WorldWideScience

Sample records for corn wet milling

  1. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic Corn Wet Milling (E-Milling) is a proposed alternative process to conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and coproducts using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and to decrease the steeping time. In 2005, the total starch production in USA by conven...

  2. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  3. Enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover by an integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Miao, Yelian; Jiang, Xuejian; Xu, Zidong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-04-01

    An integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment was applied to corn stover prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The effects of NaOH concentration in the pretreatment on crystalline structure, chemical composition, and reducing-sugar yield of corn stover were investigated, and the mechanism of increasing reducing-sugar yield by the pretreatment was discussed. The experimental results showed that the crystalline structure of corn stover was disrupted, and lignin was removed, while cellulose and hemicellulose were retained in corn stover by the pretreatment with 1% NaOH in 1 h. The reducing-sugar yield from the pretreated corn stovers increased from 20.2% to 46.7% when the NaOH concentration increased from 0% to 1%. The 1% NaOH pretreated corn stover had a holocellulose conversion of 55.1%. The increase in reducing-sugar yield was related to the crystalline structure disruption and delignification of corn stover. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the corn stover to sugars.

  4. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  5. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Esha; Kent, Angela D; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2013-05-01

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification steps in the laboratory. Fermentations with hydrolysates prepared in the laboratory were compared with plant hydrolysates for final ethanol concentrations and total yeast counts. Fermentation controls were prepared using hydrolysates (plant and laboratory) that were not inoculated with yeast. Hydrolysates prepared in the laboratory resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations (15.8 % v/v) than plant hydrolysate (13.4 % v/v). Uninoculated controls resulted in ethanol production from both laboratory (12.2 % v/v) and plant hydrolysates (13.7 % v/v), indicating the presence of a contaminating microorganism. Yeast colony counts on cycloheximide and virginiamycin plates confirmed the presence of a contaminant. DNA sequencing and fingerprinting studies also indicated a number of dissimilar communities in samples obtained from fermentors, coolers, saccharification tanks, and thin stillage.

  6. Chemical composition and metabolizable energy values of corn germ meal obtained by wet milling for layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Albuquerque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the chemical composition, metabolizable energy values, and coefficients of nutrient digestibility of corn germ meal for layers. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was determined, and then a metabolism assay was performed to determine its apparent metabolizable energy (AME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn values and its dry matter and gross energy apparent metabolizability coefficients (CAMDM and CAMGE, respectively. In the 8-day assay (four days of adaptation and four days of total excreta collection, 60 29-week-old white Lohman LSL layers were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments with five replicates of four birds each, was applied. Treatments consisted of a reference diet and two test diets, containing 20 or 30% corn germ meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey tests at 5% probability level. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was: 96.39% dry matter, 49.48% ether extract, 1.87% ashes, 7243 kcal gross energy/kg, 11.48% protein, 0.19% methionine, 0.21% cystine, 0.48% lysine, 0.40% threonine, 0.72% arginine, 0.35% isoleucine, 0.83% leucine, 0.57% valine, and 0.37% histidine, on as-fed basis. There were no statistical differences in AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values with the inclusion of 20 and 30% corn germ meal in the diets. On dry matter basis, AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values of corn germ meal were: 4,578 and 4,548 kcal/kg, 4,723 and 4,372 kcal/kg, 64.95 and 61.86%, respectively.

  7. Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-19

    In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

  8. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  9. Chemical characterisation and in vitro assessment of the nutritive value of co-products yield from the corn wet-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumba, Paul; Boudry, Christelle; Roiseux, Olivier; Bindelle, Jérôme; Beckers, Yves; Béra, François

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability value determined using a 2 steps in vitro digestibility and fermentation model of the pig digestive tract. Five co-products differing in their chemical composition were collected and analysed. These co-products differed in their in vitro dry matter Digestibility and in their kinetic of fermentation. High coefficients of digestibility were observed for starchy samples, while low coefficients of digestibility were observed for samples rich in lignocellulosic components. Fermentation patterns of samples analysed were different as well as the profile of volatile fatty acids produced during the fermentation. The production of straight-chain fatty acids produced was significantly correlated with the proportion of starch in the sample, while branched-chain fatty acids were correlated to proteins concentration of samples.

  10. 酶磨法处理玉米秸秆的糖化发酵研究%Saccharification and Ethanol Fermentation of Corn Stalk Pretreated by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Wet-milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵世芳; 吴琴燕

    2011-01-01

    将纤维素酶、木聚糖酶分别与湿磨相结合对玉米秸秆进行了预处理,对不同料液浓度的酶磨玉米秸秆进行了糖化发酵研究.试验结果表明:当经纤维素酶、木聚糖酶酶磨处理的玉米秸秆料液的酶解浓度均为6%时,还原糖收率最高,分别为37.2%和33.5%;对酶解后的料液进行酒精发酵,发现在酶解料液浓度为11%时,酒精浓度最高,分别为3.0%和2.8%.%In this study, the corn stalk was pretreated respectively by cellulase and xylanase hydrolysis combined with wet - milling, and then the saccharification and ethanol fermentation of the pretreated corn stalk at different concentrations were carried out by using commercially - available cellulase and yeast, respectively. The results showed that when the enzymatic hydrolysis concentration of the corn stalk pretreated by cellulase or xylanase combined with wet - milling was all 6%, the maximum recovery rate of reducingsugar was obtained, being 37.2% and 33.5% respectively. In the ethanol fermentation process, it was found that the maximum alcoholicity was 3.0% and 2.8% respectively as the corn stalk solution which had been hydrolyzed by cellulase and xylanase was at the concentration of 11%.

  11. 玉米半湿法提胚关键工艺与设备研究综述%Research Overview on Key Technology and Equipments for Corn Germ Extraction with Semi-wet Milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宁; 阮竞兰

    2013-01-01

      对玉米半湿法提胚关键工艺与设备进行综述,阐述了玉米半湿法提胚原理;指出充分调质、高效脱胚和合理提胚是玉米半湿法提胚的三个关键工艺环节,水汽调节机、玉米脱胚机和玉米提胚机是玉米半湿法提胚的关键设备,并对各设备的优缺点进行了分析;最后指出必须研制具有自主知识产权且具有较高科技含量的玉米提胚关键设备,才能提高我国玉米深加工与综合利用的水平与质量。%The key technology and equipments for the corn germ extraction with semi-wet milling was sum-marized,and its extraction principle was explained in this paper .It was pointed that adequate conditioning ,effi-cient degerming , and reasonable germ extraction were the key technology for the corn germ extraction with semi-wet milling;and water conditioner ,degerminator;and device for germ extraction were its key equipments . The advantages and disadvantages of the equipments were analyzed .It was pointed out in the last that the key equipments for corn germ extraction with proprietary intellectual property rights and higher technology content must be researched in order to improve the level and quality of the deep processing and comprehensive utiliza -tion for corns.

  12. Study on flaking of wet corn by heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingming; WANG Defu

    2007-01-01

    Flaking on high-moisture corn (wet corn) by hot-air heating was studied in the paper. The wet-heating approach was beneficial to improve corn gelatinization by experimental results. By the experiments, a set of optimal parameters was obtained: hot-air temperature 120-130 ℃, heating duration 70 min, gap between rollers 0.5-1.0 mm, 150-200 r·min-1 for rotational speed of rollers.

  13. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  14. the quality of locally-manufactured corn- mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    nate the milled maize, which when consumed could have health ... tions of consuming metal particles with the ..... roding environment increases with time. This ... menopausal women for whom iron defi- ... media in wet grinding”, Miner. Metall.

  15. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  16. CORN FLAVOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  17. MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION ON CORN USED BY FEED MILLS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins which are secondary metabolites of fungi contaminate agricultural products such as corn and have deleterious effects on human and animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycotoxin contamination on local and imported corn samples collected from different feed mills in Indonesia. Three hundred fifty six of corn samples (0.50 kg each were sent by several feed mills to the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production during 2005-2006. The background information accompanied with each sample was country/province of origins, harvesting seasons, postharvest drying methods, moisture levels, grades, and varieties. The samples were analyzed for various mycotoxins, i.e aflatoxin (AFL, ochratoxin (OCRA, zearalenone (ZEN, fumonisin (FUM, deoxynivalenol (DON, and T2 toxin using commercial kits, except for AFL which was analysed using a kit developed by the Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science. The results showed that average AFL level in the contaminated corn originated from Indonesia was 59 µg kg-1, almost 7 times higher than that imported from the USA or Argentina. Among the types of mycotoxins detected, FUM was the highest with an average of 1193 µg kg-1, followed by DON, ZEN and OCRA at level of 324, 22 and 2 µg kg-1, respectively. Mycotoxin levels in the contaminated local corn samples varied depending on the province of origins as well as harvesting seasons, postharvest drying methods, and moisture contents. The least mycotoxin contaminations were found on corn originated from NorthSumatra and Lampung with the AFL levels were < 20 and < 50 µg kg-1, respectively, lower than those from East Java, Central Java and South Sulawesi (64-87 µg kg-1. Mycotoxin levels, however, were less affected by grading made by feed mills and corn varieties. It is indicated that AFL was the most important mycotoxin as far as for animal feeding concerned, as it contaminated almost 50% of local corn with the level of

  18. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  19. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  20. Wet milling versus co-precipitation in magnetite ferrofluid preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almásy László

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various uses of ferrofluids for technical applications continuously raise the interest in improvement and optimization of preparation methods. This paper deals with preparation of finely granulated magnetite particles coated with oleic acid in hydrocarbon suspensions following either chemical co-precipitation from iron salt precursors or wet milling of micron size magnetite powder with the goal to compare the benefits and disadvantages of each method. Microstructural measurements showed that both methods gave similar magnetite particle size of 10-15 nm. Higher saturation magnetization was achieved for the wet-milled magnetite suspension compared to relatively rapid co-precipitation synthesis. Different efficacies of ferrophase incorporation into kerosene could be related to the different mechanisms of oleic acid bonding to nanoparticle surface. The comparative data show that wet milling represents a practicable alternative to the traditional co-precipitation since despite of longer processing time, chemicals impact on environment can be avoided as well as the remnant water in the final product.

  1. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

  2. Corn processing method in finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T L; Milton, C T; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2003-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of corn processing method on performance and carcass traits in steers fed finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). In Trial 1, 480 steer calves (303 kg initial BW) were fed eight finishing diets: 1) dry-rolled corn (DRC) without; and 2) with 32% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) steam-flaked corn (SFC) without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) a combination of DRC and SFC without WCGF; 6) finely-ground corn (FGC) with WCGF; 7) high-moisture corn (HMC) with WCGF; and 8) whole corn (WC) with WCGF. Feeding WC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased gain:feed compared with all other treatments. Feeding DRC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased (P < 0.10) gain:feed compared with treatments other than WC + WCGF. Steers on treatments that included WCGF gained similarly, regardless of corn processing method, and at a rate 6% faster (P < 0.10) than steers fed diets that did not include WCGF. Gain:feed did not differ among steers fed SFC, SFC + WCGF, SFC + DRC, and HMC + WCGF. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF were more efficient (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC or FGC + WCGF. In Trial 2, 288 steer calves (382 kg initial BW) were fed six finishing diets: 1) DRC without; and 2) with 22% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) SFC without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) finely rolled corn (FRC) with WCGF; and 6) HMC corn with WCGF. Steers fed DRC + WCGF or FRC + WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC, SFC, or SFC + WCGF. Feed intake did not differ between steers fed SFC + WCGF and HMC + WCGF. All treatment groups receiving WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) feed than steers fed DRC or SFC without WCGF. Steers fed SFC + WCGF gained 8% faster (P < 0.10), and steers fed DRC 9.5% slower (P < 0.10) than steers receiving all other treatments. Daily gains did not differ among other treatment groups. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF gained 10% more (P < 0.10) efficiently than all other treatment groups. Feed efficiency did not differ among steers fed DRC, DRC

  3. Study of the surfactant properties of aqueous stream from the corn milling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2014-06-18

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a liquid byproduct generated by the corn wet-milling industry. This agroindustrial residue is obtained when corn is digested with warm water and SO2 in the presence of different spontaneously growing microorganisms. The microbial population of CSL includes lactic acid bacteria, which are widely known to produce biosurfactants. However, there is no information available about the possible existence of surface-active compounds in CSL. In this work the surface tension activity of CSL was evaluated and the biosurfactant contained in this residue was extracted with different organic solvents and characterized. The biosurfactant obtained from CSL was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the composition in fatty acid was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The hydrophobic chain of the biosurfactant contained in CSL comprised 50-55.2% linolelaidic acid, 15.7-22.2% oleic and/or elaidic acid, 5.9-14.6% stearic acid, and 14.9-19.6% palmitic acid.

  4. Synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by wet milling iron powder in a planetary ball mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 30 to 80nm were synthesized by wet milling iron powders in a planetary ball mill. The phase composition and the morphologies of the as-synthesized products were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanosized Fe3O4 particles were prepared by wet milling metallic iron powder (-200 mesh, 99%)rotation speed of 300 rpm. The use of the iron balls in this method played a key role in Fe3O4 formation. The present technique is simple and the process is easy to carry out.

  5. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2009-08-12

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  6. Pretreatment of corn stover using wet oxidation to enhance enzymatic digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Schmidt, A.S.; Reczey, K.

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is an abundant, promising raw material for fuel ethanol production. Although it has a high cellulose content, without pretreatment it resists enzymatic hydrolysis, like most lignocellulosic materials. Wet oxidation (water, oxygen, mild alkali or acid, elevated temperature and pressure......) was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Six different combinations of reaction temperature, time, and pH were applied. The best conditions (60 g/L of corn stover, 195degreesC, 15 min, 12 bar O-2, 2 g/L of Na2CO) increased the enzymatic conversion of corn stover four times, compared...

  7. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  8. Scale-up from batch to flow-through wet milling process for injectable depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehocký, Róbert; Pěček, Daniel; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Injectable depot formulations are aimed at providing long-term sustained release of a drug into systemic circulation, thus reducing plasma level fluctuations and improving patient compliance. The particle size distribution of the formulation in the form of suspension is a key parameter that controls the release rate. In this work, the process of wet stirred media milling (ball milling) of a poorly water-soluble substance has been investigated with two main aims: (i) to determine the parametric sensitivity of milling kinetics; and (ii) to develop scale-up methodology for process transfer from batch to flow-through arrangement. Ball milling experiments were performed in two types of ball mills, a batch mill with a 30ml maximum working volume, and a flow-through mill with a 250ml maximum working volume. Milling parameters were investigated in detail by methodologies of QbD to map the parametric space. Specifically, the effects of ball size, ball fill level, and rpm on the particle breakage kinetics were systematically investigated at both mills, with an additional parameter (flow-rate) in the case of the flow-through mill. The breakage rate was found to follow power-law kinetics with respect to dimensionless time, with an asymptotic d50 particle size in the range of 200-300nm. In the case of the flow-through mill, the number of theoretical passes through the mill was found to be an important scale-up parameter.

  9. Effects of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles with differing corn processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Benton, J R; Luebbe, M K; Laudert, S B

    2013-05-01

    A total of 3,632 crossbred steers were used in 3 separate randomized complete-block designed finishing experiments. Data from Exp. 1 were analyzed separately whereas data were combined for Exp. 2 and 3, based on corn processing method used [Exp.1 = equal combination of dry-rolled and high-moisture (DRC:HMC); Exp. 2 and 3 = steam-flaked (SFC)]. Steers were fed 1 of 5 treatments to evaluate the effects of monensin and tylosin in feedlot diets containing 25% corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis). Treatments included: 1) corn-based diet (no WDGS) with 360 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (CORN+MT), 2) 25% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS-CON), 3) 25% WDGS with 360 mg/d monensin (WDGS+M), 4) WDGS with monensin and tylosin at same levels as treatment 1, and 5) WDGS with 480 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (WDGS+HIMT). In Exp. 1, WDGS+MT increased (P tylosin in a diet containing WDGS increased G:F (P tylosin were fed in a WDGS diet compared with WDGS-CON. Feeding WDGS+MT reduced total liver abscesses by 79.3% (Exp. 1) and 57.6% (Exp. 2 and 3) compared with WDGS-CON. Compared with WDGS+MT, minimal differences were observed when monensin was fed at 480 mg/steer daily with tylosin in diets containing WDGS. Inclusion of WDGS in finishing steer diets did not alter effectiveness of monensin with tylosin in improving G:F and reducing prevalence of liver abscesses, regardless of corn processing method. Corn processing method appears to be an important factor in performance response to WDGS with feeding value of WDGS, measured as an increase in feed efficiency, being greater in a DRC:HMC-based diet compared with a SFC-based diet.

  10. Evaluation of protein fractionation and ruminal and intestinal digestibility of corn milling co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Tedeschi, L O; Jenkins, T C; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2010-06-01

    Novel corn milling co-products developed from technological advancements in ethanol production vary widely in chemical composition and nutrient availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize feed protein fractions and evaluate differences in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and its digestible fraction (dRUP), amino acid concentration, and in vitro gas production of 7 corn milling co-products. The crude protein (CP; % of dry matter) of co-products was 12.7 for germ, 26.9 for dried distillers grains plus solubles that had no heat exposure before fermentation (DDGS1), 45.4 for high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG), 12.7 for bran, 30.2 for wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS), 23.1 for wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), and 26.0 for dried distillers grains plus solubles that had heat exposure before fermentation (DDGS2). Two ruminally and duodenally fistulated Holstein steers weighing 663+/-24 kg were used to determine RUP and dRUP with the in situ and mobile bag techniques. Samples of each feed were ruminally incubated for 16 h, and mobile bags were exposed to simulated abomasal digestion before insertion into the duodenum and subsequent collection in the feces. Protein fractions A, B(1), B(2), B(3), and C were characterized as follows (% CP): germ=30.0, 15.0, 38.1, 13.5, 3.4; DDGS1=17.0, 7.0, 67.0, 4.8, 4.2; HPDDG=7.4, 0.6, 82.4, 8.8, 0.8; bran=33.5, 4.0, 54.3, 6.0, 2.2; WDGS=18.6, 2.4, 53.1, 11.0, 14.9; WCGF=36.6, 15.9, 33.2, 10.1, 4.1; and DDGS2=17.9, 2.1, 41.1, 11.1, 27.9. The proportions of RUP and dRUP were different and are reported as follows (% CP): DDGS2=56.3, 91.9; HPDDG=55.2, 97.7; WDGS=44.7, 93.1; DDGS1=33.2, 92.1; bran=20.7, 65.8; germ=16.5, 66.8; and WCGF=11.5, 51.1. The concentrations of Lys and Met in the RUP were different and are listed as follows (% CP): germ=2.9, 2.0; DDGS1=1.9, 2.0; HPDDG=2.0, 3.2; bran=3.2, 1.5; WDGS=1.9, 2.3; WCGF=3.5, 1.6; and DDGS2=1.9, 2.4. In vitro gas production (mL/48h) was highest for germ (52

  11. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  12. Transformation and removal of wood extractives from pulp mill sludge using wet oxidation and thermal hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Robinson, Murray; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; Gapes, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    In order to remove wood extractive compounds from pulp mill sludge and thereby enhancing anaerobic digestibility, samples were subjected to either oxidative hydrothermal treatment (wet oxidation) or non-oxidative hydrothermal treatment (thermal hydrolysis). Treatments were carried out at 220 °C with initial pressure of 20 bar. More than 90% destruction of extractive compounds was observed after 20 min of wet oxidation. Wet oxidation eliminated 95.7% of phenolics, 98.6% fatty acids, 99.8% resin acids and 100% of phytosterols in 120 min. Acetic acid concentration increased by approximately 2 g/l after 120 min of wet oxidation. This has potential for rendering sludge more amenable to anaerobic digestion. In contrast thermal hydrolysis was found to be ineffective in degrading extractive compounds. Wet oxidation is considered to be an effective process for removal of recalcitrant and inhibitive compounds through hydrothermal pre-treatment of pulp mill sludge.

  13. Research on nutritional value evaluation and storage technology of wet corn gluten feed%湿玉米纤维饲料的营养价值评定和贮运技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春方; 张永根; 李洋; 李春雷; 刘凯玉

    2014-01-01

    Wet corn gluten feed is co-produced in corn wet milling. With the rapid development of corn deep processing, producing a large number of wet corn gluten feed, which contains high protein and digestible fiber, but starch content is low, which is a high quality source of feed for the cows. The paper overviewed nutritional value evaluation and storage technology of wet corn gluten feed, and aimed to provide some guidances for wet corn gluten feed for large-scale development and utilization.%湿玉米纤维饲料是玉米湿磨法生产淀粉的副产物。随着玉米深加工的迅速发展,湿玉米纤维饲料产量非常大,其含有较高的蛋白和可消化纤维,且淀粉含量较低,对奶牛而言是优质的饲料来源。文章就湿玉米纤维饲料的营养价值及其贮存技术进行概述,为湿玉米纤维饲料大规模开发利用提供参改。

  14. Fuel ethanol production from wet oxidised corn stover by S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiang, zhang; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2012-01-01

    In order to find out appropriate process for ethanol production from corn stover, wet oxidation (195°C, 15 minutes) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was carried out to produce ethanol. The results showed that the cellulose recovery of 92.9% and the hemicellulose recovery...

  15. Properties of Particle Size Distribution from Milled White Nixtamalized Corn Kernels as a Function of Steeping Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Muñoz, J. L.; Zapata-Torrez, M.; Márquez-Herrera, A.; Sánchez-Sinencio, F.; Mendoza-Álvarez, J. G.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Zelaya-Ángel, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the particle size distribution (PSD) changes during nixtamalized corn kernels (NCK) as a function of the steeping time (ST). The process to obtain powder or corn flour from NCK was as follows: (i) the NCK with different STs were wet-milled in a stone mill, (ii) dehydrated by a Flash type dryer, and (iii) pulverized with a hammer mill and sieved with a 20 mesh. The powder was characterized by measuring the PSD percentage, calcium percentage (CP), peak viscosity at 90°C (PV), and crystallinity percentage (CP). The PSD of the powder as a function of ST was determined by sieving in Ro-TAP equipment. By sieving, five fractions of powder were obtained employing meshes 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100. The final weight of the PSD obtained from the sieving process follows a Gaussian profile with the maximum corresponding to the average particle obtained with mesh 60. The calcium percentage as a function of ST follows a behavior similar to the weight of the PSD. The study of crystallinity versus the mesh number shows that it decreases for smaller mesh number. A similar behavior is observed as steeping time increases, except around ST = 8 h where the gelatinization of starch is observed. The trend of increasing viscosity values of the powder samples occurs when increasing ST and decreasing particle size. The ST significantly changes the crystallinity and viscosity values of the powder and, in both cases, a minimum value is observed in the region 7–9 h. The experimental results show that the viscosity increases (decreases) if the particle size decreases (increases). PMID:27375921

  16. Properties of Particle Size Distribution from Milled White Nixtamalized Corn Kernels as a Function of Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Fernández-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the particle size distribution (PSD changes during nixtamalized corn kernels (NCK as a function of the steeping time (ST. The process to obtain powder or corn flour from NCK was as follows: (i the NCK with different STs were wet-milled in a stone mill, (ii dehydrated by a Flash type dryer, and (iii pulverized with a hammer mill and sieved with a 20 mesh. The powder was characterized by measuring the PSD percentage, calcium percentage (CP, peak viscosity at 90°C (PV, and crystallinity percentage (CP. The PSD of the powder as a function of ST was determined by sieving in Ro-TAP equipment. By sieving, five fractions of powder were obtained employing meshes 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100. The final weight of the PSD obtained from the sieving process follows a Gaussian profile with the maximum corresponding to the average particle obtained with mesh 60. The calcium percentage as a function of ST follows a behavior similar to the weight of the PSD. The study of crystallinity versus the mesh number shows that it decreases for smaller mesh number. A similar behavior is observed as steeping time increases, except around ST = 8 h where the gelatinization of starch is observed. The trend of increasing viscosity values of the powder samples occurs when increasing ST and decreasing particle size. The ST significantly changes the crystallinity and viscosity values of the powder and, in both cases, a minimum value is observed in the region 7–9 h. The experimental results show that the viscosity increases (decreases if the particle size decreases (increases.

  17. Ethanol production from wet oxidized corn straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Yin, Y.; Thygesen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In order to find out the appropriate process for ethanol production from corn straw, alkaline wet-oxidation pretreatment (195°C, 15 min, Na2CO3 2 g/L, O2 1200 kPa) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were adopted to produce ethanol. The results showed that 90% of cellulose...... was obtained. The estimated total ethanol production was 262.7 kg/t raw material by assuming the consumption of both C-6 and C-5. No obvious inhibition effect occurred during SSF. These offered experiment evidences for ethanol production from corn straw....

  18. Quality assessment of corn batches received at a feed mill in the brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFC Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating factors that contribute to changes in the quality of corn used in compound poultry feeds. Samples were collected from 6488 bulk cargos received at a feed mill located close to Brasília, Brazil. The parameters studied were divided into two groups: those related to corn chemical composition, including crude protein (% CP, ether extract (% EE, crude fiber (% CF, nitrogen-free extract (% NFE, and estimated metabolizable energy (ME, and corn physical characteristics, including density, moisture, and grain physical damage. High coefficients of determination (R² and low coefficients of variation (CV were determined for the chemical and physical parameters. The analysis of variance showed low to medium R². Month, year, supplier, and their interactions influenced (p <0.05 all chemical properties, as well as density, moisture, and ME. Physical characteristics were less affected by those factors, except for quantity of damaged grains. The principal component analysis separated the physical and chemical factors. The coefficients of the first component explained 54% of the total variation between variables. The first principal component showed that NFE and ME increased as humidity decreased. The second component also showed a decrease of physical problems due to reduction in humidity. Results indicate that the feed mills should take preventive measures when selecting suppliers, and diets should be formulated according to the differences in chemical and physical composition of corn supplied in different months and years.

  19. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Klinke, H.B.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degreesC, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50....../L) were present in the hemicellulose rich hydrolyzate at subinhibitory levels, thus no detoxification was needed prior to SSF of the whole slurry. Based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover 83% of the theoretical ethanol yield was obtained under optimized SSF conditions. This was achieved...... with a substrate concentration of 12% dry matter (DM) acidic WO corn stover at 30 FPU/g DM (43.5 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading. Even with 20 and 15 FPU/g DM (corresponding to 29 and 22 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading, ethanol yields of 76 and 73%, respectively, were obtained. After 120 h of SSF the highest...

  20. Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, Alvin R; Bitra, Venkata S P; Igathinathane, C; Yang, Yuechuan T; Miu, Petre I; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2010-01-01

    Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5+/-18.4 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 36.1+/-8.6 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 52.1+/-10.8 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8+/-26.2 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 42.8+/-11.7 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 58.9+/-13.4 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2-51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1-117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5-120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone's model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone's model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

  1. Wet Oxidation: A Promising Option for the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A.

    2012-05-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) is used to degrade persistent organic or inorganic impurities present in industrial wastewater. The process utilizes severe oxidation conditions (i.e., high temperature and pressures) to achieve the efficient degradation of pollutants. To obtain high degradation at lower operation conditions, catalytic WO process is being suggested. The wastewater generated from a pulp and paper mill contains several recalcitrant compounds like lignin, hemi-cellulose, phenols, sulfides etc. Therefore, pulp and paper mill effluent have low biodegradability and are not amenable for conventional biological process. With the implementation of stringent regulations, pulp and paper mill operators need a cleaner disposal route for the wastewater. In this mini-review, the results obtained from the recently published studies on WO treatment for pulp and paper mill effluent are compiled and presented. Finally, the recommendations for the future work are also given.

  2. Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of wet corn distillers grains with solubles ensiled in combination with whole plant corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjoun, Kamal; Kalscheur, Kenneth F; Garcia, Alvaro D

    2011-05-01

    Wet corn distillers grains with solubles (WDG) are prone to aerobic spoilage when stored for an extended period of time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiling WDG with whole plant corn (WPC) using the following combinations: (1) 100% WPC; (2) 75% WPC + 25% WDG; (3) 50% WPC + 50% WDG; and (4) 100% WDG. The initial pH was greatest for 100% WPC and lowest for 100% WDG (5.7, 4.6, 4.0, and 3.1, respectively). Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (12.0, 26.8, 40.7, and 50.8 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) and Crude protein (CP) (98.7, 155.8, 206.8, and 307.9 g kg(-1) of DM) increased with increasing concentrations of WDG. Lactic acid concentration prior to ensiling was greatest for 100% WDG (9.0 g kg(-1) DM) and decreased with WPC in the silage. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were not present prior to ensiling. The pH of the ensiled feeds dropped below 4.0 by day 3, with no further decrease over time. Acetic acid increased from undetected amounts at day 0 to 38.8, 43.9, 43.2, and 2.2 g kg(-1) of DM at day 129 as concentration of WDG increased. Aerobic stability was enhanced with increasing WDG concentration in the silage. Fermentation, nutrient profile, and aerobic stability can be improved when ensiling wet distillers grains with whole plant corn. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  4. Comparison of alkaline- and fungi-assisted wet-storage of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhifang; Shi, Jian; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-04-01

    Storage of lignocellulosic biomass is critical for a year-round supply of feedstock for a biorefinery. Compared with dry storage, wet storage is a promising alternative technology, providing several advantages including reduced dry matter loss and fire risk and improved feedstock digestibility after storage. This study investigated the concurrent pretreatment and wet-storage of corn stover with the assistance of NaOH or a lignin-degrading fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, during a 90-d period. Compared with ensilage, adding NaOH or inoculation with C. subvermispora significantly enhanced the enzymatic degradability of corn stover by 2-3-fold after 90-d wet storage. Lignin and xylan removal during NaOH pretreatment and wet-storage were influenced by NaOH loading and moisture. NaOH pretreatment retarded the production of organic acids during storage and the acetate release correlated with lignin and xylan removal. Further study is needed to reduce cellulose degradation during the late stage of fungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  6. Exfoliation of graphene sheets via high energy wet milling of graphite in 2-ethylhexanol and kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sayed Al-Sherbini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphene sheets have been exfoliated from bulk graphite using high energy wet milling in two different solvents that were 2-ethylhexanol and kerosene. The milling process was performed for 60 h using a planetary ball mill. Morphological characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. On the other hand, the structural characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD and Raman spectrometry. The exfoliated graphene sheets have represented good morphological and structural characteristics with a valuable amount of defects and a good graphitic structure. The graphene sheets exfoliated in the presence of 2-ethylhexanol have represented many layers, large crystal size and low level of defects, while the graphene sheets exfoliated in the presence of kerosene have represented fewer number of layers, smaller crystal size and higher level of defects.

  7. Exfoliation of graphene sheets via high energy wet milling of graphite in 2-ethylhexanol and kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sherbini, Al-Sayed; Bakr, Mona; Ghoneim, Iman; Saad, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Graphene sheets have been exfoliated from bulk graphite using high energy wet milling in two different solvents that were 2-ethylhexanol and kerosene. The milling process was performed for 60 h using a planetary ball mill. Morphological characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). On the other hand, the structural characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. The exfoliated graphene sheets have represented good morphological and structural characteristics with a valuable amount of defects and a good graphitic structure. The graphene sheets exfoliated in the presence of 2-ethylhexanol have represented many layers, large crystal size and low level of defects, while the graphene sheets exfoliated in the presence of kerosene have represented fewer number of layers, smaller crystal size and higher level of defects.

  8. Pretreatment of corn stover using wet oxidation to enhance enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Eniko; Schmidt, Anette S; Réczey, Kati; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is an abundant, promising raw material for fuel ethanol production. Although it has a high cellulose content, without pretreatment it resists enzymatic hydrolysis, like most lignocellulosic materials. Wet oxidation (water, oxygen, mild alkali or acid, elevated temperature and pressure) was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Six different combinations of reaction temperature, time, and pH were applied. The best conditions (60 g/L of corn stover, 195 degrees C, 15 min, 12 bar O2, 2 g/L of Na2CO3) increased the enzymatic conversion of corn stover four times, compared to untreated material. Under these conditions 60% of hemicellulose and 30% of lignin were solubilized, whereas 90% of cellulose remained in the solid fraction. After 24-h hydrolysis at 50 degrees C using 25 filter paper units (FPU)/g of drymatter (DM) biomass, the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was about 85%. Decreasing the hydrolysis temperature to 40 degrees C increased hydrolysis time from 24 to 72 h. Decreasing the enzyme loading to 5 FPU/g of DM biomass slightly decreased the enzymatic conversion from 83.4 to 71%. Thus, enzyme loading can be reduced without significantly affecting the efficiency of hydrolysis, an important economical aspect.

  9. Combined pretreatment using ozonolysis and ball milling to improve enzymatic saccharification of corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Xiang, Heji; Li, Yongfu

    2015-03-01

    Two clean pretreatments, ozonolysis (OZ) and planetary ball milling (BM) were applied separately and in combination to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. Pretreatment of corn straw by OZ and BM alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly, primarily through delignification and decrystallization of cellulose, respectively. When combined, OZ-BM and BM-OZ pretreatments made the enzymatic hydrolysis more efficient. The glucose and xylose yield of corn straw treated with OZ for 90 min followed by BM for 8 min (OZ90-BM8) reached to 407.8 and 101.9 mg/g-straw, respectively under cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g-straw, which was fivefold more than that of untreated straw. Under much lower cellulase loading of 1.5 FPU/g-straw, the glucose and xylose yield of treated straw OZ90-BM8 remained at 416.0 and 108.4 mg/g-straw, respectively, while the yield of untreated straw decreased. These findings indicate that the combined OZ-BM can be used as a promising pretreatment for corn straw.

  10. Effect of wet corn gluten feed, supplemental protein, and tallow on steer finishing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C J; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Shain, D H

    1998-02-01

    Two trials evaluated the effects of level of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), type of supplemental protein, and supplemental tallow on steer finishing performance. In Trial 1, WCGF was fed at 0, 25 (two diets), or 50% of the dietary DM replacing dry-rolled corn (DRC), molasses, and a portion of the supplement. The DRC control diet and one 25% WCGF diet were supplemented with a combination of protein sources. The second 25% WCGF diet was supplemented with urea alone. The 50% WCGF diet contained no additional protein supplementation. No differences in DMI (P > .10) were observed. Calves fed 25% WCGF plus a combination of protein sources or 50% WCGF gained faster (P tallow. Steers fed WCGF gained faster (P tallow increased gain (P tallow to DRC finishing diets.

  11. Process parameter dependent growth phenomena of naproxen nanosuspension manufactured by wet media milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, A; Laabs, C; Krautstrunk, I; Dengler, M; Juhnke, M; Grandeury, A; Bunjes, H; Kwade, A

    2015-05-01

    The production of nanosuspensions has proved to be an effective method for overcoming bioavailability challenges of poorly water soluble drugs. Wet milling in stirred media mills and planetary ball mills has become an established top-down-method for producing such drug nanosuspensions. The quality of the resulting nanosuspension is determined by the stability against agglomeration on the one hand, and the process parameters of the mill on the other hand. In order to understand the occurring dependencies, a detailed screening study, not only on adequate stabilizers, but also on their optimum concentration was carried out for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) naproxen in a planetary ball mill. The type and concentration of the stabilizer had a pronounced influence on the minimum particle size obtained. With the best formulation the influence of the relevant process parameters on product quality was investigated to determine the grinding limit of naproxen. Besides the well known phenomenon of particle agglomeration, actual naproxen crystal growth and morphology alterations occurred during the process which has not been observed before. It was shown that, by adjusting the process parameters, those effects could be reduced or eliminated. Thus, besides real grinding and agglomeration a process parameter dependent ripening of the naproxen particles was identified to be a concurrent effect during the naproxen fine grinding process.

  12. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-12-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  13. Formulation, optimization and characterization of gemfibrozil nanocrystals prepared by wet milling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bastami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, nanotechnology has a variety of application areas. Pharmacy is one of the most important application fields of nanotechnology. Preparation of nanoparticular drug delivery systems such as nanocrystals could improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Gemfibrozil (GEM is a low water soluble drug biopharmaceutical classification system II and used as a lipid regulating agent. In this study, a rapid and simple wet milling method was used for preparation of GEM nanosuspension (GEM NS. The use of sonication after wet milling process reduced the milling time significantly. Different concentrations of stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 [PVP K30] and Tween 80 were tested for preparation of GEM NSs. The finest GEM NS was obtained by 0.5% w/v GEM, 1% w/v PVP K30 and 2% w/v Tween 80. The size and zeta potential of finest GEM NS were 238.2 ΁ 2.5 nm and - 19.6 ΁ 0.1 mV, respectively. The morphology of dried GEM NS was observed using atomic force microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry of GEM and GEM NS confirmed that there was no interaction between GEM and stabilizers. Compared with GEM, the solubility of GEM NS increased significantly.

  14. Stability studies of As4S4 nanosuspension prepared by wet milling in Poloxamer 407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Baláž, Matej; Turianicová, Erika; Baláž, Peter

    2015-01-15

    In this paper the stability of the arsenic sulfide (As4S4) nanosuspension prepared by wet milling in a circulation mill in the environment of copolymer Poloxamer 407 was studied. The obtained As4S4 particles in nanosuspension were of ∼ 100 nm in size. The influence of temperature and UV irradiation on the changes in physical and/or chemical properties was followed. Long-term stability was observed via particle size distribution and zeta potential measurements. Influence of UV irradiation was studied via UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), photoluminicsence (PL) technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The best stability of the nanosuspension (24 weeks) was achieved when stored at 4°C and in the dark.

  15. Enhanced recovery and dissolution of griseofulvin nanoparticles from surfactant-free nanocomposite microparticles incorporating wet-milled swellable dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakay, Anagha; Azad, Mohammad; Vizzotti, Emanuel; Dave, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2014-11-01

    Nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) incorporating drug nanoparticles and wet-milled swellable dispersant particles were investigated as a surfactant-free drug delivery vehicle with the goal of enhancing the nanoparticle recovery and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Superdisintegrants were used as inexpensive, model, swellable dispersant particles by incorporating them into NCMP structure with or without wet-stirred media milling along with the drug. Suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) along with various dispersants produced by wet-milling were coated onto Pharmatose® to prepare NCMPs in a fluidized bed process. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS, superdisintegrant) and Mannitol were used as additional dispersants to prepare surfactant-free NCMPs. Nanoparticle recovery during redispersion and dissolution of the various GF-laden NCMPs were examined. Suspensions prepared by co-milling GF/HPC/CCS or milling GF/HPC/SDS were stable after 30 h of storage. After drying, due to its extensive swelling capacity, incorporation of wet-milled CCS in the NCMPs caused effective breakage of the NCMP structure and bursting of nanoparticle clusters, ultimately leading to fast recovery of the GF nanoparticles. Optimized wet co-milling and incorporation of CCS in NCMP structure led to superior dispersant performance over incorporation of unmilled CCS or physically mixed unmilled CCS with NCMPs. The enhanced redispersion correlated well with the fast GF dissolution from the NCMPs containing either CCS particles or SDS. Overall, swellable dispersant (CCS) particles, preferably in multimodal size distribution, enable a surfactant-free formulation for fast recovery/dissolution of the GF nanoparticles.

  16. Fabrication of CNT Dispersion Fluid by Wet-Jet Milling Method for Coating on Bipolar Plate of Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almowarai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water based carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion was produced by wet-jet milling method. Commercial CNT was originally agglomerated at the particle size of less than 1 mm. The wet-jet milling process exfoliated CNTs from the agglomerates and dispersed them into water. Sedimentation of the CNTs in the dispersion fluid was not observed for more than a month. The produced CNT dispersion was characterized by the SEM and the viscometer. CNT/PTFE composite film was formed with the CNT dispersion in this study. The electrical conductivity of the composite film increased to 10 times when the CNT dispersion, which was produced by the wet-jet milling method, was used as a constituent of the film. Moreover, the composite film was applied to bipolar plate of fuel cell and increased the output power of the fuel cell to 1.3 times.

  17. Mechano-activated surface modification of calcium carbonate in wet stirred mill and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface modification of calcium carbonate particles using sodium stearate(SDS) as a modification agent incorporated with the simultaneous wet ultra-fine grinding in the laboratory stirred mill was investigated. The physical properties and application properties of modified calcium carbonate were measured and evaluated. The action mechanism between SDS and calcium carbonate in the modification was studied by infrared spectrometry(IR) and X-ray photoelectron energy spectroscopy(XPS). The results indicate that the crushing mechanic force intensity can obviously influence the modification effect of calcium carbonate because of mechano-chemical effect. The hydrophilic surface of calcium carbonate is turned into hydrophobic after modification. The properties of polyethylene(PE) filled by modified calcium carbonate powder is markedly improved. And the adsorption of SDS could occur by chemical reaction with calcium carbonate surface.

  18. Comparison on structural modification of industrial lignin by wet ball milling and ionic liquid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshui Qu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the most abundant aromatic compounds, lignin is still underutilized due to its relatively low quality. In order to improve its quality, two pretreatment technologies, wet ball milling (WBM and ionic liquid pretreatment (ILP were tested on the industrial lignin and evaluated on the average molecular weight and polydispersity, surface morphology, and functional groups changes. The results showed that the lignin pretreated by the WBM with phosphoric acid presented dramatic decrease of polydipersity (23% and increase of phenolic hydroxyl content (9%. While, the ILP treated samples exhibited the significant reduction of the average molecular weight and polydispersity. The decrease on the particle size and the emergence of the porous structure were found when treated with [Emim][OAc]. In addition, the remarkable reduction of the methoxy groups were observed to be 50% and 45% after treated with [Bmim]Cl and [Emim][OAc], respectively.

  19. Plant-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Stabilization by Wet Stirred Media Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Matej; Balážová, Ľudmila; Daneu, Nina; Dutková, Erika; Balážová, Miriama; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Within this study, a stable nanosuspension of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was prepared using a two-step synthesis and stabilization approach. The Ag NPs were synthesized from a silver nitrate solution using the Origanum vulgare L. plant extract as the reducing agent. The formation of nanoparticles was finished upon 15 min, and subsequently, stabilization by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using wet stirred media milling was applied. UV-Vis spectra have shown a maximum at 445 nm, corresponding to the formation of spherical Ag NPs. Infrared spectroscopy was used to examine the interaction between Ag NPs and the capping agents. TEM study has shown the formation of Ag NPs with two different average sizes (38 ± 10 nm and 7 ± 3 nm) after the plant-mediated synthesis, both randomly distributed within the organic matrix. During milling in PVP, the clusters of Ag NPs were destroyed, the Ag NPs were fractionized and embedded in PVP. The nanosuspensions of PVP-capped Ag NPs were stable for more than 26 weeks, whereas for the non-stabilized nanosuspensions, only short-term stability for about 1 week was documented.

  20. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  1. Enhanced bioavailability of danazol nanosuspensions by wet milling and high-pressure homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthamneni, Naveen; Valiveti, Satyanarayana; Patel, Mita; Xia, Heather; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The majority of drugs obtained through synthesis and development show poor aqueous solubility and dissolution velocity, resulting in reduced bioavailability of drugs. Most of these problems arise from formulation-related performance issues, and an efficient way to overcome these obstacles and to increase dissolution velocity is to reduce the particle size of drug substances to form drug nanosuspensions. Materials and Methods: Danazol nanosuspensions were prepared by wet milling (WM) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) methods. The nanosuspensions obtained using these fabrication methods were analyzed for their particle size, surface charge, and the crystallinity of the product was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. To determine in vitro and in vivo performances of the prepared nanosuspensions, dissolution velocity, and bioavailability studies were performed. Results: Particle size and zeta potential analysis showed the formation of nanosized particles with a negative charge on the surface. XRD depicted the nanocrystalline nature of danazol with low diffraction intensities. With increased surface area and saturation solubility, the nanosuspensions showed enhanced dissolution velocity and oral bioavailability in rats when compared to the bulk danazol suspension. Conclusions: The results suggest that the preparation of nanosuspensions by WM or HPH is a promising approach to formulate new drugs or to reformulate existing drugs with poorly water-soluble properties. PMID:28123991

  2. Design and evaluation of injectable niclosamide nanocrystals prepared by wet media milling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanghuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Wang, Huan; Wu, Baojian

    2015-01-01

    Niclosamide is an anthelmintic drug that also demonstrates great potential in fighting against cancers. However, parenteral delivery of niclosamide is challenged due to its insoluble property. This study aimed to develop an injectable formulation for niclosamide using nanocrystals. Niclosamide nanocrystals were prepared by wet media milling technique and characterized by electronic microscopes, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and drug release, etc. The resulting nanocrystals using Tween 80 as the stabilizer were approximately 235 nm in particle size and showed a satisfactory stability. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that there was no significant difference in plasma concentration-time profiles between nanocrystals and the control formulation (i.e. drug solution). By contrast, a significant difference in tissue distribution was observed at 2 h. Further, niclosamide nanocrystals presented a comparable antitumor effect to the drug solution against EC9076 cell line. We concluded that the nanocrystal formulation with solution-like behaviors should be a promising choice for intravenous delivery of niclosamide.

  3. PRODUCTION OF PIGMENT NANOPARTICLES USING A WET STIRRED MILL WITH POLYMERIC MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ecevit Bilgili; Rhye Hamey; Brian Scarlett

    2004-01-01

    Pigment nanoparticles with a size range of 10~100 nm were produced from large agglomerates via a stirred media mill operating in the wet-batch mode and using polymeric media. The effects of several operating variables such as the surfactant concentration, polystyrene media loading, and media size on the pigment size distribution of the product were studied. The process dynamics was also investigated. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy were used as the characterization techniques. The polymeric grinding media are found to be effective for the production of pigment nanoparticles. The experimental results suggest the existence of an optimum media size and surfactant concentration. A population balance model of the process reveals a transition from first-order breakage kinetics for relatively coarse particles to non-first-order kinetics, with a delay period, for the smaller particles. The model implies that large agglomerates split in a first-order fashion whereas the breakage of individual nanoparticles may depend on induced fatigue of the particles.

  4. Catalytic wet oxidation of the pretreated synthetic pulp and paper mill effluent under moderate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) was investigated for the destruction of organic pollutants in the thermally pretreated effluent from a pulp and paper mill under moderate temperature and pressure conditions. The thermal pretreatment studies were conducted at atmospheric pressure and 368K using copper sulfate as a catalyst. The thermal pretreatment reduced COD by about 61%. The filtrate of the thermal pretreatment step was used at pH 8.0 for CWO at 383-443K temperature and a total pressure of 0.85MPa for 4h. Catalysts used for the reaction include copper sulfate, 5% CuO/95% activated carbon, 60% CuO/40% MnO(2), and 60% CuO/40% CeO(2). Maximum COD reduction was found to be 89% during CWO step using 5% CuO/95% activated carbon with a catalyst loading of 8gl(-1) at 443K and 0.85MPa total pressure. Overall COD reduction for the pretreatment and the CWO was found to be 96%. Besides this, 60% CuO/40% CeO(2) catalyst also exhibited the similar activity as that of obtained with 5% CuO/95% activated carbon catalyst at 423K temperature and 0.85MPa total pressure. The pH of the solution during the experimental runs decreases initially due to the formation of carboxylic acid and then increases due to the decomposition of acids.

  5. Hydrothermal and wet disk milling pretreatment for high conversion of biosugars from oil palm mesocarp fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Norrrahim, Mohd Nor Faiz; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-04-01

    Eco-friendly pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass are being developed as alternatives to chemical based methods. Superheated steam (SHS), hot compressed water (HCW) and wet disk milling (WDM) were used individually and with combination to partially remove hemicellulose and alter the lignin composition of recalcitrant structure of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF). The efficiency of the pretreatment methods was evaluated based on the chemical compositions altered, SEM analysis, power consumption and degree of enzymatic digestibility. Hemicellulose removal (94.8%) was more pronounced under HCW compared to SHS, due to maximal contact of water and production of acetic acid which enhanced further degradation of hemicellulose. Subsequent treatment with WDM resulted in defibrillation of OPMF and expansion of the specific surface area thus increasing the conversion of cellulose to glucose. The highest glucose yield was 98.1% (g/g-substrate) when pretreated with HCW (200 °C, 20 min) and WDM which only consumed 9.6 MJ/kg of OPMF.

  6. Comminution of B4C powders with a high-energy mill operated in air in dry or wet conditions and its effect on their spark-plasma sinterability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario

    2017-01-01

    The comminution of a typical submicrometre B4C powder with a high-energy mill (i.e., a shaker mill) operated in air in either a dry or a wet environment was investigated. It was found that dry shaker milling (i.e., high-energy ball-milling) is able to progressively refine the B4C particles...... to the nanoscale. While this is accompanied by oxidation and aggregation, these are not serious drawbacks. Wet shaker milling in methanol (i.e., conventional ball-milling) resulted only in a moderate B4C particle refinement with greater contamination by the milling tools, which limits its usefulness. It was also...... found that both dry and wet milling modify the B4C crystal structure, attributable to carbon enrichment. Consequently, dry shaker milling was found to be more recommendable than wet shaker milling to provide B4C starting powders with superior sinterability. A comparative densification study by spark...

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  8. One step preparation of spherical drug particles by contamination-free dry milling technique with corn starch beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Maria; Hayashi, Naoko; Kondo, Keita

    2017-08-07

    The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug. This result suggested that the drug crystals were selectively micronized and the resultant miniaturized Phe particles were adhered/fixed on the surface of un-milled CS particles. The mechanical characteristics detected by the indentation test assumed that the brittle Phe crystals sandwiched between elastic CS particles would be successfully crushed down by high shearing stress in the processor. The newly-established dispersion-sedimentation test indicated that the fine Phe particles were immediately detached from the composite particles in aqueous phase, constructing the suspension. The dissolution behavior from the processed particles was found to be improved and strongly dependent on the size and amount of detached Phe particles. Such milling and ordered-mixturization have been also successfully done by using recrystallized larger Phe particles than 100μm. These results would propose the contamination-free dry milling technique without using hard milling balls or beads. The mechanism of the current milling and ordered-mixing phenomena is also provided in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of Bambara groundnut dietary fibres extracted using wet milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Maphosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to extract soluble and insoluble dietary fibres from four Bambara groundnut (BGN varieties (black-eye, brown-eye, brown and red using the wet milling method and evaluate their physicochemical properties. The swelling capacities of brown-eye (6.5 g/mL and black-eye (6.2 g/mL fibres were higher (p≤0.05 than those of red (6.0 g/mL and brown (5.5 g/mL fibres while the water holding capacities of black-eye and brown-eye fibres (2.84 g and 2.83 g water/g sample were higher (p≤0.05 than those of brown and red fibres. The bulk densities of insoluble dietary fibres (IDFs and soluble dietary fibres (SDFs ranged between 0.57 g/mL (red to 0.67 g/mL (brown-eye and 0.46 g/mL (brown-eye to 0.57 g/mL (black-eye, respectively. The oil binding capacities (OBCs of SDFs ranged between 2.78 g oil/g sample (brown and 4.03 g oil/g sample (brown-eye while the OBC of all IDFs did not differ (p>0.05, ranging between 1.52 g oil/g sample (brown and 1.40 g oil/g sample (brown-eye and black-eye. Black-eye and brown-eye dietary fibres had higher phenolic and total sugar content. The findings of this study indicate the potential of BGN fibres in food systems as fat replacers, emulsion stabilisers, water binders, bulking agents, thickeners and nutritional additives.

  10. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  11. A microhydrodynamic rationale for selection of bead size in preparation of drug nanosuspensions via wet stirred media milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Alvarez, Paulina; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2017-04-02

    Although wet stirred media milling has proven to be a robust process for producing nanoparticle suspensions of poorly water-soluble drugs and thereby enhancing their bioavailability, selection of bead size has been largely empirical, lacking fundamental rationale. This study aims to establish such rationale by investigating the impact of bead size at various stirrer speeds on the drug breakage kinetics via a microhydrodynamic model. To this end, stable suspensions of griseofulvin, a model BCS Class II drug, were prepared using hydroxypropyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The suspensions were milled at four different stirrer speeds (1000-4000rpm) using various sizes (50-1500μm) of zirconia beads. Laser diffraction, SEM, and XRPD were used for characterization. Our results suggest that there is an optimal bead size that achieves fastest breakage at each stirrer speed and that it shifts to a smaller size at higher speed. Calculated microhydrodynamic parameters reveal two counteracting effects of bead size: more bead-bead collisions with less energy/force upon a decrease in bead size. The optimal bead size exhibits a negative power-law correlation with either specific energy consumption or the microhydrodynamic parameters. Overall, this study rationalizes the use of smaller beads for more energetic wet media milling.

  12. Study on Enhanced Dissolution of Azilsartan-Loaded Solid Dispersion, Prepared by Combining Wet Milling and Spray-Drying Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tianshu; Sun, Yinghua; Ding, Dawei; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Rui; He, Zhonggui; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a combination method of wet milling and spray-drying technologies to prepare the solid dispersion and improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug candidates. Azilsartan (AZL) was selected as the model drug for its poor water solubility. In the study, AZL-loaded solid dispersion was prepared with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) and hydroxypropyl cellulose with super low viscosity (HPC-SL) as stabilizers by using combination of wet grinding and spray-drying methods. The high AZL loading solid dispersion was then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Besides, dissolution test was carried out by the paddle method and stability investigation was also conducted. As a result, the dissolution rate of the solid dispersion tablets was found to be greater than conventional tablets, but in close agreement with market tablets. Furthermore, the formulation was shown to be stable at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% for at least 6 months, owing to its decreased particle size, morphology, and its crystal form. It was concluded that the combination of wet milling and spray-drying approaches to prepare solid dispersion would be a prospective method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  13. Enhanced physical stabilization of fenofibrate nanosuspensions via wet co-milling with a superdisintegrant and an adsorbing polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Afolabi, Afolawemi; Bhakay, Anagha; Leonardi, Jonathan; Davé, Rajesh; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2015-08-01

    Drug nanoparticles in suspensions can form aggregates leading to physical instability, which is traditionally mitigated using soluble polymers and surfactants. The aim of this paper was to explore common superdisintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG), croscarmellose sodium (CCS), and crospovidone (CP), as novel class of dispersants for enhanced stabilization of fenofibrate (FNB), a model BCS Class II drug, suspensions. FNB was wet-milled with superdisintegrants along with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a soluble adsorbing polymer, in a stirred media mill. For comparison, FNB was also milled in the presence of HPMC and/or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) without superdisintegrants. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, viscometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the suspensions. The results show that 2% HPMC along with 1% SSG or 1% CCS mitigated the aggregation of FNB nanoparticles significantly similar to the use of either 5% HPMC or 1% HPMC-0.075% SDS, whereas CP was not effective due to its low swelling capacity. CCS/SSG enhanced steric-kinetic stabilization of the FNB suspensions owing to their high swelling capacity, viscosity enhancement, and physical barrier action. Overall, this study provides a mechanistic basis for a novel method of formulating surfactant-free drug nanosuspensions with co-milled superdisintegrants.

  14. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn.......3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro digestibility of NSP depends on the amount and type of NSP and degree of lignification in the feed ingredient. The NSP composition...

  15. In vitro/in vivo evaluation of felodipine micropowders prepared by the wet-milling process combined with different solidification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Song; Yao, Qing; Zhang, Ling; Weng, Yan; Cai, Cuifang; Xu, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2014-07-01

    In order to improve the in vitro dissolution rate and in vivo oral bioavailability of the poorly water soluble drug, felodipine (FELO), the wet-milling process was employed involving co-grinding with HPMC E5 and the in vitro release rate as investigated. After solidification by spray drying or freeze drying, the microsized powders were characterized in terms of their size, morphology, and in vitro dissolution rate. The oral bioavailability of this dry powder for suspension was evaluated in rats. After milling with 8% HPMC E5 and freeze drying, the powder mixture had an average particle size of 2.249 ± 1.497 μm and displayed an excellent dissolution rate of up to 93.2% within 10 minutes. DSC and PXRD investigations confirmed the absence of any crystal transformation during the wet-milling process. Using two different solidification methods, powders were stable for 6 months with regard to their in vitro dissolution rate. Significantly improved bioavailability was obtained for the wet-milled suspension before solidification and freeze dried powders with 6.8- (p  0.05) in bioavailability was seen for the spray dried powders. These effects suggest that the solidification method plays an important role in modifying the bioavailability of FELO after wet milling. Consequently, wet-milling is an effective technique to enhance the bioavailability of FELO and to maintain these benefits, freeze-drying is a feasible approach to solidifying the wet-milled suspension for industrial applications.

  16. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Rick; Ezeji, Thaddeus; Blaschek, Hans; Dien, Bruce; Cotta, Michael; Dale, Bruce; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    DDGS and wet distillers' grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers' grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock's nutritional characteristics. With an increasing demand for fuel ethanol, the DDGS and wet distillers' grains are viewed as a potential bridge feedstock for ethanol production from other cellulosic biomass. The introduction of DDGS or wet distillers' grains as an additional feed to the existing dry grind plants for increased ethanol yield requires a different approach to the compositional analysis of the material. Rather than focusing on its nutritional value, this new approach aims at determining more detailed chemical composition, especially on polymeric sugars such as cellulose, starch and xylan, which release fermentable sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. In this paper we present a detailed and complete compositional analysis procedure suggested for DDGS and wet distillers' grains, as well as the resulting compositions completed by three different research groups. Polymeric sugars, crude protein, crude oil and ash contents of DDGS and wet distillers' grains were accurately and reproducibly determined by the compositional analysis procedure described in this paper.

  17. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  18. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was 510 kg/m3 and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%. PMID:27340875

  19. Production of astaxanthin from corn fiber as a value-added co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five strains of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, NRRL Y-17268, NRRL Y-17270, ATCC 96594 (CBS 6938), ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210), and ATCC 74219 (UBV-AX2) were tested for astaxanthin production using the major sugars derived from corn fiber, a byproduct from the wet milling of corn kernels that contains prim...

  20. Effects of virginiamycin and monensin plus tylosin on ruminal protein metabolism in steers fed corn-based finishing diets with or without wet corn gluten feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, S E; Titgemeyer, E C; Nagaraja, T G; del Barrio, A; Bindel, D J; Hollis, L C

    2002-11-01

    Six ruminally cannulated steers (345 +/- 20 kg initial BW) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square to evaluate effects of diet and antibiotics on ruminal protein metabolism. Two diets and three antibiotic treatments were arranged factorially. One diet contained (DM basis) 72% dry-rolled corn, 12% soybean meal, 10% alfalfa hay, and 4% molasses (SBM), and the other contained 63% dry-rolled corn, 30% wet corn gluten feed, and 5% alfalfa hay (WCGF). Antibiotic treatments included control, virginiamycin (175 mg/d; VM), and monensin/tylosin (250 and 100 mg/d, respectively; MT). Steers were fed at 12-h intervals at a rate of 2.4% of empty BW daily. Each period included 18 d of adaptation and 3 d of ruminal fluid collections. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after the morning feeding on d 19 and 20. On d 21, rumens were dosed 2 h after the morning feeding with 350 g of solubilized casein to evaluate in vivo ruminal protease and deaminase activities. Ruminal fluid samples were collected 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the casein dose. On d 19 and 20, antibiotics had no effect on ruminal pH or concentrations of VFA, lactate, ammonia, ciliated protozoa, alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN), or peptide N, but VM reduced (P < 0.01) the concentration of isovalerate compared to MT and control. After casein dosing (d 21), peptide N concentration was unaffected by antibiotics, but AAN were higher (P < 0.01) for VM than MT and control. Relative to MT and control, VM reduced ruminal isovalerate (P = 0.05) and increased ruminal propionate (P < 0.01) on d 21. Ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.01) in steers fed SBM than in steers fed WCGF, but lactate concentrations were unaffected by diet. Steers fed SBM had higher (P < 0.05) ruminal concentrations of total VFA and propionate. Ammonia concentrations were lower before feeding and higher after feeding for steers fed WCGF (P < 0.01). Steers fed WCGF had higher counts of total ciliated protozoa than steers fed SBM (P < 0.05) due to greater Entodinium

  1. Effects of alfalfa hay inclusion rate on productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed wet corn gluten feed-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying the alfalfa inclusion rate in diets containing 31% (dry matter basis) wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.). Eighty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows averaging 178 +/- 90 d in milk (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 7, 14, or 21% alfalfa on a dry matter basis, with corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varying across diets to maintain uniform nutrient densities. Diets were formulated for similar crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing the alfalfa inclusion rate were assessed using mixed model analysis. As the alfalfa inclusion rate increased, dry matter intake tended to increase linearly (26.7, 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5 kg/d for 0, 7, 14, and 21% alfalfa, respectively), and solids-corrected milk (29.9, 30.2, 30.8, and 30.5 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk production (32.9, 33.3, 33.8, and 33.6 kg/d) tended to increase linearly. Body weight gain decreased linearly (22.9, 18.0, 11.2, and 9.5 kg/28 d) with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate. Although increasing the inclusion rate of alfalfa increased the proportion of large particles in the diets, treatments had no effect on milk fat yield or concentration. Feeding more alfalfa (up to 21% of dry matter) tended to increase milk yield while decreasing body weight gain, suggesting that metabolizable energy utilization shifted from body weight gain to milk production in these treatments. However, adding alfalfa to the diet had only minor effects on productivity.

  2. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  3. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM

  4. Conversion of corn milling low-value co-products to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, B.S.; Hespell, R.B.; Bothast, R.J. [Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States); Ingram, L.O. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Most of the fuel ethanol produced in the United States is derived from corn starch. The ethanol yield can be significantly increased if the hemicellulose fraction of the corn kernel is also fermented. The hemicellulose and cellulose fractions are presently marketed as cattle feed. Conversion of the hemicellulose fraction to ethanol is problematic because, in addition to glucose from the residual starch, hydrolysis of the hemicellulose gives a mixture of pentoses (arabinose and xylose) and traditional industrial yeast do not ferment pentoses. We have evaluated non-traditional recombinant microorganisms for conversion of the hemicellulose fractions into ethanol. The hemicellulose were hydrolyzed with weak acid solutions and resulting sugar mixtures fermented using recombinant Escherichia coli strains K011 and SL40. Results of the fermentation are discussed in terms of volumetric ethanol production rates, ethanol yields, and effect of inhibitors produced during hydrolysis. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Energy and greenhouse gas assessment of European glucose production from corn – a multiple allocation approach for a key ingredient of the bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Cok, B.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based products are considered to be a sustainable alternative to conventional fossil fuel-based materials. This paper studies the production of glucose from corn starch, an important feedstock for a wide range of bio-based products (e.g. ethanol, bio-based monomers), in a European corn wet mill

  6. Design of self-dispersible dry nanosuspension through wet milling and spray freeze-drying for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of the present research is to establish a novel nanosizing technique starting from wet nano-milling, named "dry nanosuspension" technique for poorly water-soluble drugs. The spray freeze-drying (SFD) method was applied instead of the spray-drying one previously developed. Drug particles were milled in the aqueous solution of dispersing agents using an oscillating beads-milling apparatus. The milled nanosuspension was sprayed to the surface of liquid nitrogen, and the resultant iced droplets were freeze-dried to obtain the powdery product. The loading ratio of a dispersing agent was investigated to enhance its redispersing property. Dry nanosuspension, which could be spontaneously dispersed into original nanosuspension in water, was obtained by SFD process. It was assumed that self dispersion property would be attributed to its structure with porous network, in which the primary milled drug crystals were embedded. Such unique structure contributed greatly to immediate release behaviors of the drug in gastrointestinal buffered media. These pharmaceutical properties were enhanced by increasing the ratio of the dispersing agent to the drug and the solid content in suspension to be sprayed. The present technique via wet milling and spray freeze-drying processes would be a novel dissolution-enhanced technology for poorly water-soluble drugs.

  7. Abridged acid-base wet-milling synthesis of high purity hydroyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi Carolina Ruiz-Mendoza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a plethora of routes to produce hydroxyapatite(HA and in general calcium phosphates(CP but production usually leads to a mixture of several phases. Besides ionic contamination, most of these methods are cumbersome, restricted to small volumes of product and require a lot of thermal energy. The acid-base route eliminates foreign ions or additives and its only byproduct is water. Heterogeneous reaction drawback is that solid reactants do not easily come in contact with each other and therefore addition and stirring times become very lengthy and still the product is a mixture. The synthesis started from calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid (PA. Ball milling was used to favor kinetics and stoichiometry. Six sets of PA addition, paddle stirring and ball milling times were used. Products were evaluated by X ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X ray fluorescence (XRF and Ca/P ratio. Chemical analysis for calcium proceeded through oxalate precipitate and phosphorus by the phosphomolibdate technique. A set of conditions yielding high purity HA was established.

  8. Batch and continuous production of stable dense suspensions of drug nanoparticles in a wet stirred media mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Afola we mi

    One way to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is to reduce particle size of drug crystals down to nanoscale via wet stirred media milling. An increase in total surface area per mass loading of the drug and specific surface area as well as reduced external mass transfer resistance allow a faster dissolution of the poorly-water soluble drug from nanocrystals. To prevent aggregation of nanoparticles, polymers and surfactants are dissolved in water acting as stabilizers via adsorption onto the drug crystals. In the last two decades, ample experimental data were generated in the area of wet stirred media milling for the production of drug nanoparticle suspensions. However, a fundamental scientific/engineering understanding of various aspects of this process is still lacking. These challenges include elucidation of the governing mechanism(s) during nanoparticle formation and physical stabilization of the nanosuspension with the use of polymers and surfactants (formulation parameters), understanding the impact of process parameters in the context of first-principle-based models, and production of truly nanosized drug particles (10-100 nm) with acceptable physical stability and minimal contamination with the media. Recirculation mode of milling operation, where the drug suspension in a holding tank continuously circulates through the stirred media mill, has been commonly used in lab, pilot, and commercial scales. Although the recirculation is continuous, the recirculation operation mode is overall a batch operation, requiring significant number of batches for a large-volume pharmaceutical product. Hence, development and investigation of a truly continuous process should offer significant advantages. To explain the impact of some of the processing parameters, stress intensity and stress number concepts were widely used in literature, which do not account for the effect of suspension viscosity explicitly. The impact of the processing parameters has not

  9. Universal wet-milling technique to prepare oral nanosuspension focused on discovery and preclinical animal studies - Development of particle design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Miura, Satoru; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-02-28

    Simple and easy methods to prepare oral nanosuspension of a poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical candidate compound, called a candidate, have been developed to support the discovery and preclinical studies using animals. The different wet-milling processes in miniature, middle and large preparation scales have been established in order to cover the various types of studies with wide scale. The powder of phenytoin, a poorly water-soluble model drug candidate, was suspended in the aqueous medium, in which the appropriate dispersing agents were dissolved, and milled by agitating together with small hard beads made of zirconia. Three general-purpose equipments with stirring, oscillating and turbulent motions were applied instead of the specific milling machine with high power to avoid much investment at such early development stage. The operational condition and dispersing agents were optimized to obtain finer particles using the middle-scaled oscillating beads-milling apparatus in particular. It was found that the nanosuspension, which whole particle distribution was in the submicron range, was successfully produced within the running time around 10min. By applying the newly developed dispersing medium, the nanoparticles with identical size distribution were also prepared using the stirring and turbulent methods on miniature and large scales, respectively; indicating only 50mg to 30g or more amount of candidate could be milled to nanosuspension using three equipments. The crystalline analysis indicated that the both crystal form and crystallinity of the original bulk drug completely remained after wet-milling process. The results demonstrated that the wet-milling methods developed in this research would be a fundamental technique to produce nanosuspension for poorly water-soluble and oral absorbable drug candidates.

  10. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently

  11. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.M.; Rosentrater, K.A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory

    2007-09-15

    The microbiology of post-production distillers wet grains (DWG) was investigated over a period of 9 days at an industrial ethanol plant. Samples of the DWG were physically and chemically characterized. Compositional analyses were conducted for protein, fiber, and fat. Fixed suspensions of DWG were dispersed and disrupted by sonication. Bacterial cells were enumerated under epifluorescent illumination. Solid media and standard dilution were used to enumerate total colony-forming units (CFU) of lactic-acid producing bacteria (LAB), and aerobic heterotrophic organisms. The DWG had a pH of approximately 4.4, a moisture content of 53.5 per cent, and 4 x 10{sup 5} total yeast cells. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were identified during the study, 10 of which were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera. Two of the yeasts were of the lactic-acid Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, and 1 of the yeasts was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Results showed that the matrix of the DWG produced severe technical difficulties for several of the culture-independent community-level analyses. It was concluded that numbers of potentially beneficial bacteria appeared to increase over the time period relative to potential spoilage agents. Molds capable of producing mycotoxins colonized the DWG and grew to high densities over the 9 day period. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Combining biomass wet disk milling and endoglucanase/β-glucosidase hydrolysis for the production of cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Endo, Takashi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bon, Elba P S

    2015-09-05

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), a biomaterial with high added value, were obtained from pure cellulose, Eucalyptus holocellulose, unbleached Kraft pulp, and sugarcane bagasse, by fibrillating these biomass substrates using wet disk milling (WDM) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using endoglucanase/β-glucosidase. The hydrolysis experiments were conducted using the commercial enzyme OptimashBG or a blend of Pyrococcus horikoshii endoglucanase and Pyrococcus furiosus β-glucosidase. The fibrillated materials and CNCs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and the specific surface area (SSA) was measured. WDM resulted in the formation of long and twisted microfibers of 1000-5000 nm in length and 4-35 nm in diameter, which were hydrolyzed into shorter and straighter CNCs of 500-1500 nm in length and 4-12 nm in diameter, with high cellulose crystallinity. Therefore, the CNC's aspect ratio was successfully adjusted by endoglucanases under mild reaction conditions, relative to the reported acidic hydrolysis method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Refinement and carbon incorporation effects on the superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} through wet milling process of low purity boron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung-Hyuk, E-mail: bhjun@kaeri.re.kr [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon-Dong; Kim, Chan-Joong [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wet milling effects of B powder on the superconducting properties were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C substitution for the B site in MgB{sub 2} occurred due to a toluene medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A shift of MgB{sub 2} peaks in XRD and a variation of J{sub c}-B slopes proved C incorporation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The B particle size reduction could induce a small grain size in the MgB{sub 2} formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer J{sub c} and H{sub c2} were enhanced by increased grain boundary pinning and lattice disorder. - Abstract: The wet milling effects of boron (B) powder on the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value of X-ray reflexes, grain size, carbon (C) substitution, critical temperature (T{sub c}), critical current density (J{sub c}), irreversibility field (H{sub irr}), and upper critical field (H{sub c2}) have been investigated for MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors. The semi-crystalline B powder with a low purity of 95-97% was refined with different milling times of 1 to 15 h using a toluene medium. As a result of B powder milling, the particle size of the B powder decreased and the semi-crystalline phase became an amorphous phase. As the milling time increased, T{sub c} of MgB{sub 2} bulk decreased by the deterioration of the crystallinity and J{sub c} increased over the applied magnetic fields. With the refinement of the B powder, the grain boundary pinning increased due to smaller MgB{sub 2} grain size. In addition, it was found that a C substitution for the B site occurred from a toluene medium during wet milling process. The increased electron scattering due to an increase of the defects like grain boundary and lattice disorder by C substitution led to enhance the superconducting properties with an increase of the FWHM value of the MgB{sub 2} peaks and a decrease of the T{sub c}. The MgB{sub 2} prepared from B powder mechanically milled for 7 h showed the highest magnetic

  14. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothast, R.J.; Schlicher, M.A. [National Corn-To-Ethanol Research Center, Southern Illinois Univ. Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.7851) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products. (orig.)

  15. On-site enzymes produced from Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Aspergillus saccharolyticus for hydrolysis of wet exploded corn stover and loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vandana; Eckard, Anahita D; Teller, Philip; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2014-02-01

    Cellulase production by two filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and novel fungal strain, Aspergillus saccharolyticus on pretreated corn stover was investigated. Cellulase production was followed by the hydrolysis of two feedstocks, wet-exploded corn stover (WECS) and wet-exploded loblolly pine (WELP) by on-site produced enzyme cocktails containing cellulase from T. reesei RUT-C30 and β-glucosidase from A. saccharolyticus. The sugar yields using the on-site enzyme cocktails were compared with commercial enzymes preparations, Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 188 at two substrate concentrations, 5% and 10% (w/w) and enzyme loading at 5 and 15 FPU/g glucan for WECS and WELP. The highest sugar yields were obtained at 5% (w/w) substrate concentration and 15 FPU/g glucan for both feedstocks. Glucose yields of 81% and 88% were obtained from on-site and commercial enzymes, respectively using WECS as feed stock. The sugar yields were 55% and 58% for WELP samples hydrolyzed with on-site and commercial enzymes, respectively.

  16. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: In vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arran...

  17. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2......, 150°C, 65min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran......, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release...

  18. Feasibility of using olive mill effluent (OME) as a wetting agent during the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmis, Erbil; Azbar, Nuri; Yildiz, Hasan; Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw substrate containing tap water and olive mill effluent (OME) mixture containing varying volume of OME was studied in order to investigate the feasibility of using OME as an alternative wetting agent and OME's impact on some fundamental food quality characteristics of mushrooms. Time period for mycelial colonization, primordium initiation and first harvest were comparatively evaluated with the control group. It was shown that the use of OME and tap water mixture consisting of OME up to 25% volumetrically was possible for the purpose of commercial mushroom production. Experimental results obtained from substrate containing 25% OME mixture showed no statistically significant difference compared to control group. The negative effects of increasing volume of OME in the mixture were also indicated by bioefficiency, which was found to be 13.8% for substrates wetted with 100% OME, whereas bioefficiency was 53.6% for control group. Increasing volume of OME in the mixture resulted in deformation of fruit body shape, whereas no significant difference in food quality was observed due to the higher amount of OME. This work suggested that the use of OME up to 25% as moisturizer could be considered, especially for the locations having significant number of olive mills and mushroom producers, both as an environmentally friendly solution for the safe and ecological disposal of OME and a practical way for recovering OME's economic value thereby.

  19. Identifying the correlation between drug/stabilizer properties and critical quality attributes (CQAs) of nanosuspension formulation prepared by wet media milling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Maya; Ghosh, Indrajit

    2013-01-23

    Wet media milling by top down method has proved to be an effective method to prepare nanosuspension of poorly soluble drugs/APIs. Few or no attempts have been made so far to understand the feasibility of nanosuspension formulation in terms of the mechanism of stabilization as a function of drug properties. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of drug substance and stabilizer properties to form a successful nanosuspension product. From this study, logP and enthalpy were concluded to have a direct correlation on the feasibility of formation of a stable nanosuspension. The most likely candidate for media milling was a drug substance with a high enthalpy and hydrophobicity which can be stabilized either electrostatically or sterically. The least likely candidate will be one that is hydrophilic and having a very low enthalpy value. Also the choice of an ideal stabilizer/surfactant was found to be influenced by the degree of hydrophobicity of the drug itself. Finally the morphology of the starting drug was found to significantly affect the milling time required to produce submicron particles.

  20. Hazardous gases and oxygen depletion in a wet paddy pile: an experimental study in a simulating underground rice mill pit, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenjai, Pornthip; Chaiear, Naesinee; Charerntanyarak, Lertchai; Boonmee, Mallika

    2012-01-01

    During the rice harvesting season in Thailand, large amounts of fresh paddy are sent to rice mills immediately after harvesting due to a lack of proper farm storage space. At certain levels of moisture content, rice grains may generate hazardous gases, which can replace oxygen (O(2)) in the confined spaces of underground rice mill pits. This phenomenon has been observed in a fatal accident in Thailand. Our study aimed to investigate the type of gases and their air concentrations emitted from the paddy piles at different levels of moisture content and duration of piling time. Four levels of moisture content in the paddy piles were investigated, including dry paddy group (levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (range 5,864-8,419 ppm) in all wet paddy groups, which gradually increased over time. The concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH(4)), nitromethane (CH(3)NO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in all wet paddy groups increased with piling time and with moisture content, with ranges of 11-289; 2-8; 36-374; and 4-26 ppm, respectively. The highest levels of moisture content in the paddy piles were in the range 28-30%wb. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations were low in all paddy groups. The percentage of O(2) in the wet paddy groups decreased with piling time and moisture content (from 18.7% to 4.1%). This study suggested that hazardous gases could be emitted in moist paddy piles, and their concentrations could increase with increasing moisture content and piling time period.

  1. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Total Escherichia coli in Feces and Feedlot Surface Manure from Cattle Fed Diets with and without Corn or Sorghum Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Varel, Vincent H; Hales, Kristin E; Kalchayanand, Norasak

    2017-08-01

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and feedlot pen surfaces of cattle fed WDGS. In the first study, feces from steers fed 0, 20, 40, or 60% corn WDGS were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7. The E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 0% corn WDGS rapidly decreased (P < 0.05), from 6.28 to 2.48 log CFU/g of feces by day 14. In contrast, the E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 20, 40, and 60% corn WDGS were 4.21, 5.59, and 6.13 log CFU/g of feces, respectively, on day 14. A second study evaluated the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces from cattle fed 0 and 40% corn WDGS. Feces were collected before and 28 days after the dietary corn was switched from high-moisture corn to dry-rolled corn. Within dietary corn source, the pathogen persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) in 40% corn WDGS feces at day 7 than in 0% WDGS. For 40% corn WDGS feces, E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) at day 7 in feces from cattle fed high-moisture corn (5.36 log CFU/g) than from those fed dry-rolled corn (4.27 log CFU/g). The percentage of WDGS had no effect on the E. coli O157:H7 counts in feces from cattle fed steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 0, 15, and 30% sorghum WDGS. Greater persistence of E. coli O157:H7 on the pen surfaces of animals fed corn WDGS was not demonstrated, although these pens had a higher prevalence of the pathogen in the feedlot surface manure after the cattle were removed. Both or either the greater persistence and higher numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment of cattle fed WDGS may play a part in the increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle by increasing the transmission risk.

  3. 玉米蛋白加工利用研究进展%Advance of processing and application of corn protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬珊珊; 刘晓兰; 郑喜群

    2012-01-01

    In corn wet milling, corn proteins exist in corn gluten meal, com germ meal and corn steep liquor. Characteristics of corn protein, such as amino acid composition, processing condition and processing functionality of corn protein were reviewed. Applying potential of corn protein hydrolysate in food industry was pointed out.%在湿法玉米淀粉加工中,玉米蛋白存在于副产物玉米黄粉、玉米胚芽饼和玉米浆中.文章在分析玉米蛋白氨基酸组成等特性的基础上,综合分析玉米蛋白加工利用现状和玉米蛋白水解物的功能特性,指出玉米蛋白水解物在食品工业上应用的潜力.

  4. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  5. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  6. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be remo

  7. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  8. Research Progress of Corn Gluten Meal%玉米蛋白粉研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘旭琳; 曹龙奎

    2013-01-01

    玉米蛋白粉是玉米淀粉湿法生产的副产物。文中介绍了玉米蛋白粉的组成及营养价值,综述了玉米蛋白粉深加工的新方法和新工艺,包括玉米醇溶蛋白和玉米黄色素的提取、玉米抗氧化肽的制备以及它们的应用。%Corn gluten meal was the by-product of producing the starch in corn wet-milling process. This paper introduced the composition and nutrition of corn gluten meal,and summarized the new method and technology of corn gluten meal deep processing, which included the technology of extracting zein and corn yellow pigment and preparing antioxidant maize peptides and their application.

  9. Optimization of formulation and process parameters for the production of nanosuspension by wet media milling technique: effect of Vitamin E TPGS and nanocrystal particle size on oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Schenck, Daniel; Bose, Sonali; Ruegger, Colleen

    2012-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension formulations of a poorly soluble drug using a wet media milling technique. The milling process was optimized by studying the effects of critical process parameters on the size of nanoparticles using a factorial design approach. During the design of experiments (DOEs) study, different concentrations of Vitamin E TPGS in the suspensions were used to evaluate its influence on the stabilization of a nanosuspension. Once the final formulation was optimized, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs to investigate the effect of different ranges of particle size of nanocrystals on the plasma profile. A significant increase in AUC and C(max) was observed when the drug substance was converted into nanocrystals, likely due to the increase in dissolution rate. Results also revealed that the nanosuspension formulation (consists of nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, having a mean particle size<300 nm) produced less variability with regards to the individual plasma concentrations in the dogs when compared an alternate nanocrystal formulation (consists of nanocrystals with broad size distribution having a mean particle size<750 nm). This type of observation can be explained due to the Ostwald ripening phenomena between the nanocrystals when the particle size distribution was very broad (higher poly dispersity index). Surprisingly, the un-micronized suspension containing Vitamin E TPGS did not show any significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  10. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-15

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)/ultraviolet radiations) at 25°C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) at 50°C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)), system operating at 50°C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  11. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azabou, Samia [Laboratoire des BioProcedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Najjar, Wahiba [Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux et Catalyse, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Bouaziz, Mohamed [Laboratoire des BioProcedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Ghorbel, Abdelhamid [Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux et Catalyse, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des BioProcedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2010-11-15

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/ultraviolet radiations) at 25 deg. C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at 50 deg. C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), system operating at 50 deg. C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  12. Biogas production from co-digestion of corn stover and chicken manure under anaerobic wet, hemi-solid, and solid state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Xiaoying

    2013-12-01

    Corn stover (CS) and chicken manure (CM) are ubiquitous agricultural wastes at low cost and have the potential to achieve a nutrient-balance when mixed together to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objective of this work was to investigate methane production at different CS to CM ratios and to evaluate the process stability under wet (W-AD), hemi-solid state (HSS-AD) and solid state (SS-AD) conditions. Results showed that synergistic effects were found when mixing two substrates at CS:CM ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 (on volatile solid basis). The highest methane yield of 218.8 mL/g VS added was achieved in W-AD at CS:CM ratio of 3:1. In SS-AD, the highest volumetric methane productivity of 14.2L methane/L reactor volume was found at CS:CM of 1:1. The results of this work provide useful information to improve the efficiency and stability of co-digestion of CS and CM under different AD conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beef quality of calf-fed steers finished on varying levels of corn-based wet distillers grains plus solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, A S; Calkins, C R; Jenschke, B E; Carr, T P; Dugan, M E R; Erickson, G E

    2012-12-01

    Calf-fed crossbred steers (n = 94) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0%, 15%, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles, WDGS; DM basis) and fed for 167 d to determine the effects on quality attributes of beef. At 48 h postmortem, marbling score, marbling texture, and marbling distribution were assessed by a USDA grader. After grading, one rib eye slice (longissimus thoracis) »7 mm thick was excised from each carcass, trimmed of subcutaneous fat, and analyzed for fatty acid profile and lipid content. At 7 d postmortem, 48 top blades (infraspinatus), strip loins (longissimus lumborum), and tenderloins (psoas major) (16 per treatment) were removed from shoulder clods and short loins and 2 steaks were obtained to measure mineral content, fatty acid profile (except strip loins), trained sensory analysis, objective color, and lipid oxidation. Finishing diet did not influence the content of total lipid (P = 0.19) or marbling, marbling texture, or marbling distribution (P = 0.46, 0.84, 0.40, respectively). Feeding WDGS created a linear increase (P 0.50), except a minimal effect on strip loin juiciness (5.32, 4.86, and 5.52 for 0%, 15%, and 30% WDGS, respectively; P = 0.02). Top blade and tenderloin steaks from cattle fed 30% WDGS were significantly less red (lower a* values) on d 3 of simulated retail display (P Feeding WDGS to calf-fed steers altered fatty acid profile, increased oxidation, and decreased color stability during retail display.

  14. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn.

  15. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  16. Technical Research of Recovering Protein from Process Water in Starch Wet Milling System%淀粉工艺水中蛋白回收工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽龙; 潘君慧; 张连慧; 强婉丽

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a technique that can recover protein from the process water in starch wet milling system, which mainly include recollecting corn gluten and obtaining two kinds of novel protein from process water produced during the step of major starch/protein separation by membrane filtration incroporating heat treatment. It was found that ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut-off at 50 ku and 100 ku have better effect on the rejection of 30 ku protein fraction , which is in the enrichment of branched chain amino acids such as Leu and Val. In addition , the obtained protein fractions at molecular weight range of 3 ku to 14 ku were found to resist to heat treatment. The novel protein products can be used as food protein ingredient or protein feed with potential application in muscle building and the acid food or beverage , repectively.%为了探索玉米淀粉生产中的工艺水中的蛋白组分的开发利用,研究一种玉米淀粉工艺水蛋白回收工艺,主要包括处理在湿磨法生产玉米淀粉工艺中的麸质浓缩步骤产生的工艺水,并使用膜技术和热处理技术在回收玉米黄粉的同时获得两种新蛋白产品。研究发现,50 ku和100 ku对丰度较高的30 ku蛋白组分的截留浓缩效果较好,其中,该蛋白富含亮氨酸和缬氨酸等支链氨基酸。分离出的耐热耐酸蛋白组分主要为3 ku~14 ku的部分。所得新蛋白产品可作为食用或饲用蛋白原料使用,并且分别具有增肌和用于酸性食品的潜力。

  17. Binding of carbon coated nano-silicon in graphene sheets by wet ball-milling and pyrolysis as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Hu, Renzong; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Jiangwen; Zhu, Min

    2016-06-01

    A novel approach has been developed to prepare silicon@carbon/graphene sheets (Si@C/G) composite with a unique structure, in which carbon coated Si nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a matrix of graphene sheets, to enhance the cycleability and electronic conductivity of Si-based anodes for Li-ion batteries. In this study, Si nanoparticles and expanded graphite (EG) are treated by combining high-energy wet ball-milling in sucrose solution with subsequent pyrolysis treatment to produce this Si@C/G composite. To achieve better overall electrochemical performance, the carbon content of the composites is also studied systematically. The as-designed Si30@C40/G30 (Si:C:G = 30:40:30, by weight) composite exhibits a high Li-storage capacity of 1259 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 in the first cycle. Further, a stable cycleability with 99.1/88.2% capacity retention from initial reversible charge capacity can be achieved over 100/300 cycles, showing great promise for batteries applications. This good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the uniform coating and binding effect of pyrolytic carbon as well as the network of graphene sheets, which increase the electronic conductivity and Li+ diffusion in the composite, and effectively accommodated the volume change of Si nanoparticles during the Li+ alloying and dealloying processes.

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing for Hinoki cypress and Eucalyptus after fibrillation by steam and subsequent wet-disk milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Akio; Kawamura, Shunsuke; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2014-06-01

    An advanced pretreatment method that combines steam treatment (ST) with wet disk milling (WDM) was evaluated using two different species of woods, viz., Hinoki cypress (softwood) and Eucalyptus (hardwood). Bioconversion of the pretreated products was performed using enzymatic saccharification via a commercial cellulase mixture and two types of fermentation processing, i.e., yeast-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and Clostridium thermocellum-based consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). A higher yield of glucose was obtained in the enzymatic saccharification and fermentation products from SSF and CBP with pretreatment consisting of WDM after ST, as compared to either ST or WDM alone. Maximum ethanol production via SSF and CBP were 359.3 and 79.4 mg/g-cellulose from Hinoki cypress, and 299.5 and 73.1 mg/g-cellulose from Eucalyptus, respectively. While the main fermentation product generated in CBP was acetate, the total products yield was 319.9 and 262.0 mg/g-cellulose from Hinoki cypress and Eucalyptus, respectively.

  19. Sn/Al2O3/C/CNT composite prepared by wet milling as anode material for lithium-ion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sandhya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sn/Al2O3/C/CNT (SAC/CNT composite was synthesized by a simple wet milling route. The physico-chemical, structural and morphological properties of the material were studied. The electrochemical performance of the composite as an anode material in Li-ion cells was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, charge–discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance measurements. The SAC/CNT material delivered an initial specific capacity of 835 mAh g−1 with the coulombic efficiency of ∼77% along with good charge–discharge cycle performance retaining ∼88% of the initial capacity after 35 cycles. A comparison of the results with those for Sn/C (SC and Sn/Al2O3/C (SAC showed that the SAC/CNT composite exhibited better overall performance compared to the other two materials. The enhanced performance of SAC/CNT is attributed to the combined effect of the buffer action provided by Al2O3 accommodating volume changes of the electrode during cycling and the reduced charge transfer resistance of the electrode resulting from the inclusion of conductive CNTs.

  20. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  1. Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S., E-mail: ser105@mail.usask.ca [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani-Rad, R. [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787/316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manafi, S.A. [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene. > Production of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. > Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

  2. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  3. 细微玉米粉的生料发酵%Ethanol Fermentation of Micronized Corn Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学英; 谢俊彪; 毛继荣; 葛亮

    2016-01-01

    通过湿法球磨对玉米粉进行细微化处理,采用市售糖化酶和酵母菌进行生料发酵,调查细微化对玉米粉结晶结构及生料发酵的影响。结果发现,中位径为273.6μm的市售玉米粉经过湿磨球磨后,中位径达到8.3μm。X-射线衍射分析表明,玉米粉中淀粉颗粒在细微化处理后转变为非晶态。细微玉米粉生料发酵的速率和酒精度均显著高于市售玉米粉;初始pH和料液浓度对细微玉米粉生料发酵具有显著性影响,发酵初始pH为6,料液浓度为20%时,发酵效果最好,酒精度达11.2%,残糖含量最低。由此可见,细微化可使玉米粉颗粒非晶态化,促进玉米粉的生料发酵。%In order to study the effects of micronization on crystal structure and direct ethanol fermentation of corn flour, corn flour samples were prepared by wet-milling, and then the direct ethanol fermentation of corn flour were carried out by using commercially available glucoamylase and yeast. The commercial corn flour with a median diameter of 273.6μm was micronized to 8.3μm in median diameter by wet-milling. And X-ray diffra-cometry revealed that the crystals of starch granules in the corn flour could be destroyed by wet-milling. The fer-mentation rate and alcoholicity of micronized corn flour were significantly higher than that of the commercial corn flour. And when the initial pH and concentration of feed mixture were 6 and 20%respectively, the samples ferment most efficiently with alcoholicity of 11.2%.The results indicated that wet-milling led to the destruction of corn flour crystal structure, which resulted in a remarkable increase of alcoholicity in the ethanol fermentation of corn flour.

  4. Actinomycetales from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  5. Micromorphological changes and mechanism associated with wet ball milling of Pinus radiata substrate and consequences for saccharification at low enzyme loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Donaldson, Lloyd A; Newman, Roger H; Suckling, Ian D; Campion, Sylke H; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D

    2016-08-01

    In this work, substrates prepared from thermo-mechanical treatment of Pinus radiata chips were vibratory ball milled for different times. In subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, percent glucan conversion passed through a maximum value at a milling time of around 120min and then declined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed breakage of fibers to porous fragments in which lamellae and fibrils were exposed during ball milling. Over-milling caused compression of the porous fragments to compact globular particles with a granular texture, decreasing accessibility to enzymes. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy showed partial loss of interior cellulose in crystallites, leveling off once fiber breakage was complete. A mathematical model based on observed micromorphological changes supports ball milling mechanism. At a low enzyme loading of 2FPU/g of substrate and milling time of 120min gave a total monomeric sugar yield of 306g/kg of pulp which is higher than conventional pretreatment method such as steam exploded wood.

  6. CORN-MILL GRINDING PLATES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hardness and wear resistance of the samples are explained in terms of chemical composition and/ .... Chromium 0.69 0.4 0.25. Molybdenum 0.03 01 50.010. Nickel 0.18 0.07 0.05. Copper 0.35 .... hard and brittle with good wear resistance.

  7. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  8. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  9. Mechanical wet-milling and subsequent consolidation of ultra-fine Al2O3-(ZrO2+3%Y2O3) bioceramics by using high-frequency induction heat sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalil Abdelrazek KHALIL; Sug Won KIM

    2007-01-01

    Alumina/zirconia composites were synthesized by wet-milling technique and rapid consolidation with high frequency induction heat sintering(HFIHS). The starting materials were a mixture of alumina micro-powder (80%, volume fraction) and 3YSZ nano-powders (20%). The mixtures were optimized for good sintering behaviors and mechanical properties. Nano-crystalline grains are obtained after 24 h milling. The nano-structured powder compacts are then processed to full density at different temperatures by HFIHS. Effects of temperature on the mechanical and microstructure properties were studied. Al2O3-3YSZ composites with higher mechanical properties and small grain size are successfully developed at relatively low temperatures through this technique.

  10. Microscopic analysis of corn fiber using starch- and cellulose-specific molecular probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie E; Donohoe, Bryon S; Beery, Kyle E; Xu, Qi; Ding, Shi-You; Vinzant, Todd B; Abbas, Charles A; Himmel, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  11. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  12. Research on the Starch Hydrolysis in Wet and Dry Milled Corn%湿磨与干磨玉米淀粉的水解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祥斌; 于淑娟; 吴谋成

    2001-01-01

    研究发现葡萄糖淀粉酶(即糖化酶)与α-淀粉酶水解玉米淀粉时的最佳比例为1.8AGU/KNU,干磨玉米淀粉比光滑玉米淀粉和湿磨玉米淀粉水解速度快8~21倍,葡萄糖得率高约4倍.结果表明干磨玉米淀粉协同水解经济可行.

  13. Mechanical milling of a nano structured ductile iron powder under dry, wet and cryogenic atmospheres; Proceso de molturacion mecanica en medio seco, humedo y criogenico de polvo de hierro ductil nanoestructurado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinca, N.; Hurtado, E.; Cano, I. G.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this study, is to obtain an effective particle and grain size reduction of a nano structured iron powder by mechanical milling under different milling media. One of the main challenges in this study is to work with this material of great ductility.The variables of the study to be optimized have been the following: speed of rotation, powder to ball ratio (PBR) and the percentage of control agent to induce an effective powder fracturing in front of cold welding. The powder has been characterized by a Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyser, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, X-ray diffraction.Through the comparative study, it is found that operating under dry milling conditions: there is a more effective particle size reduction of 43 % and grain size reduction of 62 %. In wet conditions has been reduced the amount of oxide, as well as to obtain a more homogenous distribution of the resulting powder. The results under cryogenic media is presented as promising. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Possibilities of utilization of co-products from corn grain ethanol and starch production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the expansion of alternative fuels production from crops traditionally used for food and animal feed has led to significant changes in the field of energy production, agriculture and food industry. Starch and sugar feedstocks for ethanol production (corn, wheat, sugar beet, sugar cane, etc. require increasing arable land to meet market demands for the biofuel production. Although intensive studies are being carried out in order to identify improved and more cost-effective methods for the utilization of lignocellulosic and communal waste in the production of alcohol fuel, the possibility of using dry distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS, by-product of bioethanol production from corn and wheat as well as alcoholic beverages industry, is now in focus. Application of DDGS in livestock and poultry diets in concentrations greater than traditional could positively affect the economic viability of this biofuel production, but also stabilize the current imbalance in the food and animal feed market. However, DDGS feedstuff should not be treated as a perfect substitute for corn because the complexity of ration formulation determined at the farm or feedlot level is driven by energy and protein and other nutrient requirements, as well as their relative costs in the ration. Nevertheless, processing of corn by wet milling provides a multitude of co-products suitable for feedstuffs, food industry, pharmaceuticals, chemistry etc. Some of the most important wet milling co-products that have their use in feedstuffs are corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal. The use of DDGS as a substitute for traditional feed could prevent indirect land-use changes associated with biofuel production, and therefore preserve the environmental destruction by saving the forests and permanent pastures. The use of distiller’s grains can be beneficial to biofuel growth as this is an additional, the second largest, source of income accounting of 10-20% total

  15. Technologic study on preparation of corn stover powder by classify-impact mill%分级式冲击磨制备玉米秸秆粉体工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓天; 刘传慧; 陈海焱; 孙权; 赖小林; 宋金仓

    2014-01-01

    分级式冲击磨是应用十分广泛的超细粉碎设备,但目前对分级式冲击磨的一些工艺参数的研究还不够充分。为了得到科学、合理的分级式冲击磨的工艺参数,本实验选用切断的玉米秸秆作为实验原料,用锤片式破碎机对其进行破碎并过筛(筛网孔径4mm),通过分级式冲击磨对粗破过筛后的玉米秸秆进行粉碎。实验考察了二次风风门开闭情况、锤头数量、锤头周向速度对玉米秸秆粉体产量及设备单位能耗的影响。实验结果表明,二次风风门全开时,粉体产量比二次风风门关闭时提高43.6%;锤头数量为8个时,粉体产量比锤头数量为4个和16个时高,单位能耗比锤头数量为4个和16个时低,但差距并不明显;锤头周向速度为130m/s时,粉体的产量比锤头周向速度为120m/s、110m/s、100m/s时高。%Classify-impact mill is widely used in ultrafine grinding industry. However,current research on the process of classify-impact mill is insufficient. In order to get suitable process parameters for classify-impact mill,the cutted corn stover was used as raw material in this study. The corn stover was firstly crushed by hammer crusher with screen mesh at 4mm,then crushed by classify-impact mill. The effects of secondary air,the number of beaters,circumferential speed of beaters for yield and energy consumption per unit were discussed. The results showed that yield was improved by 43.6 percent in the present of the secondary air. The energy consumption per unit was lower than 4 beaters or 16 beaters when 8 beaters were used in the classify-impact mill,but the improvement was not significant. The yield higher was at circumferential speed of 130m/s.

  16. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungdo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, Room 2527, Engineering Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States); Dale, Bruce E. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, Room 2527, Engineering Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States)]. E-mail: bdale@egr.msu.edu

    2005-05-15

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg{sup -1}). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and N{sub 2}O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO{sub 2} eq. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km{sup -1} driven, compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  17. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: non-renewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seungdo Kim; Dale, B.E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2005-05-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg{sup -1}). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and N{sub 2}O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO{sub 2eq}. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km{sup -1} driven, compared to gasoline-fuelled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions. (author)

  18. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  19. Fractionation of corn fiber treated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) for isolation of hemicellulose B and production of C5 sugars by enzyme hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Johnston, David B; Drapcho, Caye

    2011-08-01

    A process was developed to fractionate and isolate the hemicellulose B component of corn fiber generated by corn wet milling. The process consisted of pretreatment by soaking in aqueous ammonia followed by enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis, during which the hemicellulose B was solubilized by cleavage into xylo-oligosaccharides and subsequently recovered by precipitation with ethanol. The pretreatment step resulted in high retention of major sugars and improvement of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The recovered hemicellulose B was hydrolyzed by a cocktail of enzymes that consisted of β-glucosidase, pectinase, xylanase, and ferulic acid esterase (FAE). Xylanase alone was ineffective, demonstrating yields of less than 2% of xylose and arabinose. The greatest xylose and arabinose yields, 44% and 53%, respectively, were obtained by the combination of pectinase and FAE. A mass balance accounted for 87% of the initially present glucan, 91% of the xylan, and 90% of the arabinan. The developed process offered a means for production of corn fiber gum as a value-added co-product and C5 sugars, which could be converted to other valuable co-products through fermentation in a corn wet-milling biorefinery.

  20. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Shrestha, P; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-05-01

    Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars through a purely biological process is a key to sustainable biofuel production. Hydrolysis of the corn wet-milling co-product-corn fiber-to simple sugars by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was studied in suspended-culture and solid-state fermentations. Suspended-culture experiments were not effective in producing harvestable sugars from the corn fiber. The fungus consumed sugars released by fungal extracellular enzymes. Solid-state fermentation demonstrated up to 40% fiber degradation within 9days. Enzyme activity assays on solid-state fermentation filtrates confirmed the involvement of starch- and cellulose-degrading enzymes. To reduce fungal consumption of sugars and to accelerate enzyme activity, 2- and 3-d solid-state fermentation biomasses (fiber and fungus) were submerged in buffer and incubated at 37 degrees C without shaking. This anaerobic incubation converted up to almost 11% of the corn fiber into harvestable reducing sugars. Sugars released by G. trabeum were fermented to a maximum yield of 3.3g ethanol/100g fiber. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of G. trabeum fermenting sugar to ethanol. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a co-culture led to more rapid fermentation to a maximum yield of 4.0g ethanol/100g fiber. The findings demonstrate the potential for this simple fungal process, requiring no pretreatment of the corn fiber, to produce more ethanol by hydrolyzing and fermenting carbohydrates in this lignocellulosic co-product.

  1. Effects of the mechanical damage on the water absorption process by corn kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Botelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the water absorption process by corn kernels with different levels of mechanical damage Corn kernels of AG 1510 variety with moisture content of 14.2 (% d.b. were used. Different mechanical damage levels were indirectly evaluated by electrical conductivity measurements. The absorption process was based on the industrial corn wet milling process, in which the product was soaked with a 0.2% sulfur dioxide (SO2 solution and 0.55% lactic acid (C3H6O3 in distilled water, under controlled temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and different mechanical damage levels. The Peleg model was used for the analysis and modeling of water absorption process. The conclusion is that the structural changes caused by the mechanical damage to the corn kernels influenced the initial rates of water absorption, which were higher for the most damaged kernels, and they also changed the equilibrium moisture contents of the kernels. The Peleg model was well adjusted to the experimental data presenting satisfactory values for the analyzed statistic parameters for all temperatures regardless of the damage level of the corn kernels.

  2. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    no improvement in ethanol yields. We showed that saccharification of lignocellulosic material with a wood-rot fungal process is quite feasible. Corn fiber from wet milling was best degraded to sugars using aerobic solid state fermentation with the soft-rot fungus T. reesei. However, it was shown that both the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium and brown-rot fungus G. trabeum had the ability to produce additional consortia of hemi/cellulose degrading enzymes. It is likely that a consortium of enzymes from these fungi would be the best approach in saccharification of lignocellulose. In all cases, a subsequent anaerobic yeast process under submerged conditions is required to ferment the released sugars to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time report on production of cellulolytic enzymes from wet-milled corn fiber using white- and brown-rot fungi for sequential fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzate to ethanol. Keywords: lignocellulose, ethanol, biofuel, bioeconomy, biomass, renewable resources, corn fiber, pretreatment, solid-substrate fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), white-rot fungus, brown-rot fungus, soft-rot fungus, fermentable sugars, enzyme activities, cellulytic enzymes Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloleophyllum trabeum, Trichoderma reesei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. GC法测定半湿法玉米胚挤压制油中脂肪酸的含量%Determination of Fatty Acids in Corn Oil Made from Extruded Corn Germ with Semi-wet Milling by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善峰; 刘秀华; 李宏军; 石晓峰

    2013-01-01

    为了测定半湿法玉米胚挤压膨化预处理制取的玉米油中的脂肪酸含量,采用毛细管气相色谱法,甲酯化后同时测定玉米油中棕榈酸、亚油酸、油酸、硬脂酸含量.结果表明,棕榈酸、亚油酸、油酸和硬脂酸含量分别为13.27%、54.47%、28.51%和1.84%.4种脂肪酸的回收率为92.3%~95.4%.该方法简单、准确、重复性好,可作为测定半湿法玉米胚挤压制油中4种脂肪酸含量的方法.

  4. Metal Availability following Paper Mill and Alkaline Residuals Application to Field Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Bernard; Ziadi, Noura; Robichaud, Annie; Karam, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Land application of residuals from the forest industry can help to restore soil fertility, but few studies have assessed the effects of metal accumulation in plants. An experimental study was initiated in 2000 on a loamy soil at Yamachiche, QC, Canada, to evaluate the effects of repeated annual applications of combined paper mill biosolids, when applied alone or with several liming by-products. This study assessed the accumulation of Cu, Zn, Mo, and Cd in plants and soil after 6 (soybean [ (L.) Merr.]) and 9 [corn ( L.)] crop yr. Wet paper mill biosolids at 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg ha were surface applied after seeding. Calcitic lime, lime mud, and wood ash were applied wet each at 3 Mg ha with 30 Mg wet paper mill biosolids ha. Repeated applications of paper mill biosolids increased plant and soil metal concentrations after 6 and 9 yr in the order of Cd > Mo (soybean) > Zn > Cu. Liming increased soil pH and Mo availability and decreased Zn and Cd availability. Metals in crop stover responded more positively to applications than those in grains, but the concentrations in plant tissues were generally well below critical values. The Cu/Mo ratio of soybean plants at pH > 6.8 fell below 2:1, however, and may pose a risk for inducing Cu metabolism disorder in ruminants. Results of this study indicate that paper mill biosolids and alkaline residuals, when applied with respect to regulations and soil pH, have a limited effect on metal accumulation in plants and soil.

  5. Stagewise dilute-acid pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of distillers' grains and corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddini, Hossein; Byun, Jongwon; Yu, Ta-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Distillers' grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the corn dry grind and wet milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers' grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their high levels of lignocellulosic material make these coproducts attractive feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of these coproducts was investigated in a multistage scheme. After the completion of each pretreatment stage, the liquid substrate was separated and reused in the succeeding pretreatment stage with a fresh substrate. The substrate from each stage was also subjected to enzyme hydrolysis in a separate experiment. The sulfuric acid concentration and the substrate loading were maintained at 1.0 vol% and 15.0 wt.%, respectively, and the temperature was maintained at 120 degrees C in all the experiments. Experiments were also performed to study the effect of removing oil from the samples prior to the pretreatment. The highest concentration of monomeric sugars (MS) was observed when three stages of pretreatment were followed by the enzyme reaction. The enzyme hydrolysis of the three-stage pretreated dried distillers' grains and corn fiber yielded 122.6 +/- 5.8 and 184.5 +/- 4.1 mg/mL of MS, respectively. The formation of inhibitory products was also monitored.

  6. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  7. Effect of corn bran particle size on rheology and pasting characteristics of flour gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Corn bran substitution has shown to affect batter viscosity, and volume, crumb grain, color, and texture of cakes. Purified food-grade corn bran was milled to pass through 80, 100 and 120 mesh sieve, resu...

  8. Corn fiber gum and milk protein conjugates with improved emulsion stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG), an alkaline hydrogen peroxide extract of the corn kernel milling by-product “corn fiber” was covalently conjugated with Beta-lactoglobulin (Beta-LG) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Covalent coupling of CFG to protein was achieved by dry heating reaction (Maillard-type) of CFG ...

  9. Wetting Splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Peichun; Dijkstra, Remko; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos illustrating wetting splashing-produced by water drop impact onto hydrophobic microstructures at high impact velocity ($\\sim 3$ ms$^{-1}$). The substrate consists of regular and transparent microtextures in square or hexagonal lattice, yielding a high contact angle of $\\sim 150 ^\\circ$. Our high speed top-or-bottom view recordings through the transparent surface shed light on the solid-liquid-air interfaces at impact. Despite the superhydrophobicity of the latticed micropillars (of a periodicity of $10 {\\mu}m), water droplet wets a certain central area and moreover entraps an air bubble beneath the droplet. Besides the central wet area, lamella surf on air splashing outward at high impinging velocity. The effects of micropatterns and air pressure on the impact outcome are also examined. We show that microscopic boundary condition, imposed by the solid texture, profoundly influences the macroscopic flow dynamics upon superhydrophobic surfaces at high impinging velocity. In addi...

  10. Effect of Row Circle Method and Variety of Hybrid Corn on Yield of Corn (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Use Etica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn yield improved by genetic improving, plant population and fertilizer. The experiment aims to knowing the effect off row circle planting method and hybrid corn variety toward population and yield of corn. The experiment was conducted on August- November 2015 in Siman, Ponorogo, altitude 140 amsl and textured clay grumosol soil types. The experiment was a factorial experiment in a complete block randomized design with two factor and three replications. The first factor was hybrid corn varieties (Bisi-18, NK-7328, Pertiwi-3, and Pioneer-27. The second factor was row circle planting method (single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm; row circle planting method with interval planting of 60x100 cm and 100x50x50 cm. The result showed not significantly interaction between row circle planting method and hybrid corn varieties with respect to population total and corn yield. Row circle planting method with interval planting 100x50x50 cm increased plant population about 164.413 plants/ha and significantly different with single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm (62,881 plants/ha and row circle planting method with interval planting 60x100 cm (136,774 plants/ha. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly increased plant population. Pioneer-27 variety of hybrid corn produced weight of wet corn logs by 17,22 ton/Ha and significantly different with Bisi-18, NK-7328 and Pertiwi-3. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly affects to increasing produce of dry corn kernels. Variety of Pioneer-27 produced dry corn kernels 7,28 ton/ha and was not significantly different with varieties of Bisi-18, NK-7328, and Pertiwi-3. Variety of NK-7328 had percentage weight of wet corn logs into dry corn kernels as big as 55,38% bigger than varieties of Bisi-18, Pertiwi-3 and Pioneer-27.

  11. Ethanol production from corn, corn stover and corncob from the Jilin Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, E.; Thomsen, A.B. [Risoe National Lab., Biosystem Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Feng, L. [Jilin Light Industry Design and Reserch Inst., Changchun City (China)

    2005-06-01

    Among the available agricultural by-products, corn stover is far the most abundant lignocellulosic raw material for fuel ethanol production in China. More than 120 million tons of corn stover is produced annually, representing approximately 40 million tons of ethanol. In this study ethanol was produced from corn and alkaline wet oxidized (WO) corn stover and corncob followed by non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eight different combinations of reaction temperature and time were applied for wet oxidation of corn stover and corncob using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} as catalysts to find the best reaction conditions, resulting in both high glucose and ethanol yield. The best condition (200 deg. C, 8 min, 2g/L Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) increased the enzymatic conversion from cellulose to glucose of corn stover more then four times and resulted in 87% ethanol yield of theoretical, based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 6% (w/w) dry material at 20 FPU/g DM enzyme loading after 120 h of SSF. The pretreatment with NH{sub 3} at the same conditions resulted slightly lower cellulose conversion to glucose, but also gave promising ethanol yield (75%), demonstrated, that the baker's yeast still could adapt to the WO material and ferment the glucose content to ethanol efficiently. (au)

  12. Lupine protein enrichment by milling and electrostatic separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jun; Wit, De Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Lupine seeds are excellent source of plant protein. We here report on dry fractionation by combining milling and electrostatic separation providing an alternative to wet extraction of protein from lupine seeds. Relatively coarse milling was preferred as this provides sufficient detached protein

  13. Repeated annual paper mill and alkaline residuals application affects soil metal fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Bernard; Robichaud, Annie; Ziadi, Noura; Karam, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    The application of industrial residuals in agriculture may raise concerns about soil and crop metal accumulation. A complete study using a fractionation scheme would reveal build-up in metal pools occurring after material addition and predict the transformation of metals in soil between the different forms and potential metal release into the environment. An experimental study was conducted from 2000 to 2008 on a loamy soil at Yamachiche, Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the effects of repeated annual addition of combined paper mill biosolids when applied alone or with several liming by-products on soil Cu, Zn, and Cd fractions. Wet paper mill biosolids at 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg ha and calcitic lime, lime mud, or wood ash, each at 3 Mg ha with 30 Mg paper mill biosolids ha, were surface applied after seeding. The soils were sampled after 6 (soybean [ (L.) Merr.]) and 9 [corn ( L.)] crop years and analyzed using the Tessier fractionation procedure. Results indicated that biosolids addition increased exchangeable Zn and Cd, carbonate-bound Cd, Fe-Mn oxide-bound Zn and Cd, organically bound Cu and Zn, and total Zn and Cd fractions but decreased Fe-Mn oxide-bound Cu in the uppermost 30-cm layer. With liming by-products, there was a shift from exchangeable to carbonate-bound forms. Even with very small metals addition, paper mill and liming materials increased the mobility of soil Zn and Cd after 9 yr of application, and this metal redistribution resulted into higher crop grain concentrations.

  14. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino; Maria Cristina Dias Paes

    2014-01-01

    The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two g...

  15. Wet Mechanochemical Processing of Celestine using (NH42CO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Bingöl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traditional (univariate method of processing to the wet mechanochemical treatment were applied to obtain both SrCO3 and (NH42SO4 from celestite (SrSO4-(NH42CO3-H2O mixtures in a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis were used to analyze products formed during wet milling. A hydrometallurgical process was carried out to examine milling time, ball to grinding material mass ratio, (NH42CO3 to SrSO4 mole ratio and rotational speed of the mill in a planetary mill. Under optimum conditions, a conversion approaching 100% of SrCO3 was obtained.

  16. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... mills, contact Dr. Kelley Spence, Natural Resources Group, Sector Policies and Program Division, Office... pressure loss and scrubbing liquid supply pressure are required for any lime kiln or SDT using a wet... instead of opacity monitoring. The parameter monitors will measure the wet scrubber pressure drop...

  17. Mycotoxin Degradation Technology in Ethanol Production by Dry Milling Corn%玉米干法酒精生产过程中真菌毒素降解技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞建良; 苏会波; 李凡; 周勇; 罗虎; 林海龙

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins in corn accumulates in DDGS feedstuff during ethanol production and it seriously threatens animals'health. In this pa-per, the principles of mycotoxin degradation technology and its application in ethanol production were discussed in order to provide useful thoughts for ethanol manufacturing enterprises.%玉米中的真菌毒素在酒精生产过程中富集到了DDGS饲料中,对动物的健康构成了严重的威胁.主要对真菌毒素降解技术的原理及其在酒精生产过程中的应用进行探讨,以期为酒精生产企业提供降解真菌毒素的思路.

  18. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  19. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  20. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of the microflora of nixtamalized corn masa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphson, Stephen J; Dunn, Michael L; Jefferies, Laura K; Steele, Frost M

    2013-08-01

    Corn tortillas are a staple in the diet among the Mexican population, and are traditionally produced through a process known as nixtamalization. This traditional process involves steeping whole-kernel corn in an alkaline solution overnight and then grinding the corn into dough (masa), which is then baked. While the masa is held before baking, significant microbial change can occur which leads to fermentation and spoilage. The objective of this research was to characterize and identify the microflora of nixtamalized corn masa from six different commercial tortilla mills throughout Guadalajara, Mexico. The identification of samples was conducted using the microbial identification system (MIS), which analyzes cellular fatty acids via gas chromatography to identify bacterial species. Lactic acid bacteria and aerobic mesophiles were the predominant organisms, with both groups having counts ranging from 10(4) to 10(7)cfu/g across all mills. Coliform populations were observed at counts of 10(2) to 10(3)cfu/g, while yeast and mold counts were typically less than 10(1)cfu/g. Some mills showed no presence of coliforms or yeast or mold. Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus oris were isolated from all mills, and were the most prevalent organisms representing 43% and 17% of all lactic acid bacteria isolated, respectively. S. bovis was also isolated on the aerobic tryptic soy plates and was the most prevalent species representing 19% of the total organisms from these aerobic plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical composition and energy value of corn and wet corn grain silage for poultry Composição química e valores energéticos do milho e da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho para aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Lorençon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME and TME corrected for nitrogen retention (TMEn, and respective metabolizability coefficient (AMC of corn and high moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS with 50 and 100 days of ensilage and different inoculant levels for poultry. For determination the values of energy, the total excreta collecting method was used, which 144 broiler chicken Ross 308, 21 days old, were distributed in a completely randomized design. Differences were not observed (P>0.05 for metabolizability coefficient. It was concluded that the values of AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn of corn were 3680, 3588, 3748 and 3735 kcal/kg respectively and the values of AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn of HMCGS ranged from 3477 to 3881, 3401 to 3769, 3573 to 3985 and 2374 to 2649 kcal/kg, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, EMA corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn, energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV e EMV corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMVn, bem como seus respectivos coeficientes de metabolizabilidade do milho e da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM em função de diferentes níveis de inoculante e com 50 e 100 dias de ensilagem. Para a determinação dos valores energéticos foi utilizado o método de coleta total de excretas, onde 144 pintos Ross 308, com 21 dias de idade foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade. Os valores de EMA, EMAn, EMV, EMVn do milho foram 3680, 3588, 3748 e 3735 kcal/kg respectivamente e os valores de EMA, EMAn, EMV, EMVn para as SGUM variam de 3477 a 3881, 3401 a 3769, 3573 a 3985, e 2374 a 2649 kcal/kg respectivamente.

  3. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  4. WET STRENGTH PAPER REPULPING:LABORATORY EVALUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Vikas Rajan; A.G. Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    The recycling of wet strength papers in a normal recycling mill is often troublesome due to the severe operating conditions required to defibre wet strength papers. The various methods are presented which will quickly allow mills to determine the most effective pulping aids to use when repulping wet strength papers. The repulping of wet strength paper with inorganic chemicals was investigated in the laboratory. The effects of major variables, that is,repulping time, pulp consistency, soaking time,temperature, and reactant concentration in the repulping stage were examined using Plackett-Burman design. The repulping time was the most crucial & influential process variable affecting repulping characteristic and formation related properties. The more significant repulping process variables affecting pulp yield were repulping time,soaking temperature and pulp consistency whereas for formation index and feature size, repulping time,pulp consistency, soaking temperature and time were the more important variables. The formation index is increased by an increase in repulping time, pulp consistency and soaking time whereas the feature size is decreased by an increase in repulping time,soaking temperature and pulp consistency. The formation index and the rejects were more sensitive to changes in process variables than were the feature size or the pulp yield. The pulp recycled from wet strength waste paper had good physical strength properties.

  5. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  6. Evaluation of storage methods for the conversion of corn stover biomass to sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Lei; Jin, Ming-Jie; Pang, Feng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Kang, Yong; Dale, Bruce E; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of dry and wet storage methods without or with shredding on the conversion of corn stover biomass were investigated using steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugar conversions and yields for wet stored biomass were obviously higher than those for dry stored biomass. Shredding reduced sugar conversions compared with non-shredding, but increased sugar yields. Glucan conversion and glucose yield for non-shredded wet stored biomass reached 91.5% and 87.6% after 3-month storage, respectively. Data of micro-structure and crystallinity of biomass indicated that corn stover biomass maintained the flexible and porous structure after wet storage, and hence led to the high permeability of corn stover biomass and the high efficiency of pretreatment and hydrolysis. Therefore, the wet storage methods would be desirable for the conversion of corn stover biomass to fermentable sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-10-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  8. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  9. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  10. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  11. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  12. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  13. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003916.htm Vaginitis test - wet mount To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vaginitis wet mount test is a test to detect ...

  14. Effects of feeding different levels of corn steep liquor on the performance of fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A; Sharifi, A; Mirmohammadi, D; Baluch-Gharaei, H; Rezaei, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding corn steep liquor (CSL) on in vivo digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia and hydrolytic enzyme activities, blood metabolites, feed intake (FI) and growth performance in fattening lambs. The CSL is a by-product of wet milling process of maize starch industry. The crude protein (CP), rumen-degradable protein (RDP), lactic acid and metabolisable energy contents of this by-product were 420, 324, 200 g/kg dry matter (DM) and 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively. Twenty-seven male Moghani lambs were assigned randomly into three groups of nine lambs each in a completely randomised design. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets containing different levels (0, 50 or 100 g/kg dry matter) of CSL were offered ad libitum three times a day. Forage to concentrate ratio of the diets was 30:70. With inclusion of CSL in diet, the contents of canola meal, fish meal, wheat bran, corn grain and sugar beet pulp were decreased. The contents of DM, ash-free neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), ether extract, starch, Ca and S were numerically lower, but soluble protein, RDP and non-fibre carbohydrates were greater in the diets containing CSL in comparison with the control diet. The lambs fed with the diets containing CSL had lower [linear (L), p acid detergent fibre, and average daily gain. However, the feed conversion ratio was similar among the experimental animals. Overall, feeding CSL up to 100 g/kg diet DM in lamb resulted in reductions of rumen fibrolytic microbial enzyme activities, in vivo digestibility, FI and growth performance, but rumen proteases activity increased. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  16. Ultrasound enhanced glucose release from corn in ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Samir Kumar; Montalbo, Melissa; van Leeuwen, J; Srinivasan, Gowrishankar; Grewell, David

    2007-12-01

    This work evaluated the use of high power ultrasonic energy to treat corn slurry in dry corn milling ethanol plants to enhance liquefaction and saccharification for ethanol production. Corn slurry samples obtained before and after jet cooking were subjected to ultrasonic pretreatment for 20 and 40 s at amplitudes of vibration ranging from 180 to 299 microm(pp) (peak to peak amplitude in microm). The resulting samples were then exposed to enzymes (alpha-amylase and glucoamylase) to convert cornstarch into glucose. A comparison of scanning electron micrographs of raw and sonicated samples showed the development of micropores and the disruption of cell walls in corn mash. The corn particle size declined nearly 20-fold following ultrasonic treatment at high power settings. The glucose release rate from sonicated samples increased as much as threefold compared to the control group. The efficiency of ultrasound exceeded 100% in terms of energy gain from the sugar released over the ultrasonic energy supplied. Enzymatic activity was enhanced when the corn slurry was sonicated with simultaneous addition of enzymes. This finding suggests that the ultrasonic energy did not degrade or denature the enzymes during the pretreatment.

  17. INCREASING OF FALL RYE CORN FEEDING VALUE BY HYDROBARATHERNAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The results of production experience on hydrobarathernal treatment fall rye grain feeding are presented in the article. It is determined that ater high temperature and pressure impact on fall rye grain in aqueous media dextrinization of starch specifically amylopectin occurs to monosugar in the form of glucose, therewith, sugar content increases more than in twice in comparison with parent grain. It is revealed that replacement of milled corn grain mixture to fall rye grain hydrolyzate in rat...

  18. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  19. Corrosion of Cast Iron Mill Plates in Wet Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion studies were carried out on two different maize grinding plates. Maize was soaked in water for three days and the water decanted and used as electrolyte. Mass loss and pH measurements were carried out every 3 days for 15-day period. Results show that, for each plate, mass loss and pH increased with exposure time. Corrosion rates determined from mass loss data was found to be strongly dependent on pH. The observed behaviour may be explained in terms of the chemical composition and/or microstructures of the plates. Results are briefly discussed in terms of the contribution of corrosion to wear.

  20. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  1. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, ... the surfaces is your tender skin! What's a Blister? A blister is an area of raised skin ...

  2. Corns and calluses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rowers get calluses on their hands that prevent blisters from forming. People with bunions often develop a callus over the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems. Symptoms ...

  3. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  4. Wet oxidation of quinoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Kilen, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure (0.4 and 2 MPa). reaction time (30 and 60 min) and temperature (260 and 280 degrees C) on the wet oxidation of quinoline has been studied. The dominant parameters for the decomposition of quinoline were oxygen pressure and reaction temperature. whereas the reaction...... time was less important within the range studied. Nitrifying bacteria were used to measure the inhibition from wet oxidative-treated samples to study the effect of the (wet oxidation) reaction conditions. Wet oxidation made quinoline more toxic to Nitrosomonas. This was observed for Nitrobacter as well....... The combined wet oxidation and biological treatment of reaction products resulted in 91% oxidation of the parent compound to CO2 and water. Following combined wet oxidation and biological treatment the sample showed low toxicity towards Nitrosomonas and no toxicity towards Nitrobacter. (C) 1998 Elsevier...

  5. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  6. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  7. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  8. WetVegEurope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landucci, Flavia; Řezníčková, Marcela; Šumberová, Kateřina; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    WetVegEurope is a research project (http://www.sci.muni.cz/botany/vegsci/wetveg) whose goal is to provide a synthesized formalized classification of the aquatic and marsh vegetation across Europe at the level of phytosociological associations. In order to achieve the project objective, a WetVegEu

  9. Letting Wet Spots be Wet: Restoring Natural Bioreactors in the Dissected Glacial Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Keith E.; McLellan, Eileen; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we argue that there is tremendous potential for nitrate-N reductions to occur throughout the Corn Belt region of the USA if we simply let naturally occurring wet spots on the landscape be wet. Geologic and hydrologic data gathered in the Walnut Creek watershed located in south-central Iowa provides compelling evidence that substantial nutrient-processing capacity exists in this dissected glacial landscape. Self-similarity of stratigraphy, sedimentology and hydrology observed at all spatial scales in the watershed suggests that Holocene alluvial fill deposits provide a natural bioreactor for denitrification of upland groundwater nitrate-N; the occurrence of such deposits can be mapped to identify potential nitrogen sinks across the landscape. This approach to identifying potential nitrogen sinks is geology focused and extends potential locations for nutrient processing upstream into the headwater catchments of individual fields.

  10. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...

  11. Wetting Transition in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. R.; Khalil, M.; Taborek, P.

    2013-11-01

    Optical images were used to study the wetting behavior of water on graphite, sapphire, and quartz along the liquid vapor coexistence curve from room temperature to 300°C. Wetting transitions were identified by the temperature at which the contact angle decreased to zero and also by the disappearance of dropwise condensation. These two methods yielded consistent values for the wetting temperatures, which were 185°C, 234°C, and 271°C for water on quartz, sapphire, and graphite, respectively. We compare our results with the theoretical predictions based on a simplified model of the water-substrate potential and sharp interfaces.

  12. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  13. Effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, A.; Hameed, A.; Chander, S.; Nehra, S. P.; Singh, P.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay is undertaken. The wet grinding treatment was performed employing ball and vibro mills for different time spells of 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours. The structural properties were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of ground samples is found to be simple cubic. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and slight change in lattice constant, inter planner spacing and particle size is observed with grinding treatment. The results are in agreement with the available literature.

  14. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  15. Adsorption and wetting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, L.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption and wetting are related phenomena. In order to improve knowledge of both and their relations, experiments, thermodynamics and a theoretical interpretation have been connected, starring n-alkanes.Starting from the Gibbs adsorption equation thermodynamic relations between vapour adsorption

  16. Wet hydrate dissolution plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Kovačević Branimir T.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with capacity of 50,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate ...

  17. Dissolution Kinetics of Milled-Silicate Rock Fertilizers in Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Priyono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A dissolution experiment was carried out to identify the effects of milling condition on dissolution kinetics of silicate rock fertilizers. Initially ground materials (Ø < 250 μm for basalt, dolerite, gneiss, and Ø < 150 μm for K-feldspar were further milled with a ball mill (Spex 8000 under dry and wet conditions for 10, 60, and 120 minutes. The rock powders were dissolved in a mixture of 0.01M acetic-citric acid at a rock powder/solvent ratio of 1/1000, and the solution was agitated continuously on a rotary shaker at 25o C. The concentrations of dissolved Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si from the milled rocks were determined at intervals from 1 hour up to 56 days. Results indicated that the relationships of quantity of dissolved rock and elemental plant nutrients (Et with time (t were well described by a power equation: Et = Eo + atn with reaction order (n of 0.3 – 0.8. Milling increased quantity of total and individual dissolved element (Et , dissolution rate (Rt, the proportion of rapidly soluble rock or element (Eo, and dissolution constant a. The increases in dissolution due to dry milling were larger than for wet milling. Although further proves should be provided, results of this dissolution experiment clearly indicates that SRFs may be used as multinutrient fertilizers as well as remedial materials for acidic soils; and dry milling may be applied as an appropriate method for manufacturing effective SRFs.

  18. Calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared from wet chemically precipitated powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Salma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work calcium phosphates were synthesized by modified wet chemical precipitation route. Contrary to the conventional chemical precipitation route calcium hydroxide was homogenized with planetary mill. Milling calcium oxide and water in planetary ball mill as a first step of synthesis provides a highly dispersed calcium hydroxide suspension. The aim of this work was to study the influence of main processing parameters of wet chemical precipitation synthesis product and to control the morphology, phase and functional group composition and, consequently, thermal stability and microstructure of calcium phosphate bioceramics after thermal treatment. The results showed that it is possible to obtain calcium phosphates with different and reproducible phase compositions after thermal processing (hydroxyapatite [HAp], β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP] and HAp/β-TCP by modified wet-chemical precipitation route. The β-TCP phase content in sintered bioceramics samples is found to be highly dependent on the changes in technological parameters and it can be controlled with ending pH, synthesis temperature and thermal treatment. Pure, crystalline and highly thermally stable (up to 1300°C HAp bioceramics with homogenous grainy microstructure, grain size up to 200–250 nm and high open porosity can be successfully obtained by powder synthesized at elevated synthesis temperature of 70°C and stabilizing ending pH at 9.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  20. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  1. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills.

  2. Wet storage integrity update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  3. Wrinkling of wet paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Jungchul; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-11-01

    It is a mundane experience that paper stained with water wrinkles. It is because a wetted portion of paper, which swells due to the hygroexpansive nature of the cellulose fiber network, deforms out of its original plane. Here we quantify the dynamics of wrinkling of wet paper coupled to the capillary imbibition of water into paper using a combination of experiment and theory. While supplying water from a capillary tube that touches the center of a paper strip, we measure the spreading rate of the wet area, wait time for the out-of-plane buckling, and temporal growth of a wrinkling magnitude. Using a theoretical model assuming a linear increase of the strain and an exponential decay of the elastic modulus with the water concentration, we construct scaling laws to predict the simultaneous capillary imbibition and wrinkling rates. This work was supported by the Wyss Institute of Harvard University.

  4. Wet air oxidation of seedcorn wastes containing pesticides and insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.; Schlaefer, O.; Onyeche, T.I.; Schroeder, C.; Bormann, H.; Schaefer, S. [CUTEC-Inst. GmbH (Clausthal Environment Technology Inst.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wet air oxidation as an alternative treatment process to pyrolysis and combustion of seedcorn wastes was investigated in lab-scale experiments. Due to solid condition of the seed corn waste, the process has been adapted by repeated spraying of water on the seed corn bulk to avoid the production of sludge and its subsequent dewatering. Original seed corns from industrial production plants were used for a degradation kinetic study under smooth wet air oxidation conditions. The temperatures were between 80 and 150 C, the pressure from 1 to 4.5 bar and the pH at different values from 3 to 13. Degradation rates for five different compounds of pesticides and insecticides, namely Imidacloprid, Thiram, Hymexazol, Carbofuran and Tefluthrin were conducted. These compounds represent the recently used in agricultural seedcorn applications. The degradation rate depends linearly on temperature between 80 and 150 C. At 120 C the lowest degradation rate was found for Tefluthrin by 25 mg/h per L reaction volume while the highest degradation rate to be conducted was for Imidacloprid at 363 mg/h L. (orig.)

  5. FePt magnetic particles prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    High-energy ball milling of Fe and Pt elemental powders has been carried out under dry and wet (in presence of solvent and surfactants) conditions. Dry milling leads to the formation of the disordered FCC-FePt alloy whereas by the wet milling procedure the main process is the decrease of Fe and Pt particle size, although some dissolution of Pt into Fe grains cannot be ruled out, and no hint of the formation of the FCC-FePt phase is observed even to milling times up to 20 h, as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates. The as-milled particles were annealed at 600 °C for 2 h under Ar atmosphere. It is noticed that the disordered fcc-FePt phase observed in particles milled under dry conditions transform to ordered fct phase characterized by a hard magnetic behavior with a coercive field up to 10,000 Oe. However, those particles milled in the surfactant/solvent medium exhibit a soft magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 600 Oe. These results indicate that wet high-energy ball milling is not an adequate technique for obtaining single-phase FePt particles. - Highlights: • FePt particles have been obtained by high-energy ball milling. • In the presence of surfactants and solvents, almost no alloying process takes place. • After annealing, the coercive field of the FePt alloy particles increases from 150 Oe to 10,000 Oe.

  6. Wetting of real surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward Yu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of wetting and drop dynamics on various surfaces is very interesting from both the scientificas well as thepractical viewpoint, and subject of intense research.The results are scattered across papers in journals, sothis workwill meet the need for a unifying, comprehensive work.

  7. Wet Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... macular degeneration Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Wet macular degeneration is a chronic eye disease that causes blurred vision or a blind spot in your visual field. It's generally caused by abnormal blood vessels that leak fluid or blood into ... macular degeneration is one of two types of age-related ...

  8. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  9. Changes in mineral concentrations and phosphorus profile during dry-grind processing of corn into ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun; Han, Jianchun

    2011-02-01

    For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from three commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentrations) increased significantly from corn to cooked slurry but fermentation caused most significant increase in all attributes. During centrifugation, more minerals went into thin stillage than wet grains, making minerals most concentrated in the former. Mineral increase in DDGS over corn was about 3 fold, except for Na, S, Ca, and Fe. The first three had much higher fold of increase, presumably due to exogenous addition. During fermentation, phytate P and inorganic P had 2.54 and 10.37 fold of increase over corn, respectively, while relative to total P, % phytate P decreased and % inorganic P increased significantly. These observations suggest that phytate underwent some degradation, presumably due to activity of yeast phytase.

  10. Preparation of fenofibrate immediate-release tablets involving wet grinding for improved bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Chai, Guihong; Zeng, Xueping; He, Haibing; Xu, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dissolution and oral bioavailability of an immediate-release tablet involving wet grinding of a poorly water-soluble drug, fenofibrate. The milled suspension was prepared using a Basket Dispersing Mill in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer solution and then granulated with common excipients, and compressed into an immediate-release tablet with blank microcrystalline cellulose granules. Compared with unmilled tablets (56% within 30 minutes), the dissolution of wet-milled tablets (about 98% in 30 minutes) was markedly enhanced. No significant decrease in the dissolution rate (96% in 30 minutes) of the wet-milled tablet was observed after 3 months under 40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity storage. In addition, the oral bioavailability of the wet-milled tablets (test) and Lipanthyl supra-bioavailability tablets (reference) was determined in beagle dogs after a single dose (160 mg fenofibrate) in a randomized crossover, own-control study. The results suggested that both the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC((0-t)) = 46.83 +/- 11.09 microg/mL h) and the mean peak concentration of the test (C(max) = 4.63 +/- 1.71 microg/mL) were higher than the reference (AUC((0-t)) = 35.12 +/- 10.97 microg/mL h, C(max) = 2.11 +/- 0.08 microg/mL). The relative bioavailability of the wet-milled tablet was approximately 1.3-fold higher. Furthermore, the apparent rate of absorption of fenofibrate from the wet-milled tablet (T(max) = 2.63 hours) was faster than that from Lipanthyl (T(max) = 3.75 hours). These results indicated that the dissolution and the bioavailability of fenofibrate were significantly enhanced by wet-grinding process. So, this shows that wet grinding is a powerful technique to improve the bioavailability for poorly water-soluble drugs, especially for Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class II compounds.

  11. 40 CFR 80.1426 - How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Feedstock Production process requirements D-code Ethanol Corn starch All of the following:Dry mill process... Table 2 to this section. 6 Ethanol Corn starch All of the following:Dry mill process, using natural gas... Corn starch Wet mill process using biomass or biogas for process energy. 6 Ethanol Starches from...

  12. Use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill replacing corn on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components in Santa Inês lambs Utilização da palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill em substituição ao milho sobre as características de carcaça e componentes não constituintes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ferreira Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the biometric and morphometric measures, regional composition, carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa Inês lambs submitted to levels of corn replaced by cactus pear in the diet. It was used 45 Santa Ines non-castrated male lambs, with average initial live weight of 25.50 ± 0.48 kg as a completely randomized block design with five treatments (0; 25; 50; 70 and 100% and nine replicates. There was an effect of the diet on slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot and cold carcass, cold carcass weight, shoulder weight and loin weight. Cactus pear can replace up to 75% of corn in diets for feedlot Santa Inês lambs, without compromising production, carcass characteristics and production of non-carcass components.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar as medidas biométricas e morfométricas, a composição regional, as características de carcaça e os componentes não constituintes da carcaça de cordeiros Santa Inês, submetidos a níveis de substituição do milho por palma forrageira na dieta. Foram utilizados 45 cordeiros não-castrados da raça Santa Inês com peso vivo inicial de 25,0 ± 0,48 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% e nove repetições. Houve efeito da dieta sobre o peso ao abate, peso do corpo vazio, peso de carcaça quente e fria, peso da paleta e peso do lombo. A palma forrageira pode substituir até 75% do milho em dietas para cordeiros da raça santa Inês em confinamento, sem comprometer a produção, as características da carcaça e a produção de componentes não constituintes da carcaça.

  13. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  14. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  15. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-03-25

    The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

  16. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  17. Writing on wet paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Lisonek, Petr; Soukal, David

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we show that the communication channel known as writing in memory with defective cells is a relevant information-theoretical model for a specific case of passive warden steganography when the sender embeds a secret message into a subset C of the cover object X without sharing the selection channel C with the recipient. The set C could be arbitrary, determined by the sender from the cover object using a deterministic, pseudo-random, or a truly random process. We call this steganography "writing on wet paper" and realize it using low-density random linear codes with the encoding step based on the LT process. The importance of writing on wet paper for covert communication is discussed within the context of adaptive steganography and perturbed quantization steganography. Heuristic arguments supported by tests using blind steganalysis indicate that the wet paper steganography provides improved steganographic security for embedding in JPEG images and is less vulnerable to attacks when compared to existing methods with shared selection channels.

  18. Pretreatment of corn stover by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xinglian; Henderson, Wesley A

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment plays an important role in the efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuels. A highly effective pretreatment method is reported for corn stover which combines mild alkali-extraction followed by ionic liquid (IL) dissolution of the polysaccharides and regeneration (recovery of the polysaccharides as solids). Air-dried, knife-milled corn stover was soaked in 1% NaOH at a moderate condition (90°C, 1 h) and then thoroughly washed with hot deionized (DI) water. The alkali extraction solublized 75% of the lignin and 37% of the hemicellulose. The corn stover fibers became softer and smoother after the alkali extraction. Unextracted and extracted corn stover samples were separately dissolved in an IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4) mimCl), at 130°C for 2 h and then regenerated with DI water. The IL dissolution process did not significantly change the chemical composition of the materials, but did alter their structural features. Untreated and treated corn stover samples were hydrolyzed with commercial enzyme preparations including cellulases and hemicellulases at 50°C. The glucose yield from the corn stover sample that was both alkali-extracted and IL-dissolved was 96% in 5 h of hydrolysis. This is a highly effective methodology for minimizing the enzymatic loading for biomass hydrolysis and/or maximizing the conversion of biomass polysaccharides into sugars.

  19. NOISE IN TEXTILE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meshgi

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean noise levels were measured in the different sections of six representative mills in the Isfahan area, and audiometric measurements were made in 282 male workers employed in these mills. The mean noise levels were on average 95 dBA in the weaving sections and 88 d BA in the spinning sections. The audiometric findings showed a significant loss of gearing in the textile workers as compared to controls who were employed in a quiet environment. The study indicated that noisiness depended; on the whole, on the age and number of machines deployed per unit area of shop-floor. On the basis of this study certain recommendations were made to improve the working conditions.

  20. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  1. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accommodate a trial run of inert single base pellet feed for use in a twin screw extruder. 15. SUBJECT TERMS INIT248, Advanced Propellant Technology...Bldg. 4909-5 – Shear Roll Mill Pilot Plant at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) in order to produce pellet feed for a twin screw extruder used...propellant to simulate feed for a twin screw extruder. Preventive maintenance procedures were in progress in final preparation for running with

  2. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to produce corn silk extract. The extract may be concentrated at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract....

  3. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  4. 玉米淀粉渣在奶牛饲养中的应用%Application of Corn Gluten Feed in Dairy Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 高腾云

    2011-01-01

    A by-product of the wet milling industry, com gluten feed containing the high level of protein and digestible fiber not only has a strong feeding value, but also has relatively low cost, that is one of the ideal feedstuff for dairy cattle. The article discussed the feeding value of corn gluten feed and effect of com gluten feed on lactation performance and rumen digestion and rumen environment, and so on.%作为玉米淀粉的副产品之一,玉米淀粉渣中蛋白质和可消化纤维含量高,具有较高的饲用价值.同时价格低廉,是奶牛的理想饲料.本文就玉米淀粉渣的饲用价值、对奶牛泌乳性能的影响、瘤胃消化代谢及瘤胃内环境的影响等方面进行了综述.

  5. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  6. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  7. Dry face milling of titanium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Hassan; Zhenqiang Yao

    2004-01-01

    In machining titanium alloys, cutting tools generally wear out very rapidly because of the high cutting temperature resulted from the low thermal conductivity and density of the work material. In order to increase the tool life, it is necessary to suppress the cutting heat as much as possible by applying an abundant amount of coolant, but this will entail serious techno-environmental and biological problems. To study the performance and avoid these limitations, a PVD-coated insert was used to the dry face mill of (α +β) titanium alloys. As a result it was found that the inserts exhibit an excellent cutting performance at low cutting speeds and feed rates, and there is no significant difference in the dominant insert failure mode between the wet and dry cutting in discontinuous cutting.

  8. Ammonia disinfection of corn grains intended for ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Broda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial contamination is an ongoing problem for commercial bioethanol plants. It concerns factories using grain and also other raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Bacteria compete with precious yeasts for sugar substrates and micronutrients, secrete lactic and acetic acids, which are toxic for yeast and this competition leads to significant decrease of bioethanol productivity. For this study, bacterial contamination of corn grain was examined. Then the grain was treated by ammonia solution to reduce microbial pollution and after that the microbiological purity of grain was tested one more time. Disinfected and non-disinfected corn grains were ground and fermentation process was performed. Microbiological purity of this process and ethanol yield was checked out. Material and methods. The grain was disinfected by ammonia solution for two weeks. Then the grain was milled and used as a raw material for the ethanol fermentation. The fermentation process was carried out in 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks. Samples were withdrawn for analysis at 0, 24, 48, 72 hrs. The number of total viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and the quantity of yeasts and moulds were signified by plate method. Results. Ammonia solution effectively reduces bacterial contamination of corn grain. Mash from grain disinfected by ammonia contains less undesirable microorganisms than mash from crude grain. Moreover, ethanol yield from disinfected grain is at the highest level. Conclusions. The ammonia solution proved to be a good disinfection agent for grain used as a raw material for bioethanol fermentation process.

  9. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  10. Analysis of particle size reduction on overall surface area and enzymatic hydrolysis yield of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanjie; Ye, Chenlin; Liu, Ke; Gu, Hanqi; Du, Weitao; Bao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Particle size of lignocellulose materials is an important factor for enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In this study, corn stover was milled and sieved into different size fractions from 1.42, 0.69, 0.34, to 0.21 mm, and the corresponding enzymatic hydrolysis yields were 24.69, 23.96, 25.34, and 26.97 %, respectively. The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield is approximately constant with changing corn stover particle sizes in the experimental range. The overall surface area and the inner pore size measurement show that the overall specific surface area was less than 2 % with the half reduction of particle size due to the greater inner pore surface area. The scanning electron microscope photographs gave direct evidence of the much greater inner pore surface area of corn stover particles. This result provided a reference when a proper size reduction of lignocellulose materials is considered in biorefining operations.

  11. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Wetting in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  14. Effect of ball milling process on the microstructure of titanium-nanohydroxyapatite composite powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Pengsha; LI Wei; LIU Ying

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-nanohydroxyapatite (Ti-nHA) composite powders, composed of titanium with 10 vol.% and 20 vol.%of nano-hydroxyapatite, were milled in a planetary ball mill using alcohol media to avoid excessive heat. XRD and SEM were performed for characterization of the microstructure, and the homogeneity of Ti/HA nanocomposite powder was evaluated by EPMA with prolonged ball milling time. The results show that under the condition of wet milling, the grain size of Ti-nHA composite powders is decreased with the increase in ball milling time and the amount of the addition of nHA.While for milling of 30 h, the nanocomposite powder with fine structure, which consists of the nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)particles and titanium (Ti) phase, is obtained. Three stages of milling can be observed from the element mapping of Ti, Ca,and P by EPMA; meanwhile, it is found that the nHA would be more homogenously distributed after milling for 30 h.

  15. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang

    2003-01-01

    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  16. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  17. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.

    1979-09-01

    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  18. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  19. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Kolovratník Michal; Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  20. Modification of lipid fraction in ensiled high moisture corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bochicchio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the changes of the lipidic fraction of ensiled high moisture corn (HMC. 11 maize hybrids were used, ensiled each in 3 mini experimental silos of 100 litres. For each hybrid 1 sample of fresh high moisture corn was obtained immediately after milling and 3 samples of ensiling HMC were kept after 2, 7 and 12 months. All samples were analysed for pH, dry matter, lactic acid, ammonia-N, ether extract, fatty acid composition and volatile fatty acids (VFAs. Ether extract of fresh high moisture corn was 35.7 g/kg dry matter (DM and increased after 2 and 7 months of storage up to 39.4 g/Kg DM (P≤0.01; after 12 months it decreased to 38.1 g/kg DM (P≤0.01. Both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA percentages decreased from 18.23% to 15.47% and from 24.84% to 23.57% respectively (before ensiling vs 12 months P≤0.01. Linoleic acid percentage increased from 55.34% to 59.44% (before ensiling vs 12 months P≤0.01. The linoleic acid content (g/kg of DM increased on average from 19,1 before ensiling to 22.5 after 12 months of ensiling. These differences may affect the linoleic acid content of heavy pig diets when maize is used as HMC instead of corn meal.

  1. Multilayered piezoceramic microactuators formed by milling in the green state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simu, Urban; Johansson, Stefan A. I.

    1999-10-01

    Methods for the fabrication of piezoceramic microactuators that will be used in a miniaturized robot have been investigated. Multilayered structures for piezoceramic microactuators are usually fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The present structures are fabricated with a wet building process where thin layers of ceramic slurry and screen-printed electrodes are cast sequentially. The use of multilayered structures reduces the drive voltage to common levels for integrated circuits, but also result in difficulties forming complicated shapes. Dicing is a straightforward alternative to achieve a simple geometry, but it can not machine e.g. a hollow cylindrical structure. There are several methods that could be used, but only few that would be cost-efficient for large-scale production. One of these is milling with modern high-precision CNC machine tools. Conventional milling of sintered ceramic components would result in many problems since the material is rather brittle and cracks are easily formed. Cracks are detrimental to the mechanical properties as well as for the electrical properties. Milling in the ceramic green state appears to be a promising method, since microcracks does not arise. The relatively soft green body puts great demands on the milling process. A high speed of the spindle is necessary to achieve low cutting forces since sub-millimeter cutting tools are used. The paper present result from different milling test and discusses how the machining parameters affect the resulting shape. The resolution is comparable with other techniques and it can be concluded that it is sufficient for normal screen-printed multilayered components. The evaluation of resulting deformation of the material after milling and sintering is presented.

  2. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  3. Wet solids flow enhancemant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caram, H.S.; Foster, N.; Wildman, D.J. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    WE used glass beads of different sizes as.a model system to study the flow enhancing properties of Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). 0TS provides Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}CH{sub 3} groups that bind with the surface hydrox groups to make it hydrophobic. Experimental data showed, indeed, that surface hydrophobicity promotes the flow of wet granular materials. Mixtures of different percentage of silanized/unsilanized particles were prepared for tensile strength measurements. The tensile strength decreased as more silanized particles were added to the samples. The relationship between dimensionless tensile strength and void fraction followed the correlation found by Pierrat (1994). Contact angles were larger for the silanized particles, as compared with unsilanized ones.

  4. Wetting and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, C; Wiese, K J; Bachas, Constantin; Doussal, Pierre Le; Wiese, Kay Joerg

    2006-01-01

    We study minimal surfaces which arise in wetting and capillarity phenomena. Using conformal coordinates, we reduce the problem to a set of coupled boundary equations for the contact line of the fluid surface, and then derive simple diagrammatic rules to calculate the non-linear corrections to the Joanny-de Gennes energy. We argue that perturbation theory is quasi-local, i.e. that all geometric length scales of the fluid container decouple from the short-wavelength deformations of the contact line. This is illustrated by a calculation of the linearized interaction between contact lines on two opposite parallel walls. We present a simple algorithm to compute the minimal surface and its energy based on these ideas. We also point out the intriguing singularities that arise in the Legendre transformation from the pure Dirichlet to the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problem.

  5. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large d...

  6. Characteristics of B2O3 and Fe added into BaFe12O19 permanent magnets prepared at different milling time and sintering temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Sari, Ayu Yuswita; Ginting, Delovita; Allan, Yola; Nasruddin M., N.; Sebayang, Kerista

    2016-02-01

    The objective of present work is to investigate the characteristic of BaFe12O19, B2O3-BaFe12O19 and Fe-BaFe12O19 magnets fabricated at different milling time and sintering temperature. The characteristic of perrmanen magnet BaFe12O19 with different content of B2O3 and Fe which was fabricated at different milling time and sintering temperature were investigated. The powder mixtures were prepared by dry and wet milling at various milling time. The powder were mixtured and prepared by dry and wet milling at various milling time. The mixture powder was then compacted by anisotropic with compressive pressure of 50 N/cm2. The green bodies were sinter at 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200°C and hold for 1 h, separately. The density, magnetic flux density and B-H curve were measured by Archimedes principle, Gauss meter and Permagraph, respectively. The microstructure and phase composition characterization were performed by SEM and XRD. The results of this study are presented in this paper. It shows that addition of Fe (in wet milling) and B2O3 (in dry milling) respectively give a potential benefit to reduce the sintering temperature and improve the magnetic flux density of barium hexaferrite.

  7. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1992-12-31

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting front instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fracture are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport.

  8. Multicolored sweet-waxy corn variety-Caitiannuo 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Corn, as the third largest grain crop in China, isgrown on approximately 200 million ha per year. With theimprovement of people's living standard, variousrequirements for corn breeding have presented. Nowadays,the aim of corn breeding is not only for increasing yield,but also for higher quality and other special demands, suchas sweet corn, waxy corn, colored corn, oil-rich corn,lysine-rich corn, etc.

  9. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  10. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  11. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of High-energy Ball Milling on Synthetic Reaction in Al- TiO2- C System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Shengzhong; XU Guangji; DING Yutian

    2005-01-01

    High-energy ball milling has a great influence on the temperature characters of synthetic reaction in Al-TiO2- C system by changing the size, distribution state and wet ability of reactants. Reaction temperature characters ( reaction ignition time, ignition temperature tine , the maximum temperature and temperature rising rate ) were changed by different milling time. The longer the milling time, the earlier the reaction, the quicker the temperature rise and the higher the maximum temperature. When the milling time exceeded 10 hours, the reactivity of reactants was so high that the synthetic reaction could take place at 850℃ directly without a long time pretreatment at 670℃ . The microstructure of synthetic composites became uniform and the reinforced particles ( TiC and α-Al2 O3 ) became fine with milling time increasing.

  13. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  14. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  15. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  16. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2005-04-01

    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  17. INVESTIGATION ON HARDENED STEEL MILLING WITH MICRO-END MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYing-ning; WANGCheng-yong; WUXue-qi; QINZhe; ZENGBao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Tool wear and breakage of the micro-milling tool is an important problem for high speed machining of hardened steel die and mould. Dry milling of S136 hardened steel is carried out using TiA1N coated carbide micro-end mill (Ф2 mm). The effect of cutting speed, feed per tooth and radial depth of cut on cutting force is analyzed. Cutting parameters adapting to dry machining and strategy optimized for higher rate of material removal with lower cutting force are attained. Results of SEM observation show that the main failure patterns of micro-end mill are breakage of tool tip, wear and drop-off of surface coating, micro-chipping, and breakage of flank.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S.; Turhollow, A.F. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mani, S. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Tagore, S. [Office of Biomass Program, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam{sup 3} dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, pre-processing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 Mg{sup -1} for bales, 86 Mg{sup -1} for pellets and 84 Mg{sup -1} for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized. (author)

  19. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  20. Development of a Novel Milling System Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Improvement of Dissolution Characteristics of Water-Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Jennifer Chia Wee; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel milling system using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for the improvement of dissolution characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs. SC-CO2 possesses high potential in the application of nanotechnology, due to the attractive properties of SC-CO2 fluid such as cheap, inert and non-polluting. In addition, SC-CO2 has density comparable to a liquid, viscosity similar to a gas, and high diffusion capacity. Most of all, carbon dioxide exists as gas in room temperature and pressure, which enables the removal of fluid instantaneously. In this study, a novel method of milling using SC-CO2 was proposed to produce fine-drug particles. SC-CO2 milling was conducted and its performance was compared with the ones by various milling methods such as jet milling, dry milling and wet milling. A comparison on the effect of each milling medium on its milling performance, drug size distribution, and particle morphology was conducted. Operating variables of the SC-CO2 milling system were also investigated to clarify the factors affecting the milling properties and to improve drug release characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs.

  1. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  2. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  3. Influence of ensiling temperature, simulated rainfall, and delayed sealing on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S C; Adesogan, A T

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how delayed silo sealing, high ensiling temperatures, and rainfall at harvest affect the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. One-half of each of 4 replicated, 6 x 1.5 m plots of a corn hybrid was harvested at 35% dry matter (Dry), and each of the other halves was harvested after they were sprinkled with sufficient water to simulate 4 mm of rainfall (Wet). Six representative (2 kg) subsamples were taken from the Wet and Dry forage piles and ensiled immediately (Prompt). Three hours later, 6 additional representative (2 kg) samples were taken from each pile and ensiled (Delay). Half of the bags from each moisture x sealing time treatment combination were stored for 82 d in a 40 degrees C incubator (Hot) and the other half were stored in a 20 degrees C air-conditioned room (Cool). A 2 (moisture treatments) x 2 (sealing times) x 2 (ensiling temperatures) factorial design with 3 replicates per treatment was used for the study. Wetting the corn silage increased concentrations of NH(3)-N, ethanol, and acetic acid. Ensiling at 40 instead of 20 degrees C increased pH, in vitro digestibility, and concentrations of NH(3)-N, residual water-soluble carbohydrates and acid detergent insoluble crude protein. The higher ensiling temperature also reduced concentrations of neutral and acid detergent fiber and lactic and acetic acid. Delayed sealing reduced concentrations of NH(3)-N and total volatile fatty acids. Wetting, high temperature ensiling, and delayed sealing each reduced yeast counts slightly, and marginally (8 h) increased aerobic stability. Hot-Wet-Delay silages were more stable than other silages but had the lowest lactic to acetic acid ratio, and total volatile fatty acid concentration. This study indicates that the fermentation of corn silage is adversely affected by wet conditions at harvest and high ensiling temperatures, whereas delayed silo sealing for 3 h caused no adverse effects.

  4. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  5. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  6. Improved corn protein based articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  7. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  8. Ball Mill Synthesis of Bulk Quaternary Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Thermoelectric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Kunal J.; Prem Kumar, D. S.; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra; Malar, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, quaternary chalcogenide Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) was synthesized using a mechanochemical ball milling process and its thermoelectric properties were studied by electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity measurements. The synthesis process comprises three steps viz., wet ball milling of the elemental precursors, vacuum annealing, and densification by hot pressing. The purpose of this is to evaluate the feasibility of introducing wet milling in place of vacuum melting in solid state synthesis for the reaction of starting elements. We report the structural characterization and thermoelectric studies conducted on samples that were milled at 300 rpm and 500 rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the existence of multiple phases in the as-milled samples, indicating the requirement for heat treatment. Therefore, the ball milled powders were cold pressed and vacuum annealed to eliminate the secondary phases. Annealed samples were hot pressed and made into dense pellets for further investigations. In addition to XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) studies were performed on hot pressed samples to study the composition. XRD and EDS studies confirm CZTSe phase formation along with ZnSe secondary phase. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were done on the hot pressed samples in the temperature range 340-670 K to understand the thermoelectric behaviour. Thermal conductivity was calculated from the specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity values. The thermoelectric figure of merit zT values for samples milled at 300 rpm and 500 rpm are ˜0.15 and ˜0.16, respectively, at 630 K, which is in good agreement with the values reported for solid state synthesized compounds.

  9. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  10. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  11. YANG-MILLS FIELD CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the capacitor in the Yang-Mills theory. Model capacitor represents the equipotential surfaces separated by a space. To describe the mechanism of condensation chromodynamics field used numerical models developed based on an average of the Yang-Mills theory. In the present study, we used eight-scalar component model that in the linear case is divided into two groups containing three or five fields respectively. In contrast to classical electrodynamics, a static model of the Yang-Mills is not divided into independent equations because of the nonlinearity of the model itself. However, in the case of a linear theory separation is possible. It is shown that in this particular case, the Yang-Mills theory is reduced to Poisson theory, which describes the electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena. In the present work it is shown that in a certain region of the parameters of the capacitor of the Yang-Mills theory on the functional properties of the charge accumulation and retention of the field is similar to the capacitor of the electrostatic field or a magnet in magnetostatics. This means that in nature there are two types of charges, which are sources of macroscopic Yang-Mills field, which are similar to the properties of electric and magnetic charges in the Poisson theory. It is shown that in Yang-Mills only one type of charge may be associated with the distribution density of the substance, while another type of charge depends on the charge distribution of the first type. This allows us to provide an explanation for the lack of symmetry between electric and magnetic charges

  12. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...

  13. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator′s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of

  14. SETAC-U.S. EPA WET INITIATIVES: ALL WET AND NOTHING BUT WET

    Science.gov (United States)

    To ensure that sould scientific principles and sound science are applied to the challenging issues in t he Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) process, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Foundation for Environmental Education was awarded a cooperative agreem...

  15. SETAC-U.S. EPA WET INITIATIVES: ALL WET AND NOTHING BUT WET

    Science.gov (United States)

    To ensure that sould scientific principles and sound science are applied to the challenging issues in t he Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) process, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Foundation for Environmental Education was awarded a cooperative agreem...

  16. Scaling up nano-milling of poorly water soluble compounds using a rotation/revolution pulverizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuminoki, K; Tachibana, S; Nishimura, Y; Mori, H; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a rotation/revolution pulverizer (NP-100) could mill a small amount of a drug (0.1 g) into nanoparticles in several minutes. In this investigation, scale up from the milligram to the kilogram scale of the nano-milling process by the rotation/revolution pulverizer was studied. Phenytoin was used as a model drug with low solubility in water. After confirming the improvement of the phenytoin bioavailability by milling to nanoparticles using NP-100, scaling parameters were evaluated using NP-100 and the middle scale model of NP-100 (ARV-3000T). A theoretical equation for the specific collisional energy was adapted for wet milling; this suggested that the relative centrifugal acceleration of revolution (revolution G) and the drug concentration in the suspension were the two most important parameters. The results obtained using NP-100 and ARV-3000T correlated well when these two parameters were identical. These results were applied to the large scale model of NP-100 (ARV-10KT), where 2 kg (1 kg x 2) of phenytoin nanoparticles were obtained in 60 min. The results from PXRD and DSC indicated that the milled phenytoin by ARV-3000T and ARV-10KT maintained its crystallinity. These results suggest nano-milling using a rotation/revolution pulverizer will be widely applicable to the development of nano-medicine.

  17. Influence of suspension stability on wet grinding for production of mineral nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Sakthivel; Venkatesan V. Krishnan; Pitchumani

    2008-01-01

    Grinding behavior of nanoparticles in an attritor mill and the minimum achievable particle size are strongly influenced by the suspension stability. In the present work, suspension stability (i.e. (-potential) of nanoparticles was studied by measuring pH as a function of grinding time in the wet milling process. It was found that after a certain time in an attritor mill, there is no further size reduction and the average product particle size increases monotonically. One of the reasons is that the production of submicron particles leads to more particle-particle interactions and consequently pH of the suspension decreases with grinding time. Usually pH value is related to suspension stability and it can be enhanced by addition of NaOH solution. The maximum negative (-potential of -51.2 mV was obtained at pH of 12 for silica. The higher the (-potential with the same polarity, higher will be the electrostatic repulsion between the particles. Hence, the maximum electrostatic repulsion force was maintained by the adjustment of pH value in wet milling. The experiments were conducted at different pH conditions which were maintained constant throughout the experiments and nanosized particles were obtained consequently.

  18. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  19. Avaliação da maceração dinâmica do milho após um curto período de hidratação e subseqüente quebra do pericarpo do grão Evaluation of dynamic steeping of corn after a short hydration period and subsequent grain pericarp cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco LOPES FILHO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A maceração dinâmica do milho submetido previamente à ruptura do seu pericarpo foi comparada com o processo convencional de maceração da moagem úmida para produção de amido e subprodutos. Os rendimentos das frações do grão (germe, fibra, amido e glúten foram obtidos após o procedimento de moagem em laboratório utilizando as duas técnicas de maceração, com e sem a presença do ácido láctico, numa solução de dióxido de enxofre (SO2 e maceração em água sem esses componentes. A maceração em água pura resultou no menor rendimento de amido, como era esperado, e alta produção de fibra confirmando a necessidade do uso do SO2 e do ácido lático na solução de maceração. A técnica de maceração dinâmica mostrou-se vantajosa sobre a técnica convencional produzindo maior quantidade de amido com redução do tempo de 24-36 horas para até 5 horas. Estes resultados indicaram a viabilidade do novo processo e confirmam que o longo tempo necessário no processo convencional é devido principalmente às limitações difusionais do SO2 para o interior dos grãos.The dynamic steeping of craked corn grains was compared against the conventional steeping process of the wet milling for starch and subproducts production. Corn fractions yields (germ, fiber, starch and gluten were obtained after wet milling in the laboratotry using both steeping thechniques, with and without lactic acid, in the sulfur dioxide (SO2 solution and steeping in water without these components. The steeping in water resulted in lower starch yields than that obtained by the others two, which was expected, and a higher fiber production. This show that SO2 and lactic acid are necessary to the process. The dynamic steeping technique produced more starch than the conventional process in a period reduced from 24-36 hours up to 5 hours. These results indicate that the new process is suitable and confirms that the long time needed for the traditional method is

  20. Comparative research of plasma-assisted milling and traditional milling in synthesizing AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Dezheng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, traditional milling and discharge plasma-assisted milling are employed to synthesize aluminum nitride (AlN) powder at nanometer scale by milling the mixture of aluminum and lithium hydroxide monohydrate. AlN powders can be generated in traditional milling and plasma-assisted milling in an hour milling time. Differential thermal analysis curves show that the reaction temperature of the powders treated by plasma-assisted milling is lower than that of traditional milling. These results indicate that plasma-assisted milling has higher efficiency in the synthesis of AlN, getting smaller crystallite size and activating powder. Moreover, an optical emission spectrum is employed to demonstrate the active species in plasma. The different formation process of AlN in the two-milling process, and the promotion effects of plasma in the milling process are discussed.

  1. Corning: supplier of multiple optical materials for telescope projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Navan, W. David; Edwards, Mary J.

    2006-06-01

    Corning manufactures several optical materials that can be used as reflective and transmissive optics for telescope optical systems. Corning can manufacture these materials in a large range of sizes and configurations. This paper discusses Corning's portfolio of optical materials and their properties, along with Corning's manufacturing capabilities using these materials. Specific examples of optical blanks that Corning has supplied will be discussed.

  2. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  3. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  4. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... deviations from the ideal micro tool shape, dramatically changing the cutting edge profile as well as rake and clearance angles. This critically affects the performance of the micro tool leading to increased cutting forces and micro tool deflections with detrimental effects on the accuracy of the machined...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  5. Determination of the {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) isotopic rate of the Brazilian beer pilsen type; Determinacao da razao isotopica {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) de cerveja clara tipo pilsen nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossete, Alexssandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Lopes, Fabio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia Isotopica; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada

    2002-07-01

    Beer has been consumed in Brazil since the XIX century. However, at that time, this beverage was imported from England, and the first Brazilian breweries just appeared at the end of the XX century. Basically, beer is made from: malt of barley, Humulus lupulus, water and yeast. In this work, twenty brands of national beer (Pilsen type), and also two different cereals, barley, a C3 metabolism plant, corn, a C4 plant, were analysed to determine their isotope composition {delta}{sup 13} C (per mille) utilizing a mass spectrometer Delta Plus Finigam and Anca S.L. An aliquot of each sample was transferred using a capillary of glass to a tin capsule contends a small amount of sorbitol. The isotope compositions, {delta}{sup 13} C, of barley and corn samples determined were -27.2 and -11.5 per mille, respectively. These results were used to calculate the equation of mixture model. Considering the beer samples, the {delta}{sup 13} C ranged from -18.3 to -23.1 per mille; this result means that the percentage of C3 plant is from 43.3 to 73.9 per mille. In this manner, it is possible to concluded that all beer samples has malted cereals (C4 plant), as far as the low values of C3 plants were presented in these samples as shown through the equation of mixtures model. (author)

  6. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P. Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L. grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll. Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

  7. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  9. Design And Preliminary Testing of a Hammer Mill with End-Suction Lift Capability Suitable for Commercial Processing of Grains and Solid Minerals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebunilo P. O.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A hammer mill with an end-suction lift capability has been designed, fabricated and tested. The tests were carried out by comparing the product of a conventional hammer mill with that of the new hammer mill with end suction lift capability. The preliminary test results obtained using grains show that the efficiency of a conventional hammer mill and its ability to produce an output of specific size of 400m-600m for both maize and cowpeas is low when compared with the output of the new hammer mill. The new hammer mill, which is a partially closed system while in operation and utilizes suction power, virtually eliminates environmental pollution usually associated with the operation of conventional hammer mills and can be used to mill commonly occurring Nigerian grains like millet, sorghum, maize, cowpeas, guinea-corn and soya beans into flour and also for pulverizing locally occurring solid minerals like clays into powder. This would diversify storage options for the grains, deepen and widen the available food choices for all Nigerians and enhance food security and rural development.

  10. Production of ethyl alcohol from corn silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H.J.; Ponitz, H.

    1973-01-01

    Corn silage may be employed as a raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol when starch is first cracked by pressure cooking and subsequently saccharified by microbial amalyses. Cracking conditions are: pressure increase 1.6 atmosphere within 60 minutes; maximum maintained for 35 minutes. The fermentation is complete after 72 hours. Extract decreases of fermented mashes made from corn silage are less than when dried corn is used. In the most advantageous case the degree of fermentation was -0.2 weight % of the extract. The maximum yields of alcohol were 26.0.1. pure alcohol/100 kg corn silage and 61.2.1. pure alcohol/100 kg starch. The latter is 3.9.1. pure alcohol lower than when dried corn was used. Despite the high bacterial infection of corn silage practically infection-free processing is assured.

  11. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  12. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  13. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  14. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  15. 乙醇水溶液提取玉米胚芽油的工艺优化%Process optimization for extraction of corn germ oil by aqueous ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪双双; 杨瑞金; 张文斌; 赵伟; 华霄

    2016-01-01

    Corn germ is a kind of byproduct of the wet milling and alcohol industry of corn, which is substantial. Corn germ (dry) contains 35%-56% oil, with linoleic acid (C18:2) being the predominant fatty acid (49%-61.9%). The tocopherol content of corn germ is the highest in all vegetable oils. Corn germ is a cost-effective resource for healthy nutritious oil. In recent years, aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn germ oil has been researched widely. However, this method has the disadvantages of consuming expensive enzyme and long production cycle. In order to reduce the production cost and shorten the extraction time of aqueous method on corn germ oil extraction, the diluted ethanol extraction method was developed in present study based on the consideration that the ethanol added into water was beneficial for demulsifying the emulsion in the homochromous process of oil extraction. Ethanol is a non-toxic and efficient emulsion splitter which has been used in vegetable oil recovery. The product of aqueous ethanol extraction (in appropriate concentration) is directly the free oil rather than the highly emulsified cream after centrifugation. The internal demulsification mechanism is that the diluted aqueous ethanol solution can change the local micro-environment of emulsion and collapse the structure of orderly water molecular around emulsion drops. This method can simplify the follow-up steps and shorten the total production time. Simultaneously, moderate pretreatment was employed to enhance free oil yield further. The research investigated the influence of particle size, solid-liquid ratio, incubation temperature, ethanol concentration, pH value and time for extraction on the oil content of free oil phase, water phase and sediment phase. The result showed that particle size and ethanol concentration made the most contribution to enhancing free oil yield, and extraction time had the minimal impact. The optimal conditions of this aqueous extraction method were: finely ground

  16. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2004-01-22

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n-->n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly...

  18. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  19. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  20. Effect of amphiphilic coupling agent on heat flow and dielectric properties of flax – polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available to the characteristic class of proteins known as prolamines which occur 105 specifically in cereals. The protein products from corn wet milling are corn gluten meal 106 (CGM) and corn gluten feed (CGF) and zein is obtained as a by-product from corn 107 gluten meal...

  1. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  2. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  3. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  4. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  5. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  6. Defining a Minimum End Mill Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial observations show that the standard mill designs in many cases do not provide a complete diversity of manufacturing operations, and a lot of enterprises are forced to design and manufacture special (original designs of tools. The information search has revealed a lack of end mill diameter calculations in publications. There is a proposal to calculate the end mill diameter either by empirical formulas [2, 3], or by selection from the tables [4].To estimate a minimum diameter of the end mill to perform the specified manufacturing operations based on the mill body strength the formulas are obtained. The initial data for calculation are the flow sheet of milling operation and properties of processed and tool materials. The end mill is regarded, as a cantilevered beam of the circular cross section having Dс diameter (mill core diameter with overhang Lв from rigid fixing and loaded by the maximum bending force and torque.In deriving the formulas were used the following well-reasoned assumptions based on the analysed sizes of the structural elements of the standard mills: a diameter of mill core is linearly dependent on the mill diameter and the overhang; the 4τ 2 to σ 2 4τ2 ratio is constant and equal to 0.065 for contour milling and 0.17 for slot milling.The formulas for calculating the minimum diameter are as follows:  3 обр в 1 121 1.1  K S L L D m C z    for contour milling;  3 обр в 1 207 1.1  K S L L D m C z    for slot milling.Obtained dependences that allow defining a minimum diameter of the end mill in terms of ensuring its strength can be used to design mills for contour milling with radius transition sections, holes of different diameters in the body parts and other cases when for processing a singlemill is preferable.Using the proposed dependencies for calculating a feed of the maximum tolerable strength is reasonable in designing the mills for slots.Assumptions used in deriving

  7. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  8. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  9. CHEMICAL AND ENERGETIC CONTENT OF CORN BEFORE AND AFTER PRE-CLEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iara Furtado Costa Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry normally has little control over the raw material that arrives at the processing plant. This experiment aimed to evaluate chemical and energetic quality of corn obtained in a feed mill before and after pre-cleaning. Twenty samples of 30 kg of corn each were taken from trucks delivering corn to the mill. The trucks were then unloaded and the material passed through a pre-cleaning process when another sample was taken. Samples were graded and physical properties evaluated: density (g/L, grain percentages of foreign material, impurities, fragments, broken, soft, insect damaged, fire-burnt, fermented, damaged, cracked and fine particles, as well as chemical composition analysis: Apparent metabolizable energy for poultry (AME, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF, starch (STA, water activity (WA, crude protein (CP, digestible and total lysine, methionine, cystine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine. The experiment was a randomized design with two treatments (before and after pre-cleaning and twenty replications. Data was analyzed using SAS ® and treatment differences obtained using F test. Correlations and principal components were calculated. There was a decrease in density after the pre-cleaning process, which was probably due to the removal of earth and stones rather than grain and its fractions. Significant increases were found for insect damage, fermented and damaged grain while fire-burn was significantly reduced after the pre-cleaning process. Starch increased after pre-cleaning which is a result of contaminants that normally are poor in this carbohydrate, but fiber levels increased too. Apparent metabolizable energy, aminoacids, digestible (P<0.05 and total (P<0.05 histidine, total lysine and methionine (P<0.1 levels were reduced after pre-cleaning. Density was higher when there were fewer impurities such as straw, husk or small grains. Broken corn was positively

  10. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  11. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, Henrik B.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  12. Inhibiting Wet Oxidation of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, D. B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modification of wet-oxidation process for treating organicwaste reduces loss of fixed nitrogen, potentially valuable byproduct of process. Addition of sufficient sulfuric acid to maintain reaction pH below 3 greatly reduces oxidation of ammonia to free nitrogen. No equipment modification required.

  13. Wedge wetting by electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mußotter, Maximilian; Bier, Markus

    2017-09-01

    The wetting of a charged wedgelike wall by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory. As in other studies on wedge wetting, this geometry is considered as the most simple deviation from a planar substrate, and it serves as a first step toward more complex confinements of fluids. By focusing on fluids containing ions and surface charges, features of real systems are covered that are not accessible within the vast majority of previous theoretical studies concentrating on simple fluids in contact with uncharged wedges. In particular, the filling transition of charged wedges is necessarily of first order, because wetting transitions of charged substrates are of first order and the barrier in the effective interface potential persists below the wetting transition of a planar wall; hence, critical filling transitions are not expected to occur for ionic systems. The dependence of the critical opening angle on the surface charge, as well as the dependence of the filling height, of the wedge adsorption, and of the line tension on the opening angle and on the surface charge are analyzed in detail.

  14. An engineering and economic evaluation of wet and dry pre-fractionation processes for dry-grind ethanol facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Eckhoff, Steven R

    2011-10-01

    An engineering-economic model was developed to compare the profitability of the wet fractionation process, a generic dry fractionation process, and the conventional dry grind process. Under market conditions as of January 2011, only fractionation processes generated a positive cash flow. Reduced unit manufacturing costs and increased ethanol production capacity were two major contributions. Corn and ethanol price sensitivity analysis showed that the wet fractionation process always outperformed a generic dry fractionation process at any scenario considered in this research. A generic dry fractionation process would provide better economic performance than the conventional dry grind process if corn price was low and ethanol price was high. All three processes would perform more resiliently if the DDGS price was determined by its composition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuMoucheng; ChenXiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties,supper-sweet corn(S),standard-sweet corn(M),corn-non corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein,vitamin,total sugar showed as parabola.Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually.Total sugar,protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn.VE and VC were very plentiful,and lysine was high.Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  16. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols.... (b) Specifications. Corn endosperm oil conforms to the following specifications: Total fatty...

  17. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles by high energy ball milling with and without surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Martinez, A.; Recio, J. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe and Pt powders in the presence of surfactants don't alloyed by HEBM technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit particle sizes of around 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit soft magnetic behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermal treatment induces a phase transformation from FCC to FCT. - Abstract: FePt nanoparticles were prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) in two different ways. In the first one, elemental powders were mixed and milled whereas in the second one the milling was performed in the presence of oleyl amine and oleic acid as surfactants and hexane as a solvent. X-ray diffraction shows that when the milling is performed in dry conditions, Fe and Pt are alloyed after 5 h, whereas in the wet milling procedure alloying does not take place. In the first case, the diffraction pattern corresponds to the disordered FCC phase. This behavior is also corroborated by the evolution of the magnetic characteristics. In the case of the alloy obtained in dry conditions, the powder was heat treated in order to induce the transformation to the ordered phase. Coercivities of 2.5 kOe are obtained after 650 Degree-Sign C for 2 h.

  19. Influence of Milling Media on the Mechanical Alloyed W-0.5 wt.% Ti Powder Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Jahangiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of milling atmosphere and mechanical alloying (MA duration on the effective lattice parameter, crystallite size, lattice strain, and amorphization rate of the W-0.5 wt.% Ti powders were investigated. W-0.5 wt.% Ti powders were mechanically alloyed (MA’d for 10 h and 20 h in a high energy ball mill. Moreover, morphology of the powders for various MA was analyzed using SEM microscopy. Their powder density was also measured by helium pycnometer. The dry milled agglomerated powders have spherical particle, while wet milled powders have layered morphology. Milling media and increasing of milling time significantly reduce the crystallite size. The smallest crystallite size is 4.93 nm which belonged to the dry milled powders measured by Lorentzian method after 20 hours’ MA. However, after 20 hours, MA’d powders show the biggest crystallite size, as big as 57.07 nm, measured with the same method in ethanol.

  20. Microbial pretreatment of corn stover with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2010-08-01

    The feasibility of concurrent wet storage and microbial pretreatment of corn stover with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for ethanol production was investigated in this study. The effects of particle size (5-15 mm), moisture content (45-85%), pretreatment time (18-35 d), and temperature (4-37 degrees C) on lignin degradation and enzymatic hydrolysis yield were studied. The results showed that C. subvermispora selectively degraded lignin up to 31.59% with a limited cellulose loss of less than 6% during an 18-d pretreatment. When 5mm corn stover was pretreated at 28 degrees C with 75% moisture content, overall glucose yields of 57.67%, 62.21%, and 66.61% were obtained with 18-, 28-, and 35-d microbial pretreated corn stover, respectively. For the above conditions, the highest overall ethanol yield of 57.80% was obtained with 35-d-pretreated corn stover. Enzymatic hydrolysis yield was highly related to the lignin removal during microbial pretreatment.

  1. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  2. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  3. 甜玉米%Growing Good Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2007-01-01

    @@ James Bender, in his book How to Talk Well (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1994)relates the story of a farmer who grew awardwinning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it.

  4. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  5. Alternative technologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmai, Roihatai; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2013-01-01

    Alternative methodologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 t of CPO from mills with biogas capture (four mills) and without biogas capture (two mills) in 2010 produced GHG emissions of 935 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture produced GHG emissions of 64 and 47% of total GHG emission, respectively. The rest of the emissions mostly originated from the acquisition of fresh fruit bunches. The establishment of a biogas recovery system must be the first step in the reduction of GHG emissions. It could reduce GHG emissions by 373 kgCO2eq/t of CPO. The main source of GHG emission of 163 kgCO2eq/t of CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before it enters the biogas recovery system. The reduction of GHG emissions could be accomplished by (i) using a wastewater-dispersed unit for cooling, (ii) using a covered pond, (iii) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system, and (iv) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options i-iv, reductions of GHG emissions of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/t of CPO, respectively, can be achieved.

  6. Preparation of fresh rice noodles using rice prepared by tempering moisture and semi-dry milling method and determination of its quality%调质大米半干法磨粉制备鲜米粉及其品质测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟立涛; 高晓旭; 王立; 易翠平; 周素梅

    2014-01-01

    为考察半干法磨粉对鲜米粉品质的影响,该研究选用旋风磨和布勒磨对调质后含水率为28%和30%的大米进行磨粉,分析大米粉的白度、凝胶特性及糊化特性,对加工鲜米粉的质构特性、蒸煮特性和感官品质进行了分析。结果显示:调质大米可以减小磨粉仪器机械力和热能对大米粉品质的破坏,其中调质大米经布勒磨粉碎后的白度显著高于湿磨粉白度(P0.05);2种调质粉相比于湿磨粉其崩解值较小,其中布勒磨含水率为30%调质粉回生程度较低,与湿磨粉无显著差异(P>0.05)。对于鲜米粉的品质,筛选得到的旋风磨含水率为30%鲜米粉的硬度为35.10 N/cm2,弹性为0.97,较湿磨米粉更柔软弹滑,感官评价总分和蒸煮特性与湿磨米粉无显著差异。以上结果表明,含水率为30%的大米经旋风磨粉碎后能够制得与湿法磨浆相媲美的鲜米粉,可为解决湿磨法废水量大、产品得率低等问题提供参考。%Traditionally, wet-milling of rice followed by an overnight soaking in water is commonly used as a processing for making rice noodles. However, the long soaking time resulted in bacterial growth on rice, leading to degradation in product quality. Therefore, the dry-milling method is used to break rice kernel, but the dry-milling can create more heat and mechanical damage which can lead to an increased damage of rice starch granules. As such, dry-milled rice flour exhibits a higher degree of starch damage compared to the wet-milled rice flour. Therefore, the quality of rice noodles produced from dry-milled rice flour is not acceptable by consumers despite the fact that dry-milling improved the safety and stability of rice products. In order to minimize the adverse effects of dry-milling on characteristics of rice flour and cooking qualities of rice noodles, the objective of this study was on developing a new process of semi-dry milling. To

  7. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  8. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-19

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles.

  9. Wetting of flexible fibre arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, C; Protière, S; Beebe, A Y; Stone, H A

    2012-02-23

    Fibrous media are functional and versatile materials, as demonstrated by their ubiquity both in natural systems such as feathers and adhesive pads and in engineered systems from nanotextured surfaces to textile products, where they offer benefits in filtration, insulation, wetting and colouring. The elasticity and high aspect ratios of the fibres allow deformation under capillary forces, which cause mechanical damage, matting self-assembly or colour changes, with many industrial and ecological consequences. Attempts to understand these systems have mostly focused on the wetting of rigid fibres or on elastocapillary effects in planar geometries and on a fibre brush withdrawn from an infinite bath. Here we consider the frequently encountered case of a liquid drop deposited on a flexible fibre array and show that flexibility, fibre geometry and drop volume are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations referred to above. We identify the conditions required for a drop to remain compact with minimal spreading or to cause a pair of elastic fibres to coalesce. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, and, hence, a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur. We also identify a drop size that maximizes liquid capture. For both wetting and deformation of the substrates, we present rules that are deduced from the geometric and material properties of the fibres and the volume of the drop. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems.

  10. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  11. ROLLING MILL SYSTEM DYNAMIC DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is studied how the aluminum foil chatter mark is produced and controlledThe stableness of hydraulic AGC system,fluid vibration of capsule system,and electromechanical coupling of AC/AC VVVF system and dec oupling are also studiedIt is shown that rolling mill design should go to syst em dynamic design from traditional designThe framed drawing of system dynamic design program is presented

  12. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  13. Effect of experimental summer drought on greenhouse gas fluxes from soil under corn and sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, M.; Manderscheid, R.; Well, R.; Weigel, H.-J.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    For most of Central Europe climate change is supposed to lead to higher frequencies of extreme weather events with hotter and drier summers. These changing climate conditions will affect vegetation and the water cycle. Water content is one of the most important parameters controlling production rates and fluxes of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from soil. Drought periods directly affect water content in soil and thereby turnover rates of nitrogen and carbon; however, type and mass of plant coverage can modify the degree of desiccation. We conducted measurements of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) and nitrogen dynamics (nitrate and ammonium) on an experimental field site on loamy sand soil in Northern Germany. The site was installed to study the effect of summer drought on biomass production of sorghum compared to corn. During summer, plants on 'wet' plots were irrigated whereas on 'dry' plots rain was excluded by transparent rain shelters to obtain less than 40% of plant available soil water content. Measurements were performed weekly over 1 1 2 years, including two periods of experimental drought. Soil water content and nitrogen dynamics were measured from soil samples and fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were measured between plant rows using static chambers. First results of greenhouse gas fluxes show increased uptake of methane in soil of 'dry' compared to 'wet' plots. No clear impact on N2O emission could be identified until now, although N dynamics differed. Although corn growth was reduced to a greater extent than was sorghum growth under drought conditions, biomass production of corn was higher under both water regimes. Desiccation was higher and started earlier at 'dry corn' than at 'dry sorghum' plots in summer 2011, leading to lower CO2 emission and higher CH4 uptake in the drier soil.

  14. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  15. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  16. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  17. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  18. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  19. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  20. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  1. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  2. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  3. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  4. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to

  5. An Intensified Vibratory Milling Process for Enhancing the Breakage Kinetics during the Preparation of Drug Nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Lu; Davé, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2016-04-01

    As a drug-sparing approach in early development, vibratory milling has been used for the preparation of nanosuspensions of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to intensify this process through a systematic increase in vibration intensity and bead loading with the optimal bead size for faster production. Griseofulvin, a poorly water-soluble drug, was wet-milled using yttrium-stabilized zirconia beads with sizes ranging from 50 to 1500 μm at low power density (0.87 W/g). Then, this process was intensified with the optimal bead size by sequentially increasing vibration intensity and bead loading. Additional experiments with several bead sizes were performed at high power density (16 W/g), and the results were compared to those from wet stirred media milling. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dissolution tests were used for characterization. Results for the low power density indicated 800 μm as the optimal bead size which led to a median size of 545 nm with more than 10% of the drug particles greater than 1.8 μm albeit the fastest breakage. An increase in either vibration intensity or bead loading resulted in faster breakage. The most intensified process led to 90% of the particles being smaller than 300 nm. At the high power intensity, 400 μm beads were optimal, which enhanced griseofulvin dissolution significantly and signified the importance of bead size in view of the power density. Only the optimally intensified vibratory milling led to a comparable nanosuspension to that prepared by the stirred media milling.

  6. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Moucheng; Chen Xiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties, supper-sweet corn (S), standard-sweet corn (M), common corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein, vitamin, total sugar showed as parabola. Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually. Total sugar, protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn. VE and Vc were very plentiful, and lysine was high. Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21 ,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  7. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  8. Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MBI International

    2007-12-31

    MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

  9. Novel spin glasses by mechanical milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国富; H.Bakker

    1996-01-01

    Novel spin-glass alloys were synthesized by milling intermetallic compounds and also by milling mixtures of crystalline elemental powder in a high-energy ball mill.Spin glass behaviour was found in amorphous Co2Ge,which was amorphised by milling in mechanically disordered crystalline GdAl2 in ball-milled crystalline and amorphous CoZr,and in mechanically alloyed Co-Cu,which formed a supersaturated f.c.c.solid solution.All these materials are binary alloys and tlie concentration of the magnetic element is high,which makes them novel types of spin glasses.It is shown that ball milling may not only lead to structural metallic glasses,but can also generate the magnetic pendant of a structural glass,namely the spin glass.

  10. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  11. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  12. Formation of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成国; 齐宝森; 王瑞华

    2002-01-01

    The formation regularity of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders was investigated, revealing that the plastic deformation of the balls surface plays an important role in the formation of coating and that the stronger affinity between the powders and the balls is a necessary pre-condition for the coating. The size of Cr powders, the coating thickness and the microhardness vary consistently with milling time during milling. At initial milling stage, the powder size decreases, while the coating thickness and the microhardness increase, however, after milling for 24h, they all change slightly with prolonged milling, indicating a dynamic equilibrium between the powders cold welding and crashing, i.e. an almost equal rate for the powders attaching to and breaking off the milling balls.

  13. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...

  14. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization o...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  15. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  16. STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING MILL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Y.I.Murthy

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of black cotton soil mixed with mill scale in varying proportions and comparing the same with the results of pure black cotton soil. The mechanical properties of mill scale and black cotton soil are individually determined first and then the two are combined in varying proportions. The properties like plastic limit, CBR and Permeability of the same are evaluated. It is found that mixing mill scale in varying proportions ...

  17. Mill, Liberty And The Facts Of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Shannon C.; Milgate, Murray

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines John Stuart Mill's discussion of economic liberty and individual liberty, and his view of the relationship between the two. It explores how, and how effectively, Mill developed his arguments about the two liberties; reveals the lineages of thought from which they derived; and considers how his arguments were altered by political economists not long after his death. It is argued that the distinction Mill drew between the two liberties provided him with a framework of conc...

  18. ALKALINE PULP OF CORN STALKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum

    2004-01-01

    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  19. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

    2009-04-01

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  20. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, 130 Creelman Street, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Womac, A.R. [Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, 2506 E. J. Chapman Drive, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sokhansanj, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, P. O. Box 2008, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Company, 100 Park Royal South West Vancouver, British Columbia, V7T 1A2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force-displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4-5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths {>=} 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks. (author)

  1. Wet Work and Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé

    2016-01-01

    Wet work defined as unprotected exposure to humid environments/water; high frequencies of hand washing procedures or prolonged glove occlusion is believed to cause irritant contact dermatitis in a variety of occupations. This review considers the recent studies on wet-work exposure and focuses on its influence on barrier function. There are different methods to study the effect of wet work on barrier function. On the one hand, occupational cohorts at risk can be monitored prospectively by skin bioengineering technology and clinical visual scoring systems; on the other hand, experimental test procedures with defined application of water, occlusion and detergents are performed in healthy volunteers. Both epidemiological studies and the results of experimental procedures are compared and discussed. A variety of epidemiological studies analyze occupational cohorts at risk. The measurement of transepidermal water loss, an indicator of the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and clinical inspection of the skin have shown that especially the frequencies of hand washing and water contact/contact to aqueous mixtures seem to be the main factors for the occurrence of barrier alterations. On the other hand, in a single cross-sectional study, prolonged glove wearing (e.g. occlusion for 6 h per shift in clean-room workers) without exposure to additional hazardous substances seemed not to affect the skin negatively. But regarding the effect of occlusion, there is experimental evidence that previously occluded skin challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate leads to an increased susceptibility to the irritant with an aggravation of the irritant reaction. These findings might have relevance for the real-life situation in so far as after occupational glove wearing, the skin is more susceptible to potential hazards to the skin even during leisure hours.

  2. Structural evolution of ball-milled permalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzozka, K., E-mail: kbrzozka@poczta.f [Technical University, Department of Physics (Poland); Oleksakova, D.; Kollar, P. [P.J. Safarik University, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gorka, B.; Gawronski, M. [Technical University, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Two series of Fe{sub 19.8}Ni{sub 80.2} samples obtained by ball milling and differing in the form of starting material were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the case of milled elemental powder, strong structural evolution was stated: both {alpha} and {gamma} phases arise and a small amount of pure iron is present as well. The annealing of as-milled powder at 490{sup o}C causes faster forming of {gamma}-(Ni-Fe) phase. Only slight changes in atomic order were stated in the series of milled polycrystalline ribbon.

  3. Process engineering with planetary ball mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Christine Friederike; Kwade, Arno

    2013-09-21

    Planetary ball mills are well known and used for particle size reduction on laboratory and pilot scales for decades while during the last few years the application of planetary ball mills has extended to mechanochemical approaches. Processes inside planetary ball mills are complex and strongly depend on the processed material and synthesis and, thus, the optimum milling conditions have to be assessed for each individual system. The present review focuses on the insight into several parameters like properties of grinding balls, the filling ratio or revolution speed. It gives examples of the aspects of grinding and illustrates some general guidelines to follow for modelling processes in planetary ball mills in terms of refinement, synthesis' yield and contamination from wear. The amount of energy transferred from the milling tools to the powder is significant and hardly measurable for processes in planetary ball mills. Thus numerical simulations based on a discrete-element-method are used to describe the energy transfer to give an adequate description of the process by correlation with experiments. The simulations illustrate the effect of the geometry of planetary ball mills on the energy entry. In addition the imaging of motion patterns inside a planetary ball mill from simulations and video recordings is shown.

  4. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  5. Robotic milling for rapid ceramic pototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guang-chao; ZHANG Hai-ou; WANG Gui-lan

    2005-01-01

    Robotic milling is a developing method for rapidly producing prototypes and parts, but the application is limited for materials such as wax, wood, plastic and light metal, etc. The reason for this is because of the robotic weak rigidity. In this paper, a method of robotic milling for ceramic prototyping is developed, one that has been successfully applied in a new rapid hard tooling technology-Direct Prototype Spray Tooling[1]. At first, the appropriate ceramic materials mixed with metal powder are confirmed for the robotic milling and the following plasma spraying process. Then the 6 - DOF robotic milling paths are extracted from the NC code and transformed into the robotic JBI type file, the NC code generated through the general CAD/CAM software such as UG -NX.Finally, the robotic milling characteristics such as moving path accuracy and milling force are tested to find the best milling parameters and to ensure the executable, accurate and efficient ceramic prototype milling technology.The development of this method not only broadens the robotic milling material range but also extends the rapid prototyping fields. It can also be used for producing ceramic parts that are difficult to machine.

  6. Wetting properties of nanostructured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Canut, S. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee et Nanostructures (UMR CNRS 5586), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: ramos@lpmcn.univ-lyon1.fr

    2006-04-15

    Swift heavy ion irradiation is a powerful tool to tailor surfaces under controlled conditions at a nanometric scale. The growing importance of nanostructured surfaces for a wide variety of applications and fundamental investigations is now well established. In this paper I will mainly discuss the interest of such surfaces for investigations concerning solid-liquid interfaces. The role played by topographical defects on wetting properties of solid surfaces, and both the dissipative and the confinement effects on the interface will be demonstrated by simple examples.

  7. Single-metalloprotein wet biotransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Andrea; Salerno, Marco; Frabboni, Stefano; Facci, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Metalloproteins are redox molecules naturally shuttling electrons with high efficiency between molecular partners. As such, they are candidates of choice for bioelectronics. In this work, we have used bacterial metalloprotein azurin, hosted in a nanometer gap between two electrically biased gold electrodes, to demonstrate an electrochemically gated single-molecule transistor operating in an aqueous environment. Gold-chemisorbed azurin shows peaks in tunneling current upon changing electrode potential and a related variation in tunneling barrier transparency which can be exploited to switch an electron current through it. These results suggest the wet approach to molecular electronics as a viable method for exploiting electron transfer of highly specialized biomolecules.

  8. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  9. Ethanol from corn silage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlberg, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    The corn silage to ethanol process is described. The process feed is corn silage preserved with sulfuric acid. No anaerobic ensilement is necessary since H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ completely prevents microbial growth. The acidified corn silage is heated by steam injection as it is loaded into a batch reactor. The polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to xylose and glucose over a 6 to 8 hour period. Then the sugars are washed from the residual fibers over a 6 to 12 hour period with thin stillage or water. The hot, acidic syrup is then neutralized and cooled for fermentation. After fermentation the ethanol is distilled. The residual fibers containing the thin stillage, corn germ, cellulose, and lignin are unloaded from the reactor and dried with flue gases for animal feed.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  11. Mold management of wetted carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Dixit, Anupma; Lewis, Roger D; MacDonald Perkins, Maureen; Backer, Denis; Condoor, Sridhar; Emo, Brett; Yang, Mingan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth and removal of fungi on wetted carpet using newly designed technologies that rely on physical principles of steam, heat, and fluid flow. Sixty samples of carpet were embedded with heat-treated house dust, followed by embedding, wearing with a hexapod, and wetting. Samples were inoculated using a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum prior to placement over a water-saturated foam pad. Incubation times were 24 hr, 7 days, and 30 days. Cleaning was performed using three methods; high-flow hot water extraction, hot water and detergent, and steam. Fungal loading increased from approximately 1500 colony forming units per area (CFU/cm(2)) in 24 hr to a maximum of approximately 10,200 CFU/cm(2) after 7 days with a slight decline to 9700 CFU/cm(2) after 30 days incubation. Statistically significant differences were found among all three methods for removal of fungi for all three time periods (p Steam-vapor was significantly better than the alternative methods (p steam has a consistent fungal removal rate, the detergent and high-flow, hot water methods decline in efficiency with increasing incubation time.

  12. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (,; ); Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  13. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  14. Wetting and Non-Wetting Models of Black Carbon Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, B. F.; Laura, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of recent modeling studies on the activation of black carbon (BC) aerosol to form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We use a model of BC activation based on a general modification of the Koehler equation for insoluble activation in which we introduce a term based on the activity of water adsorbed on the particle surface. We parameterize the model using the free energy of adsorption, a parameter directly comparable to laboratory measurements of water adsorption on carbon. Although the model of the water- surface interaction is general, the form of the activation equation that results depends upon a further model of the distribution of water on the particle. One possible model involves the symmetric growth of a water shell around the isoluble particle core (wetting). This model predicts upper and lower bounding curves for the activation supersaturation given by the range of water interaction energies from hydrophobic to hydrophilic which are in agreement with a large body of recent activation data. The resulting activation diameters are from 3 to 10 times smaller than activation of soluble particles of identical dry diameter. Another possible model involves an exluded liquid droplet growing in contact with the particle (non-wetting). The geometry of this model much more resembles classic assumptions of heterogeneous nucleation theory. This model can yield extremely high activation supersaturation as a function of diameter, as has been observed in some experiments, and enables calculations in agreement with some of these results. We discuss these two geometrical models of water growth, the different behaviors predicted by the resulting activation equation, and the means to determine which model of growth is appropriate for a given BC particle characterized by either water interaction energy or morphology. These simple models enable an efficient and physically reasonable means to calculate the activation of BC aerosol to form CCN based upon a

  15. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  16. Skin disease in paper mill workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F.H.W.; Lensen, G.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Coenraads, P.J.

    Background Paper mill workers have frequent and prolonged exposure to skin irritants and allergens and may have a higher risk of developing occupational dermatitis. Aims The aim of this study was to determine the extent of skin problems in a paper mill and how much was attributable to contact with

  17. Vertical mill simulation applied to iron ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of vertical mills in regrind circuits is consolidated. This type of mill is now attracting interest in primary grinding applications, due to its higher efficiency when compared to ball mills, which are usually used at this stage. In this study, a coarse sample of iron ore was tested in a pilot scale grinding circuit with a vertical mill. Other three samples of pellet feed had already been tested with the methodology used in this study. The sample of coarse iron ore was characterized in laboratory tests carried out in a small batch ball mill. Selection and breakage function parameters were determined from the laboratory tests. The parameters were then used for simulating the pilot scale tests using Modsim™ software. The model previously implemented in Modsim™ has been successfully applied to represent the vertical mill operated with different ores. The simulations produced particle size distributions that were very close to the actual size distributions, and the predictions were accomplished only by imputing the calibrated parameters from the batch tests, the power draw and the feed size distribution of the pilot tests. The methodology is therefore useful for scale-up and simulation of vertical mills, only requiring laboratory tests that can be carried out in standard laboratory batch ball mills with small amounts of samples.

  18. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  19. Jiangsu Mills Attempt to Adjust Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The profit squeeze on China’s textile mills continues. In Jiangsu Province, a very important market, mills are reacting in a variety of ways to this situation. Spinners and weavers of man-made fiber appear to be the most adversely affected,

  20. Improvement of the stone elimination roller mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Elimination roller mill as raw materials preparing equipments is universally used in brick making industry. Stone Elimination Roller Mill should have following characteristics: high machine strength and good wearresistant of roller shell, safety reliability, high machinery intensity (impact strength) and rigidity, reliable hermetically sealed construction.

  1. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik

    2017-01-01

    Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

  2. Drop splashing is independent of substrate wetting

    CERN Document Server

    Latka, Andrzej; Nagel, Sidney R; de Pablo, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    A liquid drop impacting a dry solid surface with sufficient kinetic energy will splash, breaking apart into numerous secondary droplets. This phenomenon shows many similarities to forced wetting, including the entrainment of air at the contact line. Because of these similarities and the fact that forced wetting has been shown to depend on the wetting properties of the surface, existing theories predict splashing to depend on wetting properties as well. However, using high-speed interference imaging we observe that wetting properties have no effect on splashing for various liquid-surface combinations. Additionally, by fully resolving the Navier-Stokes equations at length and time scales inaccessible to experiments, we find that the shape and motion of the air-liquid interface at the contact line are independent of wettability. We use these findings to evaluate existing theories and to compare splashing with forced wetting.

  3. Chemical and physical characteristics of corn silages and their effects on in vitro disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Mertens, D R

    2005-12-01

    Estimating the available energy in corn silage provides a unique challenge because the silage contains variable proportions of grain and stover, each of which can differ in availability due to chemical composition and physical form. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships among chemical components and their relationships with in vitro disappearance of ground and unground dried silages, and to quantify minimally fragmented starch in corn silage and investigate its impact and that of mean particle size (MPS) on in vitro disappearance of unground silages. Thirty-two corn silages were selected to provide diversity in dry matter, protein, fiber, and MPS. Detergent fibers were highly correlated with each other and with nonfiber carbohydrates, and were used to develop prediction equations between these constituents. Sieves with apertures > or =4.75 mm were used to isolate intact kernels and large kernel fragments, which were collected and analyzed to measure minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75). Dividing Starch>4.75 by total starch defined the proportion of minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75/Total), which ranged from 9 to 100% with a mean of 52%. Starch>4.75/Total was positively correlated with MPS (r = 0.46). The inverse of Starch>4.75/Total is an index of kernel fragmentation. Silages were prepared as whole material or ground to pass through a 4- or 1-mm screen of a cutter mill. In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) was greater for ground than for whole samples (71.7 and 61.2%, respectively). Increased IVDMD for ground samples was attributed to greater in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and neutral detergent solubles (NDS) disappearances. The IVDMD of ground samples was related to NDF and acid detergent lignin (R2 = 0.80). The IVDMD of whole corn silage was related to acid detergent lignin, Starch>4.75, MPS, and dry matter. When IVDMD was partitioned into in vitro digestible NDS (IVdNDS) and in vitro digestible NDF, the IVd

  4. Ultrafine Sm-Fe-N Particles Prepared by Planetary Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine magnetically hard particles are needed for the bottom­up fabrication of anisotropic exchanged­coupled permanent magnets. In this study we have chosen Sm2Fe17Nx because of its high anisotropy field and large saturation magnetization. A multi­stage planetary ball milling process was used. The key is to find the right balance of energy used to mill the precursor particles; it must be high enough to break the particles and reduce their size but, not so high as to destroy the crystal structure of the nanoparticles that would lead to deterioration of the magnetic properties. First the coarse powders were subjected to a wet milling with 2.0 mm diameter media. In each subsequent stage the media size was reduced to maintain the milling balance. Using such a process produced particles in a size range from 100 - 800 nm with a coercivity as high as 10 kOe at room temperature.

  5. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  6. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  7. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  8. Optimized wet clutches:simulation and tribotesting

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Wet clutches are used in a variety of different machinery. Wet clutches and brakes are frequently used to distribute torque in vehicle drive-trains. The clutches can be located in e.g. automatic transmissions or limited slip differentials. Their frictional behavior is of great importance for the overall vehicle behavior and has to be thoroughly investigated when designing new wet clutch applications. Frictional behavior is normally investigated in test rigs where complete friction discs are t...

  9. The Wet-Dog Shake

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Andrew; Bauman, Jay; Chang, Young-Hui; Hu, David

    2010-01-01

    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. In this fluid dynamics video, we show a sequence of films demonstrating how hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. X-ray cinematography is used to track the motion of the skeleton. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  10. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  11. Wet granular walkers and climbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Z S; Steinberger, A; Seemann, R; Herminghaus, S, E-mail: audrey.steinberger@ens-lyon.fr [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Mechanisms of locomotion in microscopic systems are of great interest not only for technological applications but also for the sake of understanding, and potentially harnessing, processes far from thermal equilibrium. Downscaling is a particular challenge and has led to a number of interesting concepts, including thermal ratchet systems and asymmetric swimmers. Here we present a granular ratchet system employing a particularly robust mechanism that can be implemented in various settings. The system consists of wetted spheres of different sizes that adhere to each other, and are subject to a symmetric oscillating, zero average external force field. An inherent asymmetry in the mutual force network leads to force rectification and hence to locomotion. We present a simple model that accounts for the observed behaviour, underscores its robustness and suggests a potential scalability of the concept.

  12. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  13. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of mechanically milled protein fibre powders and their free volume aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, K.; Sellaiyan, S.; Rajkhowa, R.; Tsuzuki, T.; Lin, T.; Smith, S. V.; Wang, X.; Uedono, A.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the fabrication of ultra-fine powders from animal protein fibres such as cashmere guard hair, merino wool and eri silk along with their free volume aspects. The respectively mechanically cleaned, scoured and degummed cashmere guard hair, wool and silk fibres were converted into dry powders by a process sequence: Chopping, Attritor Milling, and Spray Drying. The fabricated protein fibre powders were characterised by scanning electron microscope, particle size distribution and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The PALS results indicated that the average free volume size in protein fibres increased on their wet mechanical milling with a decrease in the corresponding intensities leading to a resultant decrease in their fractional free volumes.

  14. STUDY ON REDUCING AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF MILL SCALE/PETROLEUM COKE BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  15. ACCELERATION DEVELOPMENT OF CORN ICM TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION AT SEVERAL AGROECOSYSTEM AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sirappa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology innovation of corn integrated crop management (ICM is formed of concept with integrated a variety of technology component which synergy interdependent so disperse local problem, increasing eficiency input, take care of and increasingsoil fertility. Agriculture Agency of Research Development agitating for assemble new superior varieties which have a highest production, early ripening, resistent main pest and disease, tolerance of marginal domain, and yield quality which accord with consumer preference. A new superior variety which admissible for agroecosystem rain field are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1, dan Semar-10; For dry land wet climate are Bisma, Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1 and Semar-10; For acid dry land wet climate are Sukmaraga; and for dry land and dry climate are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. For necessity silage, development directed towards varieties of Bisma, Lamuru, Bima-1, and Semar-10, whereas for food matter are Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. Several strategy for accelerate of corn development, especially varieties which producting by Agriculture Agency of Research Development for farmer are trough survey or PRA, verification and evaluation technology production, field encountered, socialization of technology production, and management of seed measuring.

  16. Growing season temperature and precipitation variability and extremes in the U.S. Corn Belt from 1981 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Shulski, M.

    2013-12-01

    ,35, growth range limits for corn), and the sum of growing degree days between 20°C and 22°C (GDD20,22, optimal growth range for corn). And the precipitation-based indices include: cumulative precipitation, consecutive dry days, and number of extreme precipitation events in June. As to the decadal trend analysis in climatic factors, Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope and the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test are used. In the U.S. Corn Belt, annual mean Tavg ranges from 5.7°C to 14.7°C, and annual cumulative precipitation ranges from 396 mm to 1,203 mm. According to the decadal trend of annual mean Tavg and annual cumulative precipitation, 30 stations (45%) demonstrate a warm and dry trend, and 28 stations demonstrate a warm and wet trend. In monthly scale, Jun mean Tmin presents the most significantly increasing trend, and no significant decreasing or zero trend is detected from 1981 to 2012. During the climatological corn growing season, BD ranges from 76 to 128 DOY, ED ranges from 276 to 316 DOY, and GSL ranges from 150 to 242 days. From 1981 to 2012, BD is significantly advanced at the rate of 1 to 8 DOY per decade, ED is significantly delayed at the rate of 1 to 5 per decade, and GSL is significantly prolonged at the rate of 1 to 11 days per decade.

  17. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses.

  18. Use of the Cropland Data Layer to monitor grassland conversion in the U.S. Western Corn Belt (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cropland Data Layer (CDL) provides new opportunities for monitoring land cover/land use change (LCLUC) related to U.S. agricultural policy, bioenergy development, and recent commodity price increases. We used the CDL to assess the conversion of grasslands to corn/soy cultivation along the western periphery of the U.S. Corn Belt. Here, we find rapid grassland conversion (1-5% annually) as the Corn Belt expands westward and northward into North Dakota and South Dakota. This LCLUC is occurring in close proximity to wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. In most counties in the eastern Dakotas, grassland conversion exceeds declines in land area enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Within the core corn/soy growing area in Iowa and southern Minnesota, LCLUC is occurring on marginal lands characterized by high erosion potential and less-productive soils. In Minnesota, particularly, corn/soy production is increasing on lands previously too wet to farm without an expansion of agricultural drainage practices. Over the period 2006-2011, we estimate a net greenhouse gas impact of grassland conversion in the Western Corn Belt of approximately 4*106 metric tons CO2-equivalent. Although not designed for monitoring grasslands, we suggest that the CDL can be used judiciously to identify grassland conversion at farm- to sub-county scales, and, in conjunction with other national-level datasets (e.g., the National Wetlands Inventory and SSURGO database), to provide timely feedback to policymakers and the public on likely environmental impacts of U.S. agricultural policies and shifting market forces.

  19. Einstein--Yang--Mills strings

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V; Volkov, M S; Davydov, Evgeny A.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2006-01-01

    We present globally regular vortex-type solutions for a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills field coupled to gravity in 3+1 dimensions. These gravitating vortices are static, cylindrically symmetric and purely magnetic, and they support a non-zero chromo-magnetic flux through their cross section. In addition, they carry a constant non-Abelian current, and so in some sense they are analogs of the superconducting cosmic strings. They have a compact central core dominated by a longitudinal magnetic field and endowed with an approximately Melvin geometry. This magnetic field component gets color screened in the exterior part of the core, outside of which the fields approach exponentially fast those of the electrovacuum Bonnor solutions with a circular magnetic field. In the far field zone the solutions are not asymptotically flat but tend to vacuum Kasner metrics.

  20. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  1. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  2. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  3. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uellendahl, H; Wang, G; Møller, H B; Jørgensen, U; Skiadas, I V; Gavala, H N; Ahring, B K

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops. The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy crops competitive to the use of corn and this combination will make the production of biogas from energy crops more sustainable.

  4. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  9. Characteristics of wet work in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, FHW; Steenstra, FB; Groothoff, JW; Coenraads, PJ

    Background objectives: Nursing is known for its high prevalence of hand dermatitis, mainly caused by the intense exposure to wet work in nursing activities. We aimed to study the characteristics of wet work exposure in nursing. Method: Trained observers monitored the duration and frequency of

  10. Curvature controlled wetting in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Mikheev, Lev V.

    1995-01-01

    . As the radius of the substrate r0→∞, the leading effect of the curvature is adding the Laplace pressure ΠL∝r0-1 to the pressure balance in the film. At temperatures and pressures under which the wetting is complete in planar geometry, Laplace pressure suppresses divergence of the mean thickness of the wetting...

  11. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  12. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: ..... FAW that fed on GM corn genotypes exhibited lower ... preference for other food types, particularly given the.

  13. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. Corn cobs ... like corn cobs, sugar cane bagasse , rice husk, rice straw and oat straw ... Xylanase hydrolyzes the polymer xylan into the xylose monomers. The free ..... using central composite rotary design.

  14. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. High-fructose corn syrup is a common sweetener in ...

  15. Wilson Loops in Noncommutative Yang Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, N; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the correlation functions of the Wilson loops in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory based upon its equivalence to twisted reduced models. We point out that there is a crossover at the noncommutativity scale. At large momentum scale, the Wilson loops in noncommmutative Yang-Mills represent extended objects. They coincide with those in ordinary Yang-Mills theory in low energy limit. The correlation functions on D-branes in IIB matrix model exhibit the identical crossover behavior. It is observed to be consistent with the supergravity description with running string coupling. We also explain that the results of Seiberg and Witten can be simply understood in our formalism.

  16. Palladium nanoparticles obtained by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampedro, B.; Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (RENFE-UCM-CSIC), P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rojas, T.C.; Fernandez, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro mixto CSIC-UNIV, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Opposed to the existing chemical methods, we have used a physical one in order to obtain palladium nanoparticles. In this work we present the HRTEM observation of Pd nanoparticles obtained by mechanical milling. These particles are around 6 nm in size. The Pd milled samples have exhaustively been structurally characterized. We have also studied its magnetic properties as a function of the milling time and magnetic measurements are according to those previously carried out by us in palladium nanoparticles obtained by chemical methods. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Yang-Mills origin of gravitational symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, A; Duff, M J; Hughes, L J; Nagy, S

    2014-01-01

    By regarding gravity as the convolution of left and right Yang-Mills theories, we derive in linearised approximation the gravitational symmetries of general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance and local supersymmetry from the flat space Yang-Mills symmetries of local gauge invariance and global super-Poincar\\'e. As a concrete example we focus on the new-minimal (12+12) off-shell version of simple four-dimensional supergravity obtained by tensoring the off-shell Yang-Mills multiplets (4 + 4, N_L = 1) and (3 + 0, N_R = 0).

  19. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  20. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha-1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m-2 s-1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m-2 s-1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  1. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizations and Microbe Inoculation on Physiology and Growth ofSweet Corn Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out in a glasshouse to compare the physiology and growth of sweet corn plants (Zea mays L. cv. Honey Bantam) grown under organic and chemical fertilizations with or without microbial inoculation (MI). The organic fertilizer used was fermented mainly using rice bran and oil mill sludge, and the MI was a liquid product containing many beneficial microbes such as lactic acid bacteria, yeast, photosynthetic bacteria and actinomycetes. The application amounts of the organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizers were based on the same rate of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Sweet corn plants fertilized with organic materials inoculated with beneficial microbes grew better than those without inoculation. There were no significant differences in physiology and growth of the sweet corn plants between treatments of chemical fertilizers with and without MI. Among the organic fertilization treatments, only the sweet corn plants with organic fertilizer and MI applied 4 weeks before sowing had similar photosynthetic capacity, total dry matter yield and ear yield to those with chemical fertilizers. Sweet corn plants in other organic fertilization treatments were weaker in physiology and growth than those in chemical fertilization treatments. There was no significant variance among chemical fertilization treatments at different time. It is concluded from this research that this organic fertilizer would be more effective if it was inoculated with the beneficial microbes. Early application of the organic fertilizer with beneficial microbes before sowing was recommended to make the nutrients available before the rapid growth at the early stage and obtain a yield similar to or higher than that with chemical fertilizations.

  2. Corn Heterotic Group and Model in Heilongjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; DONG Ling; YU Tianjiang; LI Yan; GUO Ran

    2009-01-01

    The concept and research achievements of the heterotic group and model in corn were introduced briefly. The results showed that the domestic corn germplasm could be divided into three main heterotic groups and two main heterotic models. The research on corn germplasm in Heilongjiang Province could be concluded as three main heterotic groups and three main heterotic models. Some new opinions about corn heterotic group and heterotic model in Heilongjiang Province were proposed such as Northeast group and NortheastxLancaster model.

  3. A method for sampling waste corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  4. Pretreatment of Corn Stalk by Steam Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵自强; 田永生; 谭惠民

    2003-01-01

    A steam explosion pretreatment, which is one of the best ways of pretreating plant stalk, is applied at various severities to corn stalk. It could effectively modify the super-molecular structure of corn stalk and defibrating corn stalk into individual components. The relationship between yield of reducing sugar and the operating conditions, including temperature, pressure of steam explosion pretreatment and acidity, is also established. Experimental results prove that the steam explosion substantially increases the yield of reducing sugar, and the optimal condition for steam explosion is as follows: the pressure is 2.0 MPa, the pressure-retaining time 300 s, the initial acid concentration 1% and the acid treatment time 24 h.

  5. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time is ach...... in NEMS development can accomplish....

  6. Chemical Composition Profile of Canned and Frozen Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahmadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the oldest and most productive popular grains and can be consumed as food at various developmental stages from baby corn to mature grain. The maize can be processed in different products at traditional level as well as industrial scale. Due to vast corn consumption by people in this research the concentration of histamine ,some trace and essential mineral and also heavy metals has been determined in 120 samples of popular brands of canned and frozen sweet corn in 2014. These samples (60 of them were canned corn and the rest were frozen were collected from different local markets of Tehran, Iran. For reliable, accurate and precise measurements, all canned and frozen samples had the same date of producing. Samples were randomly purchased for analysis and analyzed according to standardized international protocols by wet digestion method. Histamine content was determined by Capillary Electrophoresis while metals were determined by Atomic absorption spectrometer. The results obtained revealed that, the mean ranges of the elements analyzed in (μg.g-1 between the frozen and canned food are as follows: Ni (0.31 – 17.44, Zn (204.14 – 266.76, Cu (6.22 – 8.03, Ca (1611 –8557, Mg (1063 – 1208, Fe (1.98-87.23, Sn (19.01- 350.8 respectively. Some of the measured values found, not only relatively high in canned compared to frozen food samples, but also exceeds the international tolerance levels. Histamine content in 95% of samples was lower than maximum level set by WHO. According to variance analyses of data, there was a positive correlation between the storage time and heavy metal contents especially tin, zinc and iron and they were varied significantly (p ­< 0.001 after 3 months of storage .The monitoring of mineral and heavy metals in frozen and canned food samples is vital important challenge to control and improve the food industry strategies.

  7. Improvement on ball-milling composite process of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Xiangfeng; Shen, Qing; Cheng, Man

    2014-12-01

    The wet ball-milling preparation of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor can well solve the agglomeration of nanoscale component, but the micro-nanometer powder prepared by the method can hardly meet the requirement of powder feeding in laser cladding process and its composite effect is still not desirable enough. Aiming at the problem, the ball-milling composite process of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor was analyzed. It has been found that the morphological diversity of original micron powder is the main influencing factor of the deliverability and the composite effect of micro-nanometer powder. In addition, the deposition of the compounding powder in the bottom of ball-milling tank also has some negative influences on the composite effect. Accordingly, two improving measures namely the micron powder pretreatment with Ball Mill Reshaping + Screening and the additional stirring during ball-milling process are proposed and experimented. Results show that the micron powder pretreatment could significantly improve the composite effect and the deliverability of micro-nanometer powder, and the additional stirring could further improve the composite effect of micro-nanometer powder.

  8. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  9. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  10. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  11. Corn texture and particle size in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Benedetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.

  12. Bacterial Diversity in Rhizospheres of Nontransgenic and Transgenic Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Min; Kremer, Robert J.; Peter P. Motavalli; Davis, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in transgenic and nontransgenic corn rhizospheres was determined. In greenhouse and field studies, metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of 16S rRNAs differentiated bacterial communities among soil textures but not between corn varieties. We conclude that bacteria in corn rhizospheres are affected more by soil texture than by cultivation of transgenic varieties.

  13. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  14. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  15. Ultrasonic pretreatment for enhanced saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa T.

    The 21st Century human lifestyle has become heavily dependent on hydrocarbon inputs. Energy demand and the global warming effects due to the burning of fossil fuels have continued to increase. Rising awareness of the negative environmental and economic impacts of hydrocarbon dependence has led to a resurgence of interest in renewable energy sources such as ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known to be a cleaner and renewable source of energy relative to gasoline. Many studies have agreed that fuel ethanol has reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has larger overall energy benefits compared to gasoline. Currently, the majority of the fuel ethanol in the United States is produced from corn using dry-grind milling process. The typical dry-grind ethanol plant incorporates jet cooking using steam to cook the corn slurry as pretreatment for saccharification; an energy intensive step. In aiming to reduce energy usage, this study evaluated the use of ultrasonics as an alternative to jet cooking. Ultrasonic batch experiments were conducted using a Branson 2000 Series bench-scale ultrasonic unit operating at a frequency of 20 kHz and a maximum output of 2.2 kW. Corn slurry was sonicated at varying amplitudes from 192 to 320 mumpeak-to-peak(p-p) for 0-40 seconds. Enzyme stability was investigated by adding enzyme (STARGEN(TM)001) before and after sonication. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images and particle size distribution analysis showed a nearly 20-fold size reduction by disintegration of corn particles due to ultrasonication. The results also showed a 30% improvement in sugar release of sonicated samples relative to the control group (untreated). The efficiency exceeded 100% in terms of relative energy gain from the additional sugar released due to ultrasonication compared to the ultrasonic energy applied. Interestingly, enzymatic activity was enhanced when sonicated at low and medium power. This result suggested that ultrasonic energy did not denature the enzymes

  16. Economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M.S.; Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, N.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States). Chemical Technology Division; Taylor, F. [USDA, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). Eastern Regional Research

    2000-11-01

    The economics of fuel ethanol production from dry-milled corn starch were studied in fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) using immobilized biocatalysts. Glucoamylase immobilized on porous diatomaceous earth was used for hydrolysis of the starch to glucose in a packed-bed reactor. The fermentation of glucose to ethanol was carried out in FBRs using Zymomonas mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carrageenan beads. Volumetric ethanol productivities of up to 24 g/l h were achieved in non-optimized laboratory-scale systems. For a 15 million gal/yr ethanol plant, an economic analysis of this process was performed with Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Cambridge, MA) process simulation software. The analysis shows that an operating cost savings in the range of 1.1-3.1 cents/gal can be realized by using the FBR technology. (author)

  17. GENERALIZED SIMULATION MODEL FOR MILLED SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY-APPLICATION TO PERIPHERAL MILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analyzing various factors influencing milled surface topography, firstly, a generalized model for milled surface topography is proposed. Secondly, using the principles of transformation matrix and vector operation, the trajectory equation of cutting edge relative to workpiece is derived. Then, a three-dimensional topography simulation algorithm is constructed through dividing the workpiece into regular grids. Finally, taking the peripheral milling process as an example, the generalized model is simplified, and the corresponding simulation examples are given. The results indicate that it is very efficient for the generalized model to be used to analyze and simulate the peripherally milled surface topography.

  18. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Meihls

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72% compared with control colonies (33%. For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest.

  19. Continuous grinding mill simulation using Austin's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comminution is a frequently-required step in mineral processing and is responsible for almost 90% of all energy consumption in a mineral processing plant. Tumbling mill design has been studied since the middle of the XIX century. There are many comminution models in the literature, with preponderance, however, of Austin’s model (2002 for mineral impact breakage. In this paper, Austin’s model was applied to tubular tumbling mills. Once Austin's model was proposed for batch processing of narrowly-distributed fraction sizes, an artifice has allowed it to be used in continuous grinding mill processes with widely-distributed fraction sizes. Interesting results were obtained with errors less than 0.005 for mills with sharp residence time distributions.

  20. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  1. Application of the Taguchi technique for the optimization of surface roughness and tool life during the milling of Hastelloy C22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivak, Turgay; Mert, Senol [Duezce Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effects of machining parameters on surface roughness (Ra) and tool life (Tl) were investigated in the milling of Hastelloy C22 alloy with TiAlN-coated carbide inserts. A number of milling experiments were conducted using the L{sub 27} (3{sup 3}) Taguchi orthogonal array on a CNC milling machine under different cutting conditions (dry, compressed air and wet). The cutting condition, cutting speed and feed rate were determined as the essential machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio were employed to evaluate the effects of the machining parameters on Ra and Tl, and prediction models were created using quadratic regression analyses. The results revealed that the feed rate and cutting condition were the most influential factors on surface roughness and flank wear. The maximum tool life was achieved under wet cutting condition using a cutting speed of 30 x min{sup -1} and a feed rate of 0.08 mm x rev{sup -1}, while the minimum surface roughness value was obtained under wet cutting condition using a cutting speed of 50 m x min{sup -1} and the same feed rate. Using the optimum cutting parameters for Tl (30 m x min{sup -1}, 0.08 mm x rev{sup -1}), increases of 234 % and 67 % in tool life were observed under wet and compressed air cutting conditions, respectively, compared to the dry cutting condition.

  2. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  3. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  4. Mills' ratio: Reciprocal concavity and functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Baricz, Árpád

    2010-01-01

    This note contains suficient conditions for the probability density function of an arbitrary continuous univariate distribution such that the corresponding Mills ratio to be reciprocally convex (concave). To illustrate the applications of the main results, the Mills ratio of some common continuous univariate distributions, like gamma, log-normal and Student's t distributions, are discussed in details. The application to monopoly theory is also summarized.

  5. Dynamic study of milling low depth channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Dorin Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of dynamic aspects of the milling cutters used in particular case of low depth channels. A new calculation method was developed, taking into account the high variations of cutting forces during milling small depth channels with peripheral cutting tools. A new formula was established for the minimal value of channel depth that allows cutting process to be performed in conditions of dynamic stability.

  6. Forced wetting of a reactive surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T D

    2012-11-01

    The dynamic wetting of water on gelatin-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (GC-PET) has been investigated by forced wetting over a wide speed range and compared with earlier data obtained with unmodified PET. The results were analysed according to the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting (MKT). Both substrates show complex behaviour, with separate low- and high-speed modes. For the GC-PET, this is attributed to a rapid change in the wettability of the substrate on contact with water, specifically a surface molecular transformation from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This results in a smooth wetting transition from one mode to the other. For the PET, the bimodal behaviour is attributed to surface heterogeneity, with the low-speed dynamics dominated by interactions with polar sites on the substrate that become masked at higher speeds. In this case, the transition is discontinuous. The study has general ramifications for the investigation of any wetting processes in which a physicochemical transformation takes place at the solid surface on contact with the liquid. In particular, it shows how forced wetting, combined with the MKT, can reveal subtle details of the processes involved. It is unlikely that similar insight could be gained from spontaneous wetting studies, such as spreading drops.

  7. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  8. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  9. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  10. Wetting transitions at soft, sliding interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Clain, J.; Buguin, A.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    2002-03-01

    We observe (by optical interferometry) the contact of a rubber cap squeezing a nonwetting liquid against a plate moving at velocity U. At low velocities, the contact is dry. It becomes partially wet above a threshold velocity Vc1, with two symmetrical dry patches on the rear part. Above a second velocity Vc2, the contact is totally wet. This regime U>Vc2 corresponds to the hydroplaning of a car (decelerating on a wet road). We interpret the transitions at Vc1, Vc2 in terms of a competition between (a) liquid invasion induced by shear (b) spontaneous dewetting of the liquid (between nonwettable surfaces).

  11. Catalytic wet oxidation of black liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Viader Riera, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    The major aspects of wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation have been reviewed in this work paying special attention to the reaction mechanisms, kinetics and the industrial process. In the experimental section a set of heterogeneous catalysts have been tested in the wet oxidation of non-wood black liquor. The oxidation runs were performed batchwise in a laboratory-scale mechanically stirred slurry reactor for 1 h at a temperature of 170°C and total pressure of 12 bar. Pure oxygen w...

  12. Our experience with wet-wrap treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrán-Planelles, C; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Linares-Barrios, M; Martínez-Rodríguez, A

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of treatments are currently available for severe atopic dermatitis, including systemic therapies such as ciclosporin, corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate, mofetil mycophenolate, and omalizumab. In patients who can no longer take systemic drugs or who need a dose reduction, wet-wrap treatment can be an excellent option. To date, wet wraps have mostly been used in severe cases of childhood atopic dermatitis. We report our experience with wet-wrap treatment in 5 adults with atopic dermatitis and 2 with nodular prurigo. The results were satisfactory and there were few adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  14. The Response of Corn Acreage to Ethanol Plant Siting

    OpenAIRE

    Fatal, Yehushua S.; Thurman, Walter N.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. ethanol production capacity increased more than threefold between 2002 and 2008. We study the effect of this growth on corn acreage. Connecting annual changes in county-level corn acreage to changes in ethanol plant capacities, we find a positive effect on planted corn. The building of a typical plant is estimated to increase corn in the county by over 500 acres and to increase acreage in surrounding counties up to almost 300 miles away. All ethanol plants are estimated to increase corn ...

  15. Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-01-06

    Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

  16. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  17. Effect of the sowing date and agrotextile covering on the growth and length of vegetation period of sweet corn cultivated in the conditions of eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to examine the effect of three sowing dates and covering of soil with agrotextile on the length of sweet corn growing season and corn growth. When sweet corn sowing date was delayed from late April to late May, the growing season was shortened, the extent of this shortening being conditioned by the weather conditions in the study years. The growing season was much shorter in warmer years and a little shorter in a cold year. Covering with agrotextile at the first (26th April and second (10th May sowing date accelerated cob harvest by eight days. When seeds were sown at the third date (24th May, cobs were harvested five days earlier. Sweet corn plants grew better in colder versus warmer years. The greatest number of cobs per plant was formed when the weather was warmer and precipitation was evenly distributed. In warmer years, delayed sowing contributed to a lower number of cobs whereas in the colder year the opposite response was observed. Compared with a hot and dry year, significantly higher marketable tuber yields were harvested in a warm year characterized by evenly distributed precipitation and in a colder and wet year. The marketable cob yields of sweet corn sown on the 10th May were significantly higher compared with the 26th of April. Covering with agrotextile contributed to a significantly higher number of cobs per plant, and increased marketable cob yields, too.

  18. Process modeling and analysis of pulp mill-based integrated biorefinery with hemicellulose pre-extraction for ethanol production: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Ramaswamy, Shri; Al-Dajani, Waleed Wafa; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform to use more effectively an abundant, renewable bio-resource - wood. Modification of the modern day pulp mills into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) presents an excellent opportunity to produce, in addition to valuable cellulose fiber, co-products including fuel grade ethanol and additional energy, thus resulting in increased revenue streams and profitability and potentially lower the greenhouse gas emissions. A process model to simulate the integrate forest biorefinery manufacturing pulp and other co-products has been developed. This model has been used to compare three integrated biorefinery scenarios: the conventional Kraft pulping process, the pulp mill-based IFBR with hemicelluloses extraction prior to pulping for ethanol production, and the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber for ethanol production. Based on a fixed feedstock throughput of 2000 dry Mg wood/day, results show that the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber cellulose converted to ethanol can produce 0.038 MM m(3) (10.04 MM gal) ethanol per year at a minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) of $491/m(3) ($1.86/gal). The economic feasibility of IFBR can be further improved by using further improvements in the pre-extraction process, other biomass such as corn stover for producing ethanol, and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

  19. Handling of corn stover bales for combustion in small and large furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morissette, R.; Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which dry corn stover was baled and burned in 2 furnaces in the province of Quebec. Small and large rectangular bale formats were considered for direct combustion. The first combustion unit was a small 500,000 BTU/h dual chamber log wood furnace located at a hay growing farm in Neuville, Quebec. The heat was initially transferred to a hot water pipe system and then transferred to a hot air exchanger to dry hay bales. The small stover bales were placed directly into the combustion furnace. The low density of the bales compared to log wood, required filling up to 8 times more frequently. Stover bales produced an average of 6.4 per cent ash on a DM basis and required an automated system for ash removal. Combustion gas contained levels of particulate matter greater than 1417 mg/m{sup 3}, which is more than the local acceptable maximum of 600 mg/m{sup 3} for combustion furnaces. The second combustion unit was a high capacity 12.5 million BTU/h single chamber furnace located in Saint-Philippe-de-neri, Quebec. It was used to generate steam for a feed pellet mill. Large corn stover bales were broken up and fed on a conveyor and through a screw auger to the furnace. The stover was light compared to the wood chips used in this furnace. For mechanical reasons, the stover could not be fed continuously to the furnace.

  20. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  1. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  2. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  3. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  4. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  5. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  6. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  7. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  8. Tualatin River - Wet Prairie Restoration Phase III

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty five acres of wet prairie and 11 acres of adjacent lands were treated for reed canarygrass in this ongoing project. Federally threatened Nelson’s...

  9. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  10. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  11. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  12. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Bed-wetting that starts in adulthood (secondary enuresis) is uncommon and requires medical evaluation. Causes of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. References Adult nocturnal enuresis. National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/ ...

  13. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  14. Life cycle assessment of corn-based ethanol production in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieragostini, Carla; Aguirre, Pío; Mussati, Miguel C

    2014-02-15

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the world is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. In Argentina, the legislation has imposed the use of biofuels in blend with fossil fuels (5 to 10%) in the transport sector. The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of corn-based ethanol production in the province of Santa Fe in Argentina based on the life cycle assessment methodology. The studied system includes from raw materials production to anhydrous ethanol production using dry milling technology. The system is divided into two subsystems: agricultural system and refinery system. The treatment of stillage is considered as well as the use of co-products (distiller's dried grains with solubles), but the use and/or application of the produced biofuel is not analyzed: a cradle-to-gate analysis is presented. As functional unit, 1MJ of anhydrous ethanol at biorefinery is chosen. Two life cycle impact assessment methods are selected to perform the study: Eco-indicator 99 and ReCiPe. SimaPro is the life cycle assessment software used. The influence of the perspectives on the model is analyzed by sensitivity analysis for both methods. The two selected methods identify the same relevant processes. The use of fertilizers and resources, seeds production, harvesting process, corn drying, and phosphorus fertilizers and acetamide-anillide-compounds production are the most relevant processes in agricultural system. For refinery system, corn production, supplied heat and burned natural gas result in the higher contributions. The use of distiller's dried grains with solubles has an important positive environmental impact.

  15. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  16. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

  17. Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown that corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Wetting and phase separation at surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Puri; Kurt Binder

    2005-06-01

    We study the problem of surface-directed spinodal decomposition, viz., the dynamical interplay of wetting and phase separation at surfaces. In particular, we focus on the kinetics of wetting-layer growth in a semi-infinite geometry for arbitrary surface potentials and mixture compositions. We also present representative results for phase separation in confined geometries, e.g., cylindrical pores, thin films, etc.

  19. Biodegradation of wet-white leather

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé Otero, Lluís; Jorba Rafart, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of wet-white leather. The samples of leather were exposed for eight months to outdoor weathering and then their properties were subsequently evaluated. The results indicate that resistance and dimensional stability of wet-white (THPS-syntan) leather is higher than that of chrometanned leather. The comparative work with chrome leather was described earlier.

  20. Improvement of Heating Method for Measuring the Wetness of Flowing Wet Steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,an improvement of heating method for measuring wetness of the flowing wet steam is developed,the basic principle of the heating method is presented and the mathematical model has been built for analyzing the thermodynamics problems during the process of heating,Moreover,an instrument for measuring wetness of wet steam flow was designed and made out.This instument has been used for measuring wetness of the wet steam flow at the outlet of the nozzle rig in Thermal Turbine Laboratory,Xi'an Jiaotong University,By analyzing the relative error of the result,it was found that this instrument has fairly high accuracy,it can be used as the prototype of practical instrument and has an important applicable value in engineering.

  1. Parametric study for the optimization of ionic liquid pretreatment of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papa, Gabriella [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Feldman, Taya [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sale, Kenneth L. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Adani, Fabrizio [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Singh, Seema [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake A. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    A parametric study of the efficacy of the ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment (PT) of corn stover (CS) using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc] ) and cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys] ) was conducted. The impact of 50% and 15% biomass loading for milled and non-milled CS on IL-PT was evaluated, as well the impact of 20 and 5 mg enzyme/g glucan on saccharification efficiency. The glucose and xylose released were generated from 32 conditions – 2 ionic liquids (ILs), 2 temperatures, 2 particle sizes (S), 2 solid loadings, and 2 enzyme loadings. Statistical analysis indicates that sugar yields were correlated with lignin and xylan removal and depends on the factors, where S did not explain variation in sugar yields. Both ILs were effective in pretreating large particle sized CS, without compromising sugar yields. The knowledge from material and energy balances is an essential step in directing optimization of sugar recovery at desirable process conditions.

  2. Comparison of full-fat corn germ, whole cottonseed, and tallow as fat sources for lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W F; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Brouk, M J

    2009-07-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (124 +/- 39 d in milk; 682 +/- 72 kg of body weight) were used in 6 simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares to evaluate full-fat corn germ as a fat source for lactating dairy cows. Experimental diets were a control (containing 28% ground corn, 23% alfalfa hay, 19% wet corn gluten feed, and 10% corn silage, dry matter basis), and 3 diets with either whole cottonseed (WCS), tallow (TAL), or full-fat corn germ (FFCG) added to provide 1.6% supplemental fat. Cows were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk did not differ among diets. Efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed WCS than for cows fed the control, TAL, or FFCG. Milk fat percentage from cows fed FFCG was less than that of cows fed WCS or the control, but was similar to that of cows fed TAL. Milk protein percentage was less for cows fed FFCG than for those fed the control. Total saturated fatty acids were less in milk from cows fed fat sources, and cows fed WCS and TAL had greater saturated fatty acids in milk than did cows fed FFCG. Unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed FFCG than in milk from cows fed the control, WCS, or TAL. The cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content was greater in milk from cows fed WCS, TAL, and FFCG than from cows fed the control, and it was greater in milk from cows fed FFCG than in milk from cows fed WCS or TAL. These results indicate that FFCG can be used effectively as a fat source in diets for lactating dairy cattle.

  3. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  4. FAILURE ANALYSIS IN TUBING OF AIR PREHEATER OF BOILER FROM A SUGARCANE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy from sugarcane bagasse has made the sugar and alcohol mills search alternatives to reduce maintenance of the boilers, releasing more time to the production. The stainless steel use has become one of the main tools for such reduction. However, specification errors can lead to premature failures. This work reports the factors that led tubes of AISI 409 stainless steel fail after half season when applied in a air preheater of boiler from a sugarcane mill. In such application, the AISI 304 lasts about 15 seasons and the carbon steel about 3. A tube sent by the sugar mill was characterized by wet chemical analysis, optical microscopy and EDS. Results indicated chloride formation on the internal walls of the tube, which combined with the environment, accelerated the corrosion process. The carbon steel showed high lifetime due to a 70% higher thickness. Due to the work condictions is recommended the use of stainless steels with higher corrosion resistance, such as the traditional AISI 304 or the ferritic AISI 444, the last presents better thermal exchange.

  5. Analysis and pollution sources speculations of toxic gases in a secondary fiber paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Liu, Zhang; Chen, Xiao Q; Shen, Wen H

    2016-11-09

    This paper quantitatively investigates the compositions of the gaseous pollutants in the ambient air of a secondary fiber paper mill. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde (HCHO), sulfur compounds (H2S), and hydrocarbon compounds (CxHy) were analyzed on six sampling sites with photo-ionisation detector, acetylacetone spectrophotometric method, and gas detector. The results revealed that, the high levels of TVOC and CxHy were detected at the wet end of paper machine and the office area, respectively; all the H2S contents on the six sites exceeded the limit (0.06 mg m(-3)) seriously; the HCHO concentrations at other five sites were out of the limit (0.10 mg m(-3)) except for the wastewater treatment plant. Furthermore, the necessary discussions about the possible pollution sources were considered on the process flow, the chemical agents used, and the ambient conditions in the paper mill. For the sake of air pollution control in paper mills, these remarkable results and analysis lay some technical basis in the following researches that should attract more attentions.

  6. Assessment of potential life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects from using corn-based butanol as a transportation fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wang, Michael; Liu, Jiahong; Huo, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Since advances in the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation process in recent years have led to significant increases in its productivity and yields, the production of butanol and its use in motor vehicles have become an option worth evaluating. This study estimates the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. It employs a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis tool: the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The estimates of life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are based on an Aspen Plus(R) simulation for a corn-to-butanol production process, which describes grain processing, fermentation, and product separation. Bio-butanol-related WTW activities include corn farming, corn transportation, butanol production, butanol transportation, and vehicle operation. In this study, we also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. Our study shows that driving vehicles fueled with corn-based butanol produced by the current ABE fermentation process could result in substantial fossil energy savings (39%-56%) and avoid large percentage of the GHG emission burden, yielding a 32%-48% reduction relative to using conventional gasoline. On energy basis, a bushel of corn produces less liquid fuel from the ABE process than that from the corn ethanol dry mill process. The coproduction of a significant portion of acetone from the current ABE fermentation presents a challenge. A market analysis of acetone, as well as research and development on robust alternative technologies and processes that minimize acetone while increase the butanol yield, should be conducted.

  7. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  8. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time...... is achieved. Drift independence is obtained for small critical features using a radial scan strategy, and a back scan routine ensures minimal line width deviation removing redeposited material. Milling a design similar to a nano four-point probe with a pitch down to 400nm we display what optimized FIB milling...

  9. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  10. Production, transportation and milling costs of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for centralized bioethanol production in the upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert S; Anex, Robert P

    2009-02-01

    Sweet sorghum has been identified as a possible ethanol feedstock because of its biomass yield and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. It has found limited use, however, because of poor post-harvest storage characteristics and short harvest window in cooler climates. Previous research (Bennett, A.S., Anex, R.P., 2008. Farm-gate production costs of sweet sorghum as a bioethanol feedstock. Transactions of the ASABE 51(2), 603-613) indicates that fermentable carbohydrates (FC) can be produced at less expense from sweet sorghum than from corn grain. Previous research, however, did not include costs associated with off-farm transportation, storage, or capital costs associated with milling and energy recovery equipment that are required to provide FC suitable for biological conversion. This study includes these additional costs and reevaluates sweet sorghum as a biocommodity feedstock. A total of eight harvest-transport-processing options are modeled, including 4-row self-propelled and 2-row tractor-pulled forage harvesters, two different modes of in-field transport, fresh processing, on-farm ensilage and at-plant ensilage. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis are used to account for system variability and compare scenarios. Transportation costs are found to be significant ranging from $33 to $71 Mg (-1) FC, with highest costs associated with at-plant ensilage scenarios. Economies of scale benefit larger milling equipment and boiler systems reducing FC costs by more than 50% when increasing annual plant capacity from 37.9 to 379 million liters. Ensiled storage of high moisture sweet sorghum in bunkers can lead to significant losses of FC (>20%) and result in systems with net FC costs well above those of corn-derived FC. Despite relatively high transport costs, seasonal, fresh processed sweet sorghum is found to produce FC at costs competitive with corn grain derived FC.

  11. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  12. DRY AND WET GRINDING KINETICS OF CHROMIUM ORE AND EFFECT OF PULP DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper ÖZKAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the kinetics of dry and wet grinding of various feed sizes of chromium ore has been determined using a laboratory scale ceramic ball mill. In addition, the effect of pulp density on the spesific rate of breakage (Si and net production rate to finer than specified size were investigated. The dry and wet grinding of all the size intervals of chromium ore followed the first-order breakage law, and the Si values increased as the feed sizes became coarser. Moreover, the wet grinding of these various feed sizes gave higher Si values by a factor of 2.0 to 2.6 comparing to the dry Si values. From the experimental studies performed on the effect of pulp density on the grinding process, the highest Si value was obtained at a pulp density of 45 % solids by volume. At the same pulp density value, the rate of net production of -75 µm particle size also reached the highest value.

  13. Impact of AFEX™ Pretreatment and Extrusion Pelleting on Pellet Physical Properties and Sugar Recovery from Corn Stover, Prairie Cord Grass, and Switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vijay; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2016-05-01

    The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment, feedstock moisture content (5,10, and 15 % wb), particle size (screen sizes of 2, 4, and 8 mm), and extrusion temperature (75, 100, and 125 °C) on pellet bulk density, pellet hardness, and sugar recovery from corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were investigated. Pellets were produced from untreated and AFEX™ pretreated feedstocks using a laboratory-scale extruder. AFEX™ pretreatment increased subsequent pellet bulk density from 453.0 to 650.6 kg m(-3) for corn stover from 463.2 to 680.1 kg m(-3) for prairie cord grass, and from 433.9 to 627.7 kg m(-3) for switchgrass. Maximum pellet hardness of 2342.8, 2424.3, and 1298.6 N was recorded for AFEX™ pretreated corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass, respectively. Glucose yields of AFEX™ corn stover pellets, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass pellets varied from 88.9 to 94.9 %, 90.1 to 94.9 %, and 87.0 to 92.9 %, respectively. Glucose and xylose yields of AFEX™ pellets were not affected by the extruder barrel temperature and the hammer mill screen size. The results obtained showed that low temperature and large particle size during the extrusion pelleting process can be employed for AFEX™-treated biomass without compromising sugar yields.

  14. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corn must be planted to be considered fall, winter, or spring-planted sweet corn. Potential production... per acre if you have not produced the minimum amount of production of sweet corn contained in the... only able to harvest 5,627 containers of sweet corn. The net value of all sweet corn production...

  15. RISK AND RETURN TO IP GRAIN PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF HIGH OIL CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Todd D.; Gray, Allan W.; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Returns for soybeans, commodity corn and high oil corn under an export and domestic market buyer's-call contract were simulated. High oil corn is competitive with commodity corn when yield drag is two percent and bundling reduces seed cost. Commodity loan rate is important in reducing high oil corn price risk.

  16. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  17. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  18. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  19. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    for the manufacturing of miniature parts by micro milling puts further challenges on to the manufacturing process. The whole geometry of the tools cannot be directly downscaled with the tool diameter. Besides the physical limit in the reduction of the cutting edge radius constituted by the grain size of sintered...... carbides the error motion during the grinding wheels do not allow using identical paths for tools having differences in diameter of more than one order of magnitude. Thus grinding paths for micro and mills are simplified in comparison to those for larger tools of similar shape. [1] The aim of the present...... report is to develop procedures for the geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools in order to define a method suitable for the quality assurance in the micro cutting field....

  20. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.