Fe increased differently in each soil. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in the Fluventic Haplustoll and maximum activity occurred at 10 days after sowing (DAS; however, no significant differences between soils with reference to acid phosphatase and increased activity

  20. Effects of cotton condensed tannin, maysin (Corn) and pinitol (soybeans) onHeliothis zea growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, J C; Chan, B G; Waiss, A C

    1982-12-01

    Maysin, a flavone glycoside from corn silks, inhibits ingestion, and thus growth, ofHeliothis zea (Boddie) larvae. Pinitol from soybeans inhibitedH. zea growth by the same mechanism. Despite the widely held assumption that tannins inhibit growth by inhibiting assimilation, cotton condensed tannin inhibitedH. zea growth by reducing ingestion; no evidence was found for a reduction in assimilation. Neonate larvae are shown to be much more sensitive to allelochemics than larvae that have fed on control diet before being transferred to diet containing plant allelochemics.

  1. Efeito do tamanho de partícula e da altura de colheita das plantas de milho (Zea mays L. sobre as perdas durante o processo fermentativo e o período de utilização das silagens Effect of particle size and cutting height of corn (Zea mays L. on losses of silages during the fermentation process and utilization period

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    Mikael Neumann

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tamanho de partícula (pequena de 0,2 a 0,6 cm ou grande de 1,0 a 2,0 cm e da altura de corte das plantas de milho para ensilagem (baixo: 15,2 cm ou alto: 38,6 cm sobre as perdas e o valor nutritivo das silagens. Foram avaliadas as seguintes silagens: silagem de partícula pequena com altura de corte baixo; silagem de partícula grande com altura de corte baixo; silagem de partícula pequena com altura de corte alto; e silagem de partícula grande com altura de corte alto. Não houve efeito significativo das interações altura de colheita das plantas × tamanho de partícula sobre as perdas de MS, PB e FDN. Influências significativas das interações altura de colheita das plantas × estrato no silo e tamanho de partícula × estrato no silo foram observadas, respectivamente, sobre as perdas de MS e PB. As silagens obtidas com corte alto (38,6 cm no estrato inferior apresentaram maiores perdas (4,91% em relação ao estrato superior no silo (2,67% e às silagens obtidas com corte baixo (15,2 cm, independentemente do estrato no silo. Na análise das perdas de PB, os maiores valores foram observados em silagens de partículas pequenas no estrato superior (18,96% e em silagens de partículas grandes no estrato inferior (18,68%, comparativamente às silagens com partículas pequenas no estrato inferior (11,52% e às silagens de partículas grandes no estrato superior (17,54%. A silagem com partícula grande resultou em maiores perdas físicas na desensilagem.This trial evaluated the effect of particle size (small: between 0.2 and 0.6 cm or large: between 1.0 and 2.0 cm and cutting height (low cut: 15.2 cm or high cut: 38.6 cm of the corn plant on losses and nutritional value of silages. Treatments were: T1 - small particle size with low cutting height; T2 - large particle size with low cutting height; T3 - small particle size with high cutting height; and T4 - large particle size

  2. Correlação linear e espacial entre produtividade de milho (Zea mays L. e atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob plantio direto do Cerrado Brasileiro = Linear and spatial correlation between corn grains productivity (Zea mays L. and physical attributes in a Haplic Acrustox under no-tillage in the Brazilian Savannah

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    Marcio Lustosa Santos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade vegetal depende de vários fatores, dentre eles a densidade e a porosidade do solo. No ano agrícola 2004/2005, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia (Unesp, Campus de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo (22º23’’ latitude S; 51º27’’ longitude W, foram analisados a produtividade de grãos de milho (PG, irrigado com pivô central, as densidades da partícula (DP e do solo (DS e a porosidade total (PT de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, sob plantio direto. O objetivo foi estudar as correlações lineares e espaciais entre os atributos. Foi instalada uma rede geoestatística, para a coleta dos dados do solo e da planta, contendo 120 pontos amostrais, numa área de 0,8 ha. Os atributos do solo apresentaram baixa variabilidade de seus dados, sendo média no da planta. A DS e a PT, na camada superficial, e a PG não variaram aleatoriamente. Elas seguiram padrões espaciais bem definidos, com alcances entre 28,6 e 60,6 m. As correlações lineares múltiplas indicaram que a PT1, a PT3 e a DS3 foram atributos significativos, quando correlacionados com a PG. Entre os atributos do solo, as correlações lineares simples variaram elasticamente. Contudo, quando correlacionados com a PG, tais correlações pouco variaram. Ainda que com reservas devido à baixa correlação, com o aumento da DS3 ocorreu uma diminuição da PG. Por outro lado, as correlações espaciais entre os atributos do solo e a PG foram praticamente nulas, sendo, contudo, elevadas quando exclusivamente entre aqueles do solo.Thevegetal productivity depends on several factors, including the bulk density and the soil porosity. The corn grains yield (GY, under no-tillage system and irrigated, and the following soil attributes (particle density-PD, bulk density-BD, and the total porosity-TP, in a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox, located at the Experimental Station of the Faculdade de Agronomia (Unesp, in Ilha

  3. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

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    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  4. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  5. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  6. Sistemas de control de malezas en maiz (Zea mays L.: efecto de metodos de control, densidad y distribucion del cultivo Weed control systems in corn: effects of control methods, density and plant distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martinez

    1982-12-01

    realización de una escarda adicional no mejora significativamente el control de malezas, no afectando tampoco la incidencia de enfermedades, ni el desarrollo del cultivo, por lo cual resulta innecesaria. Las escardas tienen como principal efecto eliminar la interfe rencia presentada por las malezas y si éstas son eliminadas de otra manera, la realización de aquéllas no apareja beneficios significativos.An experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the University of Chapingo (Mexico (2250 m above sea level, average annual rainfall 550 mm( loamy soil, 1,7% O.M., where different cultural practices were combined in order to design a weed control system for corn. The work was done under rainfed conditions and the variables included were: two population densities (44.400 and 66.600 pl/ha, two plant distributions (normal and equidistant and seven weed control methods (cyanazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,92 kg/ha, atrazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,44 kg/ha, one cultivation, two cultivations, a weeded check, a weeded check + two cultivations and a weedy check. The main weed species were: pigweed (Amaranthus sp., Lopezia mexicana Jacq., hairy galinsoga (Galin-soga parviflora Cay., Encelia mexicana Mart., Sporobulus poiretti (Roem. et Sch. Hich., and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop.. The increase in plant population had no effect on the degree of weed control, incidence of diseases and crop growth. The equidistant distribution improved weed control over the normal one, but it also had a nigher incidence of diseases; this, is turn, may have caused the lack of differences in vegetative growth, a lower amount of cobs per ha and the lack of difference in grain yield between the two distributions. Atrazine + alachlor was better than cyanazine + alachlor in terms of weed control, although the difference was statistically observed only for the visual ratings. There were no differences between both chemical treatments in terms of incidence of diseases or their effect on crop

  7. A developmentally regulated hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein in maize pericarp cell walls. [Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, E.E.; Shen, Q.X.; Varner, J.E. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1988-05-01

    We have studied the accumulation of peptidyl hydroxyproline in the pericarp of developing maize (Zea mays L., Golden cross Bantam sweet corn) kernels. Although this hydroxyproline accumulates throughout development, it is most soluble and its content per milligram dry weight greatest at midmaturation stages of development. Salt-soluble proteins containing this hydroxyproline from isolated cell walls of developing kernels were fractionated on a CsCl density gradient and on a Chromatofocusing column, resulting in the purification of an hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein, PC-1. PC-1 is a basic protein of approximately 65 to 70 kilodaltons in molecular weight with an isoelectric point of at least 10.2 and a density of 1.38 to 1.39 in CsCl. Amino acid composition data indicate that it is rich in hydroxyproline, threonine, proline, lysine, and glycine. Its relation to dicot extension is discussed.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DE HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. VISANDO À PRODUÇÃO DE SILAGENS EVALUATION OF CORN HIBRIDS FOR SILAGE PRODUCTION

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    Carlos Eduardo Carrijo dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar o valor nutricional de seis híbridos de milho de ciclo precoce para produção de silagem. Os híbridos estudados, todos produzidos pela Cargill Agrícola S.A., foram: C901, C915, C125, C855, C808 e C805. A degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (DegMS e fibra em detergente neutro (DegFDN, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira in situ da MS (DISVMS, foram avaliadas utilizando três novilhas ExZ, com cânula no rúmen e recebendo ad libitum uma ração composta por silagem de resíduo de milho, farelo de soja e sal mineralizado. Após 13 dias de adaptação à ração, amostras de 3,5 g dos seis híbridos foram colocadas em sacolas de náilon de 12 x 7 cm e incubadas no rúmen por 6, 12, 24, 48 e 96 horas. As comparações entre médias foram feitas pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,10. Os resultados para DISVMS, DegMS (Potencial e Efetiva e DegFDN (Potencial e Efetiva foram: C901 - 81,1 ab.; 83,0 a.; 50,0 a.; 62,0 a.; 24,2; C9l5 - 81,5 a.; 83,2 a.; 52,0 a.; 54,2 bc.; 21,8; C125 - 72,8 c.; 74,9 c.; 43,7 bc.; 56,2 abc.; 21,4; C855 - 78,0 abc.; 78,4 b.; 43,2 c; 59,7 ab.; 23,5; C808 - 76,9 abc.; 78,0 b.; 49,0 ab.; 50,9 c.; 20,9; C805 - 76,0 bc.; 77,3 bc; 46,5 abc.; 57,0 abc; 23,1. Portanto, foi possível concluir que os híbridos C901 e C915 apresentaram o maior potencial para produção de silagem de alto valor nutritivo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Digestibilidade; degradabilidade; nutrição; ruminantes.

    The experiment was carried out to study the nutritional value of six corn hybrids for silage production. The hybrids studied were: C901, C915, C125, C855, C808 and C805. Three crossbred heifers

  9. Atividade da acetolactato sintase de plantas de milho e de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetíveis ao imazaquin ALS activity of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and corn (Zea mays resistant and susceptible to imazaquin

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    M.F. Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    ápida centrifugação.Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla is an important weed in more than 56 countries, including Brazil, where resistant biotypes to ALS inhibiting herbicides have been reported in soybean crops. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of imazaquin on the activity of the acetolactate synthase (ALS, extracted from two corn varieties and several biotypes of E. heterophylla from Brazilian agricultural areas. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 21 days. The ALS activity of wild poinsettia has shown resistance to imazaquin herbicide in soybean crops. In vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS activity of imazaquin-resistant wild poinsettia collected in different soybean production areas from Brazil and the two corn populations was compared to that of imazaquin-sensitive populations. The activity of the ALS extracted from the leaves was measured with different imazaquin rates. The ALS purification process was substituted by centrifugation at 2800 rpm during two minutes. Linear regression equation for specific light length absorbance as a function of the log concentration of imazaquin was built to obtain I50 value (50% inhibition of the enzyme activity. The I50 values of Pioneer 3162 IR (I50 260 µM corn genotype were 4,333 times higher than BRS 473-sensitive (0,06 µM. The wild poinsettia biotypes from the state of Rio Grande do Sul had I50 values of 1,961.3 µM and 13.8 µM for the resistant and sensitive biotypes, respectively. The resistant populations from Cafelândia, Maringá (PR and Viçosa (MG had I50 values higher than 5,000 µM, while the sensitive population had values higher than 1,000 µM. The I50 value for the wild poinsettia population collected from fields that had never been sprayed with imazaquin was of 12.2 µM. Therefore, the in vitro ALS activity was a sensitive method to detect wild poinsettia-resistant imazaquin and ALS purification can be substituted for a method involving a quick centrifugation process.

  10. Structure of the novel monomeric glyoxalase I from Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Gino L; Agostini, Romina B; Fauguel, Carolina M; Presello, Daniel A; Andreo, Carlos S; González, Javier M; Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A

    2015-10-01

    The glyoxalase system is ubiquitous among all forms of life owing to its central role in relieving the cell from the accumulation of methylglyoxal, a toxic metabolic byproduct. In higher plants, this system is upregulated under diverse metabolic stress conditions, such as in the defence response to infection by pathogenic microorganisms. Despite their proven fundamental role in metabolic stresses, plant glyoxalases have been poorly studied. In this work, glyoxalase I from Zea mays has been characterized both biochemically and structurally, thus reporting the first atomic model of a glyoxalase I available from plants. The results indicate that this enzyme comprises a single polypeptide with two structurally similar domains, giving rise to two lateral concavities, one of which harbours a functional nickel(II)-binding active site. The putative function of the remaining cryptic active site remains to be determined.

  11. Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

  12. New resistance genes in the Zea mays: exserohilum turcicum pathosystem

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    Juliana Bernardi Ogliari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of monogenic race-specific resistance is widespread for the control of maize (Zea mays L. helminthosporiosis caused by Exserohilum turcicum. Inoculation of 18 Brazilian isolates of E. turcicum onto elite maize lines containing previously identified resistance genes and onto differential near-isogenic lines allowed the identification of new qualitative resistance genes. The inoculation of one selected isolate on differential near-isogenic lines, F1 generations and a BC1F1 population from the referred elite lines enabled the characterization of the resistance spectrum of three new genes, one dominant (HtP, one recessive (rt and a third with non-identified genetic action. Three physiological races of the pathogen were also identified including two with new virulence factors capable of overcoming the resistance of one of the resistance genes identified here (rt.

  13. PATOGENICIDAD BACTERIANA EN MAÍZ (ZEA MAYS

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    Rocío Pérez-y-Terrón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El maíz es un grano de consumo mundial para alimento tanto humano como animal. México se encuentra en el séptimo lugar de la producción, China y Estados Unidos son los principales consumidores. Zea mays pertenece a la familia de las gramíneas y tiene producción anual. La planta se puede ver afectada por plagas principalmente de diferentes especies de insectos. Puede también desarrollar enfermedad debida a hongos y virus, así como a bacterias patogénicas. Dentro de estas la causada por organismos del género Pantoea. P. stewartii se sabe que tiene genes como cps que codifican para la producción de exopolisacarido sterwatan controlada por un mecanismo de quórum sensing, y hrp para el sistema de secreción tipo III involucrados en la patogenicidad de la bacteria.

  14. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, May 16, 1979-May 15, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D. F.

    1980-02-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell, and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. Monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays have been isolated. This is the only series of this type that has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses can be made. All possible monosomic types are being isolated and characterized by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis; (2) the cytological behavior of univalent chromosomes; (3) the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination; (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics; (5) the effect of aneuploidy on the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos; (6) monosomic mutational mapping; and (7) metabolic profile analysis of monosomics. Systems in maize to detect the environmental and genetic induction of non-disjunction are also being developed. By comparing a monosomic with its disomic siblings, one compares one and two copies of all genes on an entire chromosome. If a gene expressing dosage effects resides on a specific chromosome, a difference will be found between a plant monosomic for that chromosome and its diploid siblings. Genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool have been discovered.

  15. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, May 16, 1980-May 15, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D. F.

    1981-02-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell, and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. We have isolated monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays utilizing a recently-discovered system. This is the only series of this type that has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are surprisingly vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses can be made. We are isolating all possible monosomic types and characterizing them by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis, (2) the cytological behavior of univalent chromosomes, (3) the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination, (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics, (5) the effect of aneuploidy on the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos, (6) monosomic mutational mapping, (7) the effect of monosomy on pollen exine morphology with the scanning electron microscope, and (8) the effect of monosomy on DIMBOA levels. We are also developing test systems utilizing maize to detect the environmental or genetic induction of non-disjunction. This study has discovered genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool.

  16. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  17. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  18. Características y propiedades funcionales del maíz morado (Zea mays L.) var. subnigroviolaceo

    OpenAIRE

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez; Sigry Mori-Arismendi; Luz María Paucar-Menacho

    2014-01-01

    Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn) is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains) and the cobs (cob) in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%), called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color) and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bio...

  19. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance.

  20. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  2. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and corn (Zea mays)competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass is an annual/biennial grass that is typically used as a pasture crop or a cover crop along roadsides, rights-of-way, and industrial areas. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass populations have been documented around the world, mostly in orchard and vineyard situations. The fir...

  3. Use of Zea mays L. in phytoremediation of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Emanuele; Intiso, Adriano; Cicatelli, Angela; Proto, Antonio; Guarino, Francesco; Iannece, Patrizia; Castiglione, Stefano; Rossi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated aliphatic organic compound often detected as pollutant in soils and ground water. "Green technologies" based on phytoremediation were proven to be effective to reclaim organic pollutants (e.g. TCE) and heavy metals from different environmental matrices. In this work, we use Zea mays L. for the removal of high TCE concentrations from medium cultures. In particular, we investigated a sealed bioreactor where the growth medium was contaminated with an increasing amount of TCE, in the range 55-280 mg/L; the removal capability of the maize plants was assessed by means of GC-MS and LC-MS analyses. An accurate mass balance of the system revealed that the plants were able to remove and metabolise TCE with an efficiency up to 20 %, depending on the total amount of TCE delivered in the bioreactor. Morphometric data showed that the growth of Z. mays is not significantly affected by the presence of the pollutant up to a concentration of 280 mg/L, while plants show significant alterations at higher TCE concentrations until the growth is completely inhibited for [TCE] ≃ 2000 mg/L. Finally, the presence of several TCE metabolites, including dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acids, was detected in the roots and in the aerial part of the plants, revealing that Z. mays follows the green liver metabolic model. These results encourage further studies for the employment of this plant species in phytoremediation processes of soils and waters contaminated by TCE and, potentially, by many other chlorinated solvents.

  4. Graviresponsiveness of surgically altered primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, E.; Moore, R.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the gravitropic responses of surgically altered primary roots of Zea mays to determine the route by which gravitropic inhibitors move from the root tip to the elongating zone. Horizontally oriented roots, from which a 1-mm-wide girdle of epidermis plus 2-10 layers of cortex were removed from the apex of the elongating zone, curve downward. However, curvature occurred only apical to the girdle. Filling the girdle with mucilage-like material transmits curvature beyond the girdle. Vertically oriented roots with a half-girdle' (i.e. the epidermis and 2-10 layers of the cortex removed from half of the circumference of the apex of the elongating zone) curve away from the girdle. Inserting the half-girdle at the base of the elongating zone induces curvature towards the girdle. Filling the half-circumference girdles with mucilage-like material reduced curvature significantly. Stripping the epidermis and outer 2-5 layers of cortex from the terminal 1.5 cm of one side of a primary root induces curvature towards the cut, irrespective of the root's orientation to gravity. This effect is not due to desiccation since treated roots submerged in water also curved towards their cut surface. Coating a root's cut surface with a mucilage-like substance minimizes curvature. These results suggest that the outer cell-layers of the root, especially the epidermis, play an important role in root gravicurvature, and the gravitropic signals emanating from the root tip can move apoplastically through mucilage.

  5. Keanekaragaman Hayati Penyakit – Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh jamur Pada Tanaman Jagung (Zea mays L. ) di Dataran Tinggi dan Rendah di Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, Christin Maria Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Christin Maria Eleonora Damanik ”Biodiversity of Diseases Caused by Fungy in Corn Plants (Zea mays L.) in Highland and Lowland at North Sumatera”, supervised by Lisnawita and Alm. Kamal Arifin. This research was held in Purwobinangun and Namoukur, Langkat, approximetely ± 118 m from the sea surface and Guru Kinayan, Karo, approximetely ± 1004 m from the sea surface. This research used survey method. Survey was using random sampling for vegetative phase & generative phase. The parameters were...

  6. SELEÇÃO RECORRENTE FENOTÍPICA VISANDO À OBTENÇÃO DE UMA VARIEDADE SINTÉTICA DE MILHO (ZEA MAYS L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Lenon Romano Modesto; Elivelton Alves Lustr; Fernando José Vasconcelos Lemes Soares; Ronis Pereira Fernandes da Silva; Antonio Fluminhan Junior

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays) is a major crop species grown in the world, and its production can be found in areas with soil conditions and very contrasting weather. This fact is crucial for the establishment of genetic breeding programs. The present research aimed to produce a synthetic variety of maize from the interbreeding of cultivars available in the market, as well as to evaluate the agronomic performance observed during the phenotypic recurrent selection procedure. It was observed that ...

  7. Studi Perbandingan Penambahan Variasi Ragi Tape dan Ragi Roti Dalam Pembuatan Bioetanol Dari Fermentasi Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisis Selulosa Tongkol Jagung Manis (Zea Mays L. Saccharata)

    OpenAIRE

    Rollys, Achmad Julianda

    2016-01-01

    Research has been done on the Comparative Study of Variation Additions Tape yeast and yeast bread in the Making Ethanol from Cellulose Hydrolysis Fermentation Glucose Results Cob Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata). Cellulose insulation on the cob sweet corn gained weight 13.81 %. Cellulose is hydrolyzed using HCl 1% with 120 minutes long hydrolysis to produce glucose 2:48% glucose obtained is then fermented for 5 days with a variety of baker's yeast and yeast tape as much as 4, 6 and 8 g. th...

  8. Production and characterization of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the α and β-amylase enzymes were obtained from maize (Zea mays malt and were biochemistry characterized. A germination study to obtain the maize malt with good amylase activity was made. The maize seeds were germinated in laboratory and the enzymatic activity was measured daily. Activity dependence to germination time were fitted to an exponential model (A=A0eµt, which showed that the behaviour of enzymatic activity in the germination process was similar to the growth of the microorganism. Its model could be applied to describe the mechanism of α-amylase production for each maize varieties and others cereals. Maize malt characterization showed that α and β-amylase had optimal pH between 4-6.5, optimal temperature 50 and 90ºC, and molecular weight of 67.4 and 47.5kDa, respectively. This work contributed with the advances in biotechnology generating of conditions for application of a new and of low price amylases source.Neste trabalho as enzimas α e β-amilases foram obtidas de malte de milho e depois foram caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Um estudo da germinação foi feito para obtenção do malte com boa atividade amilásica. A germinação ocorreu em escala laboratorial e a atividade enzimática foi medida diariamente. Um modelo exponencial do tipo A=A0eµt foi ajustado a dependência do tempo de germinação com a atividade, mostrando que o comportamento da atividade enzimática no processo de germinação é semelhante ao crescimento de microorganismos. Este modelo pode ser aplicado para descrever o mecanismo de produção da α-amilase para cada variedade de milho e de outros cereais. A caracterização do malte de milho mostrou que as α e β-amilase têm pH ótimo entre 4,0-6,5, temperatura ótima de 50 e 90ºC, e massa molar de 67,4 e 47,5 kDa, respectivamente. Este trabalho contribuiu com os avanços da biotecnologia gerando condições de emprego de uma nova e barata fonte de amilases.

  9. Detection of Cell Wall Chemical Variation in Zea Mays Mutants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyck, N.; Thomas, S.

    2001-01-01

    Corn stover is regarded as the prime candidate feedstock material for commercial biomass conversion in the United States. Variations in chemical composition of Zea mays cell walls can affect biomass conversion process yields and economics. Mutant lines were constructed by activating a Mu transposon system. The cell wall chemical composition of 48 mutant families was characterized using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA of the NIR data from 349 maize leaf samples reveals 57 individuals as outliers on one or more of six Principal Components (PCs) at the 95% confidence interval. Of these, 19 individuals from 16 families are outliers on either PC3 (9% of the variation) or PC6 (1% of the variation), the two PCs that contain information about cell wall polymers. Those individuals for which altered cell wall chemistry is confirmed with wet chemical analysis will then be subjected to fermentation analysis to determine whether or not biomass conversion process kinetics, yields and/or economics are significantly affected. Those mutants that provide indications for a decrease in process cost will be pursued further to identify the gene(s) responsible for the observed changes in cell wall composition and associated changes in process economics. These genes will eventually be incorporated into maize breeding programs directed at the development of a truly dual use crop.

  10. Calcium-regulated in vivo protein phosphorylation in Zea mays L. root tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K. G.; Reddy, A. S.; Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium dependent protein phosphorylation was studied in corn (Zea mays L.) root tips. Prior to in vivo protein phosphorylation experiments, the effect of calcium, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N-N' -tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) on phosphorus uptake was studied. Calcium increased phosphorus uptake, whereas EGTA and A-23187 decreased it. Consequently, phosphorus concentration in the media was adjusted so as to attain similar uptake in different treatments. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct changes in phosphorylation were observed following altered calcium levels. Calcium depletion in root tips with EGTA and A-23187 decreased protein phosphorylation. However, replenishment of calcium following EGTA and ionophore pretreatment enhanced phosphorylation of proteins. Preloading of the root tips with 32P in the presence of EGTA and A-23187 followed by a ten minute calcium treatment, resulted in increased phosphorylation indicating the involvement of calcium, calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinases. Calmodulin antagonist W-7 was effective in inhibiting calcium-promoted phosphorylation. These studies suggest a physiological role for calcium-dependent phosphorylation in calcium-mediated processes in plants.

  11. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  12. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  13. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Deryck R; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, approximately 80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  14. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryck R. Persaud

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL. Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, ?80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  15. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  16. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  17. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  18. The effect of lead on the photoelectric reaction of Zea mays L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazurkiewicz-Kocot, K; Pietruszka, M

    2000-09-01

    We investigate the correlation between the concentrations of lead (10(-6)-10(-2) mol dm(-3) PbCl2) in the external medium and photoelectric reaction of Zea mays L. plants. The experiments were carried out on 8-10-day-old maize plants (Zea mays L. var. K33 x F2) with the use of conventional electrophysiological technique. The results suggest that in plants treated with lead ions the photoelectric reaction is significantly reduced. The pH variation of the incubation medium including the green fragments of leaves showed that lead ions caused inhibition of light-induced external acidification.

  19. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  20. ZEA MAIZE: A MODERN CRAZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamija Isha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zea stands for ‘sustaining life’ and Mays stands for ‘life giver’. Zea mays is one of the oldest and most dynamic crop species, which has gained popularity in modern world too, due to its applications in diverse dishes. Corn is produced in every continent of the world with the exception of Antarctica. It is an annual monoecious sunny plant, surviving perfectly in nutrient rich, well-drained soil. Each and every part of the corn, from husk to corn silk is beneficial for the society. There are more than 3,500 different uses for corn products. Corn does much more than feed people and livestock. The plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, maizenic acid, vitamins B1, K and minerals like potassium, phosphorous and zinc. Traditionally, Maize is used as an analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anti-prostatitic, anti-lithiasis, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. In this review article, we have narrated miscellaneous uses of corn varieties and described the pharmacological activities, phytoconstituents, nutritional value and traditional uses of maize. The maize has assorted uses like culinary, medicinal and industrial. Corn dishes like corn-meal, corn-flakes, popcorn, “makki ki roti” and corn soup highlight its dominance all over the world. Therefore, maize has become a craze among modern youth.

  1. Fertilizer effect Azolla - Anabaena in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldás-Jarrín Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of natural resources in agricultural activities, has motivated the search for new alternatives to enrich the soil with macro and micro nutrients sustainably, for the benefit of future generations, just as you think about the conservation and maintenance of water, avoiding eutrophication problems by the accumulation of fertilizers (nitrates and nitrites leached and deposited in natural sources, for this purpose they have been measured several agro ecological options that provide proper nutrition and a delicate ecological balance; in this investigation at field level in maize cultivation and different states it applied dose of azolla as a natural source of nitrogen to enrich the soil in the canton Cevallos, Tungurahua province. Anabaena floors of the town, based on the state of azolla and the level established for such preparation, the states of azolla. Six mixtures were prepared substrates azolla studied were: Dry A1 and A2 in the fresh state; the doses were established in relation to the volume of azolla against soil volume used: (0.5: 1 (0.75: 1 and (1: 1. The data collected were plant height and percentage of nitrogen in dry matter at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. All this in order to establish the amount of nitrogen contributed by azolla as biofertilizer in growing corn. The best results were presented at the A1D3 (azolla dry-Dose 1: 1 treatment given plant height 15.02 cm at 15 days, 35.88 cm 30 days, 53.22 cm 60 66.12 days and 90 days; to 0.54% nitrogen percentage at 15 days, 0.90% at 30 days, 1.68% at 60 days and 2.08% after 90 days. In conclusion, the use of Azolla as a bio-fertilizer rich in nitrogen is feasible, as has been demonstrated in this research that the corn plant benefits from the contribution of this material, improving sustainable agricultural practices. It is recommended to expand this research in the same crop or other commercially important crops until the end of its production cycle, to report the results of

  2. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: New accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications

    OpenAIRE

    Piperno, D.R.; Flannery, K. V.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, to...

  3. Isolation of EF1gamma from calli regenerating SSH library in Maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y L; Ding, J; Zhang, Z M; Rong, T Z; Shi, L Y; Pan, G T

    2007-12-01

    18599Hong, a good Maize (Zea mays) inbred line as well as good transformation acceptor with high regeneration capacity, was used for isolating embryonic callus regeneration genes. Subtractive library was constructed by Suppression subtractive hybridization and screened by Reverse Northern Hybridization. The clones of No. 27 was randomly picked to sequence. NCBI blastx results showed the similarity to elongation factor 1gamma in rice.

  4. Potassium fertilization mitigates the adverse effects of drought on selected Zea mays cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, the role of potassium (K) in mitigating the adverse effects of drought stress (DS) on 2 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars, ‘Shaandan 9’ (S9; drought-tolerant) and ‘Shaandan 911’ (S911; drought-sensitive), was assessed. K application increased dry matter (DM) across all growth stage...

  5. Identification and characterization of a Zea mays line carrying a transposon-tagged ENOD40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaan, B.; Ruttink, T.; Albrecht, C.; Meeley, R.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In Zea mays, two ENOD40 homologous were identified that show only 30% of sequence homology to each other. We identified line e40-mum1 carrying a Mu transposon inserted in ZmENOD40-1, the maize gene that has the highest homology to leguminous ENOD40. The insertion causes a dramatic reduction of the Z

  6. Chromosomal Location by Use of Trisomics and New Alleles of an Endopeptidase in Zea Mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Scandalios, John G.

    1974-01-01

    An association was found earlier between the Ep1 gene locus coding for an endopeptidase and the endosperm color gene Y1 on chromosome 6 of Zea mays. By employing primary trisomics we have unequivocally placed the Ep1 gene on chromosome 6, closely linked to the Y1 locus. Additionally we describe new...

  7. Cloning and sequencing of the casein kinase 2 alpha subunit from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrowolska, G; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of casein kinase 2 of Zea mays has been determined. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising 332 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence exhibits 75% identity to the alpha...

  8. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...

  9. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  10. Differential distribution of cadmium in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Large genotypic variation in shoot Cd concentrations has been reported in literature for several plant species including lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.). The objective of this thesis was to elucidate the physiological andlor morphological basis of this differential behaviour us

  11. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard;

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  12. Identification and characterization of a Zea mays line carrying a transposon-tagged ENOD40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaan, B.; Ruttink, T.; Albrecht, C.; Meeley, R.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In Zea mays, two ENOD40 homologous were identified that show only 30% of sequence homology to each other. We identified line e40-mum1 carrying a Mu transposon inserted in ZmENOD40-1, the maize gene that has the highest homology to leguminous ENOD40. The insertion causes a dramatic reduction of the

  13. Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize (Zea mays L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effects of salt stress on germination of six maize (Zea mays L.) ... Salinity is a major environmental constraint to crop pro- ... Maize, which belongs to the plants with C4 metabolism,.

  14. Cytodifferentiation during callus initiation and somatic embryogenesis in Zea mays L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransz, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis deals with cytomorphogenic aspects during various phases of regeneration in tissue cultures of Zeamays L. Regeneration through tissue culture has been shown in an increasing number of plant species and is applied on large scale in agriculture and horticulture. Nevertheless,

  15. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context.

  16. Arsenic species in broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, soils, maize (Zea mays L.), and groundwater from litter-amended fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Elisa; Zeigler, Georgia; Beck, E Glenn; Grove, John; Sikora, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Manure and bedding material (litter) generated by the broiler industry (Gallus gallus domesticus) often contain high levels of arsenic (As) when organoarsenical roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid are included in feed to combat disease and improve weight gain of the birds. This study was conducted to determine As levels and species in litter from three major broiler producing companies, and As levels in soils, corn tissue (Zea mays L.), and groundwater in fields where litter was applied. Total As in litter from the three different integrators ranged between bioavailable As (extractable with Mehlich 3 solution and taken up by corn leaves). Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue and groundwater, however, were below the World Health Organization thresholds, which was attributed to strong sorption/precipitation of arsenate in Fe- and Al-rich soils. Ecological impacts of amending soils with As-laden litter depend on the As species in the litter, and chemical and physical properties of soil that strongly affect As mobility and bioavailability in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DE ALGUNS ASPECTOS QUALITATIVOS E QUANTITATIVOS DE CULTIVARES DE MILHO PIPOCA (Zea mays L. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF POPCORN (Zea mays CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleso Antônio Patto Pacheco

    2007-09-01

    ;">This study was carried out at Escola de Agronomia of’ Universidade Federal de Goiás in the  1992/93 agricultural year with the purpose of evaluating popcorn cultivars for Goiânia-GO region. The essay had 19 treatments on a randomized complete design block with 4 repetitions. The following cultivars were used as part of the Popcorn National Essay coordinated by CNPMS/EMBRAPA: H-16, CMS 42 C-I, CMS 42 C-II, CMS 43 C-I, CMS 43 C-II, UNB-2, PIRAPOCA EPAMIG, ZÉLIA-0l, SAM (STA. CECÍLIA, ROGO POP 1, ROGO POP 2, ROGO POP 3, MF 1001, MF 1002, GO 100-P, COLORADO POP 1, COLORADO POP 2, RS-20 and BR-440. It was evaluated plant height and first ear insertion height, sick plants percentage, ear index, final stand, grain/ha yield and popping expansion capacity index (E.C.. The H-16 cultivar presented the highest grain yield (2,928 kg/ha but low E.C. (11.9. The triple hybrid ZÉLIA-0l had good performance with 22.1 E.C. and l,770 kg/ha. This yield was 12% higher than the pattern cultivar SAM (STA. CECÍLIA with 1,492 kg/ha and 15.5 P.E. It was found high positive correlation among yield and female flowering date, ear index and plant and ears height. Popping expansion capacity did not present any correlation among P.E. and another studied characters.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; pop-corn.

  19. Pyramiding the disease resistant genes to southern rust and stalk rot in maize(Zea mays L.) with marker-assisted selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Southern corn rust(SCR) caused by Puccinia polysora Underw and maize stalk rot caused by Pythium inflatum Matthews(MSR-2) are two destructive diseases of maize(Zea mays L.) in China.Our previous studies indicated that maize inbred line Qi319 is highly resistant to SCR but susceptible to MSR-2,while inbred line 1145 is highly resistant to MSR-2 but susceptible to SCR.The SCR resistant gene(RppQ) in Qi319 and MSR-2 resistant gene(Rpi1) in 1145 have been mapped on chromosome 10 and 4 respectively.In this resea...

  20. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  1. Abscisic acid is not necessary for gravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays L. cv. Tx 5855 treated with fluridone are strongly graviresponsive, but have undetectable levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Primary roots of the carotenoid-deficient w-3, vp-5, and vp-7 mutants of Z. mays are also graviresponsive despite having undetectable amounts of ABA. Graviresponsive roots of untreated and wild-type seedlings contain 286 to 317 ng ABA g-1 f. wt, respectively. These results indicate that ABA is not necessary for root gravicurvature.

  2. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, D R; Flannery, K V

    2001-02-13

    Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize.

  3. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations.

  4. Effects of endogamy on microsporogenesis in popcorn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Piffer Tomasi Baldez da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inbred lines are necessary for the development of popcorn hybrids. Genes for several traits, among them thoserelated to the meiotic process, approach homozygosis during inbreeding. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate themeiotic stability of popcorn endogamic lines developed from a triple hybrid in contribution to hybrid breeding programs. Theoriginal population (S0 and seven annual self-pollinated generations (S1 to S7 were analyzed. Cytological results werestatistically analyzed by linear regression. The frequency of total and terminal chiasmata decreased with endogamy. Meioticabnormalities also increased with endogamy although their number was not high. Since the frequency of abnormalities waslow and did not affect drastically the meiotic product, inbred lines from the hybrid under analysis may have a high potentialfor the establishment of new popcorn hybrids.

  5. Enzymic synthesis of 1-O-(indol-3-ylacetyl)-beta-D-glucose. Purification of the enzyme from Zea mays, and preparation of antibodies to the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, S; Bandurski, R S

    1991-10-15

    The enzyme indol-3-ylacetylglucose synthase (UDP-glucose:indol-3-ylacetate beta-D-glucosyltransferase) catalyses the reaction: [formula: see text] This is the first step in the series of reactions leading to the indol-3-ylacetic acid conjugates found in maize. Previous attempts to purify this enzyme from the liquid endosperm of kernels of Zea mays (sweet corn) were not entirely successful owing to the lability of partially purified preparations during column chromatography. Thus this enzyme has not previously been purified to homogeneity. During the present study it was found that retention of enzyme activity required the combined presence of glycerol and dithiothreitol. Adding these requirements permitted purification of the enzyme to homogeneity with retention of catalytic activity. These purified preparations were used for preparation of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to the enzyme. Antibodies to the Zea mays endosperm enzyme cross-react with the enzyme from Zea mays vegetative tissues and with an enzyme from the liquid endosperm of oak acorns (Quercus sp). In this paper we report a simplified purification procedure adaptable to the preparation of milligram amounts of the enzyme.

  6. VHDL, a larval storage protein from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is a member of the vitellogenin gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Herbert; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2007-10-01

    The hemolymph of last instar larvae of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea contains a blue very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) that is selectively taken up into fat body prior to pupation. Its amino-terminal sequence was determined by Edman degradation, and used to design a degenerate primer for PCR amplification. With 5' and 3' RACE techniques, the entire cDNA coding for VHDL was amplified and sequenced. Conceptual translation reveals a 173 kDa protein that contains a 15 amino acid signal sequence immediately before the experimentally determined N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein contains a typical lipoprotein N-terminal domain, and shows high sequence similarity to vitellogenins from Lepidoptera and other insect species. VHDL mRNA was not detectable in adult H. zea, and antibodies raised against VHDL did not react with adult hemolymph or yolk proteins. Therefore VHDL, although a member of the vitellogenin gene family, seems to be distinct from the vitellogenin expressed in adult females.

  7. INVENTARISASI GULMA PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L. DI LAHAN SAWAH KELURAHAN PADANG GALAK, DENPASAR TIMUR, KODYA DENPASAR, PROVINSI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURYANINGSIH -

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the weed species that exist on Zea mays L. plant in paddyfields Padang Galak village, East Denpasar, Bali Province. This study is useful to provideinformation about the species of weeds found in maize (Zea mays L. in the fields of biology andagriculture, so weed control on Zea mays L. Plant can be implemented.Research was conducted from January 7 until March 11, 2011. In this study used themethod of cruising (exsploration sampling. To be more efficient and systematic results, alsoused a systematic method of lines.The results found 36 weed species belonging to 20 families. The distribution of theweed species, was found in Zea mays L. plant age of 4 weeks, which composed of 8 families 16Species. Weeds found in Zea mays L. plants aged of 6 weeks (the formation of fruit consistedof 10 familes and 23 species. While weeds found in Zea mays L. plants 8 weeks of age(ripening fruit were 14 families and 28 species. Weeds found in Zea mays L. plants aged 10weeks (before harvest comprised of 20 families and 36 species.

  8. Optimization of drying process of Zea Mays malt to use as alternative source of amylolytics enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the drying process optimization of maize (Zea Mays malt for obtaining maize malt, without affecting enzymatic activity of alpha e beta-amylases from maize malt. Results showed that dryer operation must occur in zone at 54°C and 5.18-6 h process time. The maize malt obtained had good enzymatic properties.Este trabalho objetivou a otimização da secagem do malte de milho (Zea Mays para obter um malte sem afetar a atividade das enzimas presentes neste, alfa e beta -amilases. Os resultados mostraram que a operação do secador deve ser feita a 54°C e entre 5,18-6 h de processo. O malte obtido possuiu boas propriedades enzimáticas.

  9. Influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; McClelen, C. E.; Wang, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    We launched imbibed seeds of Zea mays into outer space aboard the space shuttle Columbia to determine the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps. The influence of microgravity varied with different stages of cellular differentiation. Overall, microgravity tended to 1) increase relative volumes of hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, 2) decrease the relative volumes of plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, and the vacuome, and 3) exert no influence on the relative volume of nuclei in cells comprising the root cap. The reduced allocation of dictyosomal volume in peripheral cells of flight-grown seedlings correlated positively with their secretion of significantly less mucilage than peripheral cells of Earth-grown seedlings. These results indicate that 1) microgravity alters the patterns of cellular differentiation and structures of all cell types comprising the root cap, and 2) the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays is organelle specific.

  10. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  11. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  12. Phytoremediation potential of maize (Zea mays L.) in co-contaminated soils with pentachlorophenol and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdennaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous coexistence of heavy metals and organic contaminants was increased in the polluted soil and phytoremediation as a remedial technology and management option is recommended to solve the problems of co-contamination. Growth of Zea mays L and pollutant removal ability may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants. Pot-culture experiments were conduced to investigate the single and interactive effect of cadmium (Cd) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) on growth of Zea mays L, PCP, and Cd removal from soil. Growth response of Zea mays L is considerably influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP, significantly declining with either Cd or PCP additions. The dissipation of PCP in soils was notably affected by interactions of Cd, PCP, and plant presence or absence. At the Pentachlorophenol in both planted and non-planted soil was greatly decreased at the end of the 10-week culture, accounting for 16-20% of initial extractable concentrations in non-planted soil and 9-14% in planted soil. With the increment of Cd level, residual pentachlorophenol in the planted soil tended to increase. The pentachlorophenol residual in the presence of high concentration of Cd was even higher in the planted soil than that in the non-planted soil.

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin polluted of Zea mays plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Racuciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental investigation is focused on the study of assimilatory pigments and nucleic acid levels in young plants intended for agricultural use (Zea mays in presence of water based magnetic fluid added in culture medium. The magnetic fluid was constituted by coating the nanosized magnetic nanoparticles (with 10.55 nm average value of the physical diameter with β-cyclodextrin (C42H70O35 and further dispersion in water. After germination, various volume fractions (between 10 mL/L and 500 mL/L of the magnetic fluid was added daily in the culture medium of Zea mays plants still at their early ontogenetic stages. Toxicity symptoms leaded to brown spots covering the leaf surface for the highest magnetic fluid volume fractions used, a putative oxidative stress generated by iron excess treatment. Relatively small volume fraction of magnetic fluid solutions induced the increase of chlorophyll a level (up to 38%, the main photosynthesis pigment, as well that the nucleic acid level (up to 57% in Zea mays plantlets. All volume fractions of magnetic fluid solutions analyzed may have severe disruptive effects such as the ratio chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b (about 50% decreasing.

  14. PENYELENGGARAAN MAKANAN DAN TINGKAT KEPUASAN KONSUMEN DI KANTIN ZEA MAYS INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnati Wulansari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research aimed was to know food service and level of customer satisfaction in the Zea Mays cafetaria at Bogor Agricultural University. Case study and descriptive analysis were applied in this study. Sampling method of purposive sampling was carried out and number of subjects used was 95 people. The food service in the Zea Mays cafetaria consists of planning, purchasing, receiving, storing, processing, and distributing. The result of analysis based on Importance Performance Analysis showed that the most important attribute was the security and hygiene product and the highest performance levels was the cleanliness of dining room. More than fifty percent subjects was concerned against nutrient content of the menu (50.5%. Based on the Customer Satisfaction Index the satisfaction value was 69.3 (satisfied. There was a correlation between job and education level with quality of the product and between income with nutrient content (p<0.05.Keywords: customer, food service, satisfactionABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penyelenggaraan makanan dan tingkat kepuasan konsumen di Kantin Zea Mays Institut Pertanian Bogor. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian analisis deskriptif dan studi kasus. Metode penarikan subjek dilakukan secara purposive dan sebanyak 95 subjek digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penyelenggaraan makanan di Kantin Zea Mays terdiri dari perencanaan, pembelian, penerimaan, penyimpanan, pengolahan, dan penyajian. Berdasarkan hasil analisis Importance Performance Analysis (IPA diketahui bahwa atribut yang dirasakan paling penting adalah keamanan dan kebersihan produk sedangkan atribut tingkat kinerja yang paling tinggi skornya adalah kebersihan tempat makan. Lebih dari separuh subjek masih memerhatikan kandungan gizi menu (50.5%. Berdasarkan Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI diperoleh nilai kepuasan sebesar 69.3 (puas. Terdapat hubungan antara pekerjaan dan tingkat pendidikan dengan penilaian atribut mutu produk

  15. Movement of endogenous calcium in the elongating zone of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Smith, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous calcium (Ca) accumulates along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent. This accumulation of Ca correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature, and occurs in the cytoplasm, cell walls and mucilage of epidermal cells. Corresponding changes in endogenous Ca do not occur in cortical cells of the elongating zone of intact roots. These results indicate that the calcium asymmetries associated with root gravicurvature occur in the outermost layers of the root.

  16. Antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of ethanol extract of Zea mays root

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    Jude Efiom Okokon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Zea mays root decoction that has been traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria, was evaluated for antimalarial potential against malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. Materials and Methods: The root extract of Zea mays was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice using rodent malaria models; suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (Pf 3D7 and resistant (Pf INDO strains of Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR green assay method. Median lethal dose and cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HEKS cells were assessed and phytochemical screening was also carried out using standard procedures. Results: The LD50 value of root extract was found to be 474.34 mg/kg. The crude extract (45-135 mg/kg, p.o showed significant (p100 μg/ml against both HeLa and HEKS cell lines. Conclusion: These results suggest that the root extract of Zea mays possesses antimalarial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and resistant malaria and these data justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria infections.

  17. Caracterização da atividade amilásica do malte de milho (Zea mays L. = Characterization of amylase activity from maize (Zea mays L. malt

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    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar o processo de germinação e a caracterização da atividade bioquímica das amilases do malte de milho (Zea mays L. para gerar uma fonte de amilase de baixo custo e boa atividade enzimática. A atividade enzimática foi monitorada todos os dias durante a germinação das sementes para se obter a melhor condição de produção do malte. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade enzimática nas sementes foi maior no 4º. dia de germinação. A caracterização bioquímica mostrou que as amilases do malte apresentam faixa ótima de pH entre 4,3 e 6, com temperaturas ótimas a 50°C e 80ºC e os valores de Km e Vmax para hidrólise do amido foram de 7,69.10-2 g/L e 7,69.102g/L.min, respectivamente.This work aimed to study the germination process and characterization of the amylolytic activity of the maize (Zea mays L. malt aiming to obtain source amylases at lower cost. Enzymatic activity was monitored all days during the seed germination, for obtaining thebest condition of malt production. Results showed that the enzymatic activity from maize seeds was larger in 4° germination day. Enzymes characterization showed that the maize malt amylases have optimal zone of pH between 4.3 and 6, with optimal temperatures of 50°C and 80ºC. The Km and Vmax values for starch hydrolysis were 7.69.10-2 g/L and 7.69.102g/L.min, respectively.

  18. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E; Schmelz, Eric A; Buckler, Edward S; Jander, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7.

  19. Maize silk antibiotic polyphenol compounds and molecular genetic improvement of resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie in sh2 sweet corn

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    Baozhu Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavor of sh2 super-sweet corn is preferred by consumers. Unfortunately, sh2 sweet corn has little genetic variation for insect resistance. In this paper we review the functions of two loci, p1 and a1. The P1 allele has a major role in sh2 sweet corn resistance to corn earworm, an allele that was lost in historical selection because of its pleiotropic effect on undesirable cob color and silk browning. The P1 allele has significant effects on biosyntheses of silk antibiotic compounds, maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid. The effect of a1 shows gene action for lowered maysin and significant epistatic action with p1. The dominant functional allele A1 causes anthocyanin pigments in aleurone, plant, and pericarp tissues; the recessive a1 allele causes absence of pigment in these tissues. If silk browning and cob color are critical factors for maysin production but lack the customer’s preference, then separating red cob and browning silk, which are controlled by the P1 allele, may be difficult if not impossible. One high silk maysin sh2 sweet corn germ­plasm, shrunken Zapalote Chico, has been released. There is some field corn germplasm with p1-wwr alleles, but the amount of antibiotic flavones and their potential as a donor need further investigation.

  20. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  1. Characterization of ApB73, a virulence factor important for colonization of Zea mays by the smut Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnberg, Alexandra; Djamei, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of corn smut disease, uses numerous small secreted effector proteins to suppress plant defence responses and reshape the host metabolism. However, the role of specific effectors remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of ApB73 (Apathogenic in B73), an as yet uncharacterized protein essential for the successful colonization of maize by U. maydis. We show that apB73 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of the fungal life cycle. The deletion of the apB73 gene results in cultivar-specific loss of gall formation in the host. The ApB73 protein is conserved among closely related smut fungi. However, using virulence assays, we show that only the orthologue of the maize-infecting head smut Sporisorium reilianum can complement the mutant phenotype of U. maydis. Although microscopy shows that ApB73 is secreted into the biotrophic interface, it seems to remain associated with fungal cell wall components or the fungal plasma membrane. Taken together, the results show that ApB73 is a conserved and important virulence factor of U. maydis that localizes to the interface between the pathogen and its host Zea mays.

  2. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  3. Cry1Ab protein quantification in leaves, stems and grains, and effectiveness to control Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea on two hybrids of genetically modified corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the infestation and associated damages to the presence of the Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea caterpillars, in two genetically modified (GM corn, Dekalb DKB390 and Agroceres AG8088, expressing the cry1Ab protein. For this objective, an split-splot design with two factors (hybrid x gene was carried out. Negative controls were made with the same corn hybrids without the gene cry1Ab (NoGM. The concentration of the protein Cry1Ab was determined by the ELISA (enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay technique in previously dehydrated stems, leaves and grains of GM corns. Caterpillars sampling of S. frugiperda and associated damage survey were accomplished at 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after the sowing, according to a damage scale with 5 levels (0- pest absence to 5- dead plant. Countings of H. zea caterpillars and associated damage were assessed at 57, 71, 78 and 85 days after the sowing, according to a damage scale with 4 levels (0-pest absence curse to 4-gallery in the corn cob minor than 3cm. Sampled caterpillars were divided in two groups, smaller or equal to 15mm and bigger than 15mm. No insecticide application was accomplished in the GM blocks while NoGM blocks were sprayed with deltametrina (2,8%, 42 days after the sowing. The infestation level and associated damage due to S. frugiperda presence was significantly smaller (p < 0,05 in the GM corns in comparison to NoGM corns. Nevertheless, the number and associated damage of S. frugiperda caterpillars, smaller than 15 mm, were superior in the GM DKB390 corn when compared to the GM AG8088 corn. Differences were not observed in the S. frugiperda infestation and associated damage between GM corns and between NoGM corns. On average, the concentration of Cry1Ab protein was significantly superior in leaves and stems in comparison to the grain and, usually, superior in the GM AG8088 corn comparatively to GM DKB390 corn. No differences were found on level damages

  4. Recovery of Lead(II from Aqueous Solutions by Zea mays Tassel Biosorption

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    Caliphs M. Zvinowanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Major adsorbent materials used in heavy metal ion removal from polluted aqueous streams are expensive and difficult to regenerate. In this study, the possibility of using Zea mays tassel, as an alternative low cost biosorbent material to remediate heavy metal pollution was investigated. Lead (II was used because of its wide application in industrial products and well documented toxicity. Approach: Tassel was obtained from mature Zea mays cultivar R52 hybrid plants. The tassel was milled to a powder and was used to adsorb lead(II ions from simulated solutions in batch experiments. The desorption of lead(II was carried out using nitric acid and sodium citrate solutions. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, EDX and ESCA before and after application of lead(II solutions. Results: For samples with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 Pb(II, 94-98% was adsorbed and 57-74 and 57-67% recoveries were achieved with 0.5-5 M nitric acid and 0.01-0.2 M sodium citrate as the stripping solutions, respectively. EDX spectrum of pure tassel indicated that group 1 and 2 metals were the major exchangeable ions present on its surface. ESCA analysis picked up small amounts of lead(II in the form of Pb(OH+ and Pb(NH+ ions on the surface of tassel adsorbent exposed to Pb2+ ions and none on pure tassel sample. Functional groups such as -H, -NH2, -C = O and -COOH which are polar and are legends which are capable of binding heavy metals were identified by FTIR. Conclusion: The potential of Zea mays tassel to adsorb and recover heavy metals from aqueous solution was successfully demonstrated with Pb(II sample solutions. The results obtained thus far demonstrated the possibility of using tassel powder in the removal as well as recovery of metals from aqueous solutions.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF GRAMOXONE HERBICIDE ON THE CONTENT OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN ZEA MAYS

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    Antoanela Patras

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The active substance of Gramoxone herbicide is interacting with plant’s photosynthetic systems, playing the role of final acceptor of the photosynthetic electrons. Except this known mode of action, it has been also observed the inhibitory action on the protoporphyrinogen oxidase – essential enzyme for chlorophylls biosynthesis, and also the decrease of photosynthetic pigment’s concentration in some spontaneous plants. Based on these prerequisites, the present study demonstrates the decrease of the photosynthetic pigment’s content in Zea mays in the presence of Gramoxone.

  6. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Comprehensive report, October 1, 1970--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D. F.

    1976-10-01

    Monosomics (organisms lacking one chromosome) are perhaps the most interesting of the aneuploid types because a chromosome lacks a pairing partner in each meiotic cell and because genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition in each meiotic cell. A recently-discovered system produces a high frequency of monosomics in a Zea mays (maize). With this system, monosomics are available in a diploid organism in relatively large numbers and for most of the chromosomes for the first time. Results are reported from studies on several aspects of the cytogenetics of monosomics.

  7. Salmon silk genes contribute to the elucidation of the flavone pathway in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, M D; Kross, H; Snook, M E; Cortés-Cruz, M; Houchins, K E; Musket, T A; Coe, E H

    2004-01-01

    We utilized maize (Zea mays L.) lines expressing the salmon silk (sm) phenotype, quantitative trait locus analysis, and analytical chemistry of flavone compounds to establish the order of undefined steps in the synthesis of the flavone maysin in maize silks. In addition to the previously described sm1 gene, we identified a second sm locus, which we designate sm2, located on the long arm of maize chromosome 2. Our data indicate that the sm1 gene encodes or controls a glucose modification enzyme and sm2 encodes or controls a rhamnosyl transferase. The order of intermediates in the late steps of maysin synthesis was established as luteolin --> isoorientin --> rhamnosylisoorientin --> maysin.

  8. Zinc toxicity on antioxidative response in (Zea mays L. at two different pH

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    Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Zn is the second most abundant transition metal after iron (Fe. Excess Zn can have negative effects on plants. The effect of Zn at two different pH on lipid peroxidation (MDA, membrane permeability (EC, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2,non-protein thiols (NPT and the activities of major antioxidant enzymes Zea mays were investigated under controlled growth conditions. Zn-excess conditions increased the EC, MDA, H2O2 content and non-protein thiols and also activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased. Also zinc toxicity was higher in 4.5 pH than 7.5 pH.

  9. Bioavailability and toxicity of arsenic in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drličková, Gabriela; Vaculík, Marek; Matejkovič, Peter; Lux, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The growth of maize (Zea mays L.), hybrid Valentina, was compared in two types of contaminated soil substrates (Ochre and Heap) with different arsenic (As) concentration originating from an old mining area in Slovakia. Although the total As concentration in Heap soil was 2.6 times lower than in Ochre soil (90 and 237 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), plants grown in Heap soil accumulated more As in their tissues (shoot and root As concentration being 4 and 5.5 times higher, respectively) and were markedly smaller, which produced significantly less biomass and flowered later in comparison with Ochre soil grown plants.

  10. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  11. Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK.

  12. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang

    2003-01-01

    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  13. Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschan, Martin; Robinson, Brett; Schulin, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the extent of Sb uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from nutrient solutions containing concentrations from 3 to 24 mg/L of potassium antimonate, with the aim of determining the potential of Sb to enter the food chain. The maximum shoot Sb concentrations in Z. mays and H. annuus were 41 mg/kg and 77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. There was no significant difference in Sb uptake between species. The average bioaccumulation coefficients (the plant/solution concentration quotients) were 1.02 and 1.93 for Z. mays and H. annuus, respectively. Phosphate addition did not affect plant growth or Sb uptake. Antimony uptake by both Z. mays and H. annuus is unlikely to pose a health risk to animals and humans.

  14. Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn (Zea mays)%模拟酸雨对不同类型玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海艳

    2013-01-01

    以普通玉米、糯玉米、爆裂玉米和甜玉米为材料,研究了不同模拟酸雨(pH 6.0、5.0、4.0、3.0、2.0、1.0)对玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:pH 2.0 ~5.0模拟酸雨对玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长没有显著影响;pH l.0处理的普通玉米、糯玉米、爆裂玉米和甜玉米的种子发芽率分别为91.3%、68.7%、27.5%和11.7%.与pH 6.0处理(CK)相比,pH l.0模拟酸雨显著降低了玉米种子的发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数、发芽速度、苗高、根长、苗和根干物质、贮藏物质运转效率,延长了平均发芽时间.pH l.0模拟酸雨对玉米幼苗生长阶段的影响大于发芽阶段,对幼苗地下部分的影响大于地上部分;受基因型的影响,普通玉米和糯玉米的抗酸雨能力最强,其次为爆裂玉米,甜玉米最差.玉米属于抗酸雨作物,酸雨抑制阈值介于pH1.0~2.0之间.酸雨地区可优先选择种植普通玉米和糯玉米.%Taking normal corn,waxy corn,pop corn,and sweet corn as test materials,this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0,5.0,4.0,3.0,2.0,and 1.0).Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth,but at pH 1.0,the germination rate of normal corn,waxy corn,pop corn,and sweet corn was 91.3%,68.7%,27.5%,and 11.7%,respectively.As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK),the germination rate,germination index,vigor index,germination velocity,shoot height,root length,shoot and root dry mass,and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease,and the average germination time extended apparently.At pH 1.0,the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage,and greater on underground part than on aboveground part.Due to the differences in gene type,normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain

  15. Effect of simultaneous establishment of Sedum alfredii and Zea mays on heavy metal accumulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Wu, Qitang; Banks, M Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Land application of biosolids to improve agricultural productivity is a cost-effective approach for resource recovery. Unfortunately, municipal biosolids often contain high concentrations of heavy metals, including zinc and copper. In this study, a co-cropping technique was investigated using a known zinc hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii with a grain crop, Zea mays. After a 3-mo growth trial, the results indicate that when Z. mays is co-cropped with S. alfredii, heavy metals accumulated in the grains were significantly reduced when compared to monoculture cropping. Co-cropping improved the growth of both plant species. In addition, the biosolids maintained stable pH, N-P-K concentrations, germination potential, and water content after the plant treatment, regardless of the plant species used in the trial. In conclusion, co-cropping with hyperaccumulators may be an effective approach to reducing the risk of contaminant uptake in edible crops.

  16. Root graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Root graviresponsiveness in normal and carotenoid-deficient mutant seedlings of Zea mays was not significantly different. Columella cells in roots of mutant seedlings were characterized by fewer, smaller, and a reduced relative volume of plastids as compared to columella cells of normal seedlings. Plastids in columella cells of mutant seedlings possessed reduced amounts of starch. Although approximately 10 per cent of the columella cells in mutant seedlings lacked starch, their plastids were located at the bottom of the cell. These results suggest that (i) carotenoids are not necessary for root gravitropism, (ii) graviresponsiveness is not necessarily proportional to the size, number, or relative volume of plastids in columella cells, and (iii) sedimentation of plastids in columella cells may not result directly from their increased density due to starch content. Plastids in columella cells of normal and mutant seedlings were associated with bands of microtubule-like structures, suggesting that these structures may be involved in 'positioning' plastids in the cell.

  17. Sequence diversity and virulence in Zea mays of Maize streak virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D P; Willment, J A; Billharz, R; Velders, R; Odhiambo, B; Njuguna, J; James, D; Rybicki, E P

    2001-09-30

    Full genomic sequences were determined for 12 Maize streak virus (MSV) isolates obtained from Zea mays and wild grass species. These and 10 other publicly available full-length sequences were used to classify a total of 66 additional MSV isolates that had been characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or partial nucleotide sequence analysis. A description is given of the host and geographical distribution of the MSV strain and subtype groupings identified. The relationship between the genotypes of 21 fully sequenced virus isolates and their virulence in differentially MSV-resistant Z. mays genotypes was examined. Within the only MSV strain grouping that produced severe symptoms in maize, highly virulent and widely distributed genotypes were identified that are likely to pose the most serious threat to maize production in Africa. Evidence is presented that certain of the isolates investigated may be the products of either intra- or interspecific recombination.

  18. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. I. Partial purification and characterization of the enzyme from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss.

  19. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. I. Partial purification and characterization of the enzyme from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss.

  20. SELEÇÃO RECORRENTE FENOTÍPICA VISANDO À OBTENÇÃO DE UMA VARIEDADE SINTÉTICA DE MILHO (ZEA MAYS L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenon Romano Modesto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays is a major crop species grown in the world, and its production can be found in areas with soil conditions and very contrasting weather. This fact is crucial for the establishment of genetic breeding programs. The present research aimed to produce a synthetic variety of maize from the interbreeding of cultivars available in the market, as well as to evaluate the agronomic performance observed during the phenotypic recurrent selection procedure. It was observed that the selected population showed a great homogeneity, creating a uniform population, which is required for the cultivar registration. The evaluation of the agronomic performance of genotypes contributed to the generation of basic knowledge required to process development of this new variety.

  1. Studies on developmental variation of isoperoxidase and protein profile of Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to produce the isoperoxidase and protein marker for the maize cultivars from India and to find the isoperoxidase and protein expression on the various developmental stages. The leaf samples of Zea mays L. were harvested on 3rd, 7th, 11th, 15th, 19th, 23rd and 27th d for electrophoretic analysis of isoperoxidase and protein. The total protein and isoperoxidase were isolated using the standard procedure described by Sadasivam and Manickam. Isozyme and protein separation was carried out using 10% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The banding pattern suggested several similarities as well as presence of unique isoperoxidase and protein in each stage. These studies will be useful for the identification of the major proteins present at different developmental stages of Z. mays.

  2. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  3. Utilization of metarhizium anisopliae and vegetable extract for control of the spodoptera frugiperda and helicoverpa zea (lepidoptera: noctuidae in the corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of the vegetable extracts and Metarhizium anisopliae about the population and damage of the Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea in corn, it was evaluated when planted in two spacings. The experiment was installed in the culture of corn, in the city of Lagoa Seca/PB, in two areas of 500 m2, in the spacings 0,8 x 0,4 and 0,4 x 0,4 m, with two and one plant for hole. The basis was constituited of: 1 Water as witness; 2 Metarhizium anisopliae; 3 Extracts of Mormodica charantia; 4 Metarhizium anisopliae + extracts of M. charantia; 5 M. anisopliae + manipueira. The results showed some statistical difference between the two spacings, with a larger number of collected caterpillars, 5,84, and a larger damage to the plant, 3,24, in the spacing 0,4 x 0,4 m, in relation to the spacing 0,8 x 0,4 m, within as average of 4,13 caterpillars and danificated of 2,71. There was not any significant interaction between the spacings and the products used for the control of S. frugiperda. However, there was a significant difference among the treatments, with a smaller number of caterpillars, 4,17, and a smaller medium damage to the plant, 2,81, when was used, M. anisopliae + extract of M. charantia. Considering to the control of the plaque the percentage of damage ears of corn by H. zea, weight and length of the ear of corn in corn, there wasn’t neither significant difference with regard to the spacing, neither with regard to the used treatments.

  4. Uptake and accumulation of copper by roots and shoots of maize(Zea may L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of copper sulfate on rootand shoot growth of maize(Zea mays L.) and the uptake and accumulation of Cu2+ by its roots and shoots were investigated in the present study. The concentrations of opper sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O) used were in the range of 10-5-10-3mol/L. Root growth decreased progressively with increasing concentration of Cu2+ in solution. The seedlings exposed to 10-3 mol/L Cu exhibited substantial growth reduction, yielding only 68% of the root length of the control. The shoot growth of the seedlings grown at 10-5-10-4 mol/L Cu2+ were more or less than the same as the control seedlings. The leaves treated with 10-3 mol/L Cu2+ were obviously inhibited in shoot growth. The fresh and dry weights both in roots and shots decreased progressively with increasing Cu2+ concentration.This fits well with the above mentioned effects of copper sulfate on root growth. Zea mays has considerable ability to remove Cu from solutions and accumulate it. The Cu content in roots of Z. Mays increased with increasing solution concentration of Cu2+. The amount of Cu in roots of plants treated with 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5 mol/L Cu2+ were 10, 8 and 1.5 fold, respectively, greater than that of roots of control plant. However, the plants transported and concentrated only a small amount of Cu in their shoots.

  5. Enzymatic adaptations to arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Zea mays and genotoxic effect of arsenic in root tips of Vicia faba and Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesnoy, Isabelle; Champeau, Gabrielle Marie; Evray, Germaine; Ledoigt, Gérard; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Agronomic plant species may display physiological and biochemical responses to oxidative stress caused by heavy metals and metalloids. Zea mays plants were grown hydroponically for eight days at different concentrations of As (0, 134 and 668 μM) and at different pH (4, 7 and 9). Metabolic variations in response to As toxicity were measured using physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymatic activities. A significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in the leaves and roots of Z. mays with the majority of As treatments. As decreased G-POX activity less in leaves than in roots. An increase in the concentration of As increased APX activity in leaves and roots, except As(V) at pH 4 and pH 9 in the leaves and As(III) at pH 9 in the roots, when there was a significant decrease in APX activity at low As concentrations. After exposure to As(V), CAT activity was the same as in the control. As(III) led to an increase in CAT activity in leaves and to a decrease in roots. With increasing concentrations of As(III), CAT activity increased in both leaves and roots whatever the pH. To obtain more detailed knowledge on the effects of arsenate and arsenite exposure on Vicia faba and Z. mays, root meristems were also examined. Roots were fed hydroponically with 134, 334, 534 and 668 μM arsenate or arsenite and 4 × 10(-3)M of maleic hydrazide as positive control, at three different pH. Physiological parameters, the mitotic index and micronuclei frequencies were evaluated in root meristems. At all three pH, the highest As(V) and As(III) concentrations induced a substantial modification in root colour, increased root thickness with stiffening, and reduced root length. High concentrations also caused a significant decrease in the mitotic index, and micronucleus chromosomic aberrations were observed in the root meristems of both species. 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of zinc on antioxidant response in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N; Singh, A K; Pathak, G C; Sharma, C P

    2002-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L. cv kanaujia) plants grown with Zn [10 (control), 0.1 (low) and 20 microM (high)], were investigated for concentration of antioxidants and activities of antioxidative enzymes in leaves. Young leaves of low Zn plants developed whitish-necrotic spots. Leaves of both low and high Zn plants showed decrease in chlorophyll concentration and accumulation of lipid peroxides, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, associated with a decrease in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low and high Zn, however, showed diverse effect on glutathione reductase. While low Zn increased the activity of glutathione reductase, high Zn decreased its activity. Zinc effect on antioxidative constituents suggested Zn involvement in sustaining the antioxidative defense system in maize leaves.

  7. Accumulation potentials of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Johanna; Falk, Sandy; Brunn, Hubertus; Georgii, Sebastian; Schubert, Sven; Stahl, Thorsten

    2015-04-15

    Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by maize represents a potential source of exposure for humans, either directly or indirectly via feed for animals raised for human consumption. The aim of the following study was, therefore, to determine the accumulation potential of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays). Two different concentrations of PFAAs were applied as aqueous solution to the soil to attain target concentrations of 0.25 mg or 1.00 mg of PFAA per kg of soil. Maize was grown in pots, and after harvesting, PFAA concentrations were measured in the straw and kernels of maize. PFCA and PFSA concentrations of straw decreased significantly with increasing chain length. In maize kernels, only PFCAs with a chain length ≤ C8 as well as perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) were detected. The highest soil-to-plant transfer for both straw and kernels was determined for short-chained PFCAs and PFSAs.

  8. Effect of lead on imbibition, germination, and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Isaza Guzmán Isaza Guzmán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is highly reactive and it can be consequently toxic to living cells to both plants and humans. This heavy metal is a source of contamination to the environment and it disrupts natural cycles. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lead on the imbibition process, germination and growth in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L.. It was developed a system consisting of receptacles to expose flooded plants at different concentrations of the metal. Results showed that at concentrations of 5 g l-1 lead imbibition process was affected, but was more evident in bean. Germination percentage was not affected in maize seeds, while viability was affected in bean seeds. We observed statistically that there is an effect on organ growth of root, stem and leaf in both species in the presence of solution whose effect is most noticeable in bean plants. Key words: heavy metals,phytoremediation, stress, toxic substances

  9. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWINI KEDAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kedar A, Rathod D, Yadav A, Agarkar G, Rai M. 2014. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 132-139. Fungal endophytes are reported as rich sources of valuable secondary metabolites and could be used as bio-fertilizers. In the present study, we report growth promotion potential of two Phoma species isolated from Tinospora cordifolia and Calotropis procera on maize. The fungal endophytes enhanced growth in inoculated maize plants compared to non-inoculated plants. The main aim of this work was to assess the growth promotion activity of endophytic Phoma species on maize isolated from T. cordifolia and C. procera.

  10. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, October 1, 1975--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D. F.

    1976-10-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. Monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays were isolated utilizing a recently-discovered system. This is the first time that a series of this type has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are surprisingly vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses made. We are isolating all possible monosomic types and characterizing them by studying the cytology of meiosis, the cytological behavior of monosomic chromosomes, the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination, the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics, the effect of monosomy on free amino acids, and the effect of monosomy on isozymes in leaves, the effect of trisomy on the lipid content, and the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos.

  11. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  12. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  13. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death induced in Zea mays L. by allelochemical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciniglia, Claudia; Mastrobuoni, Francesco; Scortichini, Marco; Petriccione, Milena

    2015-05-01

    The allelochemical stress on Zea mays was analyzed by using walnut husk washing waters (WHWW), a by-product of Juglans regia post-harvest process, which possesses strong allelopathic potential and phytotoxic effects. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death were induced by WHWW in roots of maize seedlings. Treatment induced ROS burst, with excess of H2O2 content. Enzymatic activities of catalase were strongly increased during the first hours of exposure. The excess in malonildialdehyde following exposure to WHWW confirmed that oxidative stress severely damaged maize roots. Membrane alteration caused a decrease in NADPH oxidase activity along with DNA damage as confirmed by DNA laddering. The DNA instability was also assessed through sequence-related amplified polymorphism assay, thus suggesting the danger of walnut processing by-product and focusing the attention on the necessity of an efficient treatment of WHWW.

  14. QTL mapping of resistance to sheath blight in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hua; YANG Junpin; RONG Tingzhao; TAN Jun; QIU Zhenggao

    2005-01-01

    The genetic linkage map has been constructed with 125 SSR markers based on BC1:2 population consisting of 322 lines derived from the combination of (CML270×478) ×CML270 in maize (Zea mays L.), covering 1939.0 cM of maize genome. The average mapping distance was about 15.5 cM. Three major QTLs of the relative resistant index of resistance to maize sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) had been located on chromosomes 1, 7 by composite interval mapping (CIM). 7 QTLs of the plant height have been located on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6. Five QTLs of ear height have been located on chromosomes 3, 4, 6. The resistance to the sheath blight is shown to be not relative to plant height and ear height genetically. Inbred line CML270 was used for molecular assisted selection and cloning the genes.

  15. The effect of ethylene on root growth of Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. C.; Feldman, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The control of primary root growth in Zea mays cv. Merit by ethylene was examined. At applied concentrations of ethylene equal to or greater than 0.1 microliter L-1, root elongation during 24 h was inhibited. The half-maximal response occurred at 0.6 microliter L-1 and the response saturated at 6 microliters L-1. Inhibition of elongation took place within 20 min. However, after ethylene was removed, elongation recovered to control values within 15 min. Root elongation was also inhibited by green light. The inhibition caused by a 24-h exposure to ethylene was restricted to the elongating region just behind the apex, with inhibition of cortical cell elongation being the primary contributor to the effect. Based on use of 2,5-norbornadiene, a gaseous competitive inhibitor of ethylene, it was concluded that endogenous ethylene normally inhibits root elongation.

  16. The influence of gravity on the formation of amyloplasts in columella cells of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; Koon, E. C.; Wang, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Columella (i.e., putative graviperceptive) cells of Zea mays seedlings grown in the microgravity of outer space allocate significantly less volume to putative statoliths (amyloplasts) than do columella cells of Earth-grown seedlings. Amyloplasts of flight-grown seedlings are significantly smaller than those of ground controls, as is the average volume of individual starch grains. Similarly, the relative volume of starch in amyloplasts in columella cells of flight-grown seedlings is significantly less than that of Earth-grown seedlings. Microgravity does not significantly alter the volume of columella cells, the average number of amyloplasts per columella cell, or the number of starch grains per amyloplast. These results are discussed relative to the influence of gravity on cellular and organellar structure.

  17. Kinetics of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Zea mays Linnaeus (Poaceae), Stigma maydis aqueous extract: An in vitro assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, S; O'Neill, F H; Ashafa, A O T

    2016-05-13

    Corn silk (Zea mays L., Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally in many parts of the world to treat array of diseases including diabetes mellitus. Inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase offer an effective strategy to modulate levels of post prandial hyperglycaemia via control of starch metabolism. This study evaluated α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of corn silk aqueous extract. Active principles and antioxidant attributes of the extract were also analysed. The α-amylase inhibitory potential of the extract was investigated by reacting its different concentrations with α-amylase and starch solution, while α-glucosidase inhibition was determined by pre-incubating α-glucosidase with different concentrations of the extract followed by addition of p-nitrophenylglucopyranoside. The mode(s) of inhibition of the enzymes were determined using Lineweaver-Burke plot. In vitro analysis of the extract showed that it exhibited potent and moderate inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. The inhibition was concentration-dependent with respective half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5.89 and 0.93mg/mL. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins and phytosterols as probable inhibitory constituents. Furthermore, the extract remarkably scavenges reactive oxygen species like DPPH and nitric oxide radicals, elicited good reducing power and a significant metal chelating attributes. Overall, the non-competitive and uncompetitive mechanism of action of corn silk extract is due to its inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. Consequently, this will reduce the rate of starch hydrolysis, enhance palliated glucose levels, and thus, lending credence to hypoglycaemic candidature of corn silk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... inches) in length may be imported into the continental United States from Zambia only under the...

  19. Evaluation of zinc accumulation, allocation, and tolerance in Zea mays L. seedlings: implication for zinc phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmakov, Dmitry I; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Anjum, Naser A; Ahmad, Iqbal; Pereira, Eduarda

    2015-10-01

    This work investigated the accumulation, allocation, and impact of zinc (Zn; 1.0 μM-10 mM) in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings under simulated laboratory conditions. Z. mays exhibited no significant change in its habitus (the physical characteristics of plants) up to 10-1000 μM of Zn (vs 5-10 mM Zn). Zn tolerance evaluation, based on the root test, indicated a high tolerance of Z. mays to both low and intermediate (or relatively high) concentrations of Zn, whereas this plant failed to tolerate 10 mM Zn and exhibited a 5-fold decrease in its Zn tolerance. Contingent to Zn treatment levels, Zn hampered the growth of axial organs and brought decreases in the leaf area, water regime, and biomass accumulation. Nevertheless, at elevated levels of Zn (10 mM), Zn(2+) was stored in the root cytoplasm and inhibited both axial organ growth and water regime. However, accumulation and allocation of Zn in Z. mays roots, studied herein employing X-ray fluorimeter and histochemical methods, were close to Zn accumulator plants. Overall, the study outcomes revealed Zn tolerance of Z. mays, and also implicate its potential role in Zn phytoextraction.

  20. Selection and adaptation to high plant density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant density at which Zea mays L. hybrids achieve maximum grain yield has increased throughout the hybrid era while grain yield on a per plant basis has increased little. Changes in plant traits including grain yield, moisture, test weight, and stalk and root lodging have been well characterize...

  1. Water management options based on rainfall analysis for rainfed maize (Zea Mays L.) production in Rushinga district Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.), the dominant and staple food crop in Southern and Eastern Africa, is preferred to the drought-tolerant sorghum and pearl millet even in semi-arid areas. In semi-arid areas production of maize is constrained by droughts and poor rainfall distribution. The best way to grow crops i

  2. Embryogenesis in Zea mays L. A structural approach to maize caryopsis development in vivo and in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the embryological development of the maize plant ( Zeamays L.) is described. The investigations aim at analysing the development of polarity, the initiation of meristems, the differentiation of tissues within the embryo and the interaction between the embryo and the extr

  3. 玉米低磷胁迫研究现状%Research Situation of Low Phosphorus Stress in Zea mays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛静; 陈发波

    2014-01-01

    玉米是世界第二大粮食作物,同时也是我国第一大农作物。磷是玉米生长发育所必需的元素之一,充当生物膜和核酸的重要组成元素,缺磷将严重影响玉米的生长发育。综述了缺磷对玉米苗期性状、根系、生理生化特性及产量等方面的影响。%Zea mays is not only the second largest food crops in the world ,but also the first major crops in China.Phosphorus ,one of the essential elements making up biofilm and nucleic acid ,is indispensable to Zea mays.Phosphorus deficiency will affect growth and development of Zea mays.This article summarized the effects of low phosphorus stress on seedling traits ,root,physiological and biochemistry characteristics ,and yield in Zea mays.

  4. Water management options based on rainfall analysis for rainfed maize (Zea Mays L.) production in Rushinga district Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.), the dominant and staple food crop in Southern and Eastern Africa, is preferred to the drought-tolerant sorghum and pearl millet even in semi-arid areas. In semi-arid areas production of maize is constrained by droughts and poor rainfall distribution. The best way to grow crops

  5. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous synth

  6. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous synth

  7. Effects of subsoil bulk density on root growth and soil enzyme activities during the growth of corn (Zea mays L.)%不同土层容重对玉米根系生长及土壤酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 赵亚丽; 张学林; 张永恩; 李潮海

    2012-01-01

    The two-year pool-culture and barrel-culture experiments were conducted to study the impacts of subsoil bulk/density on root lenght, root dry weight, soil enzyme activities and yield in corn field on a sandy loam soil at the Experimental Farm of Henan Agricultural University. The results showed that the dynamic changes of root length, root dry weight, soil catalase, invertase, protease, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities and yields were single curve during the growth of corn, and the maximum values of these parameters occurred at the corn silking stage. Root length, root dry weight, yield and its components decreased with increaseing soil bulk density. These enzyme activities decreased with the increasing of both soil bulk density and soil depth. The higher the soil bulk density was the less active the soil enzyme activities were all soil enzyme activities were significantly different among soil bulk densities in the same soil layer, and they were also affected by soil bulk density in the adjacent layers. The bigger the soil bulk density of adjacent layers was the more significant the decrease was. The effect of subsoil bulk density on soil enzyme was more apparant from jointing stage to maturity.%采用微区池栽和桶栽试验,研究了下层(20~40 cm,40 ~ 60 cm)土壤容重改变后,玉米根系生长、产量及生育期间土壤过氧化氢酶、转化酶、蛋白酶、脲酶和碱性磷酸酶活性动态变化规律及其与微生物活性的相关性.结果表明,在玉米生育期内,玉米单株根长度和根干重、土壤过氧化氢酶、转化酶、蛋白酶、脲酶和碱性磷酸酶活性呈单峰曲线,最高值均出现在吐丝期;且随着下层土壤容重增加呈递减趋势.各土层酶活性均随着土层的加深和本土层容重的增大而降低,同时也随着相邻土层容重的增大其降幅加剧;玉米穗粒数、粒重和产量也随着土壤容重的增加而降低.玉米生长期间,土壤酶活性变化受下层

  8. Efecto del herbizida Antrazina sobre los microorganismos Diazótrofos asociados al cultivo de maíz ( Zea mays L. en un suelo de Saldaña (Tolima Effect of atrazine on the diaztrophos associated with corn cultivated on soil from Saldana, Tolima

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    Ordoñez Alba Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En un experimento de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto a través del tiempo de la aplicación del herbicida atrazina sobre la población de microorganisrnos diazótrofos asociados a raíz y suelo rizosférico de un cultivo de maíz en un suelo, Uscroper Fluvaquentic, franco-arcillo-arenoso de Saldaña (Tolima. El 61% de los aislamientos de suelo y el 83% de los de raíz presentaron crecimiento característico en forma de película blanquecina bajo la superficie del medio. La población de microorganismos diazótrofos de suelo rizosférico y la actividad de la nitrogenasa no presentaron diferencias significativas por la aplicación del herbicida. Los mayores valores en la actividad de la nitrogenasa se presentaron a los 45 días de aplicación del herbicida con la dosis más alta (3,0 Kg/ha. En las raíces de maíz, el testigo sin aplicación de atrazina presentó los valores más altos, sin embargo, tampoco en este caso se presentaron diferencias significativas entre las dosis ni a claves del tiempo. Se concluye que bajo las condiciones del experimento, hasta los 90 días, no se presentó efecto significativo de la aplicación de atrazina sobre la actividad ni sobre la población de diazotrofos presentes en la rizosfera y en la raíz de las plantas de maíz.

    The effect of the herbicide atrazine on the diazotrophic microorganisms associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of a corn cultivated on a clay-loam soil in a greenhouse, Ustropet Fluvaquentic from Saldana (Tolima was evaluated. 61% of soil isolates and 83% of root isolates presented characteristic cultural growth of whitish pellicle under the surface of the semisolid NFb-malic acid medium. The soil population of diazotrophic microorganisms and the nitrogenase activity were not significantly different between atrazine treatments. The highest values were obtained 45 days after the highest dose ofatrazine (3.0 Kg/ha. Corn roots without treatment had greater values

  9. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE (Zea Mays AND DOLECOUS (Lablab Purpureus AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHOROUS FERTILIZATION AND INTERCROPPING

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    E.O. AMASAIB

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of University of Khartoum to determine the effect of phosphorous fertilization and intercropping on the nutritive value of Zea mays and Lablab purpureus. The field experiment was arranged as Split Plot Design with four replications. The main plots were (Lablab purpureus as sole crop, Zea mays as sole crop, Lablab purpureus and Zea mays in the mixture. The sub plot treatments were phosphorous fertilization at the rate of (0, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 / ha which were then referred to as P0, P1 and P2 respectively. The plants measured were Lablab purepureus as pure stand, Lablab purepureus in the mixture, Zea mays as the pure stand and the Zea mays in the mixture. Samples of 45 days cut from sowing were used to assess the ash, crude protein (CP, ether extracts (EE, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and dry matter digestibility. The data were statistically analyzed using complete randomized design. The results revealed that intercropping and phosphorous fertilization caused a significant (P<0.05 increased on the CP content and dry matter digestibility of all forages under estimation. Intercropping and phosphorous fertilization caused slight increase on the Ash content for all crops in this study. Moreover, Intercropping and phosphorous fertilization caused a decrease on the CF and NDF content of all forages under estimation but with no significant difference. However, Intercropping caused non–significant effect (P<0.05 on the EE content of Zea mays while, intercropping had a positive influence (P<0.05 on the EE content of Lablab purpureus. The data obtained indicated that phosphorous fertilization caused non–significant effect on the EE content of all crops in this study (P<0.05 except Lablab purpureus in the mixture with Zea mays which increased significantly (P<0.05 by increasing phosphorous level. It can be concluded that intercropping and phosphorous fertilization improved the

  10. Molecular evolution and expansion analysis of the NAC transcription factor in Zea mays.

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    Kai Fan

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1, 2 and CUC2 family is a plant-specific transcription factor and it controls various plant developmental processes. In the current study, 124 NAC members were identified in Zea mays and were phylogenetically clustered into 13 distinct subfamilies. The whole genome duplication (WGD, especially an additional WGD event, may lead to expanding ZmNAC members. Different subfamily has different expansion rate, and NAC subfamily preference was found during the expansion in maize. Moreover, the duplication events might occur after the divergence of the lineages of Z. mays and S. italica, and segmental duplication seemed to be the dominant pattern for the gene duplication in maize. Furthermore, the expansion of ZmNAC members may be also related to gain and loss of introns. Besides, the restriction of functional divergence was discovered after most of the gene duplication events. These results could provide novel insights into molecular evolution and expansion analysis of NAC family in maize, and advance the NAC researches in other plants, especially polyploid plants.

  11. Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M; Whitworth, R Jeff; McCornack, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.

  12. Phytohormone Involvement in the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays Pathosystem: Relationships between Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Levels and Strain Virulence in Infected Cob Tissue.

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    Erin N Morrison

    Full Text Available Ustilago maydis is the causative agent of common smut of corn. Early studies noted its ability to synthesize phytohormones and, more recently these growth promoting substances were confirmed as cytokinins (CKs. Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones commonly associated with actively dividing tissues. Lab analyses identified variation in virulence between U. maydis dikaryon and solopathogen infections of corn cob tissue. Samples from infected cob tissue were taken at sequential time points post infection and biochemical profiling was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS. This hormone profiling revealed that there were altered levels of ABA and major CKs, with a marked reduction in CK glucosides, increases in methylthiol CKs and a particularly dramatic increase in cisZ CK forms, in U. maydis infected tissue. These changes were more pronounced in the more virulent dikaryon relative to the solopathogenic strain suggesting a role for cytokinins in moderating virulence during biotrophic infection. These findings highlight the fact that U. maydis does not simply mimic a fertilized seed but instead reprograms the host tissue. Results underscore the suitability of the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays model as a basis for investigating the control of phytohormone dynamics during biotrophic infection of plants.

  13. Phytohormone Involvement in the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays Pathosystem: Relationships between Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Levels and Strain Virulence in Infected Cob Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin N; Emery, R J Neil; Saville, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is the causative agent of common smut of corn. Early studies noted its ability to synthesize phytohormones and, more recently these growth promoting substances were confirmed as cytokinins (CKs). Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones commonly associated with actively dividing tissues. Lab analyses identified variation in virulence between U. maydis dikaryon and solopathogen infections of corn cob tissue. Samples from infected cob tissue were taken at sequential time points post infection and biochemical profiling was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). This hormone profiling revealed that there were altered levels of ABA and major CKs, with a marked reduction in CK glucosides, increases in methylthiol CKs and a particularly dramatic increase in cisZ CK forms, in U. maydis infected tissue. These changes were more pronounced in the more virulent dikaryon relative to the solopathogenic strain suggesting a role for cytokinins in moderating virulence during biotrophic infection. These findings highlight the fact that U. maydis does not simply mimic a fertilized seed but instead reprograms the host tissue. Results underscore the suitability of the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays model as a basis for investigating the control of phytohormone dynamics during biotrophic infection of plants.

  14. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortality of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Misso...

  15. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  16. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73 genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase gene family

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    Eliécer eGonzález Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73 reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  17. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  18. Phytotoxicity assay of diesel fuel-spiked substrates remediated with Pleurotus tuberregium using Zea mays

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    E M Ogbo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum based compounds by white rot fungi is well documented.  In this study the ability of diesel fuel contaminated soils treated with the fungus Pleurotus tuber-regium to support plant growth was tested.  Pleurotus tuber-regium was grown in different levels (2.50, 5.00, 10.00% and control- no fungus for each level of contamination of diesel fuel contaminated soil and sawdust. The removal of petroleum hydrocarbons was highest in the 5.00% level of contamination where 55.53% of the petroleum hydrocarbons were removed. The least reduction in hydrocarbons was in the 10.00% level of contamination where only 35.53% of the hydrocarbons were removed. After the remediation the toxicity of the soils were tested by growing Zea mays in the treated soils. There was reduction in the toxicity of the soils treated with Pleurotus tuber-regium. Germination of the seeds of the test plant in treated 2.50 and 5.00% diesel fuel contaminated substrates was higher than that in the control. Germination of seeds in the 10.00% diesel fuel contaminated substrates was less than that in the control. The continued growth of the plant in the treated soils however showed no significant difference between them and the control using leaf area, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and root length indices. The formation of lateral roots was however adversely affected in the treated 10.00% contaminated soil only substrate. The fungus was able to reduce the toxicity of diesel fuel contaminated substrates when compared with control in which there was no remediation. Industrial relevance: Nigeria is an oil producing country with heavy or high reliance on diesel fuel for use in cars and electric power generating sets. The transportation of diesel fuel is by tankers and pipelines. There have been cases of spills which has adverse effect on the environment. The study aims to solve the process of amelioration of the environment

  19. Growth promoting characteristics of rhizobacteria and AM Fungi for biomass amelioration of Zea mays

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    Kumar Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhiza were evaluated on the growth (biomass and yield of Zea mays. In the present study, selective rhizospheric PGPR (Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azospirillum brasilense and Streptomyces sp. and a combination of six strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Acaulospora morrowae, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mossae, Glomus aggregatum and Scutellospora calospora were isolated and identified with standard methods and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PGPR and AMF were checked for their growth-promoting behavior under specific treatment conditions. The 30-48-day-old treated plants in all combinations showed a significantly higher mass value. The average dry weight from the shoot was in a range from 41-52% as compared to the control. This increase also translated into a higher mass value of the roots. Overall, an 82% growth rate was observed in terms of height as the consequence of biomass production, specifically in the case of AMF + rhizobacteria combination. We report an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective biofertilizer for enhanced biomass of Z. mays, one of the staple food crops worldwide.

  20. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays and soil

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    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to light soil in the amount of 0 (control 5, 10, 30 i 50%. The test plant was maize (Zea mays, “Bora” c.v. The sediment applied in the presented research revealed high share of silt and clay fractions, alkaline pH and low contents of heavy metals, therefore it may be used as an admixture to the above mentioned soils to improve their productivity. The applied bottom sediment to the soil affected a decreased in Zn, Cd and Pb content in maize in comparison with the treatment without the deposit whereas increased content of Cu, Cr and Ni. No exceeded permissible content of heavy metals concerning plant assessment in view of their forage usability were registered in maize biomass.

  1. Targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Kunling; Gao, Caixia

    2014-02-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have emerged as powerful tools for genome editing in a variety of species. Here, we report, for the first time, targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system. We designed five TALENs targeting 4 genes, namely ZmPDS, ZmIPK1A, ZmIPK, ZmMRP4, and obtained targeting efficiencies of up to 23.1% in protoplasts, and about 13.3% to 39.1% of the transgenic plants were somatic mutations. Also, we constructed two gRNAs targeting the ZmIPK gene in maize protoplasts, at frequencies of 16.4% and 19.1%, respectively. In addition, the CRISPR/Cas system induced targeted mutations in Z. mays protoplasts with efficiencies (13.1%) similar to those obtained with TALENs (9.1%). Our results show that both TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system can be used for genome modification in maize.

  2. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

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    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  3. Azospirillum brasilense does not affect population structure of specific rhizobacterial communities of inoculated maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschkovitz, Yoav; Lerner, Anat; Davidov, Yaacov; Okon, Yaacov; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2005-11-01

    Positive response of plant species to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria have led to an increased interest in their use as bacterial inoculants. However, the introduction of exogenous bacteria into natural ecosystems may perturb bacterial populations within the microbial community and lead to the disruption of indigenous populations performing key functional roles. In this study the effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on maize (Zea mays) rhizosphere Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, alpha-Proteobacteria, Pseudomonas and Bdellovibrio spp. was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach in conjunction with group-specific primers. The DGGE fingerprints analysis revealed that the introduction of A. brasilense did not alter or disrupt the microbial system at the group-specific level. However, some communities such as the alpha-Proteobacteria and Bdellovibrio were influenced by plant age while the other bacterial groups remained unaffected. Based on these as well as previous data, it can be inferred that inoculation with A. brasilense does not perturb the natural bacterial populations investigated.

  4. Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium etli and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zamora, M L; Martínez-Romero, E

    2001-10-04

    Maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been traditionally grown in association for thousands of years in Mesoamerica. From surface sterilized maize roots, we have isolated over 60 Rhizobium strains that correspond to Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli (the main symbiont of bean) on the basis of 16S rRNA gene restriction patterns, metabolic enzyme electropherotypes, organization of nif genes, and the ability to nodulate beans. The colonization capacity of some of the isolates was tested with an unimproved maize cultivar and with 30 maize land races. Increases in plant dry weight upon R. etli inoculation were recorded with some of the land races, and these increases may be related to plant growth promotion effects. Additionally, from within maize grown in monoculture we have also recovered R. etli isolates recognizable by their 16S rRNA gene types, which lack nif genes and are incapable of nodulating bean. These strains are presumed to correspond to the earlier described non-symbiotic R. etli obtained from bean rhizosphere.

  5. The nitrate reductase inhibitor, tungsten, disrupts actin microfilaments in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2014-05-01

    Tungsten is a widely used inhibitor of nitrate reductase, applied to diminish the nitric oxide levels in plants. It was recently shown that tungsten also has heavy metal attributes. Since information about the toxic effects of tungsten on actin is limited, and considering that actin microfilaments are involved in the entry of tungsten inside plant cells, the effects of tungsten on them were studied in Zea mays seedlings. Treatments with sodium tungstate for 3, 6, 12 or 24 h were performed on intact seedlings and seedlings with truncated roots. Afterwards, actin microfilaments in meristematic root and leaf tissues were stained with fluorescent phalloidin, and the specimens were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the actin microfilament network was well organized in untreated seedlings, in tungstate-treated ones it was disrupted in a time-dependent manner. In protodermal root cells, the effects of tungsten were stronger as cortical microfilaments were almost completely depolymerized and the intracellular ones appeared highly bundled. Fluorescence intensity measurements confirmed the above results. In the meristematic leaf tissue of intact seedlings, no depolymerization of actin microfilaments was noticed. However, when root tips were severed prior to tungstate application, both cortical and endoplasmic actin networks of leaf cells were disrupted and bundled after 24 h of treatment. The differential response of root and leaf tissues to tungsten toxicity may be due to differential penetration and absorption, while the effects on actin microfilaments could not be attributed to the nitric oxide depletion by tungsten.

  6. Fine mapping of a quantitative resistance gene for gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays L.) derived from teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the tesosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot resistance. We identified...

  7. Stress response and tolerance of Zea mays to CeO2 nanoparticles: cross talk among H2O2, heat shock protein, and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peng, Bo; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Rico, Cyren; Sun, Youping; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Tang, Xiaolei; Niu, Genhua; Jin, Lixin; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Zhang, Jian-ying; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-11-27

    The rapid development of nanotechnology will inevitably release nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment with unidentified consequences. In addition, the potential toxicity of CeO(2) NPs to plants and the possible transfer into the food chain are still unknown. Corn plants (Zea mays) were germinated and grown in soil treated with CeO(2) NPs at 400 or 800 mg/kg. Stress-related parameters, such as H(2)O(2), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), lipid peroxidation, cell death, and leaf gas exchange were analyzed at 10, 15, and 20 days post-germination. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image H(2)O(2) distribution in corn leaves. Results showed that the CeO(2) NP treatments increased accumulation of H(2)O(2), up to day 15, in phloem, xylem, bundle sheath cells and epidermal cells of shoots. The CAT and APX activities were also increased in the corn shoot, concomitant with the H(2)O(2) levels. Both 400 and 800 mg/kg CeO(2) NPs triggered the up-regulation of the HSP70 in roots, indicating a systemic stress response. None of the CeO(2) NPs increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, indicating that no lipid peroxidation occurred. CeO(2) NPs, at both concentrations, did not induce ion leakage in either roots or shoots, suggesting that membrane integrity was not compromised. Leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were not affected by CeO(2) NPs. Our results suggest that the CAT, APX, and HSP70 might help the plants defend against CeO(2) NP-induced oxidative injury and survive NP exposure.

  8. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  9. Morphological and physiological responses of maize (Zea mays) exposed to sand contaminated by phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Joan; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Phytoremediation is promising, but depends on clearly understanding contaminants' impact on plant functioning. We therefore focused on the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on cultivated plants and understanding the impact of phenanthrene (PHE) on maize functioning (Zea mays). Cultivation was conducted under controlled conditions on artificially contaminated sand with PHE levels increasing from 50 to 750 mg PHE kg(-1). After four weeks, plants exposed to levels above 50 mg PHE kg(-1) presented decreased biomasses and reduced photosynthetic activity. These modifications were associated with higher biomass allocations to roots and lower ones to stems. The leaf biomass proportion was similar, with thinner blades than controls. PHE-exposed plant showed modified root architecture, with fewer roots of 0.2 and 0.4 mm in diameter. Leaves were potassium-deplete, but calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc-enriched. Their content in nitrogen, iron, sulfur and manganese was unaffected. These responses resembled those of water-stress, although water contents in plant organs were not affected by PHE and water supply was not limited. They also indicated a possible perturbation of both nutritional functioning and photosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Precise genome modification in the crop species Zea mays using zinc-finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vipula K; Doyon, Yannick; Miller, Jeffrey C; DeKelver, Russell C; Moehle, Erica A; Worden, Sarah E; Mitchell, Jon C; Arnold, Nicole L; Gopalan, Sunita; Meng, Xiangdong; Choi, Vivian M; Rock, Jeremy M; Wu, Ying-Ying; Katibah, George E; Zhifang, Gao; McCaskill, David; Simpson, Matthew A; Blakeslee, Beth; Greenwalt, Scott A; Butler, Holly J; Hinkley, Sarah J; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D

    2009-05-21

    Agricultural biotechnology is limited by the inefficiencies of conventional random mutagenesis and transgenesis. Because targeted genome modification in plants has been intractable, plant trait engineering remains a laborious, time-consuming and unpredictable undertaking. Here we report a broadly applicable, versatile solution to this problem: the use of designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that induce a double-stranded break at their target locus. We describe the use of ZFNs to modify endogenous loci in plants of the crop species Zea mays. We show that simultaneous expression of ZFNs and delivery of a simple heterologous donor molecule leads to precise targeted addition of an herbicide-tolerance gene at the intended locus in a significant number of isolated events. ZFN-modified maize plants faithfully transmit these genetic changes to the next generation. Insertional disruption of one target locus, IPK1, results in both herbicide tolerance and the expected alteration of the inositol phosphate profile in developing seeds. ZFNs can be used in any plant species amenable to DNA delivery; our results therefore establish a new strategy for plant genetic manipulation in basic science and agricultural applications.

  11. Effect of different chelated zinc sources on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahir

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during spring, 2007 to evaluate the effect of different chelated zinc sources on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.. Crop was sown on well prepared soil in 1st week of March, 2007. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design. The treatments comprised of different chelated zinc sources: ZnSO4-DTPA, ZnSO4-Fulvate, ZnSO4-Lignosulphonate, ZnSO4-EDTA and ZnSO4-H2O along with control (no zinc, repeated three times. Results showed that number of cobs plant-1, grain rows cob-1 and oil contents did not differ significantly. However, differences among treatments for plant height at harvest (cm, leaf area plant-1 (cm2, stem diameter (cm, cob length (cm, cob diameter (cm, 100-grains weight (g, number of grains cob-1, grains weight cob-1(g, biological yield (tons ha-1, grain yield (tons ha-1 and protein contents (% were significantly higher. Moreover, results also revealed that ZnSO4-DPTA was found the most effective Zn chelated source among all the treatments. Rest of the chelating agents were not too impressive as they showed varied response for different variables. The result of this experiment suggest further experimentation to explore behaviour of Zn-DTPA with other macro and micro nutrients and to calculate cost benefit ratio for use ofZn chelated compounds.

  12. Identification of two frataxin isoforms in Zea mays: Structural and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchensky, Celeste; Sánchez, Manuel; Carrillo, Martin; Palacios, Oscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Domínguez-Vera, Jose M; Busi, Maria V; Atrian, Sílvia; Pagani, Maria A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2017-09-01

    Frataxin is a ubiquitous protein that plays a role in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis and iron and heme metabolism, although its molecular functions are not entirely clear. In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes, frataxin is encoded by a single gene, and the protein localizes to mitochondria. Here we report the presence of two functional frataxin isoforms in Zea mays, ZmFH-1 and ZmFH-2. We confirmed our previous findings regarding plant frataxins: both proteins have dual localization in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Physiological, biochemical and biophysical studies show some differences in the expression pattern, protection against oxidants and in the aggregation state of both isoforms, suggesting that the two frataxin homologs would play similar but not identical roles in plant cell metabolism. In addition, two specific features of plant frataxins were evidenced: their ability to form dimers and their tendency to undergo conformational change under oxygen exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. Histochemical studies on reserve substances and enzymes in female gametophyte of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Malik, C P

    1976-01-01

    Cytochemical changes during the early development of maize caryopsis are reported. Changes in the localization of different reserve substances (e.g. polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids) and enzymes (acid phosphatase, esterase, lipase, phosphorylase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and peroxidase) have been studied in unfertilized and fertilized ovules. Before pollination very feeble enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and peroxidase) was observed. Reserve substances were present in low amounts before pollination. Pollination stimulated the accumulation of several substances and enzymes in the tip of the nucellus, micropylar zone. Just prior to, during and after fertilization, the cells in the micropylar zone had strong reaction for several enzymes indicating temporary enhancement of metabolic activity in the micropylar zone. The role of antipodals in the storage of reserve food products and nutrition of embryo and early stages of endosperm development is discussed. The pattern of enzymatic changes within the embryo sac reflected the biochemical changes operative during quiescent and active stages. The nucellus of Zea mays contains many enzymes required for hydrolysis of reserved food substances. A role of acid phosphatase in autolysis of nucellar cells, after fertilization is suggested. Post-fertilization increase in the activity of enzymes and accumulation of reserve materials is interpreted as reflecting a presumed increase in the metabolic rate relative to growth and differentiation.

  14. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Darnhofer, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2008-01-03

    Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignins in the cell wall. Biosynthesis of monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignins, is catalyzed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In the present study we have amplified partial genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) possibly reflecting different levels of selection. Associations with forage quality traits were identified for several individual polymorphisms within the 4CL1, C3H, and F5H genomic fragments when controlling for both overall population structure and relative kinship. A 1-bp indel in 4CL1 was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM), a non-synonymous SNP in C3H was associated with IVDOM, and an intron SNP in F5H was associated with neutral detergent fiber. However, the C3H and F5H associations did not remain significant when controlling for multiple testing. While the number of lines included in this study limit the power of the association analysis, our results imply that genetic variation for forage quality traits can be mined in phenylpropanoid pathway genes of elite breeding lines of maize.

  15. Identification and characterization of the RCI2 gene family in maize (Zea mays)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yang Zhao; Haiqing Tong; Ronghao Cai; Xiaojian Peng; Xiaoyu Li; Defang Gan; Suwen Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Rare-cold-inducible (RCI2) genes are structurally conserved members that encode small, highly hydrophobic proteins involved in response to various abiotic stresses. Phylogenetic and functional analyses of these genes have been conducted in Arabidopsis, but an extensive investigation of the RCI2 gene family has not yet been carried out in maize. In the present study, 10 RCI2 genes were identified in a fully sequenced maize genome. Structural characterization and expression pattern analysis of 10 ZmRCI2s (Zea mays RCI2 genes) were subsequently determined. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that ZmRCI2s are highly conserved, and most of them could be grouped with their orthologues from other organisms. Chromosomal location analysis indicated that ZmRCI2s were distributed unevenly on seven chromosomes with two segmental duplication events, suggesting that maize RCI2 gene family is an evolutionarily conserved family. Putative stress-responsive cis-elements were detected in the 2-kb promoter regions of the 10 ZmRCI2s. In addition, the 10 ZmRCI2s showed different expression patterns in maize development based on transcriptome analysis. Further, microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that each maize RCI2 genes were responsive to drought stress, suggesting their important roles in drought stress response. The results of this work provide a basis for future cloning and application studies of maize RCI2 genes.

  16. Protein Changes in Response to Pyrene Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-You Xu; Ying-Xu Chen; Wei-Xiang Wu; Shao-Jian Zheng; Sheng-Guo Xue; Shi-Ying Yang; Yi-Jin Peng

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a relatively new approach to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the environment. When plants are grown under pyrene treatment, they respond by synthesizing a set of protective proteins. To learn more about protein changes in response to pyrene treatment, we extracted total proteins from the leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) 1 week after pyrene treatment. The proteins extracted were separated with twodimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, approximately 54 protein spots were found by comparing gels from treated and control groups. According to the isoelectric point, molecular weight, and abundance of these protein spots, 20 pyrene-induced proteins were found to have changed abundance. Of these, 15 protein spots were increased and five protein spots were newly appeared in pyrene-treated plant leaves. Six model upregulated protein spots of different molecular weights were excised from the gels and subjected to trypsin digestion followed by peptide separation using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Peptlde masses were used to search the matrix-science database for protein identification. Two of the proteins were identified on the basis of the homology of their peptide profiles with existing protein sequences as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase and the rlbulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit. These proteins are involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and energy metabolism. The present study gives new insights into the pyrene stress response in maize leaves and demonstrates the power of the proteomlc approach in phytoremediation of PAHs.

  17. Characterization and expression of an antifungal zeamatin-like protein (Zlp) gene from Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehorn, D E; Borgmeyer, J R; Smith, C E; Shah, D M

    1994-12-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a basic thaumatin-like protein of Zea mays was recovered from a mid-development seed cDNA library. The gene, Zlp, encoded a protein that was nearly identical with maize zeamatin and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. Expression of Zlp mRNA was highest in the endosperm tissue of seed 4 weeks after pollination. Expression of zeamatin-like (ZLP) protein correlated with mRNA; also, a low basal level of ZLP expression in leaf was not appreciably induced by abiotic stresses. ZLP was expressed with its own signal peptide in insect cells and in transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants. ZLP was secreted in all three systems, with correct processing of the signal peptide. ZLP expressed in transgenic tomato was found to be partially subjected to a proteolytic cleavage after residue 180, by an unknown mechanism, to give a "nicked" isoform of ZLP. Purified ZLP from all three sources, as well as purified "nicked" ZLP from tomato, demonstrated fungal inhibition against Candida albicans and Trichoderma reesei, with marginal inhibition observed against Alternaria solani and Neurospora crassa.

  18. Root cap removal increases root penetration resistance in maize (Zea mays L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Morio; Higuchi, Toshifumi; Barlow, Peter W; Bengough, A Glyn

    2003-09-01

    The root cap assists the passage of the root through soil by means of its slimy mucilage secretion and by the sloughing of its outer cells. The root penetration resistance of decapped primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Mephisto) was compared with that of intact roots in loose (dry bulk density 1.0 g cm-3; penetration resistance 0.06 MPa) and compact soil (1.4 g cm-3; penetration resistance 1.0 MPa), to evaluate the contribution of the cap to decreasing the impedance to root growth. Root elongation rate and diameter were the same for decapped and intact roots when the plants were grown in loose soil. In compacted soil, however, the elongation rate of decapped roots was only about half that of intact roots, whilst the diameter was 30% larger. Root penetration resistances of intact and decapped seminal axis were 0.31 and 0.52 MPa, respectively, when the roots were grown in compacted soil. These results indicated that the presence of a root cap alleviates much of the mechanical impedance to root penetration, and enables roots to grow faster in compacted soils.

  19. Physiological Responses of Zea mays Seedlings to Interactions Between Cadmium and Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μmol/L Cd2+ (Cd(NO3)2·4H2O) and 0, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaCl on growth,photosynthesis and the content of some ions in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated in the present study. With increasing concentrations of Cd2+ or NaCl alone in Hoagland nutrient solution, the chlorophylls and starch content decreased. Combination treatment with salinity and cadmium increased the negative effects observed following the two stresses alone. Plants exhibiting growth retardation in response to one mild stress factor (25-50 mmol/L NaCl) became more tolerant to the other stress factor (Cd). The exposure of plants to cadmium caused a partial reversal of the effects of salinity. Root and shoot growth, ion accumulation and levels of photosynthetic pigments were improved at moderate concentrations of the two stress factors imposed jointly.

  20. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene confers drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Xiao, Yitao; Yue, Yuesen; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5) in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC) and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT) maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses.

  1. Identification and characterization of the RCI2 gene family in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Tong, Haiqing; Cai, Ronghao; Peng, Xiaojian; Li, Xiaoyu; Gan, Defang; Zhu, Suwen

    2014-12-01

    Rare-cold-inducible (RCI2) genes are structurally conserved members that encode small, highly hydrophobic proteins involved in response to various abiotic stresses. Phylogenetic and functional analyses of these genes have been conducted in Arabidopsis, but an extensive investigation of the RCI2 gene family has not yet been carried out in maize. In the present study, 10 RCI2 genes were identified in a fully sequenced maize genome. Structural characterization and expression pattern analysis of 10 ZmRCI2s (Zea mays RCI2 genes) were subsequently determined. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that ZmRCI2s are highly conserved, and most of them could be grouped with their orthologues from other organisms. Chromosomal location analysis indicated that ZmRCI2s were distributed unevenly on seven chromosomes with two segmental duplication events, suggesting that maize RCI2 gene family is an evolutionarily conserved family. Putative stress-responsive cis-elements were detected in the 2-kb promoter regions of the 10 ZmRCI2s. In addition, the 10 ZmRCI2s showed different expression patterns in maize development based on transcriptome analysis. Further, microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that each maize RCI2 genes were responsive to drought stress, suggesting their important roles in drought stress response. The results of this work provide a basis for future cloning and application studies of maize RCI2 genes.

  2. Computational Study on Substrate Specificity of a Novel Cysteine Protease 1 Precursor from Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine protease 1 precursor from Zea mays (zmCP1 is classified as a member of the C1A family of peptidases (papain-like cysteine protease in MEROPS (the Peptidase Database. The 3D structure and substrate specificity of the zmCP1 is still unknown. This study is the first one to build the 3D structure of zmCP1 by computer-assisted homology modeling. In order to determine the substrate specificity of zmCP1, docking study is used for rapid and convenient analysis of large populations of ligand–enzyme complexes. Docking results show that zmCP1 has preference for P1 position and P2 position for Arg and a large hydrophobic residue (such as Phe. Gly147, Gly191, Cys189, and Asp190 are predicted to function as active residues at the S1 subsite, and the S2 subsite contains Leu283, Leu193, Ala259, Met194, and Ala286. SIFt results indicate that Gly144, Arg268, Trp308, and Ser311 play important roles in substrate binding. Then Molecular Mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA method was used to explain the substrate specificity for P1 position of zmCp1. This study provides insights into the molecular basis of zmCP1 activity and substrate specificity.

  3. Non-destructive leaf area measurement in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Ismail; Oner, Fatih; Mut, Zeki

    2009-09-01

    In this research, leaf area prediction model was developed for some leaf-used maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars namely Coluna, Luce, Maveric, Ranchero, TTM-813, Zamora and RX-788 grown in Black Sea region of Turkey. Lamina width, length and leaf area were measured without destroying the leaf to develop the models. The actual leaf areas of the plants were measured by PLACOM Digital Planimeter and multiple regression analysis with Excel 2003 computer package program was performed for the plants separately. The produced leaf area prediction models in the present study were formulized as LA = a - (b x W2) + [c x (W x L)] where LA is leaf area, W is leaf width, L is leaf length and a, b, c are coefficiencies. R2 values for maize cultivars tested varied with species from 0.95 in Luce to 0.98 in Maveric. All R2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.001 level.

  4. Accumulation of Hydrocarbons by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Changjun; Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chen; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This study has investigated the use of screened maize for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil. Pots experiment was carried out for 60 days by transplanting maize seedlings into spiked soils. The results showed that certain amount of crude oil in soil (≤2 147 mg·kg(-1)) could enhance the production of shoot biomass of maize. Higher concentration (6 373 mg·kg(-1)) did not significantly inhibit the growth of plant maize (including shoot and root). Analysis of plant shoot by GC-MS showed that low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in maize tissues, but PAHs concentration in the plant did not increase with higher concentration of crude oil in soil. The reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon in planted soil was up to 52.21-72.84%, while that of the corresponding controls was only 25.85-34.22% in two months. In addition, data from physiological and biochemical indexes demonstrated a favorable adaptability of maize to crude oil pollution stress. This study suggested that the use of maize (Zea mays L.) was a good choice for remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum within a certain range of concentrations.

  5. Quantitative trait loci for mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) identified using a RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Qinbin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Song, Guiliang; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.), a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs).

  6. Quantitative trait loci for mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L. identified using a RIL population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjun Fu

    Full Text Available To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L., a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs.

  7. Biochemical and Photosynthetic Evaluation of Responses in Zea mays L. Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abu-Muriefah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defense system(s, pigments content and photosynthetic activity as well as some biochemical changes under drought stress were analyzed in maize (Zea mays L. cv. Giza 21 leaves to determine the response of plant to drought stress and to elucidate the role of various protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. It was found that the application of drought stress led to changes in the carbohydrates and protein contents. Total soluble sugars, accumulated in the leavesof water-stressed plants, whereas, starch and protein contents were dropped to a small amounts compared to the control. Furthermore, plants have well-developed defense systems againstreactive oxygen species (ROS, involving both limiting the formation of ROS as well asinstituting its removal. Within a cell, the activities of a range of antioxidant enzymes suchas superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase(APX involved in scavenging ROS were investigated. During dehydrationthe SOD, APX and CAT increased significantly up to 4 days, then declined in their activities but still maintained higher than the control levels this indicates that the defense systems involvedare efficient in the protection of plant cells against oxidation. In addition, there was consistent increase in the lipid peroxidation and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA. The levels of hydrogen peroxide were also elevated during stressing periods. In this study we are reporting the negative response of maize plants toward drought stress especially on the antioxidant enzymatic activity for the prolonged drought effect.

  8. Depth Profiles in Maize ( Zea mays L.) Seeds Studied by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Zepeda-Bautista, R.

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has been used to analyze agricultural seeds and can be applied to the study of seed depth profiles of these complex samples composed of different structures. The sample depth profile can be obtained through the photoacoustic (PA) signal, amplitude, and phase at different light modulation frequencies. The PA signal phase is more sensitive to changes of thermal properties in layered samples than the PA signal amplitude. Hence, the PA signal phase can also be used to characterize layers at different depths. Thus, the objective of the present study was to obtain the optical absorption spectra of maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) by means of PAS at different light modulation frequencies (17 Hz, 30 Hz, and 50 Hz) and comparing these spectra with the ones obtained from the phase-resolved method in order to separate the optical absorption spectra of seed pericarp and endosperm. The results suggest the possibility of using the phase-resolved method to obtain optical absorption spectra of different seed structures, at different depths, without damaging the seed. Thus, PAS could be a nondestructive method for characterization of agricultural seeds and thus improve quality control in the food industry.

  9. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  10. Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Smith, H. S.

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage.

  11. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  12. Starch Mobilization in Ultradried Seed of Maize (Zea mays L.) During Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng WANG; Xin-Ming JING; Jian LIN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ultradry storage on the starch mobilization in maize (Zea mays L.) seed after aging were investigated. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the content of ATP,starch, and soluble sugar, as well as the activity of amylase, between ultradried seeds and seeds stored at -20 ℃ during germination. These results were consistent with the higher level of vigor of the ultradried seed. Sieve tube introduction of a fluorescence dye (carboxyl fluoresceindiacetate) and laser confocal microscopy were used to study the development of plasmodesmata in the ultradried seeds. The results indicated that plasmodesmata developed well in ultradried seeds. Fluorescence analysis also showed that the fluorescence intensity in the radicle of ultradried seeds was stronger than that in seeds with a higher moisture content. This suggests that ultradry treatment has no adverse effects on the seeds. After seed imbibition, cell orgaelles could be resumed. It is concluded that ultradry seed storage is beneficial for maintaining seed vigor and that starchy mobilization proceeds regularly during germination.

  13. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  14. Substrate geometry controls the cyclization cascade in multiproduct terpene synthases from Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattekkatte, Abith; Gatto, Nathalie; Köllner, Tobias G; Degenhardt, Jörg; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Multiproduct terpene synthases TPS4-B73 and TPS5-Delprim from maize (Zea mays) catalyze the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and geranyl diphosphate (GDP) into a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, respectively. Various isotopic and geometric isomers of natural substrates like (2Z)-[2-(2)H]- and [2,4,4,9,9,9-(2)H6]-(GDP) and (2Z,6E)-[2-(2)H]- and [2,4,4,13,13,13-(2)H6]-(FDP) were synthesized analogous to presumptive reaction intermediates. On incubation with labeled (2Z) substrates, TPS4 and TPS5 showed much lower kinetic isotope effects than the labeled (2E) substrates. Interestingly, the products arising from the deuterated (2Z)-precursors revealed a distinct preference for cyclic products and exhibited an enhanced turnover on comparison with natural (2E)-substrates. This increase in the efficiency due to (2Z) configuration emphasizes the rate limiting effect of the initial (2E) → (2Z) isomerization step in the reaction cascade of the multiproduct terpene synthases. Apart from turnover advantages, these results suggest that substrate geometry can be used as a tool to optimize the biosynthetic reaction cascade towards valuable cyclic terpenoids.

  15. Selection of inbred maize (Zea mays L.) progenies by topcrosses conducted in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C S; Pacheco, C A P; Guedes, M L; Pinho, R G V; Castro, C R

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this study was to identify inbred progenies of S0:1 maize (Zea mays L.) plants that were efficient at a low level of technology and responsive at a high level of technology through the use of topcrosses. Two contrasting environments were created using two levels of base fertilization and topdressing, so that the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were applied four times higher in one environment than in the other. We used S0:1 progenies derived from commercial hybrids in topcrosses with two testers (an elite line from the flint heterotic group and an elite line from the dent heterotic group). The progenies and three controls were evaluated in an augmented block design in Nossa Senhora das Dores, SE, Brazil in the 2010 crop season. The average grain yield in the high-technological level was 21.44% greater than that in the low-technological level. There were no changes in progeny behavior in the two technological levels for grain yield. The testers did not differ in the average grain yield of the progenies at the two technological levels. Therefore, it is possible to select progenies derived from commercial hybrids that have an efficient response to fertilization.

  16. Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck-Soo; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Owens, Gary; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed tidal land soil (RTLS) often contains high levels of soluble salts and exchangeable Na that can adversely affect plant growth. The current study examined the effect of biochar on the physicochemical properties of RTLS and subsequently the influence on plant growth performance. Rice hull derived biochar (BC) was applied to RTLS at three different rates (1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w)) and maize (Zea mays L.) subsequently cultivated for 6weeks. While maize was cultivated, 0.1% NaCl solution was supplied from the bottom of the pots to simulate the natural RTLS conditions. Biochar induced changes in soil properties were evaluated by the water stable aggregate (WSA) percentage, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), soil organic carbon contents, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable cations. Plant response was measured by growth rate, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Application of rice hull derived biochar increased the soil organic carbon content and the percentage of WSA by 36-69%, while decreasing the ESP. The highest dry weight maize yield was observed from soil which received 5% BC (w/w), which was attributed to increased stability of water-stable aggregates and elevated levels of phosphate in BC incorporated soils. Moreover, increased potassium, sourced from the BC, induced mitigation of Na uptake by maize and consequently, reduced the impact of salt stress as evidenced by overall declines in the antioxidant activities of APX and GR.

  17. Response of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt) to different concentration treatments of deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ragbet Ezgi; Kilic, Semra; Coskun, Yasemin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the deltamethrin pesticide on the biological properties of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt). Maize seeds were exposed to environmentally relevant dosages (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm) of deltamethrin. On the 7th day of germination, morphological, anatomical and physiological responses were determined. All seedling growth characters were decreased with increasing deltamethrin levels. The most negative effect on the radicle length of maize was observed by the highest deltamethrin concentration with a 61% decrease (P <0.05). Both stomatal density and stomatal dimension reduction were caused by increasing concentrations of deltamethrin. Moreover, the pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and caretonoids decreased with the increase in deltamethrin concentration. Conversely, anthocyanin and proline content increased in parallel with deltamethrin concentration. As a result, all morphological traits and pigments except for proline and anthocyanin were significantly reduced with an increase in pesticide concentration, compared to control (P <0.05).

  18. Comparative effectiveness of metal ions in inducing curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.; Stinemetz, C. L.; Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; Koon, E. C.; Higby, M. A.; Smucker, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    We used five cultivars of Zea mays (Bear Hybrid WF9 * 38MS, B73 * Missouri 17, Yellow Dent, Merit, and Great Lakes Hybrid 422) to reinvestigate the specificity of metal ions for inducing root curvature. Of 17 cations tested, 6 (Al3+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) induced curvature. Roots curved away from Al3+, Ba2+, and Cd2+. Roots curved away from low (0.1 millimolar) concentrations of Cu2+ but toward higher (1-5 millimolar) concentrations. Roots initially curved away from Zn2+ but the direction of the subsequent curvature was unpredictable. In most cases, roots of all cultivars curved towards calcium. However, in some tests there was no response to calcium or even (especially in the cultivars Merit and B73 * Missouri 17) substantial curvature away from calcium. The results indicate that the induction of root curvature is not specific for calcium. The results are discussed relative to the possible role of calmodulin as a mediator of ion-induced root curvature.

  19. Plant species coexistence alleviates the impacts of lead on Zea mays L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruyi Yang; Ling Liu; Shuting Zan; Jianjun Tang; Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Whether plant coexistence can reduce the impacts of lead(Pb)on crops in agroecosystems has not been well understood.We conducted a factorial experiment to investigate the effects of weeds coexisting with maize(Zea mays L.)on Pb accumulation in maize and soil microbes at two Pb levels(ambient and 300 mg/kg).Elevated Pb tended to increase the Pb concentration in maize and decreased soil microbial activity(indicated by the average well color development,AWCD),functional group diversity,as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)colonization and vesicle number of maize.Compared to the monoculture,weeds coexisting with maize reduced the Pb concentrations in the root,leaf,sheath and stem of maize at both seedling and mature stages.In maize-weed mixtures,soil microbial activity and functional group diversity tended to increase for both Pb treatments relative to the monoculture.Furthermore,principal component analysis revealed that the soil microbial community structure changed with the introduction of weeds.The highest Pb accumulation in weeds occurred for the elevated Pb treatment in a three species mixture.The results suggest that multiple plant species coexistence could reduce lead accumulation in crop plants and alleviate the negative impacts on soil microbes in polluted land,thereby highlighting the significance of plant diversity in agroecosystems.

  20. Cytochemical localization of calcium in cap cells of primary roots of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of calcium (Ca) in caps of vertically- and horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays was monitored to determine its possible role in root graviresponsiveness. A modification of the antimonate precipitation procedure was used to localize Ca in situ. In vertically-oriented roots, the presumed graviperceptive (i.e., columella) cells were characterized by minimal and symmetric staining of the plasmalemma and mitochondria. No precipitate was present in plasmodesmata or cell walls. Within 5 min after horizontal reorientation, staining was associated with the portion of the cell wall adjacent to the distal end of the cell. This asymmetric staining persisted throughout the onset of gravicurvature. No staining of lateral cell walls of columella cells was observed at any stage of gravicurvature, suggesting that a lateral flow of Ca through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots does not occur. The outermost peripheral cells of roots oriented horizontally and vertically secrete Ca through plasmodesmata-like structures in their cell walls. These results are discussed relative to proposed roles of root-cap Ca in root gravicurvature.

  1. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L. seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Sytykiewicz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible and Ambrozja (relatively resistant cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid. Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9. However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4 or 24 h (sod9 post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  2. Characterization and Fine Mapping of a Necrotic Leaf Mutant in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing Wang; Shuai Han; Shiyi Zhong; Haizhong Wei; Yanjun Zhang; Yan Zhao; Baoshen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a commercially important crop.Its yield can be reduced by mutations in biosynthetic and degradative pathways that cause death.In this paper,we describe the necrotic leaf (nec-t) mutant,which was obtained from an inbred line,81647.The nec-t mutant plants had yellow leaves with necrotic spots,reduced chlorophyll content,and the etiolated seedlings died under normal growth conditions.Transmission electron microscopy revealed scattered thylakoids,and reduced numbers of grana lamellae and chloroplasts per cell.Histochemical staining suggested that spot formation of nec-t leaves might be due to cell death.Genetic analysis showed that necrosis was caused by the mutation of a recessive locus.Using simple sequence repeat markers,the Nec-t gene was mapped between mmc0111 and bnlg2277 on the short arm of chromosome 2.A total of 1287 individuals with the mutant phenotype from a F2 population were used for physical mapping.The Nec-t gene was located between markers T31 and H8 within a physical region of 131.7 kb.

  3. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L. Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    Full Text Available The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73 and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1 gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity.

  4. Responses of Different Physiological Indices for Maize (Zea mays) to Soil Water Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuan-Zhi; HUANG Ming-Bin; D. N. WARRINGTON

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of plant responses to soil water availability is essential for the development of efficient irrigation strategies.However,notably different results have been obtained in the past on the responses of various physiological indices for different plants to soil water availability.In this study,the responses of various plant processes to soil water availability were compared with data from pot and field plot experiments conducted on maize (Zea mays L.).Consistent results were obtained between pot and field plot experiments for the responses of various relative plant indices to changes in the fraction of available soil water (FASW).A threshold value,where the relative plant indices began to decrease with soil drying,and a lower water limit,where the decline of relative plant indices changed to a very slow rate,were found.Evaporative demand not only influenced the transpiration rate over a daily scale but also determined the difference in transpirational response to soil water availability among the transient,daily and seasonal time scales.At the seasonal scale,cumulative transpiration decreased linearly with soil drying,but the decrease of transpiration from FASW =1 in response to water deficits did not affect dry weight until FASW =0.75.On the other hand,the decrease in dry weight was comparable with plant height and leaf area.Therefore,the plant responses to soil water availability were notably different among various plant indices of maize and were influenced by the weather conditions.

  5. Small amounts of ammonium (NH4+) can increase growth of maize (Zea mays)

    KAUST Repository

    George, Jessey

    2016-09-16

    Nitrate (NOequation image) and ammonium (NHequation image) are the predominant forms of nitrogen (N) available to plants in agricultural soils. Nitrate concentrations are generally ten times higher than those of NHequation image and this ratio is consistent across a wide range of soil types. The possible contribution of these small concentrations of NHequation image to the overall N budget of crop plants is often overlooked. In this study the importance of this for the growth and nitrogen budget of maize (Zea mays L.) was investigated, using agriculturally relevant concentrations of NHequation image. Maize inbred line B73 was grown hydroponically for 30 d at low (0.5 mM) and sufficient (2.5 mM) levels of NOequation image. Ammonium was added at 0.05 mM and 0.25 mM to both levels of NOequation image. At low NOequation image levels, addition of NHequation image was found to improve the growth of maize plants. This increased plant growth was accompanied by an increase in total N uptake, as well as total phosphorus, sulphur and other micronutrients in the shoot. Ammonium influx was higher than NOequation image influx for all the plants and decreased as the total N in the nutrient medium increased. This study shows that agriculturally relevant proportions of NHequation image supplied in addition to NOequation image can increase growth of maize.

  6. A multidrug resistance-associated protein involved in anthocyanin transport in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Christopher Dean; Casati, Paula; Walbot, Virginia

    2004-07-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis is one of the most thoroughly studied enzymatic pathways in biology, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its final stage: the transport of the anthocyanin pigment into the vacuole. We have identified a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), ZmMrp3, that is required for this transport process in maize (Zea mays). ZmMrp3 expression is controlled by the regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis and mirrors the expression of other anthocyanin structural genes. Localization of ZmMRP3 in vivo shows its presence in the tonoplast, the site at which anthocyanin transport occurs. Mutants generated using antisense constructs have a distinct pigmentation phenotype in the adult plant that results from a mislocalization of the pigment as well as significant reduction in anthocyanin content, with no alteration in the anthocyanin species produced. Surprisingly, mutant plants did not show a phenotype in the aleurone. This appears to reflect the presence of a second, highly homologous gene, ZmMrp4, that is also coregulated with the anthocyanin pathway but is expressed exclusively in aleurone tissue. This description of a plant MRP with a role in the transport of a known endogenous substrate provides a new model system for examining the biological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the MRP-mediated transport of plant secondary metabolites.

  7. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of rhizobial inoculation and nitrogen utilization in plant growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMESH K. SINGH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Singh RK, Malik N, Singh S. 2013. Impact of rhizobial inoculation and nitrogen utilization in plant growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 8-14. During the course of growing population demands there has been an increasing interest in exploring the possibility of extending the beneficial interaction between cereals and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Endophytes are a group of microorganism that resides mostly in the intercellular space of various parts of plants including cereals. Assessment of plant growth promoting properties of the five-rhizobial strains belonging to α subclass i.e. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli RRE6 and R. undicola RRE36 and those belonging to β subclass i.e. Burkholderia cepacia (RRE3, RRE5, RRE25 was done by growing maize plants inoculated with these strains. Inoculated maize plants showed a significant increase in plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weight over uninoculated control. R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli RRE6 and B. cepacia RRE5 among the α and β-subclass representatives respectively, gave the best inoculation response. Effect of nitrate supplementation upon maize-RRE6 and RRE5 association was also studied and a significant increase in all the growth parameters and colonization ability was recorded when nitrate was present as a supplement over uninoculated control and maize-RRE6 and RRE5 in absence of external nitrate.

  9. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg

    2003-01-01

    inhibitor heparin, on the other hand, it is stimulated only 0% by polylysine as compared to the human counterpart. The maize holoenzyme activity is more sensitive towards NaCl concentrations higher than those of rhCK2 and treatment with urea showed that rmCK2 holoenzyme was denatured more readily than......Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...... to CK2 from human. Kinetic measurements of the recombinant maize holoenzyme (rmCK2) revealed k(cat) values for ATP and GTP of 4 and 2s(-1), respectively; whereas the recombinant maize catalytic subunit showed almost equal values for ATP and GTP, i.e., ca. 0.8s(-1). A comparison of the k(cat)/K(m) ratio...

  10. Kinetics of Adsorption of Ferrous Ion onto Acid Activated Carbon from Zea Mays Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Baskaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch removal of ferrous ion from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbents such as zea mays dust carbon(ZDC under different experimental conditions were investigated in this study. The process parameters studied include agitation time, initial metal ion concentration, carbon dose, pH and temperature. The adsorption followed first order reaction equation and the rate is mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The adsorption capacity (Qm obtained from the Langmuir isotherm plot were found to 37.17, 38.31, 39.37 and 40.48 mg/g. The temperature variation study showed that the ferrous ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Significant effect on adsorption was observed on varying the pH of the ferrous ion solutions. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms obtained positive ΔH0 value, pH dependent results and desorption of metal ions in mineral acid suggest that the adsorption of ferrous ion on ZDC involves physisorption mechanism.

  11. Genomewide analysis of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain gene family in Zea mays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yue-Min Zhang; Shi-Zhong Zhang; Cheng-Chao Zheng

    2014-04-01

    The investigation of transcription factor (TF) families is a major focus of postgenomic research. The plant-specific ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (ASL) / LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain (LBD) proteins constitute a major zincfinger-like-domain transcription factor family, and regulate diverse biological processes in plants. However, little is known about LBD genes in maize (Zea mays). In this study, a total of 44 LBD genes were identified in maize genome and were phylogenetically clustered into two groups (I and II), together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. The predicted maize LBDs were distributed across all the 10 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the gene structures of maize LBDs were analysed. The expression profiles of the maize LBD genes under normal growth conditions were analysed by microarray data and qRT-PCR. The results indicated that LBDs might be involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes in maize. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genomewide analysis of the maize LBD gene family, which would provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the gene family.

  12. Climate Change Adaptation: Real Time Nitrogen Management in Maize (Zea Mays L. Using Leaf Colour Chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Mathukia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during rabi 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the real time nitrogen management using leaf colour chart (LCC in maize (Zea mays L.. Basal dose of 20-50 kg N-P2O5/ha was applied in all the treatments. Top dressing of 60 or 80 N in form of Urea in two splits at LCC 2, 3, 4 and 5 were compared with fixed time N application [50 kg N/ha at 30 DAS + 30 kg N/ha at 60 days after sowing (DAS]. Top dressing of 50 kg N/ha + 30 kg N/ha when LCC=4 or LCC=5 significantly improved growth and yield attributes viz., plant height, dry matter accumulation/plant, number of leaves/plant, stem diameter, number of internodes/ plant, leaf area index, cob length, cob girth, number of cobs/plant, number of grains/cob, grain weight/plant and 1000-grain weight along with higher grain and stover yields, grain protein content and economic returns over fixed time application of 50 kg N/ha at 30 DAS + 30 kg N/ha at 60 DAS.

  13. EVALUATION OF MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanum IN SUBSTITUTION TO CORN IN DAIRY GOAT RATIONS AVALIAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO (Zea mays EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS EM LACTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Fernandes de souza França

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The adoption of a system in de cerrado region, specially in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, increased the millet grain and forage production in this region, because of its high biomass production potential, which is used as a soil covering in this system. Besides increasing the grain production, considered as a wastage, the millet has been tested as an ingredient in feed formulation to production animals. This research was carried out in the goat production section of the Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, and the aim was to evaluate the substitution of corn by millet grain in the rations formulated to dairy goats. Sixteen alpine dairy goats were distributed in Latin square design and alloted in four treatments with increasing levels of substitution: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66%; T4 - 99%. The data collected were analysed in ANOVA system that indicated no significant effects (P> 0.05 on milk production , milk fat (M.G, ash (MM, total dry extract (EST, unfatty dry extract (ESD, acidity (AC and crioscopy (CRIO, except for the milk protein that was linearly affected (P>0.05.

    KEY-WORDS: Millet; rations; goats; lactation.

    A adoção do sistema de plantio direto na região Centro-Oeste, notadamente nos Estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul, fez com que a cultura do milheto se expandisse na região, tendo em vista o seu alto potencial de produção de biomassa, a qual é utilizada para cobertura morta do solo no referido sistema. Entretanto, além da biomassa, a cultura considerada como um excedente ou subproduto, vem sendo testada na formulação de ração para animais domésticos. O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Setor de Caprinocultura da Escola de Veterinária / UFG, tendo como objetivo avaliar a substitui

  14. Pertumbuhan, Hasil dan Analisis Produksi Tanaman Jagung (Zea mays L. yang Diperlakukan dengan Pupuk Organik dan Biourin di Lahan Kering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUKADANA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth, Yield, and Production Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L. Treated by Organic Fertilizer and Cow Biourine in Dry Land Maize productivity in Bali is still low at around 3.4 ton/ha. Low soil fertility is one of the factors contributable to the low productivity of maize. Soil condition at the research field has low level of fertility with low levels of nitrogen and C-organic. This research aims at finding out the impact of organic fertilizers and cow biourine to the growth and yield of maize in dry land and to analyze it gross margin. Experiment was designed with randomized block design (RBD with two factors and four replications. The dosage of the first factor namely without organic fertilizer, cow organic fertilizer 15 tonnes/ha and worm casting fertilizer 15 tonnes/ha, whereas dosage of cow biourine namely 0 liter, 1.000 liters, 2.000 liters and 3.000 liters/ha respectively for the second factor. The research results show that there is highly significant interaction (p<0.01 between organic fertilizers and cow biourine to the number of leaves aged at 21, 35, 49 and 63 dap, trunk diameter, dry matter weight/plant, number of cobs/plant, and harvest index, however it shows significant interaction (p<0.05 to leave area index (LAI at age 35 dap and soil pH at harvest. The combination of worm casting fertilizer of 15 tonnes/ha with cow biourine 2.000 liters/ha resulted in the highest dry weight of seed/ha to 4,09 tonnes/ha, an increase of 69,71% compared to no fertilizer. The relationship between organic fertilizer and cow biourine to the dry matter yield follows a quadratic pattern, hence 15 tonnes/ ha worm casting fertilizer and 2000 liters/ha of cow biourine resulted in optimum yield from this research. Result from the gross margin analysis shows that revenue received at Rp 8.7935 million based on the price of dry shelled corn at Rp 2.150/kg does not cover the high variable cost at Rp 26.664,500.

  15. FERTILIZER APPLICATION METHODS AND IRRIGATION LEVELS ON EARLY (Zea mays L. DEVELOPMENT FORMAS DE APLICAÇÃO DO FERTILIZANTE E NÍVEIS DE IRRIGAÇÃO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Early corn development (Zea mays L. was evaluated through roots (MR and tops (MA dry matter in a low tunnel greenhouse pot experiment, in a 2x2x4 factorial completely randomized design with three replications, comparing the following treatments: two Oxisols (a sandy Latossolo Vermelho Escuro — LE and a clay Latossolo Roxo - LR; two methods of fertilizer application (soil mixed - A1, and furrow planting line - A2, and four irrigation levels (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% deficit in relation to the evapotranspired water. Significant effects were observed for fertilizer application methods and irrigation levels on MA, with 89,6% higher yield for A2, and MA reduction for increased water stress. There was a significant interaction between soil types and fertilizer application methods on MA, with a larger MA in the LE soil for A1 method, while MA was larger in the LR soil for A2 method. For MR, it was observed a significant effect of soil type and fertilizer application methods, with a larger yield in the LR soil under the A2 form. The findings confirm the importance of adequate soil water supply for nutrient absorption processes, resulting in better plant development. The localized fertilizer application is recommended for Oxisols with higher clay contents and larger phosphorus fixation capacity.

    KEY-WORDS: Fertilizer; irrigation levels; Zea mays.

    O desenvolvimento inicial da cultura do milho (Zea mays L. foi avaliado através da

  16. Chelant-assisted phytoextraction and accumulation of Zn by Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheju, M; Stelescu, I

    2013-10-15

    Zea mays plants were exposed to soils with concentrations of Zn ranging from 64 to 1800 mg kg(-1) dw, and the efficiency of three selected chelating agents (trisodium citrate (CI), disodium oxalate (OX) and disodium dihydrogen ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate (EDTA)) in enhancing metal phytoextraction was compared. Zn concentration in plant tissues increased in conjunction with the metal concentration of the soil. EDTA was found to be the most efficient chelating amendment, increasing concentrations of Zn in shoots from 88 mg kg(-1) dw, at 64 mg kg(-1) dw soil, to 8026 mg kg(-1) dw at 1800 mg kg(-1) dw soil. The overall orders of BCFs and TFs which resulted from this study are: EDTA > H2O > OX > CI, and EDTANa2 > OX > CI > H2O, respectively. The more effective uptake of Zn by plants for the control treatment (distilled water only) than for CI and OX was attributed to the neutral or slightly alkaline pH of the two chelant irrigation solutions. Instead, EDTA had a favorable effect on Zn uptake from soil due to its additive chelating and acidifying properties. Among the three chelants, only EDTA significantly increased the Zn phytoextraction potential of Z. mays, while CI and OX induced a low metal uptake from soil by plants. Although Z. mays has a lower Zn accumulation capacity than the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, it could be considered as a potential phytoremediator of soils with elevated Zn concentrations, especially when metal pollution extends to depths greater than 20 cm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Cadmium on Polar Lipid Composition and Unsaturation in Maize (Zea mays) in Hydroponic Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhouane Chaffai; Tinni Nouhou Seybou; Brahim Marzouk; Ezzedine El Ferjani

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Cd exposure (100 μmol/L) on polar lipid composition, and to examine the level of fatty acid unsaturation in maize (Zea mays L.).In roots, the level of 16:0 and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1+18:1)decreased in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE).In contrast, the proportion of unsaturated 18-C fatty acid species showed an opposite response to Cd.The content, on the other hand, of PC, PE, digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and steryl lipids increased in roots (2.9-, 1.6-, 5.3-, and 1.7-fold increase, respectively).These results suggest that a more unsaturated fatty acid composition than found in control plants with a concomitant increase in polar lipids may favor seedling growth during Cd exposure.However, the observed increase in the steryl lipid (SL) : phospholipid (PL) ratio (twofold), the decrease in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) : DGDG ratio, as well as the induction of lipid peroxidation in roots may represent symptoms of membrane injury.In shoots, the unsaturation level was markedly decreased in PC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) after Cd exposure, but showed a significant increase in sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG),MGDG and DGDG.The content of PG and MGDG was decreased by about 65%, while PC accumulated to higher levels (4.4-fold increase).Taken together, these changes in the polar lipid unsaturation and composition are likely to be due to alterations in the glycerolipid pathway.These results also support the idea that the increase in overall unsaturation plays some role in enabling the plant to withstand the metal exposure.

  18. Observations on the effects of some air pollutants on Zea mays leaf tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cireli, B.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of pollutants contained in factory chimney gases of a cement factory on corn seedlings were studied. Plants exposed to pollutants showed growth inhibition and appeared lighter green than control plants. Under the light microscope, large intercellular areas were observed between atypical epidermal, palisade, and spongy cells. Contents of palisade and spongy parenchyma cells were accumulated at certain regions of the cell and chloroplasts changed in shape. Electron microscopic examination of control plants showed mesophyll cells with normal ultrastructure. In the gas exposed plants, breaking of the cell wall at certain points was observed as well as cytoplasm accumulation at certain regions of the cell and occurrence of large vacuolar structures within the cytoplasm. It may be concluded that air pollutants, affecting metabolic activities within the cell, give rise to anatomical and cytological modifications in the palisade parenchyma. 21 references, 5 figures.

  19. Expression and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Robert B; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Cohen, David; Chevalier, Adrien S; Uehlein, Norbert; Hachez, Charles; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Le Thiec, Didier; Chaumont, François

    2014-10-01

    Stomata, the microscopic pores on the surface of the aerial parts of plants, are bordered by two specialized cells, known as guard cells, which control the stomatal aperture according to endogenous and environmental signals. Like most movements occurring in plants, the opening and closing of stomata are based on hydraulic forces. During opening, the activation of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters results in solute accumulation in the guard cells. To re-establish the perturbed osmotic equilibrium, water follows the solutes into the cells, leading to their swelling. Numerous studies have contributed to the understanding of the mechanism and regulation of stomatal movements. However, despite the importance of transmembrane water flow during this process, only a few studies have provided evidence for the involvement of water channels, called aquaporins. Here, we microdissected Zea mays stomatal complexes and showed that members of the aquaporin plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are expressed in these complexes and that their mRNA expression generally follows a diurnal pattern. The substrate specificity of two of the expressed ZmPIPs, ZmPIP1;5 and ZmPIP1;6, was investigated by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and yeast cells. Our data show that both isoforms facilitate transmembrane water diffusion in the presence of the ZmPIP2;1 isoform. In addition, both display CO2 permeability comparable to that of the CO2 diffusion facilitator NtAQP1. These data indicate that ZmPIPs may have various physiological roles in stomatal complexes.

  20. Superoxide-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhuan; Tran, Thu; Padilla Marcia, Carmen S; Braun, David M; Goggin, Fiona L

    2017-08-01

    Superoxide (O2(-)) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in response to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Different ROS have been reported to elicit different transcriptional responses in plants, and so ROS-responsive marker genes and promoter::reporter gene fusions have been proposed as indirect means of detecting ROS and discriminating among different species. However, further information about the specificity of transcriptional responses to O2(-) is needed in order to assess potential markers for this critical stress-responsive signaling molecule. Using qRT-PCR, the expression of 12 genes previously reported to be upregulated by O2(-) was measured in Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to elicitors of common stress-responsive ROS: methyl viologen (an inducer of O2(-)), rose bengal (an inducer of singlet oxygen, (1)ΔO2), and exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Surprisingly, Zinc-Finger Protein 12 (AtZAT12), which had previously been used as a reporter for H2O2, responded more strongly to O2(-) than to H2O2; moreover, the expression of an AtZAT12 promoter-reporter fusion (AtZAT12::Luc) was enhanced by diethyldithiocarbamate, which inhibits dismutation of O2(-) to H2O2. These results suggest that AtZAT12 is transcriptionally upregulated in response to O2(-), and that AtZAT12::Luc may be a useful biosensor for detecting O2(-) generation in vivo. In addition, transcripts encoding uncoupling proteins (AtUCPs) showed selectivity for O2(-) in Arabidopsis, and an AtUCP homolog upregulated by methyl viologen was also identified in maize (Zea mays L.), indicating that there are O2(-)-responsive members of this family in monocots. These results expand our limited knowledge of ROS-responsive gene expression in monocots, as well as O2(-)-selective responses in dicots. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation of fipronil by Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila isolated from rhizospheric soil of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Shivani; Paliwal, Rashmi; Sharma, R K; Rai, J P N

    2016-06-01

    Fipronil is a widely used insecticide in agriculture and can cause potential health hazards to non-target soil invertebrates and nearby aquatic systems. In the present study, a fipronil degrading bacterium was isolated from fipronil contaminated soil, i.e. rhizospheric zone of Zea mays. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of strain indicated that it clearly belongs to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (accession no. KJ396942). A three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface modeling was employed to predict the optimum conditions for fipronil degradation. The optimum pH, temperature and total inocula biomass for the degradation of fipronil were 7.5, 35 °C and 0.175 g L(-1), respectively. The bacterial strain was able to metabolize 25 mg L(-1) fipronil with 86.14 % degradation in Dorn's broth medium under optimum conditions. Metabolites formed as a result of fipronil degradation were characterized with gas liquid chromatograph. A novel fipronil degradation pathway was proposed for S. acidaminiphila on the basis of metabolites formed. Non-sterilized soil inoculated with S. acidaminiphila was found to follow first order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.046 d(-1). Fipronil sulfone, sulfide and amide were formed as the metabolites and were degraded below the quantifiable limit after 90 days of time period. Given the high fipronil degradation observed in the present study, S. acidaminiphila may have potential for use in bioremediation of fipronil contaminated soils.

  2. Modulation of thiamine metabolism in Zea mays seedlings under conditions of abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Kowalska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The responses of plants to abiotic stress involve the up-regulation of numerous metabolic pathways, including several major routes that engage thiamine diphosphate (TDP)-dependent enzymes. This suggests that the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1) and its phosphate esters in plants may be modulated under various stress conditions. In the present study, Zea mays seedlings were used as a model system to analyse for any relation between the plant response to abiotic stress and the properties of thiamine biosynthesis and activation. Conditions of drought, high salt, and oxidative stress were induced by polyethylene glycol, sodium chloride, and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The expected increases in the abscisic acid levels and in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were found under each stress condition. The total thiamine compound content in the maize seedling leaves increased under each stress condition applied, with the strongest effects on these levels observed under the oxidative stress treatment. This increase was also found to be associated with changes in the relative distribution of free thiamine, thiamine monophosphate (TMP), and TDP. Surprisingly, the activity of the thiamine synthesizing enzyme, TMP synthase, responded poorly to abiotic stress, in contrast to the significant enhancement found for the activities of the TDP synthesizing enzyme, thiamine pyrophosphokinase, and a number of the TDP/TMP phosphatases. Finally, a moderate increase in the activity of transketolase, one of the major TDP-dependent enzymes, was detectable under conditions of salt and oxidative stress. These findings suggest a role of thiamine metabolism in the plant response to environmental stress.

  3. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  4. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  5. Ultrastructure and histology of organogenesis induced from shoot tips of maize (Zea mays, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Marín-Méndez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot tips of maize (Zea mays L. were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l BA +1 mg/l 2,4-D +40 mg/l, to investigate phases of ontogenetic development. The study used light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electronic microscopy techniques. Shoot tips of maize are composed of small cells with a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. The process of organogenesis began with swelling of the shoot tip, as the first evidence of organogenic calli formation observed three weeks after culture get started. There were two morphologically different types of cells within the organogenic calli. The layer consisted of large cells with small nucleus, free-organelle cytosol, irregular plasmatic membrane, trichome-like structures, and thick cell walls. In the inner cell layer, small and isodiametric cells with a prominent nucleus, small vacuoles, endoplasmatic reticulum, Golgi, mitochondrias and chloroplasts were observed. The presence of trichomes in the more active morphogenic zones could indicate an organogenic potential. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 129-139. Epub 2009 November 30.Los ápices de vástagos de maíz (Zea mays L. fueron cultivados con el medio Murashige y Skoog, utilizando como suplemento 2 mg/l BA +1 mg/l 2,4-D +40 mg/l, con el fin de investigar el proceso organogénico durante las diferentes fases del desarrollo ontogenético. El estudio utilizó tanto microscopía de luz, como técnicas de microscopía electrónica. Los análisis histológicos revelaron que los vástagos de maíz están compuestos de pequeñas células con citoplasma denso y núcleo prominente. El proceso de organogénesis inicia con el engrosamiento del ápice del vástago, como primera evidencia de la formación organogénica del calli observada tres semanas después del inicio del cultivo. El estudio ultraestructural muestra dos tipos de células morfológicamente diferentes en el calli organogénico. La capa externa consiste de

  6. NILAI INDEKS GLIKEMIK BEBERAPA JENIS PENGOLAHAN JAGUNG MANIS (Zea mays saccharata Sturt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nur Amalia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The implementation of glycemic index can be used as basis for selecting carbohydrate food source to enhance and or to maintain health. The objective the following study was to analyze the glycemic indices of sweet corn with three different cooking methods.  Glycemic index values of boiled, sauted and grilled sweet corn were 41.22, 31.08 and 55.31 respectively. Based on those results, grilled sweet corn was classified as food with medium glycemic index, whereas both of boiled and sauted sweet corn were classified as food with low glycemic index. Key words: glycemic index, sweet corn

  7. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ling Wang; Tao Li; Gao-yuan Liu; Joshua M. Smith; Zhi-wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under...

  8. Enhanced uptake of As, Zn, and Cu by Vetiveria zizanioides and Zea mays using chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, K K; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2005-09-01

    Vetiveria zizaniodes (vetiver) is commonly known for its effectiveness in soil and sediment erosion control. It can tolerate to extreme soil conditions and produce a high biomass even growing in contaminated areas. Zea mays (maize) can also produce a very high biomass with a fast growth rate and possesses some degree of metal tolerance. A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using vetiver and maize for remediation of arsenic (As)-, zinc (Zn-), and copper (Cu)-amended soils and evaluate the effects of chelating agents on metal uptake by these plants. Vetiver had a better growth (dry weight yield of root and shoot) than maize under different treatment conditions. The effects of different chelating agents on As, Zn, and Cu extraction from soil to soil solution were studied. Among the nine chelating agents used, it was noted that 20 mmol NTA could maximize As and Zn bioavailability, while 20 mmol HEIDA could maximize Cu bioavailability in the soil solution. The surge time in maximizing metal uptake ranged from 16 to 20 days which indicated that timing on plant harvest was an important factor in enhanced metal accumulation. In general, vetiver was a more suitable plant species than maize in terms of phytoextraction of metals from metal-contaminated soil. Application of NTA in As-amended soil and HEIDA in Cu-amended soil at the rate of 20 mmol kg(-1) increased 3-4-fold of As and Cu in shoot of both plants, whereas application of NTA (20 mmol kg(-1)) increased 37- and 1.5-fold of Zn accumulation in shoot of vetiver and maize, respectively. The potential environmental risk of metal mobility caused by chelating agents used for phytoextraction should not be overlooked.

  9. Optimum prediction of three-way crosses from single crosses in forage maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Geiger, H H; Seitz, G; Schmidt, G A

    1987-07-01

    Three-way cross means were predicted with formulae involving linear functions of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects estimated from single-cross factorials between genetically divergent populations. Data from an experiment with 66 single-cross and 66 three-way cross forage maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids was used for comparing the prediction formulae. The genotypic correlation (r) between observed and predicted three-way crosses increased with increasing χ, the weighting factor of SCA effects, for plant height and ear dry matter (DM) content. It displayed slightly convex curves for total and stover DM yield, ear percentage, and metabolizable energy content of stover. For Jenkins' method B, r was considerably less than 1.0 for all traits, indicating the presence of epistasis. The square root of heritability (hĜ) of the predicted means decreased with increasing χ, the reduction being small with a greater number of test environments. Using the product r·hĜ as a criterion of efficiency, none of the prediction methods was consistently superior and the differences among them were rather small (< 7.5%) for all traits, irrespective of the number of test environments. We recommend evaluating the GCA of a greater number of lines from each parent population in testcrosses with a small number of elite lines from the opposite population. All possible three-way or double crosses between both sets of lines should be predicted by Jenkins's method C. This procedure allows one to select with a higher intensity among the predicted hybrids and thus should increase the genetic gain.

  10. Towards efficient photosynthesis: overexpression of Zea mays phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandoi, Deepika; Mohanty, Sasmita; Govindjee; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2016-12-01

    Plants with C4 photosynthesis are efficient in carbon assimilation and have an advantage over C3 photosynthesis. In C4 photosynthesis, the primary CO2 fixation is catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Here, we show that overexpression of Zea mays PEPC cDNA, under the control of (35)S promoter, in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in ~7-10 fold higher protein abundance and ~7-10 fold increase in PEPC activity in the transgenic lines than that in the vector control. We suggest that overexpression of PEPC played an anaplerotic role to increase the supply of 4-carbon carboxylic acids, which provided carbon skeletons for increased amino acid and protein synthesis. Higher protein content must have been responsible for increased metabolic processes including chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and respiration. Consequently, the PEPC-overexpressed transgenic plants had higher chlorophyll content, enhanced electron transport rate (ETR), lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and a higher performance index (PI) than the vector control. Consistent with these observations, the rate of CO2 assimilation, the starch content, and the dry weight of PEPC-overexpressed plants increased by 14-18 %, 10-18 %, and 6.5-16 %, respectively. Significantly, transgenics were tolerant to salt stress as they had increased ability to synthesize amino acids, including the osmolyte proline. NaCl (150 mM)-treated transgenic plants had higher variable to maximum Chl a fluorescence (F v/F m) ratio, higher PI, higher ETR, and lower NPQ than the salt-treated vector controls. These results suggest that expression of C4 photosynthesis enzyme(s) in a C3 plant can improve its photosynthetic capacity with enhanced tolerance to salinity stress.

  11. Characterization and Transposon Mutagenesis of the Maize (Zea mays) Pho1 Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Vidal, M. Nancy; Acosta-Segovia, Edith; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Ahern, Kevin R.; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all plants, but also one of the least mobile, and consequently least available, in the soil. Plants have evolved a series of molecular, metabolic and developmental adaptations to increase the acquisition of phosphorus and to maximize the efficiency of use within the plant. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the AtPHO1 protein regulates and facilitates the distribution of phosphorus. To investigate the role of PHO1 proteins in maize (Zea mays), the B73 reference genome was searched for homologous sequences, and four genes identified that were designated ZmPho1;1, ZmPho1;2a, ZmPho1;2b and ZmPho1;3. ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b are the most similar to AtPHO1, and represent candidate co-orthologs that we hypothesize to have been retained following whole genome duplication. Evidence was obtained for the production of natural anti-sense transcripts associated with both ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, suggesting the possibility of regulatory crosstalk between paralogs. To characterize functional divergence between ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, a program of transposon mutagenesis was initiated using the Ac/Ds system, and, here, we report the generation of novel alleles of ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b. PMID:27648940

  12. Kinetics of sup 15 NH sub 4 sup + assimilation in Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, J.R.; Ju, G.C.; Rich, P.J.; Rhodes, D. (EMBRAPA-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Hortalicas-CNPH, Brasilia-D.F. (Brazil) Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Comparative studies of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation were undertaken with a GDH1-null mutant of Zea mays and a related (but not strictly isogenic) GDH1-positive wild type from which this mutant was derived. The kinetics of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation into free amino acids and total reduced nitrogen were monitored in both roots and shoots of 2-week-old seedlings supplied with 5 millimolar 99% ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} via the aerated root medium in hydroponic culture over a 24-h period. The GDH1-null mutant, with a 10- to 15-fold lower total root GDH activity in comparison to the wild type, was found to exhibit a 40 to 50% lower rate of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation into total reduced nitrogen. The lower rates of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation in the mutant was associated with lower rates of labeling of several free amino acids (including glutamate, glutamine-amino N, aspartate, asparagine-amino N, and alanine) in both roots and shoots of the mutant in comparison to the wild type. Qualitatively, these labeling kinetics appear consistent with a reduced flux of {sup 15}N via glutamate in the GDH1-null mutant. However, the responses of the two genotypes to the potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, methionine sulfoximine, and differences in morphology of the two genotypes (particularly a lower shoot:root ratio in the GDH1-null mutant) urge caution in concluding that GDH1 is solely responsible for these differences in ammonia assimilation rate.

  13. Effect of selenite and selenate on plant uptake of cadmium by maize (zea mays)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, K.; Mishra, S.; Srivastava, S. [Dayalbagh Educational Institute (India)

    1996-03-01

    Selenium has been reported to confer tolerance to toxicity of heavy metals including cadmium, a highly toxic and non essential heavy metal, which enters the food chain via plant uptake from soils. Selenium reduces availability of cadmium to plants along with other aspects of its toxicokinetics. When plants are supplied with selenite, selenium concentrations in the xylem exudate are lower than selenate. Most of the selenate was transported as selenate and unidentified organic Se compounds. In contrast, Se distribution among various Se fractions within plants does not depend significantly on whether selenite or selenate was used. Selenium has a strong tendency to form complexes with heavy metals like Cd, Hg, Ag and Tl. It has been suggested that the protective effects of selenium are due to the formation of non toxic Se-metal complexes, although the mechanism by which this protective effect is exerted remains unclear. Studies on the effect of selenium (selenite) and cadmium additions to the soil on their concentrations in lettuce and wheat has indicated the role of selenite in reduction of cadmium uptake. The cletoxifying effect of sodium selenite on cadmium ion in the freshwater fish Potyacuthus cupanus has been reported. The discovery that an element like selenium counteracts the toxicity, chemical carcinogenesis and reduces the plant uptake of other toxic metals, highlights the possibility of existence of a Se-metal interaction mechanism in soil plant systems. The uptake and translocation of root-absorbed chromium supplied through irrigation in the trivalent and hexavalant states in various parts of the onion plant (Allium cepa) grown in soil and sand culture has been recently reported by us. In continuation of that, this preliminary report describes the effect of selenite and selenate pretreatment on the uptake of cadmium in the maize plant (Zea mays).

  14. Zea mays iRS1563: a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rajib; Suthers, Patrick F; Maranas, Costas D

    2011-01-01

    The scope and breadth of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have continued to expand over the last decade. Herein, we introduce a genome-scale model for a plant with direct applications to food and bioenergy production (i.e., maize). Maize annotation is still underway, which introduces significant challenges in the association of metabolic functions to genes. The developed model is designed to meet rigorous standards on gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations, elementally and charged balanced reactions and a biomass reaction abstracting the relative contribution of all biomass constituents. The metabolic network contains 1,563 genes and 1,825 metabolites involved in 1,985 reactions from primary and secondary maize metabolism. For approximately 42% of the reactions direct literature evidence for the participation of the reaction in maize was found. As many as 445 reactions and 369 metabolites are unique to the maize model compared to the AraGEM model for A. thaliana. 674 metabolites and 893 reactions are present in Zea mays iRS1563 that are not accounted for in maize C4GEM. All reactions are elementally and charged balanced and localized into six different compartments (i.e., cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid, peroxisome, vacuole and extracellular). GPR associations are also established based on the functional annotation information and homology prediction accounting for monofunctional, multifunctional and multimeric proteins, isozymes and protein complexes. We describe results from performing flux balance analysis under different physiological conditions, (i.e., photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration) of a C4 plant and also explore model predictions against experimental observations for two naturally occurring mutants (i.e., bm1 and bm3). The developed model corresponds to the largest and more complete to-date effort at cataloguing metabolism for a plant species.

  15. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  16. Pengaruh Jarak Tanam dan Pemangkasan terhadap Kualitas Silase Dua Varietas Jagung (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Karimuna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of crop arrangement and cutting on the silages quality of two varieties of maize (Zea mays L. ABSTRACT. The objective of this experiment was to study the interaction effect of varieties, spacing and cutting on the quality of silage as foodstuff. The experiment had been conducted from January to April, 2007 at the experimental Garden of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Haluoleo. This experiment was arranged in Split-Split plot design with three factors. The first factor was variety as main plot, consisting of BISI-2 variety and local variety; the second factor was space arrangement as sub plot, consisting of 60 cm x 40 cm (J1, 75 cm x 40 cm (J2, 90 cm x 40 cm (J3, the third factor was cutting period as sub plot, consisting of no cutting (Po, cutting on 40 days (P1, and cutting on 55 days (P2. So that there were 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 54 experimental units. Analysis of variance was applied to know the effect of treatment. If so, least significant difference (LSD 0.05 (95 % confidence level was used. Variables observed was plant growth determining silages quality, consisting of quality of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, and water. Results of research revealed that interaction affect of spacing and cutting periods on 40 days of BISI-2 variety gave the best yield of plant growth for plant height. While the local variety tended to adverse effect of cutting. However, the quality of silages of two varieties tended to be similar. Every crop spacing had a positive effect of cutting on 40 days. The best quality of silages of two varieties was resulted from the interaction between spacing 75 cm x 40 cm and cutting of 40 days.

  17. Growth responses of plants to various concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. [Helianthus annuus L. ; Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, K.; Totsuka, T.; Fukuzawa, T.; Tazaki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. and maize Zea mays L. plants in the vegetative phase were exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at 0.0 (control), 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm ( l liter ) for 2 weeks. The growth responses of the plants to NO2 were examined by the techniques of growth analysis. The sunflower plant was more susceptible to NO2 than the maize plant. Exposure to NO2 at 0.2 ppm slightly stimulated the growth of the sunflower plants. The net assimilation rate (NAR) was also significantly increased when the plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm NO2. Exposures to NO2 at 0.5 or more significantly reduced the dry weight of the sunflower plant. Of the component parts, the roots and stems were severely affected, while the leaves were less affected. This resulted in an elevated shoot/root ratio. The net assimilation rate of both species was reduced by the exposures to NO2 at 0.5 ppm or more, while, in contrast, the leaf area ratio (LAR) was increased. The relative growth rate (RGR), the product of the NAR and the LAR, was therefore less affected by NO2. The increase in the LAR was overwhelmingly the result of an increase in the leaf weight ratio (LWR). These results imply that a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency induced by NO2 could be, in part, compensated for by an increase in assimilatory area, suggesting an adaptive growth response of the plants to air pollutant stresses.

  18. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants.

  19. Correlations between gravitropic curvature and auxin movement across gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.

  20. Proliferation of maize (Zea mays L.) roots in response to localized supply of nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, T. C.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants with two primary nodal root axes were grown for 8 d in flowing nutrient culture with each axis independently supplied with NO3-. Dry matter accumulation by roots was similar whether 1.0 mol m-3 NO3- was supplied to one or both axes. When NO3- was supplied to only one axis, however, accumulation of dry matter within the root system was significantly greater in the axis supplied with NO3-. The increased dry matter accumulation by the +N-treated axis was attributable entirely to increased density and growth of lateral branches and not to a difference in growth of the primary axis. Proliferation of lateral branches for the +N axis was associated with the capacity for in situ reduction and utilization of a portion of the absorbed NO3-, especially in the apical region where lateral primordia are initiated. Although reduced nitrogen was translocated to the -N axis, concentrations in the -N axis remained significantly lower than in the +N axis. The concentration of reduced nitrogen, as well as in vitro NO3- reductase activity, was greater in apical than in more basal regions of the +N axis. The enhanced proliferation of lateral branches in the +N axis was accompanied by an increase in total respiration rate of the axis. Part of the increased respiration was attributable to increased mass of roots. The specific respiration rate (micromoles CO2 evolved per hour per gram root dry weight) was also greater for the +N than for the -N axis. If respiration rate is taken as representative of sink demand, stimulation of initiation and growth of laterals by in situ utilization of a localized exogenous supply of NO3- establishes an increased sink demand through enhanced metabolic activity and the increased partitioning of assimilates to the +N axis responds to the difference in sink demand between +N and -N axes.

  1. Genetic and cellular analysis of cross-incompatibility in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxian; Kermicle, Jerry L; Evans, Matthew M S

    2014-03-01

    Three genetic systems conferring cross-incompatibility have been described in Zea mays: Teosinte crossing barrier1-strong (Tcb1-s) found in teosinte, and Gametophyte factor1-strong (Ga1-s) and Ga2-s found in maize and teosinte. The reproductive barrier between maize and some weedy teosintes is controlled by the Tcb1-s locus. Multi-generation inheritance experiments on two independent Tcb1-s lineages show that the Tcb1-s barrier is unstable in some maize lines. Reciprocal crosses between Tcb1-s tester plants and three recombinants in the Tcb1-s mapping region demonstrate that the Tcb1-s haplotype contains separable male and female components. In vivo assays of the dynamics of pollen tube growth and pollen tube morphology during rejection of incompatible pollen in silks carrying the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, or Ga2-s barriers showed that, in all three, pollen tube growth is slower than in compatible crosses at early stages and had ceased by 24 h after pollination. In all three crossing barrier systems, incompatible pollen tubes have clustered callose plugs in contrast to pollen tubes of compatible crosses. Incompatible pollen tubes growing in the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, and Ga2-s silks have different morphologies: straight, curved, and kinked, respectively. The distinct morphologies suggest that these crossing barriers block incompatible pollen through different mechanisms. This study lays the foundation for cloning the Tcb1 genes and provides clues about the cellular mechanisms involved in pollen rejection in the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, and Ga2-s crossing barriers.

  2. Pengaruh Jarak Tanam dan Pemangkasan terhadap Kualitas Silase Dua Varietas Jagung (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Karimuna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of crop arrangement and cutting on the silages quality of two varieties of maize (Zea mays L. ABSTRACT. The objective of this experiment was to study the interaction effect of varieties, spacing and cutting on the quality of silage as foodstuff. The experiment had been conducted from January to April, 2007 at the experimental Garden of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Haluoleo. This experiment was arranged in Split-Split plot design with three factors. The first factor was variety as main plot, consisting of BISI-2 variety and local variety; the second factor was space arrangement as sub plot, consisting of 60 cm x 40 cm (J1, 75 cm x 40 cm (J2, 90 cm x 40 cm (J3, the third factor was cutting period as sub plot, consisting of no cutting (Po, cutting on 40 days (P1, and cutting on 55 days (P2. So that there were 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 54 experimental units. Analysis of variance was applied to know the effect of treatment. If so, least significant difference (LSD 0.05 (95 % confidence level was used. Variables observed was plant growth determining silages quality, consisting of quality of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, and water. Results of research revealed that interaction affect of spacing and cutting periods on 40 days of BISI-2 variety gave the best yield of plant growth for plant height. While the local variety tended to adverse effect of cutting. However, the quality of silages of two varieties tended to be similar. Every crop spacing had a positive effect of cutting on 40 days. The best quality of silages of two varieties was resulted from the interaction between spacing 75 cm x 40 cm and cutting of 40 days.

  3. Zea mays iRS1563: a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Saha

    Full Text Available The scope and breadth of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have continued to expand over the last decade. Herein, we introduce a genome-scale model for a plant with direct applications to food and bioenergy production (i.e., maize. Maize annotation is still underway, which introduces significant challenges in the association of metabolic functions to genes. The developed model is designed to meet rigorous standards on gene-protein-reaction (GPR associations, elementally and charged balanced reactions and a biomass reaction abstracting the relative contribution of all biomass constituents. The metabolic network contains 1,563 genes and 1,825 metabolites involved in 1,985 reactions from primary and secondary maize metabolism. For approximately 42% of the reactions direct literature evidence for the participation of the reaction in maize was found. As many as 445 reactions and 369 metabolites are unique to the maize model compared to the AraGEM model for A. thaliana. 674 metabolites and 893 reactions are present in Zea mays iRS1563 that are not accounted for in maize C4GEM. All reactions are elementally and charged balanced and localized into six different compartments (i.e., cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid, peroxisome, vacuole and extracellular. GPR associations are also established based on the functional annotation information and homology prediction accounting for monofunctional, multifunctional and multimeric proteins, isozymes and protein complexes. We describe results from performing flux balance analysis under different physiological conditions, (i.e., photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration of a C4 plant and also explore model predictions against experimental observations for two naturally occurring mutants (i.e., bm1 and bm3. The developed model corresponds to the largest and more complete to-date effort at cataloguing metabolism for a plant species.

  4. Effect of Microbial inoculation in combating the aluminium toxicity effect on growth of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, P; Singh, G; Tiwari, A

    2017-07-31

    The present study is aimed at improving the aluminium tolerance in maize crop employing the potential of microbial inoculants in conferring resistance to these toxicities via production of certain chelating compounds like siderophores, exopolysachharides and organic acids. Acid soils have now-a-days become one of the key factors for limiting growth of many agriculturally important crops. Aluminium  is one of the major elements present in acid soils and is mainly responsible for toxicity in the soil. This aluminium is rapidly soluble in soil water and hence absorbed by plant roots under conditions where soil pH is below 5. This toxicity leads to severe root growth inhibition, thereby limiting the production of maize crops. It was observed that use of microbial inoculums can be helpful in elimination of these toxic compounds and prevent the inhibition of root growth . It was found that the soils contaminated with aluminium toxicity decreased the root length of maize plant significantly by 65% but Bacillus and Burkholderia inoculation increased this root length significantly by 1.4- folds and 2- folds respectively thereby combating the effect of aluminium toxicity. Aluminium concentration was found maximum in roots of plants which were grown under aluminium stress condition. But this aluminium accumulation decreased ̴ 2-folds when Burkholderia was used as seed inoculants under aluminium stress conditions. Also, at 60mM aluminium accumulation, phosphorus solubilisation in roots was found to be increased upto 30% on Burkholderia inoculation. However, Bacillus inoculation didn't show any significant difference in either of the case. Thus, the inoculation of seeds with Burkholderia isolates could prove to be a boon in sequestering aluminium toxicity in Zea mays.

  5. Activity and multiple forms of peroxidase in Zea mays and Medicago sativa treated and non-treated with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.

    1978-02-11

    The influence of lead on peroxidase was studied in young plants of Zee mays and Medicago sativa grown in solutions of Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The content of nitrate in the control- and the lead-solutions was equalized by NaNO/sub 3/. In the patterns of the multiple forms in roots and leaves of Zea and Medicago qualitatively no, or respectively negligible, change between control and lead-treated plants takes place. The temperature during the lead-treatment does not effect the numbers and the positions of bands. The bands' activity of peroxidase in lead-treated plants differs clearly from untreated plants, resulting in a different activity of the whole enzyme. In the roots and in the leaves of Zea as well as in the leaves of Medicago the relative activity of the peroxidase in lead-treated plants is raised. In the roots of Medicago the relative activity decreased slightly.

  6. A comparison of canopy evapotranspiration between perennial rhizomatous grasses and Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, G.; Bernacchi, C.; Dohleman, F.

    2008-12-01

    Perennial rhizomatous C4 grasses are currently considered one of the most promising vegetation types to accommodate a cellulosic feedstock based liquid fuel economy. The current focus on using these vegetation types as a source of renewable fuel has sparked numerous concerns associated with environmental impacts. Of particular interest is the impact that altering the composition of vegetation at the landscape scale would have on local and regional hydrological cycles. We hypothesize that evapotranspiration, ET, will be higher for perennial grasses relative to maize as a result higher leaf area, higher above-ground biomass and prolonged growing seasons. To test this hypothesis, a technique in which ET is estimated as the residual in the energy balance equation from measurements of net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes was employed. Measurements were made during the 2007 growing season for three replicate plots of the perennial rhizomatous grasses Miscanthus giganteus and Panicum virgatum, as well as for Zea mays planted at the University of Illinois South Farms. When averaged across the entire growing season, ET for M. giganteus was double relative to Z. mays, and 130% of P. virgatum ET. When compared over the periods in which all three species experienced mature and closed canopies (from day of year 200 to 250), M. giganteus still showed higher rates of ET compared with Z. mays, however, the increase was only ~15%. We conclude that ET associated with perennial alternative energy crops are higher relative to annual row crop; with most ET disparity, particularly for P. virgatum, being driven by phenology, quicker canopy closure and a prolonged growing season. Physiological rates of ET were highest for M. giganteus, followed by Z. mays, followed P. virgatum. Differences in phenology were more important than those of physiology for ET overshadowing effects from increased biomass associated with M. giganteus and/or a physiological difference between these

  7. Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

  8. Dehydration stress memory genes of Zea mays; comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposing plants to diverse abiotic stresses may alter their physiological and transcriptional responses to a subsequent stress, suggesting a form of “stress memory”. Arabidopsis thaliana plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress display transcriptional behavior suggesting “memory” from an earlier stress. Genes that respond to a first stress by up-regulating or down-regulating their transcription but in a subsequent stress provide a significantly different response define the ‘memory genes’ category. Genes responding similarly to each stress form the ‘non-memory’ category. It is unknown whether such memory responses exists in other Angiosperm lineages and whether memory is an evolutionarily conserved response to repeated dehydration stresses. Results Here, we determine the transcriptional responses of maize (Zea mays L.) plants that have experienced repeated exposures to dehydration stress in comparison with plants encountering the stress for the first time. Four distinct transcription memory response patterns similar to those displayed by A. thaliana were revealed. The most important contribution is the evidence that monocot and eudicot plants, two lineages that have diverged 140 to 200 M years ago, display similar abilities to ‘remember’ a dehydration stress and to modify their transcriptional responses, accordingly. The highly sensitive RNA-Seq analyses allowed to identify genes that function similarly in the two lineages, as well as genes that function in species-specific ways. Memory transcription patterns indicate that the transcriptional behavior of responding genes under repeated stresses is different from the behavior during an initial dehydration stress, suggesting that stress memory is a complex phenotype resulting from coordinated responses of multiple signaling pathways. Conclusions Structurally related genes displaying the same memory responses in the two species would suggest conservation

  9. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly emerged bollworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) require carbohydrate source from plant exudates and nectars for reproduction. Adults actively seek such feeding sites upon eclosion in their natural habitat. We wanted to evaluate this nocturnal behavior of the bollworm for potential use as a p...

  10. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.M.; Rosentrater, K.A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory

    2007-09-15

    The microbiology of post-production distillers wet grains (DWG) was investigated over a period of 9 days at an industrial ethanol plant. Samples of the DWG were physically and chemically characterized. Compositional analyses were conducted for protein, fiber, and fat. Fixed suspensions of DWG were dispersed and disrupted by sonication. Bacterial cells were enumerated under epifluorescent illumination. Solid media and standard dilution were used to enumerate total colony-forming units (CFU) of lactic-acid producing bacteria (LAB), and aerobic heterotrophic organisms. The DWG had a pH of approximately 4.4, a moisture content of 53.5 per cent, and 4 x 10{sup 5} total yeast cells. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were identified during the study, 10 of which were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera. Two of the yeasts were of the lactic-acid Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, and 1 of the yeasts was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Results showed that the matrix of the DWG produced severe technical difficulties for several of the culture-independent community-level analyses. It was concluded that numbers of potentially beneficial bacteria appeared to increase over the time period relative to potential spoilage agents. Molds capable of producing mycotoxins colonized the DWG and grew to high densities over the 9 day period. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Yielding evaluation of new corn (Zea mays L. hybrids bred by HR Smolice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison was made between 22 new maize hybrids from Hodowla Roślin Smolice Sp. z o.o. The plots were established within trial program of five experimental stations located in 2008, in different soil and climate conditions. The results were compared with mean of three COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing standards. Within 22 tested hybrids, four of them (no. 6 – SMH 0827, no. 14 – SMH 0835, no. 13 – SMH 0834 and no. 8 – SMH 0829 had yielded significantly higher than mean of standards, and one of them (no. 3 – SMH 0824 had significant higher dry matter content than mean of standards. Two hybrids: no. 18 – SMH 0839 and no. 24 – PR39H32 (standard showed break of negative correlation between yield and dry matter content in kernels as their average yields and dry matter content were higher in all cases. Based on Kanga’s measurement and standard deviation procedure, genotypes were selected according to suitability for particular growing regions. The best yielding and stabile hybrids are: no. 14 – SMH 0835 and no. 6 – SMH 0827. The best and stabile dry matter content had: no. 1 – SMH 0822, no. 3 – SMH 0824, no. 11 – SMH 0832 and no. 22 – SMH 0843. Hybrids no. 6 – SMH 0827 and no. 18 – SMH 0839 were selected for testing investigation in COBORU.

  12. Microwave heat treatment of dent corn (Zea mays var. indentata sturt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... energy and high thermal conductivity to the inner sides of the material, space .... seeds which were taken by a digital camera (Creative DV CAM 316; ..... 66: 1-8. Guzmán-Gerónimo IR, López GM, Dorantes-Alvarez L (2008).

  13. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of amilaceous maize (Zea mays L. as assessed by pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Correa-Galeote

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the staple diet of the native peasants in the Quechua region of the Peruvian Andes who continue growing it in small plots called chacras following ancestral traditions. The abundance and structure of bacterial communities associated with the roots of amilaceous maize has not been studied in Andean chacras. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to describe the rhizospheric bacterial diversity of amilaceous maize grown either in the presence or the absence of bur clover cultivated in soils from the Quechua maize belt. Three 16S rRNA gene libraries, one corresponding to sequences of bacteria from bulk soil of a chacra maintained under fallow conditions, the second from the rhizosphere of maize-cultivated soils, and the third prepared from rhizospheric soil of maize cultivated in intercropping with bur clover were examined using pyrosequencing tags spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the gene. A total of 26031 sequences were found that grouped into 5955 distinct operational taxonomic units which distributed in 309 genera. The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from bulk soil. One hundred ninety seven genera were found in the bulk soil library and 234 and 203 were in those from the maize and maize/bur clover-cultivated soils. Sixteen out of the 309 genera had a relative abundance higher than 0.5% and the were (in decreasing order of abundance Gp4, Gp6, Flavobacterium, Subdivision3 genera incertae sedis of the Verrucomicrobia phylum, Gemmatimonas, Dechloromonas, Ohtaekwangia, Rhodoferax, Gaiella, Opitutus, Gp7, Spartobacteria genera incertae sedis, Terrimonas, Gp5, Steroidobacter and Parcubacteria genera incertae sedis. Genera Gp4 and Gp6 of the Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Rhodoferax were the most abundant in bulk soil, whereas Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Ohtaekwangia were the main genera in the rhizosphere

  14. Lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue as a fertilizer substitute for Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar eMaurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e. T1 (No fertilizer; T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha-1; T3 to T6 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant-1, which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant-1 under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  15. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of seabird guano fertilization: results from growth chamber studies with maize (Zea mays.

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    Paul Szpak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stable isotope analysis is being utilized with increasing regularity to examine a wide range of issues (diet, habitat use, migration in ecology, geology, archaeology, and related disciplines. A crucial component to these studies is a thorough understanding of the range and causes of baseline isotopic variation, which is relatively poorly understood for nitrogen (δ(15N. Animal excrement is known to impact plant δ(15N values, but the effects of seabird guano have not been systematically studied from an agricultural or horticultural standpoint. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper presents isotopic (δ(13C and δ(15N and vital data for maize (Zea mays fertilized with Peruvian seabird guano under controlled conditions. The level of (15N enrichment in fertilized plants is very large, with δ(15N values ranging between 25.5 and 44.7‰ depending on the tissue and amount of fertilizer applied; comparatively, control plant δ(15N values ranged between -0.3 and 5.7‰. Intraplant and temporal variability in δ(15N values were large, particularly for the guano-fertilized plants, which can be attributed to changes in the availability of guano-derived N over time, and the reliance of stored vs. absorbed N. Plant δ(13C values were not significantly impacted by guano fertilization. High concentrations of seabird guano inhibited maize germination and maize growth. Moreover, high levels of seabird guano greatly impacted the N metabolism of the plants, resulting in significantly higher tissue N content, particularly in the stalk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented in this study demonstrate the very large impact of seabird guano on maize δ(15N values. The use of seabird guano as a fertilizer can thus be traced using stable isotope analysis in food chemistry applications (certification of organic inputs. Furthermore, the fertilization of maize with seabird guano creates an isotopic signature very similar to a high-trophic level

  16. CRP1 Protein: (dis)similarities between Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Tadini, Luca; Moratti, Fabio; Lehniger, Marie-Kristin; Costa, Alex; Rossi, Fabio; Colombo, Monica; Masiero, Simona; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Biogenesis of chloroplasts in higher plants is initiated from proplastids, and involves a series of processes by which a plastid able to perform photosynthesis, to synthesize amino acids, lipids, and phytohormones is formed. All plastid protein complexes are composed of subunits encoded by the nucleus and chloroplast genomes, which require a coordinated gene expression to produce the correct concentrations of organellar proteins and to maintain organelle function. To achieve this, hundreds of nucleus-encoded factors are imported into the chloroplast to control plastid gene expression. Among these factors, members of the Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR) containing protein family have emerged as key regulators of the organellar post–transcriptional processing. PPR proteins represent a large family in plants, and the extent to which PPR functions are conserved between dicots and monocots deserves evaluation, in light of differences in photosynthetic metabolism (C3 vs. C4) and localization of chloroplast biogenesis (mesophyll vs. bundle sheath cells). In this work we investigated the role played in the process of chloroplast biogenesis by At5g42310, a member of the Arabidopsis PPR family which we here refer to as AtCRP1 (Chloroplast RNA Processing 1), providing a comparison with the orthologous ZmCRP1 protein from Zea mays. Loss-of-function atcrp1 mutants are characterized by yellow-albinotic cotyledons and leaves owing to defects in the accumulation of subunits of the thylakoid protein complexes. As in the case of ZmCRP1, AtCRP1 associates with the 5′ UTRs of both psaC and, albeit very weakly, petA transcripts, indicating that the role of CRP1 as regulator of chloroplast protein synthesis has been conserved between maize and Arabidopsis. AtCRP1 also interacts with the petB-petD intergenic region and is required for the generation of petB and petD monocistronic RNAs. A similar role has been also attributed to ZmCRP1, although the direct interaction of ZmCRP1 with the

  17. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  18. Purification and Partial Characterization of Maize (Zea mays L.) β-Glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Asim

    1992-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) β-glucosidase (β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) was extracted from the coleoptiles of 5- to 6-day-old maize seedlings with 50 millimolar sodium acetate, pH 5.0. The pH of the extract was adjusted to 4.6, and most of the contaminating proteins were cryoprecipitated at 0°C for 24 hours. The pH 4.6 supernatant from cryoprecipitation was further fractionated by chromatography on an Accell CM column using a 4.8 to 6.8 pH gradient of 50 millimolar sodium acetate, which yielded the enzyme in two homogeneous, chromatographically different fractions. Purified enzyme was characterized with respect to subunit molecular weight, isoelectric point, amino acid composition, NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, pH and temperature optima, thermostability, and activity and stability in the presence of selected reducing agents, metal ions, and alkylating agents. The purified enzyme has an estimated subunit molecular mass of 60 kilodaltons, isoelectric point at pH 5.2, and pH and temperature optima at 5.8 and 50°C, respectively. The amino acid composition data indicate that the enzyme is rich in Glx and Asx, the sum of which approaches 25%. The sequence of the first 20 amino acids in the N-terminal region was H2N-Ser-Ala-Arg-Val-Gly-Ser-Gln-Asn-Gly-Val-Gln-Met-Leu-Ser-Pro-(Ser?) -Glu-Ile-Pro-Gln, and it shows no significant similarity to other proteins with known sequence. The enzyme is extremely stable at 0 to 4°C up to 1 year but loses activity completely at and above 55°C in 10 minutes. Likewise, the enzyme is stable in the presence of or after treatment with 500 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol, and it is totally inactivated at 2000 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol. Such metal ions as Hg2+ and Ag+ reversibly inhibit the enzyme at micromolar concentrations, and inhibition could be completely overcome by adding 2-mercaptoethanol at molar excess of the inhibitory metal ion. The alkylating agents iodoacetic acid and iodoacetamide irreversibly inactivate the

  19. Effect of N and P Fertilization on Weed Flora of Maize (Zea Mays L. Crop

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    Nikolina CHEIMONA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available From May to September 2016, a corn hybrid was sown in a field in central Greece. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with six replications and five fertilization treatments, namely NutriSphere-N Nitrogen Fertilizer (75%, NutriSphere-N Nitrogen Fertilizer (100%, AVAIL Phosphorus Fertilizer (75%, AVAIL Phosphorus Fertilizer (100% and unfertilized (control. Data analysis confirmed that the different type of fertilization has a significant effect on the composition of weed flora. In particular, the results of the present study indicated significant differences between the fertilization treatments concerning density and diversity of weeds. Furthermore, weed diversity in the control treatment was highest, while it was lower in plots receiving application of N and P. However, total weed dry mass was lower in plots receiving no fertilizer and P fertilization, and highest in plots receiving N. Differences in terms of weed growth between the two types of fertilization could be attributed to differences revealed in the composition of the weed flora.

  20. Relación específica de las proteínas de reserva en el maíz (Zea mays) y sus parientes silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Magoja, J. L.; Nivio, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    p.255-263 En los maíces normales, el patrón proteico del endosperma es relativamente constante, es decir, entre ellos hay una razonable similitud. Como resultado de ello, este carácter puede ser considerado específico y útil para distinguir al maíz de sus parientes silvestres. Mediante la técnica de Landry-Moureaux se fraccionaron las proteínas de reserva del endosperma en maíz (Zea Mays), teosinte diploperenne (Zea diploperennis) teosinte perenne (Euchlaena perennis igual Zea perennis) y ...

  1. Attempting to monitor the incorporation of deuterium into indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in Zea mays grown on deuterium oxide labeled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P.J.; Bandurski, R.S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    We are attempting to determine when seedlings of Zea mays sweet corn, var. Silver Queen begin de novo biosynthesis of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We wish to use the general precursor, deuterium labeled water, to minimize assumptions as to the biosynthetic route. Protium in positions 2, 4, 5, 6 7 of the indole ring are non-exchangeable. IAA and tryptophan synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway would contain deuterium in one or more of these positions . The protium on the indene nitrogen, the carboxyl, the amino group, or the protium alpha to the carboxyl exchange readily and so are removed prior to analysis by base catalyzed exchange. The IAA, or trypotophan, is then purified by DEAE, Dowex 50, and two HPLC steps. IAA is methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Trytophan is acetylated with triethylamine-acetic anhydride and then methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Results of these studies on plants grown for varying lengths of time and under various light and nutrient conditions will be reported.

  2. UTILIZACIÓN DEL ANÁLISIS DE CLUSTER CON VARIABLES MIXTAS EN LA SELECCIÓN DE GENOTIPOS DE MAÍZ (Zea mays

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    Dunia Chávez Esponda*, Ileana Miranda Cabrera**, Mario Varela Nualles***, Lianne Fernández****

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The cluster analysis or numeric taxonomy is the method that is used to establish individuals' groups, unifying inside oneself group to those elements that have characteristic similar. In the classification methods it plays an important list the index of similarity or it distances used then of it depends it in great measure that the final results have the possible biggest dependability. This index or coefficient is selected according to the variables measures. When there is presence of mixed (quantitative, qualitative and binary variables he/she intends to use the coefficient of Gower, however in the agricultural sphere their use is very scarce. In this work the Analysis of Cluster was used, calculating the distance womb among individuals starting from the coefficient Gower’s similarity, with the objective of to study the agronomic behavior of the experimental varieties of corn (Zea mays and to select genotypes with more resistance potentialities to plagues and that they have bigger growth to use it like base in the genetic cruzamiento. This method allowed to contain and to characterize the studied varieties, that which is of great importance for the investigators to decide if to discard a variety or to follow it cultivating and more important still, to use the genotypes like transgenic plants, aspect that is having excellent results in our country.

  3. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  4. Selection and breeding of corn to enhance associative bacterial nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, S.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Brill, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    We have increased, through screening and breeding, the ability of corn (maize, Zea mays L.) to support bacterial nitrogen fixation in or on corn roots. Isotopic N fixed from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was found on the roots. Even though the nitrogen-fixing association depends on germ plasm from tropical corn, the activity can be bred into corn currently used in midwestern United States agriculture.

  5. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho (Zea mays L. por meio de herbicidas Weed control in maize (Zea mays L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. L. dos Santos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a ação do butylate, aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com atrazine, no controle de plantas daninhas da cultura do milho, foi instalado um experimento de campo em solo fino areno-argiloso. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: butylate a 2,80; 3,60 e 4,32 kg/ha (p.p.i.; butylate + atrazine a 3,24 + 0,80; 3,24 + 1,20 e 3,60 + 0,96 kg/ha (p.p.i.; atrazine a 3,00 kg/ha e atrazine + metolachlor a 1,40 + 2,10 kg/ha, ambos aplicados em pré-emergência e empregados como herbicidas padrão para a cultura. As plantas daninhas encontradas foram: tiririca - Cyperus rotundus L., carurú comum - .:maranthus viridis L., capim de colchão - Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. e capim pé-de-galinha Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate nas três doses apresentou-se bem contra C. rotundus e E. indica; nas doses de 3,60 e 4,32 kg foram obtidos bons resultados sobre D. sanguinalis. Butylate + atrazine controlou, nas três doses, todas as espécies incidentes, o mesmo ocorrendo com a mistura atrazine + metolachlor. Atrazine foi mais eficiente para A. viridis e E. indica. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas foi prejudicial para a cultura.Butylate at 2.80; 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha and butylate + atrazine at. 3.24 + 0.80; 3.24 + 1.20 and 3.60 + 0.96 kg, were applied in preplant incorporated; atrazine at 3.00 kg and atrazine + metolachlor at 1.40 + 2.10 kg were applied in preemergence on corn. The weeds were represented by Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate + atrazine, in all rates, atrazine + metolachlor and atrazine gave good control of the weeds in general. Butylate, in the three rates, controlled C. rotundus and E. indica; at 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha controlled well D. sanguinalis. The herbicides did not cause injuries to the crop.

  6. Heterozygosity of Knob-Associated Tandem Repeats and Knob Instability in Mitotic Chromosomes of Zea (Zea mays L. and Z. diploperennis Iltis Doebley)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong XIONG; Yong LIU; Yong-Gang HE; Yun-Chun SONG; Ke-Xiu LI; Guan-Yuan HE

    2005-01-01

    Knobs are blocks of heterochromatin present on chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L.) and its relatives that have effects on the frequency of genetic recombination, as well as on chromosome behavior.Knob heterozygosity and instability in six maize inbred lines and one Z. diploperennis Iltis Doebley line were investigated using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with knob-associated tandem repeats (180 bp and 350 bp (TR-1)) as probes. Signals of seven heterozygous knobs containing 180-bp repeats and of one heterozygous knob containing TR- 1 were captured in chromosomes of all materials tested according to the results of FISH, which demonstrates that the 180-bp repeat is the main contributor to knob heterozygosity compared with the TR-1 element. In addition, one target cell with two TR-1 signals on one homolog of chromosome 2L, which was different from the normal cells in the maize inbred line GB57,was observed, suggesting knob duplication and an instability phenomenon in the maize genome.

  7. Evaluating the physiological state of maize (Zea mays L.) plants by direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry (DIESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Flores, Martín; Juárez-Colunga, Sheila; Montero-Vargas, Josaphat Miguel; López-Arciniega, Janet Ana Isabel; Chagolla, Alicia; Tiessen, Axel; Winkler, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Climatic change is an increasing challenge for agriculture that is driving the development of suitable crops in order to ensure supply for both human nutrition and animal feed. In this context, it is increasingly important to understand the biochemical responses of cells to environmental cues at the whole system level, an aim that is being brought closer by advances in high throughput, cost-efficient plant metabolomics. To support molecular breeding activities, we have assessed the economic, technical and statistical feasibility of using direct mass spectrometry methods to evaluate the physiological state of maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown under different stress conditions.

  8. Determination of Genetic Coefficients of Some Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars of Iran for Application in Crop Simulation Models

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimi Moghaddam; R. Deihimfard; S Soufizadeh; J Kambouzia; F Nazariyan Firuzabadi; H Eyni Nargeseh

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the research field of the University of Lorestan in 2011 as a randomized complete block design with three replications to estimate genetic coefficients of some maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Treatments include six maize cultivars (T.V.C.767 and S.C.704 from late maturing group, T N.S640 and Maxima from mid-maturing group, and Koppany and D.C.370 from early maturing group). Results showed that there were significant differences among cultivars in terms of st...

  9. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Split Plot dengan tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah Pupuk NPK (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 dan sub-plot adalah aksesi jagung (V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah, V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning, V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma, dan V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. Hasil percobaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf α 5% (Hanafiah, 2005 dengan menggunakan program excel. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun atas dan dibawah tongkol jagung, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbungan betina, umur masak fisiologis, berat tongkol per petak (kg, berat pipilan per petak (kg, berat tongkol per tanaman (g, panjang tongkol isi (cm, lingkar tongkol (cm, berat 100 biji per tanaman (g, dan kandungan protein biji jagung (mg g-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan yang dicobakan pada parameter yang diamati. Perlakuan penambahan pupuk NPK tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata pada semua parameter. Berdasarkan pemilihan karakter, semua aksesi terpilih lebih tinggi dibanding varietas Bisma. Kandungan protein rata-rata aksesi yang diuji yaitu 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; dan 10,10 mg g-1 masing-masing untuk V1, V2, V3, dan V4. Kata Kunci: Pupuk NPK; Aksesi Jagung; Produksi How to citate: Pratikta D, S Hartatik, KA Wijaya. 2013. Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 19-21.

  10. INFLUENCE OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF (Zea mays L. MAIZE GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three years’ research (from 2010 to 2012, conducted on a trial field of the Institute of Agriculture in Osijek, is a part of a long stationary experiment. The objective of the research was the impact of irrigation (main factor, A, nitrogen fertilization (second factor, B, and the genotype (third factor, C on the grain yield and the quality of maize hybrids (Zea mays L. The irrigation scheduling was the main factor where A1 treatment was the control, rain-fed plot. In A2 treatment the soil water content was 60-100% of the field water capacity (FWC, while in the A3 treatment the soil water content was 80 to 100% FWC. Nitrogen fertilization as a sub factor, consisted of the three levels where B1 was the control treatment (0 kg N ha-1. In B2 treatment 100 kg N ha-1 was added, while in B3 treatment 200 kg N ha-1. Fall application (1/3 of all nitrogen was in the form of UREA. The same amount of nitrogen was applied in the pre-sowing period. During the vegetation period, two side dressings with CAN were carried out. The first side dressing (1/6 of nitrogen was done by cultivating the maize in 6-8 leaves phase, while the second one in 8 to 10 leaves phase (1/6 of nitrogen. Four maize hybrids (FAO 500 and 600 were used in the research, C1=OSSK596, C2=OSSK617, C3=OSSK602 and C4=OSSK552. The maize was irrigated by a traveling sprinkler system. The moment of irrigation was set by measuring soil moisture with the Watermark sensor (gypsum block. During the period of the research the weather conditions significantly varied, especially concerning the amount of precipitation. The year 2010 stands out as extremely wet (rainy, when a natural disaster of flood was proclaimed, due to high amount of precipitation, which had an influence on the results of the research. Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in yield in all three years of the research. Grain yield was higher as amount of irrigation water was higher, with an exception of

  11. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  12. Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tomomi; Kotula, Lukasz; Shiono, Katsuhiro; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Nakazono, Mikio

    2012-09-01

    Enhancement of oxygen transport from shoot to root tip by the formation of aerenchyma and also a barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is common in waterlogging-tolerant plants. Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), grows in waterlogged soils. We investigated the formation of aerenchyma and ROL barrier induction in roots of Z. nicaraguensis, in comparison with roots of maize (inbred line Mi29), in a pot soil system and in hydroponics. Furthermore, depositions of suberin in the exodermis/hypodermis and lignin in the epidermis of adventitious roots of Z. nicaraguensis and maize grown in aerated or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution were studied. Growth of maize was more adversely affected by low oxygen in the root zone (waterlogged soil or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution) compared with Z. nicaraguensis. In stagnant deoxygenated solution, Z. nicaraguensis was superior to maize in transporting oxygen from shoot base to root tip due to formation of larger aerenchyma and a stronger barrier to ROL in adventitious roots. The relationships between the ROL barrier formation and suberin and lignin depositions in roots are discussed. The ROL barrier, in addition to aerenchyma, would contribute to the waterlogging tolerance of Z. nicaraguensis.

  13. Karyotype of Zea luxurians and Z. mays subsp. mays using FISH/DAPI, and analysis of meiotic behavior of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Graciela E; Poggio, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    The karyotypes of Zea luxurians and a race of maize from northwestern Argentina are described and compared using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to localize the 180 bp knobs. The meiotic behavior of the F₁ artificial hybrids Z. luxurians × maize is also analyzed to determine the genomic relationships between both species. Neocentromere activity at knobs in the meiosis of the hybrids is particularly discussed. The meiotic behavior and the high pollen sterility of the hybrid revealed genetical and (or) chromosomal divergences, leading to postzygotic reproductive isolation among their parents. Here, we propose that maize shows lower genomic affinity to Z. luxurians than to other species of the genus with 2n = 20.

  14. Hubungan Antara Keragaman Gulma dengan Penyakit Bulai pada Jagung (Zea mays L.) Stadium Pertumbuhan Vegetatif

    OpenAIRE

    I MADE SUDARMA; I KETUT SUADA; KETUT AYU YULIADHI

    2013-01-01

    Weeds play an important role in the spread of downy mildew disease, competition, and lower cropyields of corn. Research using the survey method in 3 locations of Sanur village, Denpasar City. Eachlocation is taken 5 samples, and each sample area was 1m2, which was arranged diagonally. Forweeds identification was using reference i.e. Weeds of rice in Indonesia, and identification of downymildew disease using reference i.e. Maize Disease: A Guide for Field Indentification and microscopically,wh...

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

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    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  17. A morphometric analysis of the redistribution of organelles in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine what structural changes in graviperceptive cells are associated with onset of root gravicurvature, the redistribution of organelles in columella cells of horizontally-oriented, graviresponding roots of Zea mays has been quantified. Root gravicurvature began by 15 min after reorientation, and did not involve significant changes in the (i) volume of individual columella cells or amyloplasts, (ii) relative volume of any cellular organelle, (iii) number of amyloplasts per columella cell, or (iv) surface area of cellular location of endoplasmic reticulum. Sedimentation of amyloplasts began within 1 to 2 min after reorientation, and was characterized by an intensely staining area of cytoplasm adjacent to the sedimenting amyloplasts. By 5 min after reorientation, amyloplasts were located in the lower distal corner of columella cells, and, by 15 min after reorientation, overlaid the entire length of the lower cell wall. No consistent contact between amyloplasts and any cellular structure was detected at any stage of gravicurvature. Centrally-located nuclei initially migrated upward in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots, after which they moved to the proximal ends of the cells by 15 min after reorientation. No significant pattern of redistribution of vacuoles, mitochondria, dictyosomes, or hyaloplasm was detected that correlated with the onset of gravicurvature. These results indicate that amyloplasts and nuclei are the only organelles whose movements correlate positively with the onset of gravicurvature by primary roots of this cultivar of Zea mays.

  18. ZmSOC1, a MADS-box transcription factor from Zea mays, promotes flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suzhou; Luo, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhanlu; Xu, Miaoyun; Wang, Weibu; Zhao, Yangmin; Zhang, Lan; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2014-11-03

    Zea mays is an economically important crop, but its molecular mechanism of flowering remains largely uncharacterized. The gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), integrates multiple flowering signals to regulate floral transition in Arabidopsis. In this study, ZmSOC1 was isolated from Zea mays. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZmSOC1 protein contained a highly conserved MADS domain and a typical SOC1 motif. ZmSOC1 protein was localized in the nucleus in protoplasts and showed no transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. ZmSOC1 was highly expressed in maize reproductive organs, including filaments, ear and endosperm, but expression was very low in embryos; on the other hand, the abiotic stresses could repress ZmSOC1 expression. Overexpression of ZmSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis through increasing the expression of AtLFY and AtAP1. Overall, these results suggest that ZmSOC1 is a flowering promoter in Arabidopsis.

  19. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  20. Differences on Pb accumulation among plant tissues of 25 varieties of maize (Zea mays)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Quanlin; YUAN Jiangang; FANG Wei; YANG Zhongyi

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of agricultural land by heavy metals has imposed an increasingly serious risk to environmental and human health in recent years.Heavy metal pollutants may enter the human food chain through agricultural products and groundwater from the polluted soils.Progress has been made in the past decade on phytoremediation,a safe and inexpensive approach to remove contaminants from soil and water using plants.However,in most cases,agricultural land in China cannot afford to grow phytoremediator plants instead of growing crops due to food supply for the great population.Therefore,new and effective methods to decrease the risk of heavy metal pollution in crops and to clean the contaminated soils are urgently needed.If we can find crop germplasms (including species and varieties) that accumulate heavy metals in their edible parts,such as the leaves of vegetables or grains of cereals,at a level low enough for safe consumption,then we can grow these selected species or varieties in the lands contaminated or potentially contaminated by heavy metals.If we can find crop germplasms that take in low concentrations of heavy metals in their edible parts and high content of the metals in their inedible parts,then we can use these selected species or varieties for soil remediation.In this study,the feasibility of the method is assessed by analyzing Pb concentrations in edible and inedible parts of 25 varieties of maize (Zea mays) grown in Pb-contaminated soils.The soil concentrations of Pb were 595.55 mg/kg in the high Pb exposed treatment and 195.55 mg/kg in the control.The results showed that the Pb concentrations in different tissues were in the order of root > shoot ≌ leaf> grain.Compared with the control,the Pb concentrations in root,shoot and leaf were greatly increased under the high Pb exposed condition,while the increments of Pb concentration in grain were relatively lower.Under the high Pb exposure,the grain Pb concentrations of 12 varieties exceeded the maximal

  1. ENUMERATION OF Bacillus cereus IN “FUBÁ” OF CORN (Zea mays. L. ENUMERAÇÃO DE Bacillus cereus EM FUBÁ DE MILHO (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A hundred (100 samples of “fubá” were examined, in relation to the incidence of Bacillus cereus, obtained by different technological processes (common “fubá” and previously cooked “fubá” and sold in the retail market in Goiânia - GO. The results of the examination showed that 23% of the samples was contaminated, of this percentual, 39.1% of the contaminations occurred in samples of previously cooked “fubá” and 60.9% in samples of common “fubá”. This in relation of the two products clearly showed the more accurate technological process that the previously cooked “fubá” was brought under. It was also observed that the totality of the analyzed samples showed enumerations below the limit established by the Brazilian microbiologic standard that establishes a limit of 10³ cells of Bacillus cereus for a gram of the food.

    Foram examinadas 100 amostras de fubá de milho, em relação à incidência de Bacillus cereus, obtidas através de processamentos tecnológicos diferentes (fubá comum e fubá pré-cozido e comercializadas no mercado varejista de Goiânia - GO. Os resultados revelaram que 23% das amostras estavam contaminadas, deste percentual, 39,1% das contaminações ocorreram em amostras de fubá pré-cozido e 60,9%, em amostras de fubá comum. Esta considerável diferença, observada em termos percentuais em relação aos dois produtos evidenciou o processamento tecnológico mais rigoroso a que foi submetido o fubá pré-cozido. Observou-se, também, que a totalidade das amostras analisadas apresentou enumerações abaixo do limite estabelecido pelo padrão microbiológico brasileiro que determina um limite de 10³ células de B. cereus por gama do alimento.

  2. Influence combinée des fumures organique et minérale sur la nutrition et le rendement du maïs (Zea mays: impact sur le diagnostic des carences du sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanza, KP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined Influence of Manure and Fertilizers on Nutrition and Yield of Maize (Zea mays: Impact on the Diagnosis of Primary Soil Deficiencies. A trial was carried out at Centre National de Recherche Agronomique (CNRA station in Man, in order to study the effects of combined application of fertilizers and manure on the soil fertility, yields and nutrition of corn (Zea mays. Three doses of fertilizers and five amounts of manure were tested. Combination of levels' factors corresponds to fifteen treatments. Results show that manure is the engine of the improvement of soil fertility, nutrition and yields. All chemical characteristics of the soil have been improved, notably phosphorus, calcium and the total of exchangeable base cations. Impacts of these changes on soil' fertility, plant nutrition and performance have been established. A significant increase in the absorption of phosphorus and yield, due to manure, is observed. Soil phosphoric nutrition and yield of maize are related to the dose in the soil of each of these crucial nutrients by a quadratic production function. The ignorance of factors, that limit nutrition and production, maintains a low yield levels. Correction of deficiencies by a fertilization formula, adjusted to the soil and crop, restores productivity. Organic soil maintenance is an appropriate solution to the problems of the farmer.

  3. Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zea mays L.) impacted by smelting emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Feng, Xinbin; Yang, Yuangen; Li, Xiangdong; Shin, Grace P Y; Li, Feili; Qiu, Guangle; Li, Guanghui; Liu, Taoze; Fu, Zhiyou

    2009-03-01

    Plants grown in contaminated areas may accumulate trace metals to a toxic level via their roots and/or leaves. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and sources of Pb and Cd in maize plants (Zea mays L.) grown in a typical zinc smelting impacted area of southwestern China. Results showed that the smelting activities caused significantly elevated concentrations of Pb and Cd in the surrounding soils and maize plants. Pb isotope data revealed that the foliar uptake of atmospheric Pb was the dominant pathway for Pb to the leaf and grain tissues of maize, while Pb in the stalk and root tissues was mainly derived from root uptake. The ratio of Pb to Cd concentrations in the plants indicated that Cd had a different behavior from Pb, with most Cd in the maize plants coming from the soil via root uptake.

  4. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Joseph Sarima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

  5. Effects of As2O3 on DNA methylation, genomic instability, and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Aydin, Murat; Sigmaz, Burcu; Taspinar, M Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray; Yagci, Semra

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a well-known toxic substance on the living organisms. However, limited efforts have been made to study its DNA methylation, genomic instability, and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon polymorphism causing properties in different crops. In the present study, effects of As2O3 (arsenic trioxide) on LTR retrotransposon polymorphism and DNA methylation as well as DNA damage in Zea mays seedlings were investigated. The results showed that all of arsenic doses caused a decreasing genomic template stability (GTS) and an increasing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) profile changes (DNA damage). In addition, increasing DNA methylation and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism characterized a model to explain the epigenetically changes in the gene expression were also found. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that arsenic has epigenetic effect as well as its genotoxic effect. Especially, the increasing of polymorphism of some LTR retrotransposon under arsenic stress may be a part of the defense system against the stress.

  6. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  7. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to ...

  8. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  9. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  10. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  11. Vertical distribution of corn biomass as influenced by cover crop and stover harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) production for grain is important given its many uses for human food, animal feed and other industrial products. Additionally, the abundance and potentially large biomass yield makes corn an attractive bioenergy feedstock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ...

  12. Genetic analysis of maturity and flowering characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Sher; Muhammad Iqbal; Kiramat Khan; Muhammad yasir; Hameed-ur-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the pattern of inheritance and determine the relative magnitude of various genetic effects for maturity and flowering attributes in subtropical maize. Methods:Four white grain maize inbred lines from flint group of corn, two with late maturity and two with early maturity, were used. These contrasting inbred lines were crossed to form four crosses. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) were developed for each individual cross. These were evaluated in triplicate trial for two consecutive years. Results: Both dominance gene action and epistatic interaction played major role in governing inheritance of days to pollen shedding, 50% silking, anthesis silking interval and maturity. Conclusions: Preponderance of dominance gene action for these traits indicated their usefulness in hybrid programs of subtropical maize.

  13. Effects of cations on hormone transport in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the influence of aluminum and calcium (and certain other cations) on hormone transport in corn roots. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the caps of 15 mm apical root sections the roots curved strongly away from the aluminum. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the cap and 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was applied to the basal cut surface twice as much radioactivity (assumed to be IAA) accumulated on the concave side of the curved root as on the convex side. Auxin transport in the apical region of intact roots was preferentially basipetal, with a polarity (basipetal transport divided by acropetal transport) of 6.3. In decapped 5 mm apical root segments, auxin transport was acropetally polar (polarity = 0.63). Application of aluminum to the root cap strongly promoted acropetal transport of auxin reducing polarity from 6.3 to 2.1. Application of calcium to the root cap enhanced basipetal movement of auxin, increasing polarity from 6.3 to 7.6. Application of the calcium chelator, ethylene-glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, greatly decreased basipetal auxin movement, reducing polarity from 6.3 to 3.7. Transport of label after application of tritiated abscisic acid showed no polarity and was not affected by calcium or aluminum. The results indicate that the root cap is particularly important in maintaining basipetal polarity of auxin transport in primary roots of corn. The induction of root curvature by unilateral application of aluminum or calcium to root caps is likely to result from localized effects of these ions on auxin transport. The findings are discussed relative to the possible role of calcium redistribution in the gravitropic curvature of roots and the possibility of calmodulin involvement in the action of calcium and aluminum on auxin transport.

  14. Determination of genotoxic effects of boron and zinc on Zea mays using protein and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Nardemir, Gokce; Hilal, A Y; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray

    2015-11-01

    In this research, we aimed to determine genotoxic effects of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) on Zea mays by using total soluble protein content and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. For the RAPD analysis, 16 RAPD primers were found to produce unique polymorphic band profiles on treated maize seedlings. With increased Zn and B concentrations, increased polymorphism rate was observed, while genomic template stability and total soluble protein content decreased. The treatment with Zn was more effective than that of B groups on the levels of total proteins. The obtained results from this study revealed that the total soluble protein levels and RAPD profiles were performed as endpoints of genotoxicity and these analyses can offer useful biomarker assays for the evaluation of genotoxic effects on Zn and B polluted plants. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  16. Influence de l'age sur les caracteristiques photosynthetiques de la feuille de mais , Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    Bethenod, Olivier; Jacob, Christine; Rode, J. C.; Morot-Gaudry, Jean-Francois

    1982-01-01

    L’assimilation nette maximale (N max) du maïs, Zea mays L., rapportée à l’unité de surface foliaire et de temps, reste stationnaire de juillet à août puis décroît de septembre à octobre durant le remplissage du grain. L’examen des courbes d’assimilation nette en fonction de la concentration en C02, sous éclairement saturant, montre que jusqu’au stade grain laiteux-pâteux, la photosynthèse maximale du maïs dépend du niveau du plateau de double saturation en C02 et en lumière (Pm). Du s...

  17. Maize (Zea mays)-derived bovine trypsin: characterization of the first large-scale, commercial protein product from transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Susan L; Mayor, Jocelyne M; Bailey, Michele R; Barker, Donna K; Love, Robert T; Lane, Jeffrey R; Delaney, Donna E; McComas-Wagner, Janet M; Mallubhotla, Hanuman D; Hood, Elizabeth E; Dangott, Lawrence J; Tichy, Shane E; Howard, John A

    2003-10-01

    Bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) is an enzyme that is widely used for commercial purposes to digest or process other proteins, including some therapeutic proteins. The biopharmaceutical industry is trying to eliminate animal-derived proteins from manufacturing processes due to the possible contamination of these products by human pathogens. Recombinant trypsin has been produced in a number of systems, including cell culture, bacteria and yeast. To date, these expression systems have not produced trypsin on a scale sufficient to fulfill the need of biopharmaceutical manufacturers where kilogram quantities are often required. The present paper describes commercial-level production of trypsin in transgenic maize (Zea mays) and its physical and functional characterization. This protease, the first enzyme to be produced on a large-scale using transgenic plant technology, is functionally equivalent to native bovine pancreatic trypsin. The availability of this reagent should allow for the replacement of animal-derived trypsin in the processing of pharmaceutical proteins.

  18. Optimization of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of Zea mays and Miscanthus sacchariflorus silages with various pig manure dosages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułkowska, K; Pokój, T; Klimiuk, E; Gusiatin, Z M

    2012-12-01

    Digestion of crop silage (Zea mays L. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus) with 0%, 7.5%, 12.5% and 25% pig manure as co-substrate was performed in continuous stirred-tank reactors, for a constant hydraulic retention time of 45 d and organic load rate of 2.1 g L(-1)d(-1). A matrix of correlations between biogas/methane production and parameters of anaerobic digestion was created in order to estimate process stability. The values of the correlation coefficients indicated that the most stable anaerobic digestion was achieved using 7.5% and 12.5% pig manure. In contrast, the positive correlation between ammonium and volatile fatty acids (r=0.8698, psilage alone, pig manure favored the production of biogas and methane; the highest production rates were obtained with 12.5% pig manure.

  19. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  20. Activity of Acetolactate Synthase from Maize (Zea mays L. ) as Influenced by Chlorsulfuron and Tribenuron-methyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zhi-jin; CHEN Jun-peng; HU Ji-ye; QIAN Chuan-fan; LI Zheng-ming

    2003-01-01

    Study on relative sensitivity of maize (Zea mays L. ) Nongda108 and Nongda3138 to sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron and tribenuron-methyl using maize taproot length by sand bioassy indicated that, Nongda3138 had higher tolerance to chlorsulfuron and tribenuron-methyl than Nongda108 did. Chlorsulfuron had stronger growth inhibition to maize Nongda108 and Nongda3138 than tribenuron-methyl did. Study on target enzyme of sulfonylurea herbicide acetolactate synthase (ALS) showed that, chlorsulfuron and tribenuron-methyl inhibited ALS in vitro strongly, and non-competitively. In the same concentration of inhibitors,chlorsuifuron had stronger ALS activity inhibition than tribenuron-methyl did. Lower level of chlorsulfuron and tribenuron-methyl has no ALS activity inhibition in vivo, the ALS inhibition only occurred in the condition of high concentration of chlorsulfuron and tribenuron-methyl in vivo.

  1. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  2. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  3. Development of CACTA transposon derived SCAR markers and their use in population structure analysis in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Neha Samir; Park, Kyong-Cheul; Lee, Sung-Il; Im, Min-Ji; Ramekar, Rahul Vasudeo; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2017-09-15

    Molecular marker technologies have proven to be an important breakthrough for genetic studies, construction of linkage maps and population genetics analysis. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute major fractions of repetitive sequences in plants and offer a wide range of possible areas to be explored as molecular markers. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker development provides us with a simple and time saving alternative approach for marker development. We employed the CACTA-TD to develop SCARs and then integrated them into linkage map and used them for population structure and genetic diversity analysis of corn inbred population. A total of 108 dominant SCAR markers were designed out of which, 32 were successfully integrated in to the linkage map of maize RIL population and the remaining were added to a physical map for references to check the distribution throughout all chromosomes. Moreover, 76 polymorphic SCARs were used for diversity analysis of corn accessions being used in Korean corn breeding program. The overall average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.34, expected heterozygosity was 0.324 and Shannon's information index was 0.491 with a percentage of polymorphism of 98.67%. Further analysis by associating with desirable traits may also provide some accurate trait specific tagged SCAR markers. TE linked SCARs can provide an added level of polymorphism as well as improved discriminating ability and therefore can be useful in further breeding programs to develop high yielding germplasm.

  4. Técnica de amostragem para comparar o dano causado pela lagarta-da-espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, em cultivares de milho Sampling techniques to compare the damage by Heliothis zea (Boddie in corn varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Nagai

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, realizado no Instituto Agronômico, determinou-se o tamanho da amostra para estudos de danos causados pela lagarta-da-espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, avaliados pelo método de Widstrom. Foram utilizados dados de dois experimentos de campo, com um cultivar resistente (Asteca Prolífico VRPE VII, um suscetível (híbrido duplo IAC Hmd 7974, o 'Maya XVI' e o híbrido simples HS 7777, em 1978/79 e 1979/80. O critério para estimar o tamanho da amostra foi de que esse tamanho permitisse detectar uma diferença de 10 ou de 20% da média geral entre médias de danos, em cultivares de milho, e avaliar o dano médio por cultivar com erro-padrão de 10 ou de 20% da média. Para definir o processo de amostragem, utilizou-se o método de componentes de variância, estimados a partir de dois modelos matemáticos. O tamanho da amostra foi bastante variável entre cultivares, sendo maior no resistente. Entre os possíveis tamanhos mínimos de amostra para detectar uma diferença de 10% da média geral entre médias de danos de tratamentos, podem ser utilizados seis blocos com quatro linhas de 24 plantas; para uma diferença de 20% de média, cinco blocos com três linhas de seis plantas são suficientes. Para estimar a média de danos por cultivar, com erro-padrão de 10% de média, são necessários sete blocos com quatro linhas de 30 plantas, no cultivar Asteca, e cinco blocos com duas linhas de 24 plantas nos cultivares Hmd 7974, HS 7777 e Maya e, com erro-padrão de 20% de média, cinco blocos de três linhas com doze plantas, no 'Asteca', e cinco blocos com duas linhas de seis plantas nos demais cultivares.A study was made to determine the sample size for research on corn resistance to corn ear worm Heliothis zea (Boddie. The damage was measured using the Widstrom centimeter scale. The criteria used to select the sample sizes were such that a difference between two treatments of ten percent or twenty percent of the overall mean should be

  5. Hubungan Antara Keragaman Gulma dengan Penyakit Bulai pada Jagung (Zea mays L. Stadium Pertumbuhan Vegetatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weeds play an important role in the spread of downy mildew disease, competition, and lower cropyields of corn. Research using the survey method in 3 locations of Sanur village, Denpasar City. Eachlocation is taken 5 samples, and each sample area was 1m2, which was arranged diagonally. Forweeds identification was using reference i.e. Weeds of rice in Indonesia, and identification of downymildew disease using reference i.e. Maize Disease: A Guide for Field Indentification and microscopically,while the weeds diversity was determined based on Diversity Index of Shannon-Wiener. Relationshipbetween number of weed species and weed populations, and disease incidence were determined byregression and correlation analysis. Weed diversity on ecosystem of maize in vegetative stage is verylow with the diversity index of 0.779, this means weed ecosystem unstable, and dominated by a particularweed species was Paspalum commersonii Lamk. (Fam. Poaceae/Graminaceae of 23.3%, with thedominance index of 0.709. Relationship between the number of weed species and disease incidence ofthe downy mildew disease was highly significant (P<0,01, while the relationship between weed populationand disease incidence of the downy mildew disease is not significant. Plant height and leaf number ofmaize was influenced by the type of weed, but weed populations only affect plant height of maize invegetative stage (V3-V11.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from a commercial cornfield (Zea mays) measured using the eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Wang, J.; Hui, D.; Miller, D. R.; Bhattarai, S.; Dennis, S.; Smart, D.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in observed atmospheric concentrations of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have been well documented. However, information on event-related instantaneous emissions during fertilizer applications is lacking. With the development of fast-response N2O analyzers, the eddy covariance (EC) technique can be used to gather instantaneous measurements of N2O concentrations to quantify the exchange of nitrogen between the soil and atmosphere. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of a new EC system, to measure the N2O flux with the system, and finally to examine relationships of the N2O flux with soil temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, and fertilization events. An EC system was assembled with a sonic anemometer and a fast-response N2O analyzer (quantum cascade laser spectrometer) and applied in a cornfield in Nolensville, Tennessee during the 2012 corn growing season (4 April-8 August). Fertilizer amounts totaling 217 kg N ha-1 were applied to the experimental site. Results showed that this N2O EC system provided reliable N2O flux measurements. The cumulative emitted N2O amount for the entire growing season was 6.87 kg N2O-N ha-1. Seasonal fluxes were highly dependent on soil moisture rather than soil temperature. This study was one of the few experiments that continuously measured instantaneous, high-frequency N2O emissions in crop fields over a growing season of more than 100 days.

  7. QUALIDADE DE SEMENTES DE MILHO (Zea mays L. SOB CONDIÇÕES DE SECAGEM INTERMITENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Ahrens

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a remoção de água e a qualidade de sementes de milho submetidas a secagem intermitente rápida e lenta, sob temperaturas do ar de 60oC e 70oC, respectivamente. Para tanto, na safra 94/95 sementes básicas da cultivar IAPAR 26, apresentando 22% de água, foram colhidas com automotriz, em Ponta Grossa - PR, e secadas em secadores comerciais, utilizando-se como tratamento referencial a secagem à sombra até 13% de água. No transcurso das secagens a redução do teor de água das sementes foi monitorado, em intervalos de trinta minutos, para o estabelecimento das velocidades e curvas de secagem. A qualidade fisiológica foi avaliada nas sementes amostradas, antes da secagem, no estágio intermediário e ao final das secagens, através dos testes de germinação, tetrazólio (germinação e vigor e de envelhecimento artificial. As secagens intermitentes rápida e lenta, com velocidades médias de 1,7 e 2,7% /h, respectivamente, nas temperaturas empregadas, foram eficientes na remoção de água de sementes de milho com alto grau de umidade, não afetando imediatamente, a sua qualidade fisiológica (P > 0,01. Redução da temperatura do ar pode ser recomendada no final do processo, quando o teor de água das sementes aproxima-se de 14%.The work evaluated water removal and corn seed quality by "fast" and "slow" intermittent drying, under 60oC and 70oC air temperatures. In 1994/95 IAPAR 26 seeds were harvested with a combined, harvester (22% water content in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. They were dried in commercial dryers, using the shade drying to 13% as referential. The seed water content was monitored during drying, at intervals of thirty minutes, for the establishment of the drying speeds and curves. The physiologic quality was evaluated in the sampled seeds, before drying, at intermidiate times and at the end of drying, through the germination, tetrazolium (germination and vigor and accelerated aging tests. The drying

  8. The impact of common smut(Ustilago maydis) on aflatoxin and fumonisin in transgenic Bt and non-Bt maize (Zea mays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis (common smut), produces galls that are valued food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Field studies conducted in Elizabeth, Mississippi used near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin were determined ...

  9. Significance of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on phytoextraction of Pband Zn by Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Park, Sung-Hee; Cho, Min; Lee, Kui-Jae; Ko, Jeong-Ae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has been considered a promising measure for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on growth and lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in Zea mays L. The strain GW103 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits such as indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase. Treatment of Z. mays L. plants with GW103 significantly increased 19, 31, and 52% of plant biomass and 10, 50, and 126% of chlorophyll a contents in Pb, Zn, and Pb + Zn-amended soils, respectively. Similarly, the strain GW103 significantly increased Pb and Zn accumulation in shoots and roots of Z. mays L., which were 77 and 25% in Pb-amended soil, 42 and 73% in Zn-amended soil, and 27 and 84% in Pb + Zn-amended soil. Furthermore, addition of GW103 increased 8, 12, and 7% of total protein content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels, respectively, in Z. mays L. plants. The results pointed out that isolate GW103 could potentially reduce the phytotoxicity of metals and increase Pb and Zn accumulation in Z. mays L. plant.

  10. Effect of Soil Aging on the Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays in Chromium and Benzo[a]Pyrene Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the phytoremediation potential of Zea mays in soil either aged or freshly amended with chromium (Cr) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Z. mays showed increased shoot biomass in aged soils than in freshly spiked soils. The shoot biomass in contaminated soils increased by over 50% in aged soil when compared to freshly amended soils, and over 29% more Cr was accumulated in the shoot of Z. mays in aged soil than in freshly amended soil. Planting Z. mays in aged soil helped in the dissipation of more than 31% B[a]P than in freshly spiked soil, but in the absence of plants, there seemed to be no difference between the dissipation rates of B[a]P in freshly and aged co-contaminated soil. Z. mays seemed to enhance the simultaneous removal of Cr and B[a]P in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil and hence can be a good plant choice for phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils.

  11. The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Michael A; Martinez, Jeannette C; Porter, Patrick A; Bynum, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Seeds or kernels on hybrid plants are primarily F(2) tissue and will segregate for heterozygous alleles present in the parental F(1) hybrids. In the case of plants expressing Bt-toxins, the F(2) tissue in the kernels will express toxins as they would segregate in any F(2) tissue. In the case of plants expressing two unlinked toxins, the kernels on a Bt plant fertilized by another Bt plant would express anywhere from 0 to 2 toxins. Larvae of corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] feed on a number of kernels during development and would therefore be exposed to local habitats (kernels) that varied in their toxin expression. Three models were developed for plants expressing two Bt-toxins, one where the traits are unlinked, a second where the traits were linked and a third model assuming that maternal traits were expressed in all kernels as well as paternally inherited traits. Results suggest that increasing larval movement rates off of expressing kernels tended to increase durability while increasing movement rates off of nonexpressing kernels always decreased durability. An ideal block refuge (no pollen flow between blocks and refuges) was more durable than a seed blend because the refuge expressed no toxins, while pollen contamination from plants expressing toxins in a seed blend reduced durability. A linked-trait model in an ideal refuge model predicted the longest durability. The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination.

  12. Selection and adaptation to high plant density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) population: II. Plant morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant density at which Zea mays L. hybrids achieve maximum grain yield has increased throughout the hybrid era while grain yield on a per plant basis has increased little. Changes in plant characteristics including flag leaf angle, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), plant height, tassel branch num...

  13. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of

  14. The Effect of Morphaction on the Kinetics of Indol-3yl-Acetic Acid-2-14C Transport in Zea Mays L. Coleoptile Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper elucidates the effects of chloroflurenol (morphactin, IT 3456) treatment on the kinetics of 14C-IAA transport through Zea mays L. (cv. Orla-266) coleoptile segments. Maximum inhibition of transport was achieved when chloroflurenol remained in contact with the tissue segments for at least...

  15. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of

  16. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of fababean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, Haigang; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of soil phosphorus (P) fractions were investigated, in the rhizosphere of fababean (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils. Plants were grown in a mini-rhizotron with a thin (3 mm) soil layer, which was in contact with the root-mat, and considered as r

  17. The role of 2,4-D and auxin-binding proteins during the induction of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus in Zea mays (L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of the growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the induction of callus in cultured immature embryos of Zea mays (L). In maize, two types of embryogenic callus can be induced in immature zygotic embryos.Type I callus, which is compact in appeara

  18. Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides, Ustilago maydis, and Zea mays: an endophyte, a pathogen, and their shared plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Estrada, Alma E; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kistler, H Corby; May, Georgiana

    2012-07-01

    Highly diverse communities of microbial symbionts occupy eukaryotic organisms, including plants. While many well-studied symbionts may be characterized as either parasites or as mutualists, the prevalent but cryptic endophytic fungi are less easily qualified because they do not cause observable symptoms of their presence within their host. Here, we investigate the interactions of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides with a pathogen, Ustilago maydis, as they occur within maize (Zea mays). We used experimental inoculations to evaluate metabolic mechanisms by which these three organisms might interact. We assessed the impacts of fungal-fungal interactions on endophyte and pathogen growth within the plant, and on plant growth. We find that F. verticillioides modulates the growth of U. maydis and thus decreases the pathogen's aggressiveness toward the plant. With co-inoculation of the endophyte with the pathogen, plant growth is similar to that which would be gained without the pathogen present. However, the endophyte may also break down plant compounds that limit U. maydis growth, and obtains a growth benefit from the presence of the pathogen. Thus, an endophyte such as F. verticillioides may function as both a defensive mutualist and a parasite, and express nutritional modes that depend on ecological context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils using maize (Zea mays L.) assisted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Marques, Ana P G C; Franco, Albina R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-01-01

    Zea mays (L.) is a crop widely cultivated throughout the world and can be considered suitable for phytomanagement due to its metal resistance and energetic value. In this study, the effect of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Ralstonia eutropha and Chryseobacterium humi, on growth and metal uptake of Z. mays plants in soils contaminated with up to 30 mg Cd kg(-1) was evaluated. Bacterial inoculation increased plant biomass up to 63% and led to a decrease of up to 81% in Cd shoot levels (4-88 mg Cd kg(-1)) and to an increase of up to 186% in accumulation in the roots (52-134 mg Cd kg(-1)). The rhizosphere community structure changed throughout the experiment and varied with different levels of Cd soil contamination, as revealed by molecular biology techniques. Z. mays plants inoculated with either of the tested strains may have potential application in a strategy of soil remediation, in particular short-term phytostabilization, coupled with biomass production for energy purposes.

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from a commercial cornfield (Zea mays) measured using the eddy-covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Wang, J.; Hui, D.; Miller, D. R.; Bhattarai, S.; Dennis, S.; Smart, D.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, K. C.

    2014-08-01

    Increases in observed atmospheric concentrations of the long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), have been well documented. However, information on event-related instantaneous emissions during fertilizer applications is lacking. With the development of fast-response N2O analyzers, the eddy covariance (EC) technique can be used to gather instantaneous measurements of N2O concentrations to quantify the exchange of nitrogen between the soil and atmosphere. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of a new EC system, to measure the N2O flux with the system, and finally to examine relationships of the N2O flux with soil temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, and fertilization events. We assembled an EC system that included a sonic anemometer and a fast-response N2O analyzer (quantum cascade laser spectrometer) in a cornfield in Nolensville, Tennessee during the 2012 corn growing season (4 April-8 August). Fertilizer amounts totaling 217 kg N ha-1 were applied to the experimental site. The precision of the instrument was 0.066 ppbv for 10 Hz measurements. The seasonal mean detection limit of the N2O flux measurements was 2.10 ng N m-2 s-1. This EC system can be used to provide reliable N2O flux measurements. The cumulative emitted N2O for the entire growing season was 6.87 kg N2O-N ha-1. The 30 min average N2O emissions ranged from 0 to 11 100 μg N2O{-}N m-2 h-1 (mean = 257.5, standard deviation = 817.7). Average daytime emissions were much higher than night emissions (278.8 ± 865.8 vs. 100.0 ± 210.0 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1). Seasonal fluxes were highly dependent on soil moisture rather than soil temperature, although the diurnal flux was positively related to soil temperature. This study was one of the few experiments that continuously measured instantaneous, high-frequency N2O emissions in crop fields over a growing season of more than 100 days.

  1. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  2. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  3. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-nott test p 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts signicantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  4. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p23 This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted significant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted significant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts significantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  5. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  6. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  7. Cover crop management practices-implications for early season weed control in conservation tillage corn cotton rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the winter cover crops is an integral component of the conservation systems in corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A field experiment was initiated in 2004 to evaluate weed suppression provided by winter cover crops in a conservation tillage corn and cotton rotation. Rotati...

  8. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  9. Evidence for two different nitrate-reducing activities at the plasma membrane in roots of Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marco, A; Jia, C; Fischer-Sehliebs, E; Varanini, Z; Lüttge, U

    1994-01-01

    Plasma-membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from 6-d-old corn roots by sucrose gradient centrifugation or two-phase partitioning showed an NADH-dependent nitrate reductase (NR) activity averaging at 40 nmol per milligram PM protein per hour. This membrane-associated NR activity could not be removed from two-phase partitioned PM vesicles by salt washing, osmotic shock treatment, sonication, or freeze-thawing to reverse vesicle sidedness. Therefore, it could not be attributed to contamination of membrane vesicles by the soluble, cytosolic NR. Plasma-membrane vesicles reduced NO~ in the presence of the electron donors NADH or NADPH at an activity ratio of 2.2. The NADH- and NADPH-dependent NR activities of outside-out oriented PM vesicles differed in their sensitivity toward the detergent Brij 58,leading to a latency of 65% or 29% using NADH or NADPH as electron donor, respectively. The activities of NO 3 reduction in the presence of saturating concentrations of NADH and NADPH were additive. Furthermore,both activities were characterized by a different pH dependence with a pH optimum of 7.5 for the NADH-dependent activity and of 6.8 for the NADPH-dependent activity. The membrane-associated NAD(P)H-dependent NR activities responded to different nitrogen nutrition of plants in a manner different from the soluble forms of the enzyme. The data confirm the existence of a corn PM NR and suggest that there may be two different NO₃-reducing enzymes located at the PM of corn roots.

  10. Inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum on Zea mays its effect on the addition of nitrogen fertilizer at 50%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavera-Zavala Dulce Daniela

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The crop Zea mays (maize requires nitrogen fertilizer (NF usually as NH4NO3 (ammonium nitrate, which applied in excess causes loss of productivity in soil. An alternative to reduce and optimize the dose of NF in crop Z. mays is to inoculate it with Trichoderma harzianum. The main objective was to analyze the effect of three doses of T. harzianum in Z. mays at 50% of NF. This experiment was performed in a greenhouse under an experimental design of random blocks, with 5 treatment and 5 replicates, the re-sponse variables used were: phenology: seedling height (SH and root length (RL, and biomass: aerial and radical fresh/dry weight (AFW/ADW/(RFW/RDW at seedlings and flowering stage, the experimental data were analyzed by Tukey 0.05%. The results showed a positive effect of the specific density of all viable structures of T. harzianum in Z. mays since was observed 92% of seed germination, numerical value statistical difference to the 81% in Z. mays without inoculum and NF at 100% or relative control (RC. At seedling Z. mays with T. harzianum 40 g/100 g seeds registered an ADW of 0.32 g and a RDW of 0.25 g, these values were statistical different to the 0.21 g of ADW, and 0.19 g of RDW in Z. mays without inoculum and fed with NF at 100% or RC. The above mentioned suggests that T. harzi-anum transform seed and root exudates in plant growth promoting substances (PGPS, optimizing the use of NH4NO3 and allowing its reduction until 50% without causing a nutritional deficit on normal Z. mays growth.

  11. Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zea mays L.) impacted by smelting emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi Xiangyang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Feng Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)], E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn; Yang Yuangen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Xiangdong; Shin, Grace P.Y. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Feili [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Qiu Guangle; Li Guanghui; Liu Taoze; Fu Zhiyou [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Plants grown in contaminated areas may accumulate trace metals to a toxic level via their roots and/or leaves. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and sources of Pb and Cd in maize plants (Zea mays L.) grown in a typical zinc smelting impacted area of southwestern China. Results showed that the smelting activities caused significantly elevated concentrations of Pb and Cd in the surrounding soils and maize plants. Pb isotope data revealed that the foliar uptake of atmospheric Pb was the dominant pathway for Pb to the leaf and grain tissues of maize, while Pb in the stalk and root tissues was mainly derived from root uptake. The ratio of Pb to Cd concentrations in the plants indicated that Cd had a different behavior from Pb, with most Cd in the maize plants coming from the soil via root uptake. - The sources and pathways of Pb and Cd accumulated in maize were assessed using Pb isotopes and Pb/Cd ratios.

  12. Genetic properties of the MAGIC maize population: a new platform for high definition QTL mapping in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Matteo; Gatti, Daniel M; Pea, Giorgio; Cattonaro, Federica; Coppens, Frederik; Magris, Gabriele; Hlaing, Aye L; Aung, Htay H; Nelissen, Hilde; Baute, Joke; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Churchill, Gary A; Inzé, Dirk; Morgante, Michele; Pè, Mario Enrico

    2015-09-11

    Maize (Zea mays) is a globally produced crop with broad genetic and phenotypic variation. New tools that improve our understanding of the genetic basis of quantitative traits are needed to guide predictive crop breeding. We have produced the first balanced multi-parental population in maize, a tool that provides high diversity and dense recombination events to allow routine quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in maize. We produced 1,636 MAGIC maize recombinant inbred lines derived from eight genetically diverse founder lines. The characterization of 529 MAGIC maize lines shows that the population is a balanced, evenly differentiated mosaic of the eight founders, with mapping power and resolution strengthened by high minor allele frequencies and a fast decay of linkage disequilibrium. We show how MAGIC maize may find strong candidate genes by incorporating genome sequencing and transcriptomics data. We discuss three QTL for grain yield and three for flowering time, reporting candidate genes. Power simulations show that subsets of MAGIC maize might achieve high-power and high-definition QTL mapping. We demonstrate MAGIC maize's value in identifying the genetic bases of complex traits of agronomic relevance. The design of MAGIC maize allows the accumulation of sequencing and transcriptomics layers to guide the identification of candidate genes for a number of maize traits at different developmental stages. The characterization of the full MAGIC maize population will lead to higher power and definition in QTL mapping, and lay the basis for improved understanding of maize phenotypes, heterosis included. MAGIC maize is available to researchers.

  13. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-02-23

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans' attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants.

  14. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants.

  15. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.; Liu, M.J.; Zhang, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhang, H.B. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Department of Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Sha, T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhao, Z.W., E-mail: zhaozhw@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. - Research Highlights: {yields}Effect of DSE (E. pisciphila) on heavy metal tolerance of maize host was studied. {yields}DSE alleviated the deleterious effect of excessive heavy metals on maize. {yields}DSE restricted the transfer of heavy metals from the roots to shoots in maize. {yields}DSE colonization improved the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metals.

  16. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Liu, M J; Zhang, X T; Zhang, H B; Sha, T; Zhao, Z W

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments.

  17. Influence of microgravity on root-cap regeneration and the structure of columella cells in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.; Fondren, W. M.; Wang, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    We launched imbibed seeds and seedlings of Zea mays into outer space aboard the space shuttle Columbia to determine the influence of microgravity on 1) root-cap regeneration, and 2) the distribution of amyloplasts and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the putative statocytes (i.e., columella cells) of roots. Decapped roots grown on Earth completely regenerated their caps within 4.8 days after decapping, while those grown in microgravity did not regenerate caps. In Earth-grown seedlings, the ER was localized primarily along the periphery of columella cells, and amyloplasts sedimented in response to gravity to the lower sides of the cells. Seeds germinated on Earth and subsequently launched into outer space had a distribution of ER in columella cells similar to that of Earth-grown controls, but amyloplasts were distributed throughout the cells. Seeds germinated in outer space were characterized by the presence of spherical and ellipsoidal masses of ER and randomly distributed amyloplasts in their columella cells. These results indicate that 1) gravity is necessary for regeneration of the root cap, 2) columella cells can maintain their characteristic distribution of ER in microgravity only if they are exposed previously to gravity, and 3) gravity is necessary to distribute the ER in columella cells of this cultivar of Z. mays.

  18. Alternative Splicing and Differential Expression of Two Transcripts of Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase B Gene from Zea mays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lin; Yun Zhang; Ming-Yi Jiang

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of rice, little is known about the existence of respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh) gene in cereals. The present study reports the cloning and analysis of a novel rboh gene, termed ZmrbohB, from maize (Zea mays L.). The full-length cDNA of ZmrbohB encodes a 942 amino acid protein containing all of the respiratory burst oxidase homolog catalytically critical motifs.Altemative splicing of ZmrbohB has generated two transcript isoforms, ZmrbohB-α and -β. Spliced transcript ZmrbohB-β retains an unspliced intron 11 that carries a premature termination codon and probably leads to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Expression analysis showed that two splice isoforms were differentially expressed in various tissues and at different developmental stages, and the major product was ZmrbohB-α. The transcripts of ZmrbohB-α accumulated markedly when the maize seedlings were subjected to various abiotic stimuli, such as wounding, cold (4℃), heat (40℃), UV and salinity stress. In addition, several abiotic stimuli also affected the alternative splicing pattern of ZmrbohB except wounding. These results provide new insight into roles in the expression regulation of plant rboh genes and suggest that ZmrbohB gene may play a role in response to environmental stresses.

  19. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K.

  20. Growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Zea mays seedlings deficient in abscisic acid and gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Dickey, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if gibberellic acid (GA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) are necessary for graviresponsiveness by primary roots of Zea mays. To accomplish this objective we measured the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of seedlings in which the synthesis of ABA and GA was inhibited collectively and individually by genetic and chemical means. Roots of seedlings treated with Fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) and Ancymidol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) were characterized by slower growth rates but not significantly different gravicultures as compared to untreated controls. Gravicurvatures of primary roots of d-5 mutants (having undetectable levels of GA) and vp-9 mutants (having undectable levels of ABA) were not significantly different from those of wild-type seedlings. Roots of seedlings in which the biosynthesis of ABA and GA was collectively inhibited were characterized by gravicurvatures not significantly different for those of controls. These results (1) indicate that drastic reductions in the amount of ABA and GA in Z. mays seedlings do not significantly alter root graviresponsiveness, (2) suggest that neither ABA nor GA is necessary for root gravicurvature, and (3) indicate that root gravicurvature is not necessarily proportional to root elongation.