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Sample records for corn storage protein

  1. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  2. Effect of storage temperature on survival and recovery of thermal and extrusion injured Escherichia coli populations in whey protein concentrate and corn meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a previous study, we reported viability loss of Escherichia coli populations in corn (CP) and whey protein products (WPP) extruded at different temperatures. However, information on the effect of storage temperatures on injured bacterial populations was not addressed. The objective of this study ...

  3. Protein determination in single corns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, J.; Schiekel, M.; Franke, W.; Focke, F.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of protein content in food materials is usually done by analyzing the nitrogen amount by wet chemical Kjeldahl method. An improved accuracy accompanied by smaller analyzing intervals can be achieved using nondestructive neutron activation. Analyses have been performed using 14 MeV neutrons to determine the content of N and P in single wheat corns. Irradiation parameters have been optimized to prevent serious radiation damage in grains. About 200 single corns have been investigated with total net weights ranging from 30 to 70 mg. The tested arrangement allows determination of nitrogen amount in a single corn down to 0.3 mg with an accuracy of better than 4 %. Mean nitrogen concentrations in the range from 9 to 19% per corn have been detected. (author) 5 refs.; 6 figs

  4. Effect of storage temperature on survival and recovery of thermal and extrusion injured Escherichia coli K-12 in whey protein concentrate and corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported inactivation of Escherichia coli populations in corn product (CP) and whey protein product (WPP) extruded at different temperatures. However, information on the effect of storage temperatures on injured bacterial populations was not addressed. In this study, the effect of storage temperatures on the survival and recovery of thermal death time (TDT) disks and extrusion injured E. coli populations in CP and WPP was investigated. CP and WPP inoculated with E. coli bacteria at 7.8 log(10) CFU/g were conveyed separately into the extruder with a series 6300 digital type T-35 twin screw volumetric feeder set at a speed of 600 rpm and extruded at 35°C, 55°C, 75°C, and 95°C, or thermally treated with TDT disks submerged into water bath set at 35°C, 55°C, 75°C, and 95°C for 120 s. Populations of surviving bacteria including injured cells in all treated samples were determined immediately and every day for 5 days, and up to 10 days for untreated samples during storage at 5°C, 10°C, and 23°C. TDT disks treatment at 35°C and 55°C did not cause significant changes in the population of the surviving bacteria including injured populations. Extrusion treatment at 35°C and 55°C led to significant (pagar plates. The results of this study showed that further inactivation of the injured populations occurred during storage at 5°C for 5 days suggesting the need for immediate storage of 75°C extruded CP and WPP at 5°C for at least 24 h to enhance their microbial safety.

  5. Quality and storage stability of extruded puffed corn-fish snacks during 6-month storage at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Rafipour, Fereidon; Sigurgisladottir, Sjofn

    2011-03-30

    Cereal-based snacks are usually low in protein and other nutrients. Increased health awareness of consumers has led the food industry to develop fortified snacks with functional ingredients. Three types of extruded corn-fish snacks, containing 150 g kg(-1) carp mince and 150 g kg(-1) trout mince, 30 g kg(-1) freeze-dried saithe protein and a regular corn snack (control). were produced to study quality changes and storage stability of the products during 6-month storage at 27±2 °C. All products had the same level of water activity and proximate composition except for protein. Fortified snacks had a protein content of 93-98 g kg(-1) , compared with 65 g kg(-1) in the control. A significant increase was observed for peroxide value during storage (0.0 to 2.8 meq kg(-1)). Scores for attributes describing oxidation and off odors and flavors increased after 5-6 months' storage but attributes describing puffed corn snack odor and flavor did not change during storage of any of the products. Extrusion of corn grits with fish flesh/fish protein can be used to produce high-protein products that would be an option to provide nutrient snacks for consumers and to increase fish consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Quality evaluation of polypropylene packaged corn yogurt during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aini, Nur; Prihananto, V.; Sustriawan, B.; Astuti, Y.; Maulina, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Packaging is an important factor to control the process of quality decrease of any food product, including to determine the shelf life. The objective of this study was to determine changes quality of corn yogurt packaged using polypropylene. The method were using was package yogurt polypropylene, then it was stored in a refrigerator at 5, 10, or 15°C during 21 days. The yogurt was analysed every 7 days over a 21-day period. The results indicate that protein content decreased during storage, while the lactic acid bacteria, total acid, pH, viscosity, and total solids were increased. At the end of storage, the amount of lactic acid bacteria still fulfil the minimum requirements of a probiotic food, with a count of 6.407 log CFU/g. Overal scoring by panelist (scores ranged from 0 to 5) have a 4.78 at the beginning of storage. By the 21st day of storage, yogurt was packaging using transparent polypropylene having a score of 3.85, and that stored in opaque white packaging having a value of 3.95.

  7. Effect of storage time on the characteristics of corn and efficiency of its utilization in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafei Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the staple food and feed ingredients in China, therefore its storage is of particular importance. Corn is typically stored for 2 or more years in national barns before it is sold as a food or feed ingredient. However, the effects of stored corn in national barns on the animal performance and nutrient utilization have not been investigated thus far. This study attempted to determine the effects of storage time on the chemical and physical characteristics of corn and its nutritional value, broiler growth performance, and meat quality. Corn grains used in the present study were stored for 4 different periods, from 2 to 5 yr, under the same conditions in a building at the Beijing National Grain Storage Facility. A total of 240 birds in Exp. 1 and 90 birds in Exp. 2 were used to compare the effects of storage time on the utilization of nutrients of corn, the performance, and meat quality of broilers. The content of starch, crude protein, amino acids, fatty acids, and test weight generally decreased with increasing storage time. Corn stored for over 4 yr showed decreased catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activities and increased fat acidity. Body weight gain (BWG and European production index (EPI of broilers from 0 to 3 wk tended to decrease linearly with storage time (0.05  0.05. The digestibility of histidine and arginine, and C18:2 and C18:3 changed quadratically with storage time (P < 0.05. Collectively, the results suggest that the use of corn stored for 4 yr in animal feed decreased the performance and meat quality of broilers. Fat acidity, CAT, and POD activities can be used as indexes for evaluating the storage quality of corn.

  8. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  9. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  10. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  11. Corn Crisps Enriched in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Sensory Characteristic and its Changes During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Mateusz; Nowak, Karolina; Fiedor, Piotr; Szterk, Arkadiusz

    Extruded cereal snacks are usually deficient in protein, mineral ingredients, valuable fatty acids. With the rise of health awareness among consumers, food manufacturers and scientists are pressed to take measures in order to develop new functional/health-beneficial foods. The aim of this work was to manufacture extruded crisps enriched with α-linolenic acid (obtained from linseed oil) and to observe whether storage of the product for the period of 6 months would cause its disqualification, primarily due to its sensory properties and secondarily due to its chemical properties. The research demonstrated that the addition of linseed oil to corn crisps at the amount of 5 % enables to obtain functional corn crisps containing over 2 g of ALA in a portion of 100 g even after 6 months of storage at room temperature. ALA-enriched crisps maintain the original sensory profile after 6 months of storage and their sensory profile is similar to the profile of crisps without the addition of linseed oil if they are packed in barrier packaging filled 100 % with argon. Therefore, they may be a healthier alternative to typical corn crisps.

  12. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  13. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Wendt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML, about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  14. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Austin; Smith, William A.; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W.; Ray, Allison E.; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML), about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery. PMID:29632861

  15. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M; Murphy, J Austin; Smith, William A; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W; Ray, Allison E; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N; Nguyen, Quang A

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  16. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  17. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Hawks, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    We have so much corn right now it's coming out of our ears (great pun, right?). And it's SO incredibly cheap! This is probably because the US produces 42% of the world's corn! Most of it is used for animal feed, but other uses include exporting to other countries, human food, seed, and industrial uses such as ethanol production. Because there is so much corn available here in the U.S. You can find it in a lot more foods than you think. It's in peanut butter, snack foods, soft drinks, multivit...

  19. Utilizing protein-lean coproducts from corn containing recombinant pharmaceutical proteins for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Moeller, Lorena; Scott, M Paul; Wang, Kan; Glatz, Charles E; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2010-10-13

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) and r-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich fractions prior to grinding for fermentation. The finished beers of whole ground kernels and r-protein-spent endosperm solids contained 127-139 and 138-155 g/L ethanol concentrations, respectively. The ethanol levels did not differ among transgenic and normal corn feedstocks, indicating the residual r-proteins did not negatively affect ethanol production. r-Protein extraction and germ removal also did not negatively affect fermentation of the remaining mass. Most r-proteins were inactivated during the mashing process used to prepare corn for fermentation. No functionally active r-GFP or r-LTB proteins were found after fermentation of the r-protein-spent solids; however, a small quantity of residual r-CIα1 was detected in DDGS, indicating that the safety of DDGS produced from transgenic grain for r-protein production needs to be evaluated for each event. Protease treatment during fermentation completely hydrolyzed the residual r-CIα1, and no residual r-proteins were detectable in DDGS.

  20. Electrical conductivity testing of corn seeds as influenced by temperature and period of storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fessel,Simone Aparecida; Vieira,Roberval Daiton; Cruz,Mara Cristina Pessoa da; Paula,Rinaldo Cesar de; Panobianco,Maristela

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature (10, 20, 30, 20/10 and 30/10ºC) and period of storage on electrical conductivity (EC) in four seed lots of corn (Zea mays L.), as well as the mineral composition of the soaking solution. EC test determines indirectly the integrity of seed membrane systems, and is used for the assessment of seed vigor, because this test detects the seed deterioration process since its early phase. The research comprised determinations o...

  1. Outdoor Storage Characteristics of Single-Pass Large Square Corn Stover Bales in Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Year-round operation of biorefineries can be possible only if the continuous flow of cellulosic biomass is guaranteed. If corn (Zea mays stover is the primary cellulosic biomass, it is essential to recognize that this feedstock has a short annual harvest window (≤1–2 months and therefore cost effective storage techniques that preserve feedstock quality must be identified. This study evaluated two outdoor and one indoor storage strategies for corn stover bales in Iowa. High- and low-moisture stover bales were prepared in the fall of 2009, and stored either outdoors with two different types of cover (tarp and breathable film or within a building for 3 or 9 months. Dry matter loss (DML, changes in moisture and biomass compositions (fiber and ultimate analyses were determined. DML for bales stored outdoor with tarp and breathable film covers were in the ranges of 5–11 and 14–17%, respectively. More than half of the total DML occurred early during the storage. There were measurable differences in carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and acid detergent lignin for the different storage treatments, but the changes were small and within a narrow range. For the bale storage treatments investigated, cellulose content increased by as much as 4%s from an initial level of ~41%, hemicellulose content changed by −2 to 1% from ~34%, and acid detergent lignin contents increased by as much as 3% from an initial value of ~5%. Tarp covered bales stored the best in this study, but other methods, such as tube-wrapping, and economics need further investigation.

  2. Influence of storage in the texture and viscoelasticity of buns of corn variety white Cariaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Torres-González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the influence of storage time on the variation of texture and visco-elasticity of buns of corn of the white Cariaco variety. The samples were stored refrigerated at 15 °C during 15 days. Textural parameters were determined every two days, using a texture analyzer; viscoelastic properties were set by a test of relaxation and com-pression effort, adjusting the experimental data to the generalized Maxwell model. Also, to determine the model parameters described, an iterative process was performed by non-linear regression using least squares techniques damped by the Solver add-on in Excel 2013. The storage time influenced the texture profile of buns, and the increase of hardness from the eleventh day, which was attributed to moisture loss of the product during cooling. Chewiness was higher for longer storage time. Cohesiveness, adhesiveness and elasticity reported no significant differences with respect to storage time. Statistical differences were presented at initial and final relaxation speeds expressed in the Maxwell model. The experimental data were successfully fitted to the model (R2 > 0.95 which was statistically significant (p < 0.05 and the performance of the elastic module indicated that buns from the white Cariaco variety showed a characteristic behavior of a viscoelastic material, increasing its hardness during the days of storage.

  3. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  4. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  5. A practical method for extending the biuret assay to protein determination of corn-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zelong; Pan, Junhui

    2017-06-01

    A modified biuret method suitable for protein determination of corn-based products was developed by introducing a combination of an alkaline reagent with sodium dodecyl sulfate (reagent A) and heat treatments. The method was tested on seven corn-based samples. The results showed mostly good agreement (P>0.05) as compared to the Kjeldahl values. The proposed method was found to enhance the accuracy of prediction on zein content using bovine serum albumin as standard. Reagent A and sample treatment were proved to effectively improve protein solubilization for the thermally-dried corn-based products, e.g. corn gluten meal. The absorbance was stable for at least 1-h. Moreover, the whole measurement of protein content only needs 15-20min more than the traditional biuret assay, and can be performed in batches. The findings suggest that the proposed method could be a timesaving alternative for routine protein analyses in corn processing factories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ACID-SOIL TOLERANT CORN (Zea mays L. WITH HIGH-QUALITY PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Halimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is an important food crop in Indonesia. Plant expansion has been hampered by soil-acidity problem and the protein content of many corn varieties was low. This research initiates development of soil-acid-tolerant corn with high-quality-protein content. Research was done on 12 factorial treatments and 3 replications as blocks in RCBD. The first factor was corn populations: Toray-1(G1, Toray-2(G2, GS-5(G3 and GS-10(G4. The second factor was fertilizations: P1(69 kg N+36 kg P2O5+15 kg K2O per ha; P2(115 kg N+54 kg P2O5+30 kg K2O per ha; and P3(161 kg N+72 kg P2O5+45 kg K2O per ha. The observed variables consisted of several agronomic traits, including the protein content. Results indicated that the corn populations, in general, showed good agronomic traits. The differences were mostly between populations, not between fertilizations, and no interaction was observed. The yield potential ranged from 4.25 to 6.47 ton dry seeds per ha. The protein content of seed resulted from cross ranged from 9.84% to 11.30%, as compared to the parents of 9.11% and 12.62%. This research concludes that genetic factors play an important role as confirmed by heritability estimate (h2=0.75.

  7. Rheological characterization of plasticized corn proteins for fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis; Marion, Didier; Leroy, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) of tailored natural biopolymer-based objects by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) opens new perspectives for applications such as biomedical temporary devices, or pharmaceutical tablets. This exploits the biocompatibility, resorbability and edibility properties of biopolymers. When adequately plasticized, zeins, storage proteins from endosperm of maize kernels, displayed thermomechanical properties possibly matching FDM processing requirements at a convenient temperature Tprinting=130°C. Indeed, with 20% glycerol added (Tg=42°C), plasticized zeins present a high modulus, E'>1GPa, at ambient conditions, which drops below 0.6 MPa at the processing temperature T=130°C, before flowing in the molten state. The rheological characterization shows that the processing window is limited by a progressive increase of viscosity linked to proteins aggregation and crosslinking by S-S bonding between cysteine amino acid residues, which can lead to gelation. However, for short residence time typical of FDM, the viscosity of plasticized zeins is comparable to the one of standard polymers, like ABS or PLA in their FDM processing conditions: indeed, in presence of glycerol, the molten zeins show a shear-thinning behavior with |η*|≈3kPa.s at 1s-1, decreasing to |η*|≈0.3kPa.s at 100s-1, at 130°C. Moreover, zeins presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, amphiphilic plasticizers can be used supplementary to tune their rheological behavior. With 20% oleic acid added to the previous composition, the viscosity is divided down to a ratio about 1/2 at 100s-1 at 130°C, below the value of a standard polymer as PLA at its printing temperature. These results show the possible enhancement of the printability of zein-based materials in the molten state, by combining polar and amphiphilic plasticizers.

  8. Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kequan; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene

    2012-12-01

    Corn protein was hydrolysed by three microbial proteases and further separated by sequential ultra-filtration to 12 hydrolysate fractions which were investigated for free radical scavenging capacity and chelating activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the hydrolysates varied significantly between 65.6 and 191.4μmoles Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dried weight with a small peptide fraction (NP-F3) produced by neutral protease (NP) possessing the highest antioxidant activity. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH()) scavenging activities of the hydrolysate fractions also varied significantly between 18.4 and 38.7μmoles TE/g. Two fractions (AP-F2 and AP-F3) produced by alkaline protease (AP) showed the strongest activity. However, no significant difference was detected on the chelating activity of the fractions. NP-F3, AP-F2, and AP-F3 were incorporated into ground beef to determine their effects on lipid oxidation during 15-day storage period. NP-F3 was the only fraction that inhibited lipid oxidation at both 250 and 500μg/g levels by as much as 52.9%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  10. Technical note: a method to quantify prolamin proteins in corn that are negatively related to starch digestibility in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J; Hoffman, P C

    2008-12-01

    Compared with floury or high-moisture corns, dry corn with a greater percentage of vitreous endosperm has been demonstrated to be negatively related to starch digestibility and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Starch granules in corn are encapsulated by hydrophobic prolamin proteins that are innately insoluble in the rumen environment. Corn prolamin proteins are named zein, and laboratory methods to quantify zein exist but are seldom employed in ruminant nutrition because of their arduous nature. In this study, advances in cereal chemistry were combined with rapid turbidimetric methods yielding a modified turbidimetric zein method (mTZM) to quantify zein in whole corn. Ten dry corns containing unique endosperms were evaluated using the mTZM. Corns with flint, dent, floury, or opaque endosperms were found to contain 19.3, 11.3, 5.8, and 4.9 g of zein/100 g of starch, respectively. The ability of mTZM to differentiate corn endosperm types as defined by least significant difference was 2.6 g of zein/100 g of starch. Ten high-moisture corns of varying moisture content were also evaluated using the mTZM. Zein content of high-moisture corns as defined by mTZM ranged from 8.3 to 2.8 g of zein/100 g of starch with a least significant difference of 1.2 g of zein/100 g of starch. The mTZM determined that zein contents of high-moisture, floury, and opaque corns were markedly less than those of flint and dent dry corns, indicating that mTZM has the ability to quantify starch granule encapsulation by hydrophobic prolamin proteins in whole corn.

  11. Cross-resistance to purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton in a Cry2Ab2-corn resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-12-01

    Gene-pyramiding by combining two or more dissimilar Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins into a crop has been used to delay insect resistance. The durability of gene-pyramiding can be reduced by cross-resistance. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major target pest of the Cry2Ab2 protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton. Here, we provide the first experimental evaluation of cross-resistance in S. frugiperda selected with Cry2Ab2 corn to multiple Bt sources including purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton. Concentration - response bioassays showed that resistance ratios for Cry2Ab2-resistant (RR) relative to Cry2Ab2-susceptible (SS) S. frugiperda were -1.4 for Cry1F, 1.2 for Cry1A.105, >26.7 for Cry2Ab2, >10.0 for Cry2Ae and -1.1 for Vip3A. Larvae of Cry2Ab2-heterozygous (RS), SS and RR S. frugiperda were all susceptible to Bt corn and Bt cotton containing Cry1 (Cry1F or Cry1A.105) and/or Vip3A proteins. Pyramided Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab2 or Cry1Ab + Cry2Ae were also effective against SS and RS, but not RR. These findings suggest that Cry2Ab2-corn-selected S. frugiperda is not cross-resistant to Cry1F, Cry1A.105 or Vip3A protein, or corn and cotton plants containing these Bt proteins, but it can cause strong cross-resistance to Cry2Ae and Bt crops expressing similar Bt proteins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of sampling plans to detect Cry9C protein in corn flour and meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Trucksess, Mary W; Giesbrecht, Francis G; Slate, Andrew B; Thomas, Francis S

    2004-01-01

    StarLink is a genetically modified corn that produces an insecticidal protein, Cry9C. Studies were conducted to determine the variability and Cry9C distribution among sample test results when Cry9C protein was estimated in a bulk lot of corn flour and meal. Emphasis was placed on measuring sampling and analytical variances associated with each step of the test procedure used to measure Cry9C in corn flour and meal. Two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used: one for the determination of Cry9C protein concentration and the other for % StarLink seed. The sampling and analytical variances associated with each step of the Cry9C test procedures were determined for flour and meal. Variances were found to be functions of Cry9C concentration, and regression equations were developed to describe the relationships. Because of the larger particle size, sampling variability associated with cornmeal was about double that for corn flour. For cornmeal, the sampling variance accounted for 92.6% of the total testing variability. The observed sampling and analytical distributions were compared with the Normal distribution. In almost all comparisons, the null hypothesis that the Cry9C protein values were sampled from a Normal distribution could not be rejected at 95% confidence limits. The Normal distribution and the variance estimates were used to evaluate the performance of several Cry9C protein sampling plans for corn flour and meal. Operating characteristic curves were developed and used to demonstrate the effect of increasing sample size on reducing false positives (seller's risk) and false negatives (buyer's risk).

  13. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Millicent A [Elmhurst, IL; Laible, Philip D [Villa Park, IL

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  14. Rapid changes in protein phosphorylation associated with gravity perception in corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.J.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    A previous paper from this laboratory showed calcium- and calmodulin-dependent in vivo protein phosphorylation in corn root tips. The authors show that rapid changes in calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation are involved in light-dependent graviperception in corn root tips. Corn seedlings (Zea mays L, cv Merit) were grown in the dark for 3 d, then apical root segments were harvested in dim green light to measure in vivo protein phosphorylation. Segments were incubated with 0.5 mCi 32 P for 1 h, then immediately frozen in liquid N 2 or first treated with either 7 min light, or 7 min light plus 1 mM EGTA and 10 μM A23187. Labeled proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and detected by autoradiography. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of 5 polypeptides. The increases in protein phosphorylation were reversed by treating with EGTA and A23187. The authors postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are an essential part of the light-dependent gravity response in Merit roots

  15. Quality control of fresh sweet corn in controlled freezing-point storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... preservation technology in subzero non-frozen tempera- ture range to ... method for sweet corn which possessed high respiration rate and sugar ..... to extend the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins. J. Food Sci.

  16. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products.

  17. Effect of technological factors on water activity of extruded corn product with an addition of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Lasik, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The value of water activity in extruded products constitutes a significant indicator of their quality and stability. The state, in which water is found in extruded products, is an indicator of the conducted extrusion process and the used raw material. The aim of the study was to assess water activity in extruded products made from a mixture of com grits with 12.5 and 15.0% moisture contents and different level of addition of whey proteins. It was shown that the degree of mixture moisture content did not have an effect on the value of aw in produced puffs. The greatest difference was recorded when introducing 3% proteins in comparison to aw of puffs produced solely from corn grits. Δaw = 0.023. The greater the content of whey proteins, the lower the aw value. A 3-month storage at a temperature of 18 ±0.5°C influenced aw of snacks produced from a mixture with a higher moisture content.

  18. [Effect of extrusion on protein and starch bioavailability in corn and lima bean flour blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Navarrete, Cecilia; Betancur-Ancona, David; Casotto, Meris; Carmona, Andrés; Tovar, Juscelino

    2007-09-01

    Extrusion is used to produce crunchy expanded foods, such as snacks. The nutritional impact of this process has not been studied sufficiently. In this study, in vitro and in vivo protein and starch bioavailability was evaluated in both raw and extruded corn (Zea mays)(C) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)(B) flour blends, prepared in 75C/25B and 50C/ 50B (p/p) proportions. These were processed with a Brabender extruder at 160 degrees C, 100 rpm and 15.5% moisture content. Proximate composition showed that in the extruded products protein and ash contents increased whereas the fat level decreased. In vitro protein digestibility was higher in the extrudates (82%) than in the raw flours (77%). Potentially available starch and resistant starch contents decreased with extrusion. The in vitro assays indicated that extrusion improved protein and starch availability in the studied blends. In vivo bioavailability was evaluated using the rice weevil (Sithophilus oryzae) as a biological model. The most descriptive biomarkers of the changes suggested by the in vivo tests were body protein content (increased by extrusion) and intestinal a-amylase activity (decreased by processing). Overall, results suggest that extrusion notably increases the nutritional quality of corn and lima bean flour blends.

  19. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  20. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Influence of whey protein concentrate addition on textural properties of corn flour extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Texture is an important propertiy of extruded snack products, and depended on extrusion process conditions, raw material properties and various ingredients properties as well. The main purpose of this research was, using twin-screw extrusion, to manufacture a direct expanded extrudate based on mixtures of corn flour and whey protein concentrate with acceptable textural properties. Mixtures were made of corn flour and three different concentrations of whey protein concentrate (7,5 %, 15 %, 22,5 %. Materials were processed in co-rotating twin-screw extruder APV Baker, MPF 50.15 under input conditions: water intake was 10,08 L/h, 12,18 L/h, 14,28 L/h, screw speed was 300 rpm; expansion temperature was 130 °C; feed rate was 70 kg/h. Textural properties: breaking strength index and expansion ratio were determined. Breaking strength index had largest value for the sample with 22,5 % of whey protein concentrate and water intake of 14,28 L/h. Sample with 7,5 % of whey protein concentrate and 10,08 L/h had largest expansion ratio. Calculated textural properties confirmed validity of samples. This results suggest that enrichment of extrudates with wpc addition up to 22,5 % to improve their nutritional value as well as their textural characteristics can be accomplished. Validation of direct expanded extrudates in dependence of its textural properties have shown validity and justification of this research.

  2. Engineering of soybean seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, C.D.; Floener, L.A.; Evans, R.P.; Nielsen, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Protein engineering is one approach to the improvement of seed quality. With this in mind, a rapid in vitro system has been developed to assay the effect structural modifications have on the assembly of glycinin and β-conglycinin subunit complexes. Transcription plasmids were constructed for production of synthetic glycinin and β-conglycinin mRNAs by SP6 RNA-polymerase. Radiolabeled translation products from these messages were tested for their ability to form complexes. Gy4 and Gy5 proglycinins (group-2 subunits) and the a-subunit of β-conglycinin self-assembled into trimers. Proglycinin Gy2 (group-1 subunit) did not self-assemble, but assembled into mixed trimers in combination with Gy4 proglycinin. No assembly was observed for preproglycinins Gyl and Gy4, or for a Gy4 proglycinin which lacked 27 amino acids in a highly conserved internal sequence. Insertion of alternating MET-ARG residues in predicted turn regions of a hypervariable sequence in Gy4 proglycinin were tolerated when the string was short but inhibited trimer assembly as it became longer. The response to several different long deletions in this hypervariable region have also been tested. Different levels of trimer assembly were obtained and may depend on the secondary structures of the regions being joined in the engineered subunits. This system will be useful to study the assembly of storage protein complexes and to screen against modifications that interfere with subunit assembly

  3. Baseline sensitivity of lepidopteran corn pests in India to Cry1Ab insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Sushil K; Lalitha, Yadavalli; Kamath, Subray P; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Head, Graham P

    2010-08-01

    Genetically engineered corn (Bt corn) expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner insecticidal protein Cry1Ab is a biotechnological option being considered for management of lepidopteran corn pests in India. As a resistance management practice it was essential to determine the sensitivity of multiple populations of the stalk borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe), pink borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) and the cob borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) to Cry1Ab protein through bioassays. The insect populations were collected during growing seasons of Rabi 2005 (October 2005 to February 2006) and Kharif 2006 (May to September 2006). Multiple populations of the three lepidopteran corn pests were found to be susceptible to Cry1Ab. Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) ranged between 0.008 and 0.068 microg Cry1Ab mL(-1) diet for 18 populations of C. partellus (across two seasons), between 0.12 and 1.99 microg mL(-1) for seven populations of H. armigera and between 0.46 and 0.56 microg mL(-1) for two populations of S. inferens. Dose-response concentrations for lethality and growth inhibition have been determined to mark baseline sensitivity of multiple populations of key lepidopteran corn pests in India to Cry1Ab protein. These benchmark values will be referenced while monitoring resistance to Cry1Ab should Bt corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab be approved for commercial cultivation in India. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Comparison of the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of corn protein hydrolysate and sodium caseinate stabilized curcumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.

  5. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  6. Digestible protein requirement for Nile tilapia fed with rations based on soybean meal and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Franco Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the requirement of digestible protein (DP for Nile tilapia fed with diets based on soybean meal and corn. Two hundred Nile tilapia juveniles, sexually reversed, were used for a trial period of 100 days. The animals were distributed in 20 boxes of 1000 L-1 in a random design with five treatments and four replications, the boxes were connected to a water recirculation system. Five isoenergetic diets were tested with different levels of digestible protein (DP: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40%. At the end of the experimental period were evaluated the zootechnical performance data. A quadratic effect (p < 0.05 was shown to parameters of final weight, weight gain, final length, fillet yield and visceral fat with the best points that ranged from 28.3 to 29.9% of DP. The largest area of hepatocytes was found to the lowest levels of DP in the diet (20 and 25% compared to the other levels, which were similar. Thus, Nile tilapia has adequate performance for the consumption of diets based on soybean and corn meal and the recommended level is 28.3% of PD in these conditions.

  7. Protein construct storage: Bayesian variable selection and prediction with mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, M A; Parmigiani, G

    1998-07-01

    Determining optimal conditions for protein storage while maintaining a high level of protein activity is an important question in pharmaceutical research. A designed experiment based on a space-filling design was conducted to understand the effects of factors affecting protein storage and to establish optimal storage conditions. Different model-selection strategies to identify important factors may lead to very different answers about optimal conditions. Uncertainty about which factors are important, or model uncertainty, can be a critical issue in decision-making. We use Bayesian variable selection methods for linear models to identify important variables in the protein storage data, while accounting for model uncertainty. We also use the Bayesian framework to build predictions based on a large family of models, rather than an individual model, and to evaluate the probability that certain candidate storage conditions are optimal.

  8. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON Β-CAROTENE CONTENT AND STORAGE STABILITY OF CORN AND BOVINE LUNG SNACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Clara de Moraes Prata GASPAR; Rosana Aparecida Manolio SOARES; Thaís de Campos CARDENAS; Suzana Cristina de Toledo Camacho LIMA; José Alfredo Gomes ARÊAS

    2012-01-01

    A β-carotene and iron rich snack was developed aimed at children consumption. β-carotene was added to the snacks, in the flavoring mixture after (A) or before (B) extrusion. Proximate composition, β-carotene content, instrumental color and texture parameters were determined during storage. Both products had low content of lipids and high content of bioavailable iron, β-carotene and proteins. Shear resistance of snack B increased during storage, and the values of B were...

  9. Aquatic degradation of Cry1Ab protein and decomposition dynamics of transgenic corn leaves under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Rita; Schaller, Jörg; Lintow, Sven; Gert Dudel, E

    2015-03-01

    The increasing cultivation of genetically modified corn plants (Zea mays) during the last decades is suggested as a potential risk to the environment. One of these genetically modified variety expressed the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resulting in resistance against Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer. Transgenic litter material is extensively studied regarding the decomposition in soils. However, only a few field studies analyzed the fate of the Cry1Ab protein and the impact of green and senescent leaf litter from corn on the decomposition rate and related ecosystem functions in aquatic environments. Consequently, a microbial litter decomposition experiment was conducted under controlled semi-natural conditions in batch culture using two maize varieties: one variety with Cry1Ab and another one with the appertaining Iso-line as control treatment. The results showed no significant differences between the treatment with Cry1Ab and the Iso-line regarding loss of total mass in dry weight of 43% for Iso-line and 45% for Bt-corn litter, lignin content increased to 137.5% (Iso-line) and 115.7% (Bt-corn), and phenol loss decreased by 53.6% (Iso-line), 62.2% (Bt-corn) during three weeks of the experiment. At the end of the experiment Cry1Ab protein was still detected with 6% of the initial concentration. A slightly but significant lower cellulose content was found for the Cry1Ab treatment compared to the Iso-line litter at the end of the experiment. The significant higher total protein (25%) and nitrogen (25%) content in Bt corn, most likely due to the additionally expression of the transgenic protein, may increase the microbial cellulose degradation and decrease microbial lignin degradation. In conclusion a relevant year by year input of protein and therefore nitrogen rich Bt corn litter into aquatic environments may affect the balanced nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Quality control of fresh sweet corn in controlled freezing-point storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... packaging on alleviating chilling injury during CF storage were also ... investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant material and experimental design .... Sugar, as one of osmotic active substances, can be induced by cold ...

  11. Isolation of Protein Storage Vacuoles and Their Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2017-01-01

    Protein-storage vacuoles (PSVs) are specialized vacuoles that sequester large amounts of storage proteins. During seed development, PSVs are formed de novo and/or from preexisting lytic vacuoles. Seed PSVs can be subdivided into four distinct compartments: membrane, globoid, matrix, and crystalloid. In this chapter, we introduce easy methods for isolation of PSVs and their membranes from pumpkin seeds. These methods facilitate the identification and characterization of PSV components.

  12. Behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria in whey protein and corn meal during twin screw extrusion processing at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies on the development of new and/ or value added nutritional meal corn and whey protein isolates for US consumers have been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on microbial safety of foods extruded below 100 deg C is limited. In this study, we investigated ...

  13. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.517 Section 174.517 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  14. 40 CFR 174.520 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.520 Section 174.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  15. Tratamento inseticida e qualidade de sementes de milho durante o armazenamento Insecticide treatment and seed quality of corn during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    1999-01-01

    test, cold test, accelerated aging, electric conductivity test, emergence of seedlings in field and rate of seedling emergence, seven times in bimonthly intervals. Interpretation of the results showed that: deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos insecticides (alone or combined, phosphin and diatomaceous earth promoted the control in a similar manner, of pest-insects occuring during storage without causing toxicity to corn seeds. The physiological quality of corn seeds was effectively preserved by the addition of chemical insecticides and diatomaceous earth.

  16. Viability of bifidobacteria strains in yogurt with added oat beta-glucan and corn starch during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Valerie; Boylston, Terri; White, Pamela

    2010-06-01

    Probiotics must be consumed at a level of 10(7) CFU/mL for successful colonization of the gut. In yogurts containing beneficial cultures, the survival of probiotic strains can quickly decline below this critical concentration during cold storage. We hypothesized that beta-glucan would increase the viability of bifidobacteria strains in yogurt during cold storage. Yogurts were produced containing 0.44% beta-glucan (concentrated or freeze-dried) extracted from whole oat flour and/or 1.33% modified corn starch, and bifidobacteria (B. breve or B. longum) at a concentration of at least 10(9) CFU/mL. All yogurts were stored at 4 degrees C. Bifidobacteria and yogurt cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbureckii subsp. bulgaricus, were enumerated from undisturbed aliquots before fermentation, after fermentation, and once a week for 5 wk. S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus maintained a concentration of at least 10(8) CFU/mL in yogurts containing concentrated or freeze-dried beta-glucan regardless of starch addition, and in the control with no added beta-glucan or starch. Similarly, the probiotic, Bifidobacterium breve, survived above a therapeutic level in all treatments. The addition of beta-glucan prolonged the survival of Bifidobacterium longum at a concentration of at least 10(7) CFU/mL by up to 2 wk on average beyond the control. Further, the inclusion of concentrated beta-glucan in yogurt improved survival of B. longum above 10(7) CFU/mL by 1 wk longer than did freeze-dried beta-glucan. Study results suggest that beta-glucan has a protective effect on bifidobacteria in yogurt when stressed by low-temperature storage.

  17. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  18. Seed storage protein components are associated with curled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... analysis suggests that the two increased protein spots in mutants were ... The main objective of this work was to gain further understanding of the influence of curled cotyledon on the seed storage protein components in soybean by com- .... cotyledon formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis: interaction.

  19. Double-Mutated 5-Enol Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Protein Expressed in MZHG0JG Corn (Zea mays L.) Has No Impact on Toxicological Safety and Nutritional Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bethany A; Launis, Karen L; Bauman, Patricia A; Juba, Nicole C

    2017-09-27

    MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment. In addition to the safety data available for these proteins, further studies were conducted on MZHG0JG corn to assess levels of mEPSPS as compared to previously registered genetically modified (GM) corn. The results support the conclusion of no impact on toxicological safety or nutritional composition.

  20. Fumonisins in corn: correlation with Fusarium sp. count, damaged kernels, protein and lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fungal and fumonisin contamination were evaluated in 109 freshly harvested corn samples from Paraná State and correlated to damaged kernels (%. In addition, healthy and damaged kernels of 24 corn samples were selected in order to compare the mycoflora profile and fumonisin levels. The correlation among protein/lipid content and fumonisin levels was also analyzed in the 15 most frequently cultivated corn hybrids. Total fungal colony count in 109 freshly harvested corn samples ranged from 1.9x10(4 to 3.5x10(6 CFU/g, Fusarium sp. count from 1.0x10³ to 2.2x10(6 CFU/g, and fumonisin levels from 0.13 to 20.38 µg/g. Total fungal colony/Fusarium sp. count and fumonisin levels showed positive correlation (p A contaminação natural por fungos e fumonisinas foi avaliada em 109 amostras de milho recém-colhido do Estado do Paraná e correlacionada com grãos ardidos (%. Além disso, grãos sadios e ardidos de 24 amostras de milho foram selecionados a fim de comparar o perfil da microbiota fúngica e níveis de fumonisinas. A correlação entre os teores de proteínas/lipídios e os níveis de fumonisinas também foi analisada nos 15 híbridos de milho mais freqüentemente cultivados no Estado do Paraná. A contagem total de fungos em 109 amostras de milho recém-colhido variou de 1,9x10(4 a 3,5x10(6 UFC/g, Fusarium sp. de 1,0x10³ a 2,2x10(6 UFC/g e, níveis de fumonisinas de 0,13 a 20,38 µg/g. A contagem total de fungos/Fusarium spp. e níveis de fumonisinas apresentaram correlação positiva (p<0,05. Adicionalmente, houve uma correlação positiva entre grãos ardidos (% e a contagem total de fungos/ Fusarium spp. (p < 0,05. Os níveis de fumonisinas nos grãos sadios variaram de 0,57 a 20,38 µg/g, enquanto que nos grãos ardidos variaram de 68,96 a 336,38 µg/g. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre os níveis de fumonisinas e os teores de proteínas/lipídios. Esses resultados ratificam a importância do monitoramento

  1. Influence of soybean and corn gluten proteins as substitutes for milk protein in milk replacers on growth, liver and thyroid functions in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, A.E.; EL-Ashry, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.I.; Fekry, A.E.; Elwan, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty suckling buffalo calves (3 weeks old) were allotted to four nutritional groups: Control group, fed 100% skim milk based replacer (Group a); and in the other three groups 50% of milk protein was substituted by american soybean flour (Group B) Egyptian soybean meal (Group C) and corn gluten (Group D). Fat was added to all replacers at the rate of 20% on dry basis. Calf starter and hay were offered ad libitum with the liquid diets from the fourth week. Body weight was recorded weekly. Serum proteins, cholesterol, T 4, T 3, and the enzymic activities of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase were determined at 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age. The use of american soybean and corn gluten proteins resulted, approximately, in the same body weight gain as in skim milk fed group (A), indicating that whole milk can be reserved from human consumption and the calves can be reared on milk replacers containing plant proteins. Substitution of milk protein with soybean and corn gluten protein resulted in a significant increase in each of serum globulins, A/G ratio and cholesterol, significant decrease in serum total proteins and GPT activity, and no change in growth rate and thyroid function

  2. The effect of nitrogen rate on transgenic corn Cry3Bb1 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Paul T; Krupke, Christian H; Camberato, James J; Johnson, William G

    2014-05-01

    Combining herbicide-resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits in corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids may affect insect resistance management owing to volunteer corn. Some Bt toxins may be expressed at lower levels by nitrogen-deficient corn roots. Corn plants with sublethal levels of Bt expression could accelerate the evolution of Bt resistance in target insects. The present objective was to quantify the concentration of Bt (Cry3Bb1) in corn root tissue with varying tissue nitrogen concentrations. Expression of Cry3Bb1 toxin in root tissue was highly variable, but there were no differences in the overall concentration of Cry3Bb1 expressed between roots taken from Cry3Bb1-positive volunteer and hybrid corn plants. The nitrogen rate did affect Cry3Bb1 expression in the greenhouse, less nitrogen resulted in decreased Cry3Bb1 expression, yet this result was not documented in the field. A positive linear relationship of plant nitrogen status on Cry3Bb1 toxin expression was documented. Also, high variability in Cry3Bb1 expression is potentially problematic from an insect resistance management perspective. This variability could create a mosaic of toxin doses in the field, which does not fit into the high-dose refuge strategy and could alter predictions about the speed of evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 in western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  4. Feeding Value of Low and High Protein Dried Distillers Grains and Corn Gluten Meal for Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tangendjaja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial has been conducted to compare feeding value of low and high protein dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, and corn gluten meal (CGM to brown layer in the tropics. Both types of DDGS was included at level 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16% in the diet while CGM was included at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% in similar content of metabolizable energy (ME value (2650 kcal/kg and protein (17%. Each dietary treatment was fed to 4 birds in individual wire cage and replicated 5 times. The trial was performed for 10 weeks and egg production, egg weight, feed intake was measured. At the end of feeding period, manure was collected and analyzed for moisture content while samples of eggs were measured for yolk color and the yolk was analyzed for xanthophyll level. Result showed that feeding Lopro DDGS, Hipro DDGS, and CGM did not affect egg production (egg mass, egg number, and egg weight, however, feeding DDGS resulted in less feed intake (111 g/day compared to feeding CGM (114 g/day. Feeding DDGS up to 16% did not affect egg production and similar to feeding CGM up to 8%. Feeding high level of DDGS or CGM did not significantly affect the moisture content of excreta which were between 78.1%-81.9%. Increasing levels of DDGS or CGM increased yolk color score related to the higher level of xanthophylls content in egg yolk. The coloring ability of CGM to egg yolk was higher than that of DDGS. In conclusion, DDGS can be fed to layer up to 16% without affecting egg production while CGM can be fed up to 8% in the diet. DDGS can be used as source of yellow pigment for egg yolk as also found in CGM.

  5. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M.; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E. O.; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms’ specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS3) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified. PMID:28874548

  6. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M; Goodkind, Andrew L; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E O; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-09-19

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms' specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS 3 ) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified.

  7. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON Β-CAROTENE CONTENT AND STORAGE STABILITY OF CORN AND BOVINE LUNG SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara de Moraes Prata GASPAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A β-carotene and iron rich snack was developed aimed at children consumption. β-carotene was added to the snacks, in the flavoring mixture after (A or before (B extrusion. Proximate composition, β-carotene content, instrumental color and texture parameters were determined during storage. Both products had low content of lipids and high content of bioavailable iron, β-carotene and proteins. Shear resistance of snack B increased during storage, and the values of B were greater than those of snack A. The color parameter a measured on snack B was greater than the verified for snack A, whereas the opposite was observed for parameter b. Initial β-carotene content was higher in the snack A with significant reduction in both snacks during storage. β-carotene reduction from 15 to 60 days was less pronounced in the snack A as compared to snack B. The flavoring and fortification methods affected the shear strength, color parameters and β-carotene contents of the snacks.

  8. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  9. Susceptibility of field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida and Puerto Rico to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue containing single and pyramided Bt genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval survival of Cry1F-susceptible (FL), -resistant (PR and Cry1F-RR), and -heterozygous (FL x PR and Cry1F-RS) populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue of seven Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids and five non-Bt corn...

  10. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  11. Plant storage proteins – the main nourisching products – from biosynthesis to cellular storage depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chmielnicka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Storage proteins of legumes are one of the main components of the human and animal diet. The substances collected in their seeds have the pro-health values, supporting the prevention of many civilization diseases. However, there are still many uncertainties about the mechanisms leading to the production of nutritious seeds. It is also difficult to identify which of their constituents and in what final form are responsible for the observed protective effects in vivo. In this work, on the background of different types of storage proteins, these deposited mainly in legumes were in the focus of interest. They were characterized on the example of pea (Pisum sativum proteins. Mechanisms associated with their biosynthesis and transport to specific cellular compartments was presented. Ways of their post-translational processing, segregation and storage in the specific vacuoles were also discussed. Therefore, the paper presents the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the processes making the accumulated protein deposits ready to use by plants, animals and humans.

  12. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  13. Relationship between protein molecular structural makeup and metabolizable protein supply to dairy cattle from new cool-season forage corn cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Khan, Nazir A.; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-02-01

    Protein solubility, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility are strongly related to their inherent molecular makeup. This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate protein digestion in the rumen and intestine of dairy cattle, and estimate the content of truly metabolizable protein (MP) in newly developed cool-season forage corn cultivars. The second objective was to quantify protein inherent molecular structural characteristics using advance molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR) and correlate it to protein metabolic characteristics. Six new cool-season corn cultivars, including 3 Pioneer (PNR) and 3 Hyland (HL), coded as PNR-7443R, PNR-P7213R, PNR-7535R, HL-SR06, HL-SR22, HL-BAXXOS-RR, were evaluated in the present study. The metabolic characteristics, MP supply to dairy cattle, and energy synchronization properties were modeled by two protein evaluation models, namely, the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Both models estimated significant (P contents of microbial protein (MCP) synthesis and truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein (ARUP) among the cultivars. The NRC-2001 model estimated significant (P content and degraded protein balance (DPB) among the cultivars. The contents MCP, ARUP and MP were higher (P < 0.05) for cultivar HL-SR06, resulting in the lowest (P < 0.05) DPB. However, none of the cultivars reached the optimal target hourly effective degradability ratio [25 g N g/kg organic matter (OM)], demonstrating N deficiency in the rumen. There were non-significant differences among the cultivars in molecular-spectral intensities of protein. The amide I/II ratio had a significant correlation with ARUP (r = - 0.469; P < 0.001) and absorbable endogenous protein (AECPNRC) (P < 0.001; r = 0.612). Similarly, amide-II area had a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.299; P < 0.001) with RUP and ARUP, and with AECPNRC (P < 0.001; r = 0.411). Except total digestible nutrients and AECPNRC, the amide-I area did not show significant

  14. Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David A.; Snapp, Erik L.; Silver, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2) belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9)AAA) in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9)AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation. PMID:20520733

  15. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  16. Microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cows bred on tropical pasture and fed on cassava root and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the effect of replacement of full corn meal by dehydrated ground cassava roots at levels 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in experimental supplements for lactating cows grazing on irrigated and fertilized tropical pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5 x 5 Latin squares, with average initial 150 days of lactation, milk production 22±3.30 kg day-1 at the beginning of experiment and initial body weight of 603±65 kg. Cows were maintained on pasture consisting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cultivar Pioneiro, intercropped with Tifton 85 (Cynodon nlemfuensis, fertilized with 600 kg nitrogen per hectare year-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the substitution levels of corn meal by ground and dehydrated cassava root in the concentrate on the synthesis of microbial protein with an estimated average of 1,288.49 g day-1 and efficiency in the synthesis of microbial protein per kilogram of TDN with estimated average of 91.30 g kg-1 TDN. Nitrogen equilibrium showed an estimated average of 218.79 g day-1 of retained nitrogen. The microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance were not affected by treatments.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of corn stalks and their subsequent bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awafo, V [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Lignocellulosic biomass like corn stalk is an abundant and renewable resource from which food, feed and chemicals may be derived. Enzymatic hydrolysis of native lignocellulosic material is prohibitively slow due to their compositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. In this work, ground corn stalks (20 mesh) were subjected to gamma irradiation (10-170 Mrads) as pretreatments to make them more susceptible for bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757. The irradiation was carried out in air in a {sup 60}Co Underwater Calibrator (UC-15, Nordion International) at a dose rate of 2.5 Mrads/h as measured by Fricke dosimetry. No apparent structural differences were observed under the light microscope. However, the protein synthesis and the proportion of mycelial biomass increased with the increase in both the dose of irradiation and time of fermentation during the bioconversion of 1% corn stalk into mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Gamma irradiation at the dose of 50 Mrads or lower did not produce any appreciable increase in the amount of protein synthesised. At 170 Mrads, the final product contained 28% protein representing a 2-fold increase from non-irradiated corn stalk and an efficiency of 36% conversion of total utilizable polysaccharides of corn stalks into mycelial biomass. The lag phase during mycelial biomass production was much more prolonged at very high doses indicating possible production of some toxic substances during irradiation. (author). 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Characterization of seed storage protein patterns of Heliotropium digynum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Soliman Alwhibi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium digynum, is a shrub that has ecological importance. The height of the plant differs from one population to another and the difference in length of the inflorescence can be attributed to environmental factors, such as rainfall or type of soil and temperature. To date, no study has shed light on estimation in seed samples of H. digynum in Saudi Arabia. So, the aim is to evaluate and characterize the protein patterns of seed storage proteins of H. digynum to be used as fingerprint of this plant in Saudi Arabia. It is collected from different locations in the central region of Saudi Arabia and total protein extraction from plant was compared in SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationships among all cultivars were analyzed using UPGMA and NJ using Total Lab TL and in the same way using Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram using STATISTICA (ver.8 software. Results, our data show that amounts of protein are different, although they are of the same type or from the same geographical region. Amounts ranged between 22 and 1.5 mg/g of dry weight. Less amount of protein was obtained from the group of samples collected from Dir’iyah area, and the highest amount of protein was from the group of samples collected from Dyrab area in general.

  19. Characterization of seed storage protein patterns of Heliotropium digynum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwhibi, Mona Soliman

    2017-09-01

    Heliotropium digynum , is a shrub that has ecological importance. The height of the plant differs from one population to another and the difference in length of the inflorescence can be attributed to environmental factors, such as rainfall or type of soil and temperature. To date, no study has shed light on estimation in seed samples of H. digynum in Saudi Arabia. So, the aim is to evaluate and characterize the protein patterns of seed storage proteins of H. digynum to be used as fingerprint of this plant in Saudi Arabia. It is collected from different locations in the central region of Saudi Arabia and total protein extraction from plant was compared in SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationships among all cultivars were analyzed using UPGMA and NJ using Total Lab TL and in the same way using Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram using STATISTICA (ver.8) software. Results, our data show that amounts of protein are different, although they are of the same type or from the same geographical region. Amounts ranged between 22 and 1.5 mg/g of dry weight. Less amount of protein was obtained from the group of samples collected from Dir'iyah area, and the highest amount of protein was from the group of samples collected from Dyrab area in general.

  20. Impact of egg white protein on the quality and stability of corn oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Batool, J.; Ajaz, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of egg albumin has been examined on the texture and stability of O/W emulsion. The corn oil was used as dispersed phase while the aqueous phase as continuous phase of the emulsion. The aqueous phase was designed with the protein contents (0.5- 4 wt. %) at pH 7. The different oil phase (10-40 wt. %) were homogenized in aqueous phase (90-60 wt. %). It was observed that the viscosity and turbidity of the emulsion were increased with the increase of protein concentration and oil phase contents. Flow profile showed that shear stress was increased with increase of shear rate but it decreased at higher shear rate (100 s-1) in heated emulsion. On the other hand the emulsion viscosity was decreased with the increase of shear rate showing non- Newtonian behavior. This work may be useful in the formulation and physicochemical properties of food products i.e. sauces, mayonnaise etc. (author)

  1. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of iron-storage proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Pierre, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    /sup 57/Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study iron storage proteins. Various cryostats and a superconducting magnet were used to obtain sample environment temperatures from 1.3 to 200K and applied magnetic fields of up to 10T. The Moessbauer spectra of ferritins isolated from iron-overloaded human spleen, limpet (Patella vulgata), giant limpet (Patella laticostata) and chiton (Clavarizona hirtosa) hemolymph, and bacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) cells are used to gain information on the magnetic ordering- and superparamagnetic transition temperatures of the microcrystalline cores of the proteins. Investigations were made about the cause of the difference in the magnetic anisotropy constants of the cores of iron-overloaded human spleen ferritin and hemosiderin. Livers taken from an iron-overloaded hornbill and artificially iron-loaded rats showed no component with a superparamagnetic transition temperature approaching that of the human spleen hemosiderin.

  2. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nguyen, Long N; Cheng, Wang; Tan, Bryan C; Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Velan, S Sendhil; Wang, Hongyan; Silver, David L

    2014-04-04

    Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2/FIT2) is highly expressed in adipocytes, and data indicate that FIT2 has an important role in the formation of LDs in cells, but whether FIT2 has a physiological role in triglyceride storage in adipose tissue remains unproven. Here we show that adipose-specific deficiency of FIT2 (AF2KO) in mice results in progressive lipodystrophy of white adipose depots and metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, interscapular brown adipose tissue of AF2KO mice accumulated few but large LDs without changes in cellular triglyceride levels. High fat feeding of AF2KO mice or AF2KO mice on the genetically obese ob/ob background accelerated the onset of lipodystrophy. At the cellular level, primary adipocyte precursors of white and brown adipose tissue differentiated in vitro produced fewer but larger LDs without changes in total cellular triglyceride or triglyceride biosynthesis. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential, physiological role in fat storage in vivo.

  3. Physical and sensory characteristics of pellets elaborated with different levels of corn grits and whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Whey has proteins of high biological value, which has been used as an ingredient in the elaboration of yogurt, milk beverages and as protein concentrates. Food extrusion stands out as one of the most efficient cooking techniques, allowing a number of product types, from soluble flour to convenience products, such as snacks, which have high acceptability by the consumers. Products processed by extrusion, such as those expanded by frying (pellets, have high carbohydrate content, and its enrichment with protein can favor its nutritional aspect. This study aimed to use the whey protein concentrate (WPC in combination with corn grits in the preparation of pellets. Absolute density, density of expanded pellets, color, crispness index, and pellet sensory acceptance were determined. For the absolute density, contents from 5% to 17% produced denser non-expanded pellets. The higher the WPC content and the temperature of the extruder, the higher the density of the expanded pellets. The crispness index was not altered by the protein content and by the extruder temperature. In the sensory analysis, the preferred samples were the ones with lower WPC levels (5%. We concluded that higher WPC values in the pellets formulation increased their density, but did not alter color and texture, as well as small WPC levels did not affect the acceptance of snacks.

  4. Carbon Storage and Carbon Dioxide Emission as Influenced by Long-term Conservation Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization in Corn-Soybean Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture is a victim of environmental risk due to global warming, but ironically it also contributes toglobal greenhouse gas (GHG emission. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of long-termconservation tillage and N fertilization on soil carbon storage and CO2 emission in corn-soybean rotation system. Afactorial experiment was arranged in a randomized completely block design with four replications. The first factorwas tillage systems namely intensive tillage (IT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. While the second factorwas N fertilization with rate of 0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 applied for corn, and 0, 25, and 50 kg N ha-1 for soybeanproduction. Samples of soil organic carbon (SOC after 23 year of cropping were taken at depths of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-20 cm, while CO2 emission measurements were taken in corn season (2009 and soybean season (2010.Analysis of variance and means test (HSD 0.05 were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System package. At 0-5 cm depth, SOC under NT combined with 200 kg N ha-1 fertilization was 46.1% higher than that of NT with no Nfertilization, while at depth of 5-10 cm SOC under MT was 26.2% higher than NT and 13.9% higher than IT.Throughout the corn and soybean seasons, CO2-C emissions from IT were higher than those of MT and NT, whileCO2-C emissions from 200 kg N ha-1 rate were higher than those of 0 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 rates. With any Nrate treatments, MT and NT could reduce CO2-C emission to 65.2 %-67.6% and to 75.4%-87.6% as much of IT,respectively. While in soybean season, MT and NT could reduce CO2-C emission to 17.6%-46.7% and 42.0%-74.3% as much of IT, respectively. Prior to generative soybean growth, N fertilization with rate of 50 kg N ha-1could reduce CO2-C emission to 32.2%-37.2% as much of 0 and 25 kg N ha-1 rates.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  6. Histopathological Effects of Bt and TcdA Insecticidal Proteins on the Midgut Epithelium of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is a major corn pest in the United States, causing annual losses of over $1 billion. One approach to protect against crop loss by this insect is the use of transgenic corn hybrids expressing one or more crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 together comprise a binary insecticidal toxin with specific activity against WCR. These proteins have been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids resistant to WCR feeding damage. Cry34/35Ab1 is a pore forming toxin, but the specific effects of Cry34/35Ab1 on WCR cells and tissues have not been well characterized microscopically, and the overall histopathology is poorly understood. Using high-resolution resin-based histopathology methods, the effects of Cry34/35Ab1 as well as Cry3Aa1, Cry6Aa1, and the Photorhabdus toxin complex protein TcdA have been directly visualized and documented. Clear symptoms of intoxication were observed for all insecticidal proteins tested, including swelling and sloughing of enterocytes, constriction of midgut circular muscles, stem cell activation, and obstruction of the midgut lumen. These data demonstrate the effects of these insecticidal proteins on WCR midgut cells, and the collective response of the midgut to intoxication. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the insect cell biology and pathology of these insecticidal proteins, which should further the field of insect resistance traits and corn rootworm management.

  7. Effects of molasses and corn grain at 2 levels of ruminally degradable protein on lactating cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactating dairy cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass with diets containing molasses (M) or finely ground dry corn grain at 3 levels of M (0, 5.25, 10.5% DM) and with differing levels of ruminally degradable protein (+RDP or –RDP). Twelve ruminal...

  8. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  9. 40 CFR 174.501 - Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.501 Section 174.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  10. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  11. 40 CFR 174.519 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.519 Section 174.519 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  12. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.518 Section 174.518 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  13. 40 CFR 174.532 - Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.532 Section 174.532 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  14. Densification characteristics of corn cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Corn cobs are potential feedstocks for producing heat, power, fuels, and chemicals. Densification of corn cobs into briquettes/pellets would improve their bulk handling, transportation, and storage properties. In this study, densification characteristics of corn cobs were studied using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus. With a maximum compression pressure of 150 MPa, effects of particle size (0.85 and 2.81 mm), moisture content (10 and 20% w.b.), and preheating temperature (25 and 85 C) on the density and durability of the corn cob briquettes (with diameter of about 19.0 mm) were studied. It was found that the durability (measured using ASABE tumbling can method) of corn cob briquettes made at 25 C was 0%. At both particle sizes, preheating of corn cob grinds with about 10% (w.b.) moisture content to 85 C produced briquettes with a unit density of > 1100 kg m{sup -3} and durability of about 90%. (author)

  15. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  16. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  17. Feeding Value of Corn Gluten Meal as a Source of Protein in Creep Feeding Diets of Suckling Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.; Mustafa, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forty-two newly born lambs were randomly divided into three similar groups, their weights were recorded at birth then each two weeks. Lambs in the groups were left to suckle their mothers, in addition to one of the experimental diets (as creep feeding), which found in Table (1). First group (Gl) fed diet contains 13% soybean meal (SBM) and served as a control diet, second group (G2) fed diet contains 6.5% SBM and 6.5% corn gluten meal (CGM), and third group (G3) fed diet contains 13% CGM. The concentrate feed mixture was offered daily started at 7th days of age until weaning. Blood samples were taken at 7, 40 and 80 days of age. The results showed that averages daily body weight gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher significantly with G2 than G3 then Gl. In addition, male lambs had higher weaning weight and average daily weight gain than female lambs in the three groups. The highest means of serum total proteins, albumin and globulin recorded with G2 followed by G3 then Gl o Means of serum glucose significantly decrease with age. Blood serum aspartate amino -transferase (AST) and alanine amino - transferase (ALT) creatinine concentration and T3 level were not affected by treatments. Serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol levels were higher recorded for Gl and G2 than G3. It is concluded that adding corn gluten meal to creep feeding diets improves growth of suckling lambs without any side effects on physiological body function of lambs

  18. Effects of Formic or Acetic Acid on the Storage Quality of Mixed Air-Dried Corn Stover and Cabbage Waste, and Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of air-dried corn stover and cabbage waste was ensiled to preserve lignocellulosic biomass for use as biofuel. Furthermore, the effects of different fresh mass fractions (0.3 and 0.6 % of formic or acetic acid on the mixed silage quality were evaluated to guarantee its quality. The application of formic or acetic acid prior to mixing the silage led to higher water-soluble carbohydrate fractions than the negative control, indicating that both acids contributed to preservation of water-soluble carbohydrates during storage for 170 days. The dry matter content was also increased after storage from 90 to 170 days. It was found that the content of neutral and acid detergent fibre, cellulose and holocellulose (the sum of cellulose and hemicellulose in mixed silage treated with formic or acetic acid was significantly lower than that obtained in the negative control. The pH and the ratio of ammoniacal nitrogen to total nitrogen in mixed silage treated with acetic acid also significantly decreased. Furthermore, the addition of formic or acetic acid significantly weakened the fermentation intensity of lactic acid, depending on the ratio of lactic to acetic acid, as well as the ratio of lactic acid to total organic acids. The number of bacterial species and their relative abundance shifted during silage mixing, wherein microbial communities at phylum level mainly consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The dominant bacteria were also observed to shift from Lactobacillus and Enterobacter in presilage biomass to Lactobacillus and Paralactobacillus. Specifically, Enterobacter disappeared after 130 days of storage. In conclusion, the addition of a low dose of acetic acid to fresh mass (0.3 % could effectively improve the fermentation quality and is conducive to the preservation of the organic components.

  19. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awafo, V.A.; Chahal, D.S.; Charbonneau, R. [Universite du Quebec (Canada). Applied Microbiology Research Center

    1995-10-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mild alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and {gamma}-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. The highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P. sajor-caju was recorded. (author).

  20. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awafo, V.A.; Chahal, D.S.; Charbonneau, R.

    1995-01-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mild alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and γ-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. The highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P. sajor-caju was recorded. (author)

  1. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awafo, V.A.; Chahal, D.S.; Charbonneau, R.

    1995-01-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mied alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and γ-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. This highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P.sajor-caju was recorded. (author)

  2. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  3. Impact of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Field Corn (Poales: Poaceae) Yield and Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Jenny L; Cook, Donald; Catchot, Angus; Musser, Fred; Stewart, Scott D; Leonard, Billy Rogers; Buntin, G David; Kerns, David; Allen, Tom W; Gore, Jeffrey

    2018-05-28

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly infests field corn, Zea mays (L.). The combination of corn plant biology, corn earworm behavior in corn ecosystems, and field corn value renders corn earworm management with foliar insecticides noneconomical. Corn technologies containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were introduced that exhibit substantial efficacy against corn earworm and may reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain. The first generation Bt traits in field corn demonstrated limited activity on corn earworm feeding on grain. The pyramided corn technologies have greater cumulative protein concentrations and higher expression throughout the plant, so these corn traits should provide effective management of this pest. Additionally, reduced kernel injury may affect physical grain quality. Experiments were conducted during 2011-2012 to investigate corn earworm impact on field corn yield and grain quality. Treatments included field corn hybrids expressing the Herculex, YieldGard, and Genuity VT Triple Pro technologies. Supplemental insecticide treatments were applied every 1-2 d from silk emergence until silk senescence to create a range of injured kernels for each technology. No significant relationship between the number of corn earworm damaged kernels and yield was observed for any technology/hybrid. In these studies, corn earworm larvae did not cause enough damage to impact yield. Additionally, no consistent relationship between corn earworm damage and aflatoxin contamination was observed. Based on these data, the economic value of pyramided Bt corn traits to corn producers, in the southern United States, appears to be from management of other lepidopteran insect pests including European and southwestern corn borer.

  4. Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Enroth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8–34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1–33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.

  5. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  6. The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Mota, Claudia C; Rodriguez-Gaytan, Cinthya; Adjibade, Pauline; Mazroui, Rachid; Gálvez, Amanda; Granados, Omar; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-09-20

    Between 6% and 11% of the world's population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation.

  7. Changes in cod muscle proteins during frozen storage revealed by proteome analysis and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, Inger Vibeke Holst; Nørrelykke, M.R.; Jessen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate data analysis has been combined with proteomics to enhance the recovery of information from 2-DE of cod muscle proteins during different storage conditions. Proteins were extracted according to 11 different storage conditions and samples were resolved by 2-DE. Data generated by 2-DE...... was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares regression (DPLSR). Applying PCA to 2-DE data revealed the samples to form groups according to frozen storage time, whereas differences due to different storage temperatures or chilled storage in modified atmosphere...... light chain 1, 2 and 3, triose-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A and two ?-actin fragments, and a nuclease diphosphate kinase B fragment to change in concentration, during frozen storage. Application of proteomics, multivariate data analysis and MS/MS to analyse...

  8. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... for several economical traits by conserving landrace genotypes and ... plasm, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative ... of each variety was taken and ground into fine powder using pestle and mortal and ...

  9. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  10. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana.

  11. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected ...

  12. Physiochemical Properties and Probiotic Survivability of Symbiotic Corn-Based Yogurt-Like Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuina; Zheng, Huajie; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-09-01

    Corn is a major grain produced in northern China. Corn-based functional food products are very limited. In this study, a symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was developed. Corn milk was prepared through grinding, extrusion and milling, and hydration processes. Corn extrudate was prepared under the optimized conditions of corn flour particle size fermented at 35 °C for 6 h using a probiotic starter culture containing L. plantarum. Chemical composition (%) of the symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was: total solids (17.13 ± 0.31), protein (1.12 ± 0.03), fat (0.30 ± 0.05), carbohydrates (15.14 ± 0.19), and ash (0.16 ± 0.02), respectively. pH value of this symbiotic product decreased from 4.50 ± 0.03 to 3.88 ± 0.13 and the population of L. plantarum declined from 7.8 ± 0.09 to 7.1 ± 0.14 log CFU/mL during storage at 4 °C. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that there were no changes in protein profile during storage. Texture and consistency were also stable during the period of this study. It can be concluded that a set-type corn-based symbiotic yogurt-like product with good texture and stability was successfully developed that would be a good alternative to the dairy yogurt. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  14. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle

  15. Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yun; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p

  16. Conservation of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins and their putative target RNAs in several storage root crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondhare, Kirtikumar R; Kumar, Amit; Hannapel, David J; Banerjee, Anjan K

    2018-02-07

    Polypyrimidine-tract binding proteins (PTBs) are ubiquitous RNA-binding proteins in plants and animals that play diverse role in RNA metabolic processes. PTB proteins bind to target RNAs through motifs rich in cytosine/uracil residues to fine-tune transcript metabolism. Among tuber and root crops, potato has been widely studied to understand the mobile signals that activate tuber development. Potato PTBs, designated as StPTB1 and StPTB6, function in a long-distance transport system by binding to specific mRNAs (StBEL5 and POTH1) to stabilize them and facilitate their movement from leaf to stolon, the site of tuber induction, where they activate tuber and root growth. Storage tubers and root crops are important sustenance food crops grown throughout the world. Despite the availability of genome sequence for sweet potato, cassava, carrot and sugar beet, the molecular mechanism of root-derived storage organ development remains completely unexplored. Considering the pivotal role of PTBs and their target RNAs in potato storage organ development, we propose that a similar mechanism may be prevalent in storage root crops as well. Through a bioinformatics survey utilizing available genome databases, we identify the orthologues of potato PTB proteins and two phloem-mobile RNAs, StBEL5 and POTH1, in five storage root crops - sweet potato, cassava, carrot, radish and sugar beet. Like potato, PTB1/6 type proteins from these storage root crops contain four conserved RNA Recognition Motifs (characteristic of RNA-binding PTBs) in their protein sequences. Further, 3´ UTR (untranslated region) analysis of BEL5 and POTH1 orthologues revealed the presence of several cytosine/uracil motifs, similar to those present in potato StBEL5 and POTH1 RNAs. Using RT-qPCR assays, we verified the presence of these related transcripts in leaf and root tissues of these five storage root crops. Similar to potato, BEL5-, PTB1/6- and POTH1-like orthologue RNAs from the aforementioned storage root

  17. Genotypic variability and mutant identification in cicer arietinum L. by seed storage protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Iqbal, N.; Shah, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of thirty-four chickpea genotypes, including five kabuli and twenty-nine desi, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE for seed storage protein profiling. Total soluble seed proteins were resolved on 12% gels. A low level of variability was observed in desi as compared to kabuli genotypes. Dendrogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the thirty-four genotypes in four major groups. As large number of desi genotypes illustrated identical profiles, therefore could not be differentiated on the basis of seed storage protein profiles. One kabuli genotype ILC-195 found to be the most divergent showing 86% similarity with all other genotypes. ILC-195 can be distinguished from its mutant i.e., CM-2000 and other kabuli genotypes on the basis of three peptides i.e. SSP-66, SSP-43 and SSP-39. Some proteins peptides were found to be genotype specific like SSP-26 for ICCV-92311. Uniprot and NCBI protein databases were searched for already reported and characterized seed storage proteins in chickpea. Among 33 observed peptides, only six seed storages proteins from chickpea source were available in databases. On the basis of molecular weight similarity, identified peptides were SSP-64 as Serine/Threonine dehydratase, SSP-56 as Alpha-amylase inhibitor, SSP-50 as Provicillin, SSP-39 as seed imbibition protein, SSP-35 as Isoflavane reductase and SSP-19 as lipid transport protein. Highest variability was observed in vicillin subunits and beta subunits of legumins and its polymorphic forms. In conclusion, seed storage profiling can be economically used to asses the genetic variation, phylogenetic relationship and as markers to differentiate mutants from their parents. (author)

  18. Functions of the CCCH type zinc finger protein OsGZF1 in regulation of the seed storage protein GluB-1 from rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Sun, A.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Glutelins are the most abundant storage proteins in rice grain and can make up to 80 % of total protein content. The promoter region of GluB-1, one of the glutelin genes in rice, has been intensively used as a model to understand regulation of seed-storage protein accumulation. In this study, we

  19. Short communication. Effects of adding different protein and carbohydrates sources on chemical composition and in vitro gas production of corn stover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Mejía-Uribe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of protein-rich by-products based in swine manure (SM, poultry waste (PW or chemicals compounds as urea (U, as well as energy products like molasses (M and bakery by-product (BB, is a viable method to produce good quality silage. In addition, the use of a bacterial additive can improve the fermentation characteristics of silage. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition, in vitro gas production (GP and dry matter disappearance (DMd, using different sources of protein and energy in silage. The silages were made using SM, PW or U as protein sources and M or BB as energy source, with corn stover and with or without a bacterial additive. The organic matter (OM content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with UBB, UM and SMBB compared with the rest of the treatments; meanwhile crude protein content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with U. The addition of a bacterial additive increased (p < 0.05 OM content and decreased (p < 0.05 fiber content. Total GP was higher (p < 0.05 in silages containing BB, but DMd was higher (p < 0.05 in silages with U and SMBB. The inclusion of a bacterial additive decreased (p < 0.05 GP and DMd. The use of alternative sources of protein such as poultry and swine manure or urea, and of by-products of sugar industry and bakery is an alternative for silages based on corn stover. The results show that when properly formulated, the silages can provide more than 16% of crude protein and have DMd values above 60%.

  20. Resistance Risk Assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 Insecticidal Protein Expressed in Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda C L; Conville, Jared; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic Agrisure Viptera 3 corn that expresses Cry1Ab, Vip3Aa20, and EPSPS proteins and Agrisure Viptera expressing Vip3Aa20 are used for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support a resistance management program, resistance risk assessment studies were conducted to characterize the dose expression of Vip3Aa20 protein and level of control against these species. The Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera decreased from V6 to V10 stage of growth. However, Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 at V6 and V10 stages was 13- and 16-fold greater than Cry1Ab, respectively. The Vip3Aa20 expression in lyophilized tissue of Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera diluted 25-fold in an artificial diet caused complete larval mortality of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. In contrast, lyophilized tissue of Bt11 at the same dilution does not provide complete mortality of these species. Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera also caused a high level of mortality against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Moreover, 100% mortality was observed for S. frugiperda larvae (neonates through fifth-instar larvae) when fed in corn with the Vip trait technology. Viptera corn achieves a high level of control against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis providing a high dose, which is an important determination to support the refuge strategy for an effective resistance management program. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goggin Danica E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L., also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique α, seven β, two γ and four δ conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L., Pisum sativum (L., Medicago truncatula (L., Arachis hypogaea (L. and Glycine max (L. permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (β conglutins and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (δ conglutins, the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (α conglutin and basic 7S (γ conglutin sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was β (56%, followed by α (24%, δ (15% and γ (6% and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the β conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use

  2. The effects of frozen tissue storage conditions on the integrity of RNA and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, H; Mobley, J A; Ayers, L W; Bowen, J; Chuaqui, R F; Johnson, L A; Livolsi, V A; Lubensky, I A; McGarvey, D; Monovich, L C; Moskaluk, C A; Rumpel, C A; Sexton, K C; Washington, M K; Wiles, K R; Grizzle, W E; Ramirez, N C

    2014-10-01

    Unfixed tissue specimens most frequently are stored for long term research uses at either -80° C or in vapor phase liquid nitrogen (VPLN). There is little information concerning the effects such long term storage on tissue RNA or protein available for extraction. Aliquots of 49 specimens were stored for 5-12 years at -80° C or in VPLN. Twelve additional paired specimens were stored for 1 year under identical conditions. RNA was isolated from all tissues and assessed for RNA yield, total RNA integrity and mRNA integrity. Protein stability was analyzed by surface-enhanced or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS) and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). RNA yield and total RNA integrity showed significantly better results for -80° C storage compared to VPLN storage; the transcripts that were preferentially degraded during VPLN storage were these involved in antigen presentation and processing. No consistent differences were found in the SELDI-TOF-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS or nLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of specimens stored for more than 8 years at -80° C compared to those stored in VPLN. Long term storage of human research tissues at -80° C provides at least the same quality of RNA and protein as storage in VPLN.

  3. Purification and Initial Functions of Sex-Specific Storage Protein 2 in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Shu, Tejun; Chen, Jian; Ye, Man; Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Gai, Qijing; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we identified a heat-resistant protein from the chrysalis stage of the silkworm which we named sex-specific storage protein 2 (SSP2). This protein was stable even at 80 °C, and has an amino acid sequence that is 90.65 % homologous to SP2. We utilized the heat-resistant characteristics of SSP2 to purify the protein and maintain its biological activity. In addition, using flow cytometry and the MTT assay, we found that SSP2 had anti-apoptotic effects on BmN cells, and that SSP2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by chemical factors. These results suggest that SSP2 has a cell-protective function, and provides a basis for future work on the function of storage proteins in silkworm.

  4. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  5. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  6. Fat-specific protein 27 regulates storage of triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, P.; Petrie, J.T.; Rose, P. De

    2008-01-01

    FSP27 (fat-specific protein 27) is a member of the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector (CIDE) family. Although Cidea and Cideb were initially characterized as activators of apoptosis, recent studies have demonstrated important metabolic roles for these proteins...... in several cell types without induction of adipocyte genes. Increased triacylglycerol is likely due to decreased beta-oxidation of nonesterified fatty acids. Altered flux of fatty acids into triacylglycerol may be a direct effect of FSP27 function, which is localized to lipid droplets in 293T cells and 3T3-L...... decreases with total fat mass but is not associated with measures of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model assessment). Together, these data indicate that FSP27 binds to lipid droplets and regulates their enlargement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/23...

  7. Effect of corn residue harvest method with ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on performance of growing calves and fiber digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T M; Bondurant, R G; Jolly-Breithaupt, M L; Gramkow, J L; Klopfenstein, T J; MacDonald, J C

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of corn residue harvest method on animal performance and diet digestibility. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments using 60 individually fed crossbred steers (280 kg [SD 32] initial BW; = 12). Factors were the corn residue harvest method (high-stem and conventional) and supplemental RUP at 2 concentrations (0 and 3.3% diet DM). A third harvest method (low-stem) was also evaluated, but only in diets containing supplemental RUP at 3.3% diet DM because of limitations in the amount of available low-stem residue. Therefore, the 3 harvest methods were compared only in diets containing supplemental RUP. In Exp. 2, 9 crossbred wethers were blocked by BW (42.4 kg [SD 7] initial BW) and randomly assigned to diets containing corn residue harvested 1 of 3 ways (low-stem, high-stem, and conventional). In Exp. 1, steers fed the low-stem residue diet had greater ADG compared with the steers fed conventionally harvested corn residue ( = 0.03; 0.78 vs. 0.63 kg), whereas steers fed high-stem residue were intermediate ( > 0.17; 0.69 kg), not differing from either conventional or low-stem residues. Results from in vitro OM digestibility suggest that low-stem residue had the greatest ( RUP content (40% of CP) and RUP digestibility (60%) among the 3 residues ( ≥ 0.35). No interactions were observed between harvest method and the addition of RUP ( ≥ 0.12). The addition of RUP tended to result in improved ADG (0.66 ± 0.07 vs. 0.58 ± 0.07 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.08) and G:F (0.116 ± 0.006 vs. 0.095 ± 0.020 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.02) compared with similar diets without the additional RUP. In Exp. 2, low-stem residue had greater DM and OM digestibility and DE ( < 0.01) than high-stem and conventional residues, which did not differ ( ≥ 0.63). Low-stem residue also had the greatest NDF digestibility (NDFD; < 0.01), whereas high-stem residue had greater

  8. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (Pmeatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  10. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40°C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  12. Fracionamento dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho caracteriza e quantifica as frações dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol, com a finalidade de disponibilizar dados bromatológicos que possibilitem maximizar o aproveitamento desses alimentos e otimizar o desempenho animal. Foram avaliados dois híbridos de milho (Zea mays, DKB-215 e DKB-344, dois híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, Ambar e AG-2005 e dois híbridos de girassol (Helianthus annuus, Rumbosol e M-734. A silagem de girassol apresentou menor valor de carboidratos totais (CT e B2 (celulose e hemicelulose e maior de C (lignina e fibra associada à lignina. A silagem de milho apresentou maior valor de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, A+B1 (açúcares solúveis + amido e pectina e de CT juntamente com a silagem de sorgo, enquanto a de sorgo apresentou maior valor de B2 em função da maior contribuição de colmo. Houve diferença entre híbridos dentro da cultura do girassol para CT, sendo que o Rumbosol obteve maior valor que o M-734, em razão da aptidão dos mesmos, forrageiro e granífero respectivamente. A silagem de girassol apresentou maior valor de proteína bruta (PB e de suas frações. Não foi observada diferença entre híbridos nos valores de PB e de suas frações.This work evaluates and characterizes the carbohydrates and proteins fractions of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages. The purpose was to supply composition data that make it possible to maximize use of foods and optimize animal performance. Two corn (Zea mays hybrids, DKB-215 and DKB-344; sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids, Ambar and AG-2005; and sunflower (Helianthus annuus hybrids, Rumbosol and M-734; were evaluated. Sunflower silage showed the lowest total carbohydrates (TC and B2 (cellulose and hemicelluloses values and the highest content of C (lignin and fiber associated lignin. Corn silages showed higher non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, A+B1 (soluble sugars + starch and pectin and TC together sorghum silage while

  13. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Wolf, Walter J; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara

    2002-07-17

    The almond major storage protein, amandin, was prepared by column chromatography (amandin-1), cryoprecipitation (amandin-2), and isoelectric precipitation (amandin-3) methods. Amandin is a legumin type protein characterized by a sedimentation value of 14S. Amandin is composed of two major types of polypeptides with estimated molecular weights of 42-46 and 20-22 kDa linked via disulfide bonds. Several additional minor polypeptides were also present in amandin. Amandin is a storage protein with an estimated molecular weight of 427,300 +/- 47,600 Da (n = 7) and a Stokes radius of 65.88 +/- 3.21 A (n = 7). Amandin is not a glycoprotein. Amandin-1, amandin-2, and amandin-3 are antigenically related and have similar biochemical properties. Amandin-3 is more negatively charged than either amandin-1 or amandin-2. Methionine is the first essential limiting amino acid in amandin followed by lysine and threonine.

  15. Effects of storage conditions on results for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of proteins in canine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Marie-Laure; Piane, Laetitia; Lucarelli, Laetitia; Henrion, Rémi; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Palanché, Florence; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Trumel, Catherine; Lavoué, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage conditions on the canine urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) and on SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins. SAMPLE Urine specimens from 20 proteinuric (UPC > 0.5) and 20 nonproteinuric (UPC ≤ 0.2) dogs. PROCEDURES UPC and SDS-AGE were performed on urine specimens stored at room temperature (20°C) and 4°C for up to 5 days and at -20° and -80°C for up to 360 days; some specimens were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Results were compared with those obtained for fresh urine specimens. RESULTS UPC was not affected by storage at room temperature or by freezing. A decrease in UPC was observed for specimens from nonproteinuric dogs after 5 days at 4°C (10%) and from both groups after 90 days at -20° and -80°C (≤ 20% and ≤ 15%, respectively). The SDS-AGE profiles revealed no visual changes regardless of duration of storage for specimens stored at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C, except for 1 profile after 360 days at -80°C. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect SDS-AGE profiles. Appearance or strengthening of high-molecular-weight bands that could alter interpretation was evident in SDS-AGE profiles after storage at -20°C for ≥ 15 days (31/40 dogs). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Storage of urine at -20° or -80°C for up to 1 year influenced the UPC without affecting clinical interpretation. Storage of urine specimens at -20°C impaired visual analysis of SDS-AGE. When SDS-AGE cannot be performed on fresh or recently refrigerated urine specimens, storage at -80°C is recommended.

  16. Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Storage of Chicken: Effects on Fat and Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Tarboush, H.M.; Al-Kahtani, H.A.; Abou-Arab, A.A.; Atia, M.; Bajaber, A.S.; Ahmed, M.A.; El-Mojaddidi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chicken were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and post-irradiation storage of 21 days at 4±2º. The effects on fat and protein of chicken were studied. Rate of formation of total volatile basic-nitrogen was less in irradiated samples particularly in samples treated with 5.0KGy during the entire storage. Fatty acid profiles of chicken lipids were not significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected by irradiation especially at doses of 5.0 KGy. However, irradiation caused a large increase in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values which continued gradually during storage. Changes in amino acids were minimal. Irradiated and unirradiated samples showed the appearance of protein subunits with molecular weights in the range of 10.0 to 88.0 and 10.0 to 67.0 KD, respectively. No changes were observed in the sarcoplasmic protein but the intensity of bands in all irradiated samples decreased after 21 days of storage

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  18. An inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase delays the platelet storage lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Skripchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Platelets during storage undergo diverse alterations collectively known as the platelet storage lesion, including metabolic, morphological, functional and structural changes. Some changes correlate with activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK. Another MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK, is involved in PLT activation. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of platelets stored in plasma in the presence or absence of p38 and ERK MAPK inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single Trima apheresis platelet unit (n = 12 was aliquoted into five CLX storage bags. Two aliquots were continuously agitated with or without MAPK inhibitors. Two aliquots were subjected to 48 hours of interruption of agitation with or without MAPK inhibitors. One aliquot contained the same amount of solvent vehicle used to deliver the inhibitor. Platelets were stored at 20-24°C for 7 days and sampled on Days 1, 4, and 7 for 18 in vitro parameters. RESULTS: Inhibition of p38 MAPK by VX-702 leads to better maintenance of all platelet in vitro storage parameters including platelet mitochondrial function. Accelerated by interruption of agitation, the platelet storage lesion of units stored with VX-702 was diminished to that of platelets stored with continuous agitation. Inhibition of ERK MAPK did not ameliorate decrements in any in vitro platelet properties. CONCLUSION: Signaling through p38 MAPK, but not ERK, is associated with platelet deterioration during storage.

  19. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  20. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ultrahigh pressure homogenization (pressure, protein concentration, oil phase fraction, pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and storage on the properties of nanoemulsions (100-500nm range), which were stabilized by laboratory-prepared soybean protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The nanoemulsions made with SPI, 7S and 11S proteins exhibited considerable stability over various ionic strengths (0-500mM NaCl), pH (7), thermal treatments (30-60°C) and storage (0-45days). The far-UV spectra of SPI, 7S, 11S dispersions, and SPI-, 7S-, 11S protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were analyzed for the protein structural changes following lipid removal. The ultra-high pressure homogenization changed the secondary structure of SPI, 7S, 11S proteins in the nanoemulsions, and enhanced their stability. This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...... with lipid analyses of the fillet. Overall, the results showed that the sensory characteristics of the trout were affected in different ways during ice storage. The source of lipid seemed to affect the sensory quality at the beginning of the storage period, while the protein source seemed to have a more...

  2. Corn Earworm

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane G.; Olsen, Shawn; Barnhill, James

    2011-01-01

    In Utah, there are typically three generations of corn earworm (CEW) each year. The first generation of adults either come from overwintering pupae (southern and central Utah), or migrate into northern Utah. The adult moth is tannish brown with a 1 1/2 inch wingspan. The front wings are marked with a distinct dark spot in the center and darker bands near the outer margins. The hind wings are lighter tan, with a dark band along the outer margins. The male moths have green eyes. Moth flight occ...

  3. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotto,Orcial Ceolin; Bueno,Adeney de Freitas; Queiroz,Ana Paula de; Silva,Gabriela Vieira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%), food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2). Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (...

  4. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  5. Baking quality parameters of wheat in relation to endosperm storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat storage proteins of twelve winter wheat cultivars grown at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2009 were studied for their contribution to the baking quality. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS was analyzed by SDS-PAGE method, while the proportions of endosperm storage proteins were determined by RP-HPLC method. Regarding the proportion of storage proteins, results of the linear correlation (p<0.05 showed that protein (P and wet gluten (WG content were highly negatively correlated with albumins and globulins (AG and positively with α- gliadins (GLI. A strong negative correlation between AG and water absorption (WA capacity of flour was found, while α- GLI had positive influence on this property. Dough development time (DDT was positively significantly correlated with HMW-GS and negatively with AG. Degree of dough softening (DS was strongly positively affected by γ- GLI and gliadins to glutenins ratio (GLI/GLU and negatively by total GLU and HMW-GS. Dough energy (E and maximum resistance (RMAX were significantly positively affected by Glu-1 score and negatively by GLI/GLU ratio. Resistance to extensibility ratio (R/EXT was significantly negatively correlated with total GLI. Bread volume was significantly negatively influenced by AG.

  6. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats ( n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  7. Influence of yogurt fermentation and refrigerated storage on the stability of protein toxin contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S; Triplett, Odbert A; Tolleson, William H

    2015-06-01

    Dairy products sold in a ready-to-eat form present the risk that adulterants persisting through manufacturing, storage, and distribution would reach consumers. Pathogenic microbes, including shigatoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli and the toxins they produce, are common food safety hazards associated with dairy products. Ricin and abrin are plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein toxins related to the shiga-like toxins produced by E. coli. Limited information exists on the effects of manufacturing processes on the stabilities of these heat-resistant ribosome-inactivating proteins in the presence of foods. The goal of this study was to determine how typical yogurt manufacturing and storage processes influence ribosome-inactivating protein toxins. Ricin and abrin were added to skim or whole milk and batch pasteurized. Complete inactivation of both toxins was observed after 30 minutes at 85 °C. If the toxins were added after pasteurization, the levels of ricin and abrin in yogurt and their cytotoxic activities did not change significantly during fermentation or refrigerated storage for 4 weeks. The activities of ricin and abrin were inhibited by skim milk, nonfat yogurt, whole milk, and whole milk yogurt. The results showed minimal effects of the toxins on yogurt pH and %titratable acidity but inhibitory effects of yogurt on toxin activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Protein mobilities and P-selectin storage in Weibel-Palade bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskin, Nikolai I; Hellen, Nicola; Babich, Victor; Hewlett, Lindsay; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we measured the mobilities of EGFP-tagged soluble secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in individual Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) at early (immature) and late (mature) stages in their biogenesis. Membrane proteins (P-selectin, CD63, Rab27a) were also studied in individual WPBs. In the ER, soluble secretory proteins were mobile; however, following insertion into immature WPBs larger molecules (VWF, Proregion, tPA) and P-selectin became immobilised, whereas small proteins (ssEGFP, eotaxin-3) became less mobile. WPB maturation led to further decreases in mobility of small proteins and CD63. Acute alkalinisation of mature WPBs selectively increased the mobilities of small soluble proteins without affecting larger molecules and the membrane proteins. Disruption of the Proregion-VWF paracrystalline core by prolonged incubation with NH(4)Cl rendered P-selectin mobile while VWF remained immobile. FRAP of P-selectin mutants revealed that immobilisation most probably involves steric entrapment of the P-selectin extracellular domain by the Proregion-VWF paracrystal. Significantly, immobilisation contributed to the enrichment of P-selectin in WPBs; a mutation of P-selectin preventing immobilisation led to a failure of enrichment. Together these data shed new light on the transitions that occur for soluble and membrane proteins following their entry and storage into post-Golgi-regulated secretory organelles.

  9. Protein changes in the albedo of citrus fruits on postharvesting storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lliso, Ignacio; Tadeo, Francisco R; Phinney, Brett S; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Talón, Manuel

    2007-10-31

    In this work, major protein changes in the albedo of the fruit peel of Murcott tangor (tangerine x sweet orange) during postharvest ageing were studied through 2D PAGE. Protein content in matured on-tree fruits and in fruits stored in nonstressing [99% relative humidity (RH) and 25 degrees C], cold (99% RH and 4 degrees C), and drought (60% RH and 25 degrees C) conditions was initially determined. Protein identification through MS/MS determinations revealed in all samples analyzed the occurrence of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), actin, ATP synthase beta subunit (ATPase), citrus salt-stress associated protein (CitSap), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), and a cysteine proteinase (CP) of the papain family. The latter protein was identified in two different gel spots, with different molecular mass, suggesting the simultaneous presence of the proteinase precursor and its active form. While Mn SOD, actin, ATPase, and CitSap were unchanged in the assayed conditions, TCTP and APX were downregulated during the postharvest ageing process. Ageing-induced APX repression was also reversed by drought. CP contents in albedo, which were similar in on- and off-tree fruits, were strongly dependent upon cold storage. The active/total CP protein ratio significantly increased after cold exposure. This proteomic survey indicates that major changes in protein content in the albedo of the peel of postharvest stored citrus fruits are apparently related to the activation of programmed cell death (PCD).

  10. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  11. Convergent evolution of plant and animal embryo defences by hyperstable non-digestible storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, María Yanina; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Mu, Huawei; Heras, Horacio

    2017-11-20

    Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i.e., kinetic stability). PmPV1 is highly resistant to in vitro proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and 25-85 °C. Furthermore, PmPV1 withstands in vitro and mice digestion and is recovered unchanged in faeces, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. Subunit sequence similarities suggest a common origin and tolerance to mutations. This is the first known animal genus that, like plant seeds, lowers the nutritional value of eggs by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that survive the gut of predators unaffected. The selective pressure of the harsh gastrointestinal environment would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like hyperstable antinutritive proteins to unattended reproductive stages in animals.

  12. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana

    2016-01-01

    family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

  13. Relationships between storage protein composition, protein content, growing season and flour quaility of bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergestad, E.M.; Flaete, N.E.S.; Magnus, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    ;f alleles appear similar on one-dimensional gels, two-dimensional separation of selected samples may suggest that the f components in these alleles are different proteins. Cross-validated partial least squares regression combined with empirical uncertainty estimates (jack-knifing) of the parameters...

  14. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  15. Biomarkers in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders: proteins, lipids, and inhibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Johannes M F G; Kallemeijn, Wouter W; Wegdam, Wouter; Joao Ferraz, Maria; van Breemen, Marielle J; Dekker, Nick; Kramer, Gertjan; Poorthuis, Ben J; Groener, Johanna E M; Cox-Brinkman, Josanne; Rombach, Saskia M; Hollak, Carla E M; Linthorst, Gabor E; Witte, Martin D; Gold, Henrik; van der Marel, Gijs A; Overkleeft, Herman S; Boot, Rolf G

    2011-06-01

    A biomarker is an analyte indicating the presence of a biological process linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. In the case of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), primary and secondary accumulating metabolites or proteins specifically secreted by storage cells are good candidates for biomarkers. Clinical applications of biomarkers are found in improved diagnosis, monitoring disease progression, and assessing therapeutic correction. These are illustrated by reviewing the discovery and use of biomarkers for Gaucher disease and Fabry disease. In addition, recently developed chemical tools allowing specific visualization of enzymatically active lysosomal glucocerebrosidase are described. Such probes, coined inhibodies, offer entirely new possibilities for more sophisticated molecular diagnosis, enzyme replacement therapy monitoring, and fundamental research.

  16. Aflatoxin contamination of developing corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M A

    2005-01-01

    Preharvest of corn and its contamination with aflatoxin is a serious problem. Some environmental and cultural factors responsible for infection and subsequent aflatoxin production were investigated in this study. Stage of growth and location of kernels on corn ears were found to be one of the important factors in the process of kernel infection with A. flavus & A. parasiticus. The results showed positive correlation between the stage of growth and kernel infection. Treatment of corn with aflatoxin reduced germination, protein and total nitrogen contents. Total and reducing soluble sugar was increase in corn kernels as response to infection. Sucrose and protein content were reduced in case of both pathogens. Shoot system length, seeding fresh weigh and seedling dry weigh was also affected. Both pathogens induced reduction of starch content. Healthy corn seedlings treated with aflatoxin solution were badly affected. Their leaves became yellow then, turned brown with further incubation. Moreover, their total chlorophyll and protein contents showed pronounced decrease. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds were increased. Histopathological studies indicated that A. flavus & A. parasiticus could colonize corn silks and invade developing kernels. Germination of A. flavus spores was occurred and hyphae spread rapidly across the silk, producing extensive growth and lateral branching. Conidiophores and conidia had formed in and on the corn silk. Temperature and relative humidity greatly influenced the growth of A. flavus & A. parasiticus and aflatoxin production.

  17. The pupylation machinery is involved in iron homeostasis by targeting the iron storage protein ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küberl, Andreas; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2016-04-26

    The balance of sufficient iron supply and avoidance of iron toxicity by iron homeostasis is a prerequisite for cellular metabolism and growth. Here we provide evidence that, in Actinobacteria, pupylation plays a crucial role in this process. Pupylation is a posttranslational modification in which the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup is covalently attached to a lysine residue in target proteins, thus resembling ubiquitination in eukaryotes. Pupylated proteins are recognized and unfolded by a dedicated AAA+ ATPase (Mycobacterium proteasomal AAA+ ATPase; ATPase forming ring-shaped complexes). In Mycobacteria, degradation of pupylated proteins by the proteasome serves as a protection mechanism against several stress conditions. Other bacterial genera capable of pupylation such as Corynebacterium lack a proteasome, and the fate of pupylated proteins is unknown. We discovered that Corynebacterium glutamicum mutants lacking components of the pupylation machinery show a strong growth defect under iron limitation, which was caused by the absence of pupylation and unfolding of the iron storage protein ferritin. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which the pupylation machinery is responsible for iron release from ferritin independent of degradation.

  18. Analysis of xanthophylls in corn by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros, E E; Darnoko, D; Cheryan, M; Perkins, E G; Jerrell, J

    2002-10-09

    An HPLC method was developed using the C-30 carotenoid column to separate and identify the major xanthophylls in corn (lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin). A photodiode array detector and a mobile phase consisting of methyl tert-butyl ether/methanol/water was used. All three xanthophylls eluted in less than 25 min. Yellow dent corn had a total xanthophyll content of 21.97 microg/g with lutein content of 15.7 microg/g, zeaxanthin content of 5.7 microg/g, and beta-cryptoxanthin of 0.57 microg/g. Commercial corn gluten meal had a 7 times higher concentration of xanthophylls (145 microg/g), and deoiled corn contained 18 microg/g, indicating that the xanthophylls are probably bound to the zein fraction of corn proteins.

  19. The trafficking pathway of a wheat storage protein in transgenic rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszvald, Maria; Tamas, Laszlo; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The trafficking of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plant cells is a topic of considerable interest since this organelle serves as an entry point for proteins destined for other organelles, as well as for the ER itself. In the current work, transgenic rice was used to study the pattern and pathway of deposition of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin sub-unit (GS) 1Dx5 within the rice endosperm using specific antibodies to determine whether it is deposited in the same or different protein bodies from the rice storage proteins, and whether it is located in the same or separate phases within these. The protein distribution and the expression pattern of HMW sub-unit 1Dx5 in transgenic rice endosperm at different stages of development were determined using light and electron microscopy after labelling with antibodies. The use of HMW-GS-specific antibodies showed that sub-unit 1Dx5 was expressed mainly in the sub-aleurone cells of the endosperm and that it was deposited in both types of protein body present in the rice endosperm: derived from the ER and containing prolamins, and derived from the vacuole and containing glutelins. In addition, new types of protein bodies were also formed within the endosperm cells. The results suggest that the HMW 1Dx5 protein could be trafficked by either the ER or vacuolar pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that its accumulation in the rice endosperm could compromise the structural integrity of protein bodies and their segregation into two distinct populations in the mature endosperm.

  20. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Krylova; T. V. Gustova

    2017-01-01

    In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitr...

  1. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  2. A cytosolic copper storage protein provides a second level of copper tolerance in Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Megan L; Chaplin, Amanda K; Hough, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Wilson, Michael T; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2018-01-24

    Streptomyces lividans has a distinct dependence on the bioavailability of copper for its morphological development. A cytosolic copper resistance system is operative in S. lividans that serves to preclude deleterious copper levels. This system comprises of several CopZ-like copper chaperones and P 1 -type ATPases, predominantly under the transcriptional control of a metalloregulator from the copper sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) family. In the present study, we discover a new layer of cytosolic copper resistance in S. lividans that involves a protein belonging to the newly discovered family of copper storage proteins, which we have named Ccsp (cytosolic copper storage protein). From an evolutionary perspective, we find Ccsp homologues to be widespread in Bacteria and extend through into Archaea and Eukaryota. Under copper stress Ccsp is upregulated and consists of a homotetramer assembly capable of binding up to 80 cuprous ions (20 per protomer). X-ray crystallography reveals 18 cysteines, 3 histidines and 1 aspartate are involved in cuprous ion coordination. Loading of cuprous ions to Ccsp is a cooperative process with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 and a CopZ-like copper chaperone can transfer copper to Ccsp. A Δccsp mutant strain indicates that Ccsp is not required under initial copper stress in S. lividans, but as the CsoR/CopZ/ATPase efflux system becomes saturated, Ccsp facilitates a second level of copper tolerance.

  3. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  4. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Castro,Renato S; Silva,Paulo Sérgio L; Cardoso,Milton J

    2013-01-01

    In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC) and the second as green corn (GC) or dry corn (DC), that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. ...

  5. COST ESTIMATES OF TWIN SCREW EXTRUDED PRODUCTS: TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN SNACKS AND CORN-SOY BLEND USED FOR EMERGENCY FEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operating costs associated with twin screw extrusion cooking of various foods are fixed for a given size and production capacity for any class of products; the greater percentage of costs arise from the choice of ingredients and the product end use. For example, extruder texturized whey proteins...

  6. Prolonging hypothermic storage (4 C) of bovine embryos with fish antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Nakamura, Yuuki; Hayama, Kou; Shirasawa, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Tominaga, Naomi; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24-48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP-embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming.

  7. Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A

    1998-01-01

    Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistent trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs)

  8. Effects of water deficit on breadmaking quality and storage protein compositions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaxing; Liu, Dongmiao; Deng, Xiong; Zhen, Shoumin; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2018-03-12

    Water deficiency affects grain proteome dynamics and storage protein compositions, resulting in changes in gluten viscoelasticity. In this study, the effects of field water deficit on wheat breadmaking quality and grain storage proteins were investigated. Water deficiency produced a shorter grain-filling period, a decrease in grain number, grain weight and grain yield, a reduced starch granule size and increased protein content and glutenin macropolymer contents, resulting in superior dough properties and breadmaking quality. Reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the total gliadin and glutenin content and the accumulation of individual components were significantly increased by water deficiency. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 144 individual storage protein spots with significant accumulation changes in developing grains under water deficit. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that water deficiency resulted in significant upregulation of 12 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and 46 low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of storage protein biosynthesis-related transcription factors Dof and Spa was upregulated by water deficiency. The present results illustrated that water deficiency leads to increased accumulation of storage protein components and upregulated expression of Dof and Spa, resulting in an improvement in glutenin strength and breadmaking quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe......-regimes caused significant differences in both quantity and quality of the storage proteins transcripts. Principal Component Analysis of the amino acid (AA) profiles also indicated dissimilarity in individual AA percentages, correlated to hordein content. The abundance values of proteins of interest confirmed...

  10. REDOX POTENTIAL AND DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN AND FAT DESTRUCTION DURING STORAGE OF CANNED MEAT IN PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the dynamics of the redox potential of systems and its relationship with the processes of protein and fat destruction in canned foods during their storage are fragmented and not systemized, which highlight their topicality. The aim of the research was to obtain the experimental data on the Eh values and physico-chemical indicators of canned food quality during storage in order to establish their possible correlation. It was shown that the dynamics of Eh, the content of free amino acids and fatty acid fractions in the canned products from beef and pork was different during storage. For example, a decrease in the Eh value and free amino acid content in the canned products from beef had a smooth character, while in the canned products from pork several periods were observed, which differed in the character of the change in the quality indicators.A linear character of the changes in the proportion of fatty acid fractions during storage of the canned products from beef and pork was noticed. With that, both canned food items had an increase in the saturated fatty acid content at the concomitant decrease in the sum of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The value of an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty acids associated with the process of reduction of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids did not depend on the kind of meat in the canned foods and was on average 6%. A decrease in the proportion of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the canned products from pork was about 4 times more intensive compared to the canned products from beef.

  11. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  12. [Deep frying snack product of legume/cereal mixture based on corn and three varieties of beans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M

    2001-09-01

    To increase legume consumption and give a better protein quality in the snack products, mixtures of fried beans-corn were formulate in different proportions: 60:40 (A); 50:50 (B) and 40:60 (C). Fried corn used in mixtures was previously soaked in a predetermined solution (NaOH/EDTA) and then blanched. Three beans varieties (Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia) were mixed with fried yellow dent corn in the above described proportions, obtaining nine mixtures whose physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were very homogeneous in all the analyzed characteristics. The protein content for the A mix was the greatest, nevertheless the sensorial analysis showed the last acceptance. The moisture content and water activity of these mixtures was low assuring a good microbiological stability under storage conditions. The protein contribution of each species in different prepared mixtures determined the selection of the best cereal/legume mix. From a nutritional stand point the best results were obtained when the 50% of protein was supplied by bans and the 50% by corn. From the mixtures tried in this study, mix C with bean Pinto 114 one closed to the recommended conditions. Nevertheless, for each cereal/legume mix, the best proportion was C, due to its better acceptability, even though it had less nutritional value.

  13. Salvage and storage of infectious disease protein targets in the SSGCID high-throughput crystallization pathway using microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Jeff; Gerdts, Cory J.; Clifton, Mathew C.; Stewart, Lance

    2011-01-01

    SSGCID protein crystals were salvaged and stored using the MPCS Plug Maker and CrystalCards when high-throughput traditional sitting-drop vapor diffusion initially failed. The MPCS Plug Maker is a microcapillary-based protein-crystallization system for generating diffraction-ready crystals from nanovolumes of protein. Crystallization screening using the Plug Maker was used as a salvage pathway for proteins that failed to crystallize during the initial observation period using the traditional sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method. Furthermore, the CrystalCards used to store the crystallization experiments set up by the Plug Maker are shown be a viable container for long-term storage of protein crystals without a discernable loss of diffraction quality with time. Use of the Plug Maker with SSGCID proteins is demonstrated to be an effective crystal-salvage and storage method

  14. Fabrication of Flexible, Fully Organic, Degradable Energy Storage Devices Using Silk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ramendra K; Kundu, Subhas C; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2018-03-21

    Flexible and thin-film devices are of great interest in epidermal and implantable bioelectronics. The integration of energy storage and delivery devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) with properties such as flexibility, miniaturization, biocompatibility, and degradability are sought for such systems. Reducing e-waste and using sustainable materials and processes are additional desirable qualities. Herein, a silk protein-based biocompatible and degradable thin-film microSC (μSC) is reported. A protein carrier with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate and reduced graphene oxide dopant is used as a photopatternable biocomposite ink. Active electrodes are fabricated using photolithography under benign conditions, using only water as the solvent. These electrodes are printed on flexible protein sheets to form degradable, organic devices with a benign agarose-NaCl gel electrolyte. High capacitance, power density, cycling stability over 500 cycles, and the ability to power a light-emitting diode are shown. The device is flexible, can sustain cyclic mechanical stresses over 450 cycles, and retain capacitive properties over several days in liquid. Significantly, the μSCs are cytocompatible and completely degraded over the period of ∼1 month. By precise control of the device configuration, these silk protein-based, all-polymer organic devices can be designed to be tunably transient and provide viable alternatives for powering flexible and implantable bioelectronics.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN SOME IRANIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS USING SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Reza Khoshroo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is most adapted tree to grow in desert areas. It has always been looked on as a key source of stability, survival and evolution of the oasis agro-system since it constitutes the basic features of the ecological pyramid in desert regions. Determining genetic variability and cultivars identification in date palm are two major important factors in breeding programs, characterization of germplasm, and conservation purposes. The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE for 9 cultivars in Shahdad region in Iran. A total of 16 alternative protein bands with different mobility rates were identified within a molecular weight range of 11 KDa to 350 KDa. Then, electrophorogram for each cultivar was scored, and Jaccard‘s Similarity Index was calculated. Relying on UPGMA and NJ methods, genetic diversity of cultivars was evaluated by constructing the dendrogram for protein bands. Moreover, genetic distance was calculated for all of the cultivars.  It is concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in genetic diversity studies and classification of cultivars. The cultivars from Shahdad were well separated from each other. This might have been done due to their unique genetic build-up. The cluster analysis displayed five major classes. In order to precise this assumption, data were computed to perform a PCA. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated their validity in establishing genetic diversity. When PCA was studied, the previously described results about Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram were also visualized.

  16. Chloroform-assisted phenol extraction improving proteome profiling of maize embryos through selective depletion of high-abundance storage proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Xiong

    Full Text Available The presence of abundant storage proteins in plant embryos greatly impedes seed proteomics analysis. Vicilin (or globulin-1 is the most abundant storage protein in maize embryo. There is a need to deplete the vicilins from maize embryo extracts for enhanced proteomics analysis. We here reported a chloroform-assisted phenol extraction (CAPE method for vicilin depletion. By CAPE, maize embryo proteins were first extracted in an aqueous buffer, denatured by chloroform and then subjected to phenol extraction. We found that CAPE can effectively deplete the vicilins from maize embryo extract, allowing the detection of low-abundance proteins that were masked by vicilins in 2-DE gel. The novelty of CAPE is that it selectively depletes abundant storage proteins from embryo extracts of both monocot (maize and dicot (soybean and pea seeds, whereas other embryo proteins were not depleted. CAPE can significantly improve proteome profiling of embryos and extends the application of chloroform and phenol extraction in plant proteomics. In addition, the rationale behind CAPE depletion of abundant storage proteins was explored.

  17. A new look on protein-polyphenol complexation during honey storage: is this a random or organized event with the help of dirigent-like proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honey storage initiates melanoidin formation that involves a cascade of seemingly unguided redox reactions between amino acids/proteins, reducing sugars and polyphenols. In the process, high molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes are formed, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins in honeys stored for prolonged times and in different temperatures and to relate these changes to the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes. Six -month storage decreased the protein content by 46.7% in all tested honeys (t-test, p<0.002 with the rapid reduction occurring during the first three month. The changes in protein levels coincided with alterations in molecular size and net charge of proteins on SDS -PAGE. Electro-blotted proteins reacted with a quinone-specific nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that quinones derived from oxidized polyphenols formed covalent bonds with proteins. Protein-polyphenol complexes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography differed in size and stoichiometry and fall into two categories: (a high molecular weight complexes (230-180 kDa enriched in proteins but possessing a limited reducing activity toward the NBT and (b lower molecular size complexes (110-85 kDa enriched in polyphenols but strongly reducing the dye. The variable stoichiometry suggest that the large, "protein-type" complexes were formed by protein cross-linking, while in the smaller, "polyphenol-type" complexes polyphenols were first polymerized prior to protein binding. Quinones preferentially bound a 31 kDa protein which, by the electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qtof-MS analysis, showed homology to dirigent-like proteins known for assisting in radical coupling and polymerization of phenolic compounds. These findings provide a new look on protein-polyphenol interaction in honey where the

  18. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  19. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  20. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Arabidopsis Intracellular NHX-Type Sodium-Proton Antiporters are Required for Seed Storage Protein Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashnest, Joanne R; Huynh, Dung L; Dragwidge, Jonathan M; Ford, Brett A; Gendall, Anthony R

    2015-11-01

    The Arabidopsis intracellular sodium-proton exchanger (NHX) proteins AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 have a well-documented role in plant development, and have been used to improve salt tolerance in a variety of species. Despite evidence that intracellular NHX proteins are important in vacuolar trafficking, the mechanism of this role is poorly understood. Here we show that NHX5 and NHX6 are necessary for processing of the predominant seed storage proteins, and also influence the processing and activity of a vacuolar processing enzyme. Furthermore, we show by yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technology that the C-terminal tail of NHX6 interacts with a component of Retromer, another component of the cell sorting machinery, and that this tail is critical for NHX6 activity. These findings demonstrate that NHX5 and NHX6 are important in processing and activity of vacuolar cargo, and suggest a mechanism by which NHX intracellular (IC)-II antiporters may be involved in subcellular trafficking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction.

  3. Lack of Population Structure in Coriander Populations Based on SDS (Seed Storage Protein Page Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Yaldiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is prerequisite for plant breeding. Nothing information existed in the literature for available diversity of Coriander accession in Turkey. Plant breeding activities are negligible in Turkey. So in order to start effective plant breeding program in Turkey, information on the available genetic diversity is viable. Therefore we planned to study the genetic variation and population structure of 29 Coriander accessions by seed storage protein (SDS. SDS analysis elaborated the lack of population structure and genetic bottleneck in the Coriander accessions in Turkey. Based on the results of this study, it was clear that sampling strategy was not appropriate and plant introduction should be made from different sources and diverse genotypes should be used as parents to initialize the effective Turkish Coriander breeding program.

  4. Transcriptome study of storage protein genes of field-grown barley in response to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Bowra, Steve; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The storage proteins of barley, in terms of both amino acid profile and quantity, are traits strongly influenced by the amount of nitrogen applied. Given this, we performed a developmental expression analysis of the genes from barley grains grown under field conditions to further our understanding...... profile under different N regimes. Reviewing the expression of the storage protein homologues within the families revealed markedly different temporal profiles; for example, some alleles were expressed very early in development. Furthermore, the differential temporal expression of the homologues suggested...

  5. Antioxidant activities of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Lee, M H; Chen, H J; Liang, W L; Han, C H; Liu, Y W; Lin, Y H

    2001-10-01

    Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber (which is different from dioscorine found in tubers of Dioscorea hirsuta), was purified to homogeneity after DE-52 ion exchange column according to the methods of Hou et al. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 2168-2172). A single band of 32 kDa dioscorin was obtained on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel with 2-mercaptoethanol treatment. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric method to have scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in a pH-dependent manner. There is a positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (8-46%) and amounts of 32 kDa dioscorin (5.97-47.80 nmol) added in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), which are comparable to those of glutathione at the same concentrations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by 28.6 and 57 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) more than in distilled water compared to controls. EPR spectrometry was also used for hydroxyl radical detection. It was found that 32 kDa dioscorin could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of the EPR signal were significantly decreased dose-dependently by 1.79-14.32 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin (r = 0.975) compared to the control. It is suggested that 32 kDa dioscorin, the storage protein of yam tuber, may play a role as antioxidant in tubers and may be beneficial for health when people take it as a food additive or consume yam tubers.

  6. Physicochemical and functional properties, microstructure, and storage stability of whey protein/polyvinylpyrrolidone based glue sticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A glue stick is comprised of solidified adhesive mounted in a lipstick-like push-up tube. Whey is a byproduct of cheese making. Direct disposal of whey can cause environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to use whey protein isolate (WPI as a natural polymer along with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP to develop safe glue sticks. Pre-dissolved WPI solution, PVP, sucrose, 1,2-propanediol (PG, sodium stearate, defoamer, and preservative were mixed and dissolved in water at 90 oC and then molded in push-up tubes. Chemical composition, functional properties (bonding strength, glue setting time, gel hardness, extension/retraction, and spreading properties, microstructure, and storage stability of the prototypes were evaluated in comparison with a commercial control. Results showed that all WPI/PVP prototypes had desirable bonding strength and exhibited faster setting than PVP prototypes and control. WPI could reduce gel hardness and form less compact and rougher structures than that of PVP, but there was no difference in bonding strength. PVP and sucrose could increase the hygroscopicity of glue sticks, thus increasing storage stability. Finally, the optimized prototype GS3 (major components: WPI 8.0%, PVP 12.0%, 1,2-propanediol 10.0%, sucrose 10.0%, and stearic sodium 7.0% had a comparable functionality to the commercial control. Results indicated that whey protein could be used as an adhesive polymer for glue stick formulations, which could be used to bond fiber or cellulose derived substrates such as paper.

  7. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Han Linna; Liu Tongjun; Guo Jianyou; Liu Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk ...

  8. RUMINAL DEGRADATION OF THE DRY MATTER, PROTEIN AND THE AMINOACIDS OF THE CORN AND CORN GLUTENS MEAL DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA E DOS AMINOÁCIDOS DO MILHO E DE GERMENS DE MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Borbari Dourado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, UNESP-Jaboticabal. Three ¾ Holstein x Zebu bovines fistulated on rumen, abomasum and intestine using a fixed cannula type T were used. Four types of feed: corn (M, 1% EE corn gluten meal (G1, 7% EE corn gluten meal and 10% EE corn gluten meal (G10 were tested.  All feed were also extruded: CornEx, G1Ex, G7Ex and G10EX. Ruminal incubation was done using the nylon bags technique, and degradability of dry matter, crude protein and disponibilization of amino acids were analyzed. Basic diet was composed of corn gluten meal, soybean meal and hay at roughage (70: concentrate (30 ratio. Ruminal degrading of dry matter feed M, G1, G7 and G10 presented the following values: 37.5%, 56.7%, 56.8% and 55.1% respectively.  Extruded feed: 52.3%, 68.9%; 69.0% and 61.6% for Mex, G1Ex, G7Ex and G10Ex. The corn was significantly inferior to others and extruded feed increased ruminal degradedly for all feed. The degradability of crude protein was 27.0%, 60.9%, 56.8% and 35.1% for M, G1, G7 and G10; 50.8, 52.2, 66.4 and 59.6 for MEx; G1Ex; G7Ex and G10Ex, respectively. Statistically the G1 feed was equal to M and both were inferior to G7 and G10. The extrusion process did not increase the degradability of crude protein of G1. The lysine presented high ruminal degradability for tested feed, showing values above 99%. The metionin presented values of degradability inferior for M (37.4% related to G1 (57.1%.  The treonine did not present differences between feed and extrusion. It can be concluded that the processing of corn to obtain by-products can increase the ruminal degradability of dry matter, protein and metionine, but depending on intensity of processing, the degradability of crude protein may not be altered when compared to corn. The extrusion increased the ruminal degradability of dry matter of corn and by-products.

    KEY-WORDS: Amino acids, degradability, extrusion

  9. Composition of forage and grain from second-generation insect-protected corn MON 89034 is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne M; Reynolds, Tracey L; Ridley, William P; Bogdanova, Natalia; Riordan, Susan; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L

    2008-06-25

    Insect-protected corn hybrids containing Cry insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis have protection from target pests and provide effective management of insect resistance. MON 89034 hybrids have been developed that produce both the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins, which provide two independent modes of insecticidal action against the European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis ) and other lepidopteran insect pests of corn. The composition of MON 89034 corn was compared to conventional corn by measuring proximates, fiber, and minerals in forage and by measuring proximates, fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients, and secondary metabolites in grain collected from 10 replicated field sites across the United States and Argentina during the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Analyses established that the forage and grain from MON 89034 are compositionally comparable to the control corn hybrid and conventional corn reference hybrids. These findings support the conclusion that MON 89034 is compositionally equivalent to conventional corn hybrids.

  10. Effects of sterilization, packaging, and storage on vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and glycation in fortified milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliguem, H; Birlouez-Aragon, I

    2005-03-01

    Monitoring the nutritional quality of dietetic milk throughout its shelf life is particularly important due to the high susceptibility of some vitamins to oxidation, and the continuous development of the Maillard reaction during storage. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the vitamin C content and protein modification by denaturation and glycation on fortified milk samples (growth milks) destined for 1- to 3-yr-old children. The influences of the sterilization process, formulation, packaging, and storage duration at ambient temperature in the dark were studied. Vitamin C degradation was particularly influenced by type of packaging. The use of a 3-layered opaque bottle was associated with complete oxidation of vitamin C after 1 mo of storage, whereas in the 6-layered opaque bottle, which has an oxygen barrier, the vitamin C content slowly decreased to reach 25% of the initial concentration after 4 mo of storage. However, no significant effect of vitamin C degradation during storage could be observed in terms of Maillard reaction, despite the fact that a probable impact occurred during sterilization. Furosine content and the FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan) index-indicators of the early and advanced Maillard reaction, respectively-were significantly higher in the in-bottle sterilized milk samples compared with UHT samples, and in fortified milk samples compared with cow milk. However, after 1 mo, the impact of storage was predominant, increasing the furosine level and the FAST index at similar levels for the differently processed samples. The early Maillard reaction developed continuously throughout the storage period.In conclusion, only packaging comprising an oxygen and light barrier is compatible with vitamin C fortification of milk. Furthermore, short storage time or low storage temperature is needed to retard vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and development of the Maillard reaction.

  11. The purification and characterization of a third storage protein (convicilin) from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Tyler, M; Boulter, D

    1980-01-01

    A third storage protein, distinct from legumin and vicilin, has been purified from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.). This protein has been named 'convicilin' and is present in protein bodies isolated from pea seeds. Convicilin has a subunit mol.wt. of 71 000 and a mol.wt. in its native form of 290 000. Convicilin is antigenically dissimilar to legumin, but gives a reaction of identity with vicilin when tested against antibodies raised against both proteins. However, convicilin contains no ...

  12. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying

    1989-01-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3 H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  13. Effect of hydrothermal treated corn flour addition on the quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Dib Ahlem; Wójtowicz Agnieszka; Benatallah Leila; Bouasla Abdallah; Zidoune Mohammed Nasreddine

    2018-01-01

    Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w) were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural param...

  14. Recombinant dioscorins of the yam storage protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibit antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Yi-Jyun; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Chen, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Chyan, Chia-Lin; Yang, Ching-Chi; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2012-09-01

    Dioscorins, the major storage proteins in yam tubers, exhibit biochemical and immunomodulatroy activities. To investigate the potential application of dioscorins in biomedical research, we expressed the dioscorin genes Dj-dioA3 and Dp-dioA2 from Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea pseudojaponica, respectively, in E. coli and routinely obtained approximately 15 mg proteins per liter Escherichia coli culture (mg/L) to 30 mg/L of rDj-dioscorinA3 and 4 to 8 mg/L of rDp-dioscorinA2. Western blot analyses revealed that both recombinant dioscorins contained epitopes with similar antigenicities to those of the native dioscorins. Results from dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment followed by monobromobimane (mBBr) staining showed that both recombinant dioscorins, like the native dioscorins, contain an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys(28) and Cys(187) residues. Circular dichroism spectroscopy findings indicated that the secondary structural contents of the recombinant dioscorins showed high similarity to those of their corresponding native dioscorins. Both recombinant dioscorins, like the native dioscorins, exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling activities, and stimulated the phagocytosis of E. coli by macrophage. Overall, our results indicated that substantial amounts of recombinant dioscorins can be purified easily from E. coli and that these recombinant dioscorins are appropriate for application in future investigations of the biomedical functions of dioscorins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical conductivity testing of corn seeds as influenced by temperature and period of storage Teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de milho armazenadas sob diferentes temperaturas e períodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida Fessel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature (10, 20, 30, 20/10 and 30/10ºC and period of storage on electrical conductivity (EC in four seed lots of corn (Zea mays L., as well as the mineral composition of the soaking solution. EC test determines indirectly the integrity of seed membrane systems, and is used for the assessment of seed vigor, because this test detects the seed deterioration process since its early phase. The research comprised determinations of water content, germination, accelerated aging (AA, cold (CT and EC vigor tests, and determinations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ release to the solution, after seed soaking of four corn seed lots. The evaluations were performed each four months during a period of 16 months. For statistical analysis, a completely randomized split plot design was used with eight replications. Except for seed lots stored at 10ºC, all vigor evaluations revealed a decline in vigor, but AA and CT showed more sensitiveness to declines of seed physiological quality than EC. Potassium was the main leached ion regardless of the storage temperature.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito da temperatura (10, 20, 30, 20/10 e 30/10ºC e do período de armazenamento, sobre os resultados do teste de condutividade elétrica e, também, sobre a composição mineral da solução de embebição de quatro lotes de sementes de milho. O teste de condutividade elétrica baseia-se na integridade do sistema de membranas celulares, e é usado para a determinação do vigor de sementes, pois permite detectar as primeiras manifestações do processo de deterioração. Foram determinados: o teor de água das sementes, a germinação, vigor (testes de envelhecimento acelerado, de frio e de condutividade elétrica e os conteúdos de Ca2+, Mg2+ e K+ na solução de embebição das sementes, usada para determinar a condutividade elétrica. Para a análise estatística foi usado o delineamento inteiramente

  16. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe c...

  17. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  18. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  19. Ocatin. A novel tuber storage protein from the andean tuber crop oca with antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E

    2002-04-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens.

  20. Ocatin. A Novel Tuber Storage Protein from the Andean Tuber Crop Oca with Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E.

    2002-01-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens. PMID:11950978

  1. Effects of Storage and Granary Weevil Infestation on Gel Electrophoresis and Protein Solubility Properties of Hard and Soft Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Sule; Yalçin, Erkan; Özkaya, Hazim

    2018-02-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage and granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.; Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on pH, protein solubility (PS) and gel electrophoresis properties of meal and roller-milled flours of hard (Ceyhan-99 cv.) and soft (Eser cv.) wheat cultivars, respectively, after 6 mo of storage. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was applied for studying the electrophoretic properties. Hard and soft wheats were infested with non-sexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults/ kg, and stored for 6 mo at 30 ± 1°C and 70 ± 5% RH. The pest-free wheat samples were used as control. The infested and its control samples were collected monthly, and after cleaning the granary weevils, they were hammer-milled or roller-milled in order to get meal flours and roller-milled flours, respectively. The effect of infestation on the storage proteins was more obvious in meal flours than that of the roller-milled flours. Granary weevil feeding resulted secreting of hydrolyzing enzymes and increased the acidity of flours; subsequently the breaking and releasing of some storage proteins generally caused a decrease in pH and an increase in PS values of the meal flours of wheat cultivars. SDS-PAGE results generally indicated that towards the end of storage, the insect population, that greatly increased, caused minor protein depletions resulting decreasing protein band intensities between 113 and 58 kDa of hard wheat meal flour and 101 and 40 kDa of soft wheat roller-milled flour. Consequently, the potential effect of changes probably occurred in high molecular weight glutenin subunits of both wheat cultivars.

  2. Proteomics for exploiting diversity of lupin seed storage proteins and their use as nutraceuticals for health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Keller, Jean; Ley, José; Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2016-06-30

    Lupins have a variety of both traditional and modern uses. In the last decade, reports assessing the benefits of lupin seed proteins have proliferated and, nowadays, the pharmaceutical industry is interested in lupin proteins for human health. Modern genomics and proteomics have hugely contributed to describing the diversity of lupin storage genes and, above all, proteins. Most of these studies have been centered on few edible lupin species. However, Lupinus genus comprises hundreds of species spread throughout the Old and New Worlds, and these resources have been scarcely explored and exploited. We present here a detailed review of the literature on the potential of lupin seed proteins as nutraceuticals, and the use of -omic tools to analyze seed storage polypeptides in main edible lupins and their diversity at the Lupinus inter- and intra-species level. In this sense, proteomics, more than any other, has been a key approach. Proteomics has shown that lupin seed protein diversity, where post-translational modifications yield a large number of peptide variants with a potential concern in bioactivity, goes far beyond gene diversity. The future extended use of second and third generation proteomics should definitely help to go deeper into coverage and characterization of lupin seed proteome. Some important topics concerning storage proteins from lupin seeds are presented and analyzed in an integrated way in this review. Proteomic approaches have been essential in characterizing lupin seed protein diversity, which goes far beyond gene diversity since the protein level adds to the latter differential proteolytic cleavage of conglutin pro-proteins and a diverse array of glycosylation forms and sites. Proteomics has also proved helpful for screening and studying Lupinus germplasm with the future aim of exploiting and improving food production, quality, and nutritional values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular structure, dynamics and hydration studies of soybean storage proteins and model systems by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakalis, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution 13 C NMR for the characterization of soybean storage proteins was explored. The spectra of a commercial soy protein isolate as well as those of alkali-denatured 7S and 11S soybean globulins were well resolved and tentatively assigned. Relaxation measurements indicated fast motion for several side chains and the protein backbone. Protein fractions (11S and 7S) were also investigated at various states of molecular association. The large size of the multisubunit soybean storage proteins affected adversely both the resolution and the sensitivity of their 13 C NMR spectra. A comparison of 17 O and 2 H NMR relaxation rates of water in solutions of lysozyme (a model system) as a function of concentration, pH and magnetic field suggested that only 17 O monitors directly the hydration of lysozyme. Analysis of 17 O NMR lysozyme hydration data in terms of a two-state, fast-exchange, anisotropic model resulted in hydration parameters which are consistent with the protein's physico-chemical properties. The same model was applied to the calculation of the amount and mobility of bound water in soy protein dispersions by means of 17 O NMR relaxation measurements as a function of protein concentration. The protein concentration dependences of 1 H transverse NMR relaxation measurements at various pH and ionic strength values were fitted by a viral expansion. The interpretation of the data was based on the effects of protein aggregation, salt binding and protein group ionization on the NMR measurements. In all cases, relaxation rates showed a linear dependence on protein activity

  4. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  8. Characterization of the yam tuber storage proteins from Dioscorea batatas exhibiting unique lectin activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamashvili, Mariam; Ohizumi, Yuki; Iijima, Shinichiro; Takayama, Tomo; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji

    2004-06-18

    Four major proteins designated DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 were isolated and characterized from the yam tuber Dioscorea batatas. The ratios of their yields were 20:50:20:10. DB1 was a mannose-binding lectin (20 kDa) consisting of 10-kDa subunits and was classified as the monocot mannose-binding lectin family. DB2, accounting for 50% of the total protein, was the storage protein, commonly called dioscorins consisting of a 31-kDa subunit. On the basis of amino acid sequence, DB2 was classified to be dioscorin A. DB3 was a maltose-binding lectin, having an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa and composed of a 66-kDa subunit and two 31-kDa subunits (DB3S). The 66-kDa subunit was further composed of two 31-kDa subunits (DB3L) cross-linked by disulfide bonds. DB3L and DB3S (242 and 241 amino acid residues, respectively) were homologous with each other with 72% sequence identity. They showed a sequence homology to dioscorin B and dioscorin A from Dioscorea alata, with 90 and 93% identity, respectively, and to carbonic anhydrase from Arabidopsis thaliana with about 45% identity. DB3S had one intrachain disulfide bond located at Cys(28)-Cys(187), whereas DB3L had one interchain disulfide bond (Cys(40)-Cys(40)') in addition to the intrachain disulfide bond (Cys(28)-Cys(188)) to form a 66-kDa subunit. DB1 and DB3 agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at 2.7 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. Despite the structural homology between DB2 and DB3, DB2 had no lectin activity. The 66-kDa subunit itself revealed the full hemagglutinating activity of DB3, indicating that DB3L but not DB3S was responsible for the activity. The hemagglutinating activity of DB3 required Ca(2+) ions and was exclusively inhibited by maltose and oligomaltoses (e.g. maltopentaose and maltohexaose) but not by d-glucose. DB3 could not be classified into any known plant lectin family. DB4 was a chitinase, homologous to an acidic chitinase from Dioscorea japonica. DB1, DB2, and DB3 did not show any activity of carbonic

  9. Microbial protein synthesis in young steers fed with grass silage and extruded corn Síntesis de proteína microbiana en novillos jóvenes alimentados con ensilaje de praderas y maíz extruido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protein synthesis is essential to meet protein requirements in ruminants. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of incorporating extruded corn (Zea mays L. into the ration of young steers fed with grass silage on microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Twenty young steers in metabolic cages were used for supplying food. The treatments consisted of combinations of extruded corn (EC and ground corn (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC and EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. These foods constituted 40% of the ration (DM-based and the remaining 60% was grass silage. The MPS was calculated through the excretion of purine derivatives (PD in the urine, using total collection of urine. The inclusion of a higher percentage of extruded corn (EC-40 increased the PD excretion (51.85 mmol d-1, P La síntesis de proteína microbiana es fundamental para satisfacer los requerimientos proteicos en rumiantes. El objetivo de esta investigation fue evaluar el efecto de incluir maíz (Zea mays L. extruido en la ración de novillos alimentados con ensilaje de pradera, sobre la sintesis de proteina microbiana (MPS. Se emplearon 20 novillos jóvenes ubicados en jaulas metabólicas para suministro de los alimentos. Los tratamientos consistieron en combinaciones de maiz extruido (EC y maiz molido (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC y EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. Estos alimentos constituyeron el 40% de la ración (base MS y el restante 60% fue ensilaje de pradera. Se estimó la MPS a través de la excreción de derivados de purinas (PD en la orina, empleando colección total de orina. La inclusión de un mayor porcentaje de EC (EC-40 incrementó la excreción de PD (51.85 mmol d-1, P < 0,05. Los valores de excreción de PD fluctuaron entre 663 y 1078 μmol BW-075 d-1. La absorción de proteína microbiana y el flujo de N duodenal también se incrementaron por una mayor inclusión de EC (EC-40, P < 0,05. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos pueden

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS. These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD, energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter

  12. Effect of irradiation and soaking in BHT and sodium pyrophosphate on meat proteins and lipids during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Emam, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatments up to 10 KGy, soaking in a solution containing 0.5% Na-pyrophosphate and 250 ppm butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and a combination of both treatments on the nitrogen content and solubility, protein fractions and lipids stability in beef steaks during cold storage at 4 ± 1°C was followed until the samples were rejected by sensory evaluation. The least effective radiation doses for soluble protein nitrogen (SPN), total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and total nitrogen (TN) were 2, 5 and 10 KGy, respectively. Such effects were proportionally related to the applied dose. The loss in nitrogen compounds and/or their solubility which occurred upon irradiation appeared to be retarded by soaking treatment. Irradiation treatments induced additional protein fraction which seems to be originated from the sarcoplasmic proteins. After the resolution of rigor mortis, the incremental rate of nitrogen extractability was inversely related to the irradiation dose. Another protein fraction was detected only in the 10 KGy irradiated samples after 14 days of cold storage which might be originating from fibrillar proteins as a result of its interaction with some lipid oxidation products. However, soaking treatment itself caused extensive changes in protein fractions, in contrast, protection from radiation and radiation after-effects were observed

  13. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  14. Yam storage protein dioscorins from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea japonica exhibit distinct immunomodulatory activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Lan; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Weng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2009-06-10

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of the major storage protein dioscorin isolated from two different yam species, Tainong No. 1 (TN1-dioscorins) and Japanese yam (Dj-dioscorins), on the immune activities of mice. Dj-dioscorins, like TN1-dioscorins, could induce expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate phagocytosis of RAW 264.7. Intraperitoneal injection of the TN1-dioscorins into mice stimulated phagocytosis of bone marrow, spleen, and thymic cells. In contrast, the T and B cells in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus isolated from mice injected with Dj-dioscorins had higher proliferative responses to mitogens. Furthermore, Dj-dioscorins enhanced proliferation of CD4(+), CD8(+), and Tim3(+) (Th1) cells in spleen and CD19(+) cells in both spleen and thymus. Supplement of Dj-dioscorins in the lymphoid cells isolated from Dj-dioscorins primed mice induced cell proliferation of both spleen and thymic cells. These findings indicated that TN1-dioscorins have a higher ability to stimulate the phagocytic activity of the lymphoid cells than Dj-dioscorins, whereas Dj-dioscorins possess more abilities than TN1-dioscorins to enhance the proliferation of the lymphoid cells.

  15. Genetic diversity in radish germplasm for morphological traits and seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Siddiqui, S.U.; Masood, M.S.; Javaid, A.; Iqbal, M.; Sayal, O.U.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation of forty-nine local and exotic radish genotypes including two checks was studied for morphological traits and seed storage protein electrophoresis using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) markers. A high variation in germplasm for root shape, root length, root colour (internal and external), flesh texture and root type was observed. Among these genotypes, the genetic variation was apparent for most of the characters like plant biomass, root weight, leaf length, root length and root diameter that indicated the potential for crop improvement in these traits through simple selection. Exotic germplasm exhibited higher variation for plant biomass, root weight and root length which could be utilized through breeding programme. Cluster analysis on the basis of genetic diversity for seven quantitative traits resulted into four clusters. No clustering was found on the basis of origin. Low level of variance was observed for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis that suggested acquisition of more germplasm. On the basis of high yield and crispy root texture some genotypes (10076, 10362, 10429, 10658, 10662 and 10667) were identified for further testing under wide range of agro-ecological conditions. (author)

  16. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Survival of salmonella transformed to express green fluorescent protein on Italian parsley as affected by processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, E A; Cisneros-Zevallos, L; Castillo, A; Pillai, S D; Ricke, S C; Acuff, G R

    2005-04-01

    To study the effect of processing and storage parameters on the survival of Salmonella on fresh Italian parsley, parsley bunches were dipped for 3 or 15 min in suspensions that were preequilibrated to 5, 25, or 35 degrees C and inoculated with Salmonella transformed to express enhanced green fluorescent protein. Loosely attached and/or associated, strongly attached and/or associated, and internalized and/or entrapped Salmonella cells were enumerated over 0, 1, and 7 days of storage at 25 degrees C and over 0, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days of storage at 4 degrees C using surface-plating procedures. Leaf sections obtained from samples after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage were examined using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Temperature of the dip suspension had little effect on the attachment and survival of Salmonella cells on parsley. Regardless of the temperature or duration of dip, Salmonella was internalized. Immersion for longer times resulted in higher numbers of attached and internalized cells. Microscopic observations supported these results and revealed Salmonella cells near the stomata and within cracks in the cuticle. Storage temperature had the greatest impact on the survival of Salmonella cells on parsley. When stored at 25 degrees C, parsley had a shelf life of 7 days, and Salmonella populations significantly increased over the 7 days of storage. For parsley stored at 4 degrees C, numbers of Salmonella cells decreased over days 0, 1, and 7. After 7 days of storage, there were no viable internalized Salmonella cells detected. Storage temperature represents an important control point for the safety of fresh parsley.

  18. Effect of soy protein isolate on quality of light pork sausages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... The effect of soy protein isolate (SPI) on quality characteristics of light pork ... were darker and firmer and microbiologically safe after storage at 4-5°C for ..... products of defatted soy flour, corn starch and beef: Shelf-life,.

  19. N-terminomics reveals control of Arabidopsis seed storage proteins and proteases by the Arg/N-end rule pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Gannon, Lucy; Hassall, Kirsty L; Deery, Michael J; Gibbs, Daniel J; Holdsworth, Michael J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Lilley, Kathryn S; Theodoulou, Frederica L

    2018-05-01

    The N-end rule pathway of targeted protein degradation is an important regulator of diverse processes in plants but detailed knowledge regarding its influence on the proteome is lacking. To investigate the impact of the Arg/N-end rule pathway on the proteome of etiolated seedlings, we used terminal amine isotopic labelling of substrates with tandem mass tags (TMT-TAILS) for relative quantification of N-terminal peptides in prt6, an Arabidopsis thaliana N-end rule mutant lacking the E3 ligase PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6). TMT-TAILS identified over 4000 unique N-terminal peptides representing c. 2000 protein groups. Forty-five protein groups exhibited significantly increased N-terminal peptide abundance in prt6 seedlings, including cruciferins, major seed storage proteins, which were regulated by Group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors, known substrates of PRT6. Mobilisation of endosperm α-cruciferin was delayed in prt6 seedlings. N-termini of several proteases were downregulated in prt6, including RD21A. RD21A transcript, protein and activity levels were downregulated in a largely ERFVII-dependent manner. By contrast, cathepsin B3 protein and activity were upregulated by ERFVIIs independent of transcript. We propose that the PRT6 branch of the pathway regulates protease activities in a complex manner and optimises storage reserve mobilisation in the transition from seed to seedling via control of ERFVII action. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Influence of cooking methods and storage time on lipid and protein oxidation and heterocyclic aromatic amines production in bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soladoye, O P; Shand, P; Dugan, M E R; Gariépy, C; Aalhus, J L; Estévez, M; Juárez, M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of cooking methods and pre-determined refrigerated storage days on the production of lipid oxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (PROTOX) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) in bacon. Forty-four pork bellies selected from pigs varying in breed, sex and diets to introduce variability in composition were processed as bacon. Sliced-bacon was stored at 4°C either for 2 or 28days and these storage groups were cooked either with microwave or frying pan. Microwave led to significantly higher PROTOX (P0.05) by the cooking methods and storage times. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of pork belly did not significantly influence the production of HAA, TBARS and PROTOX produced in bacon during cooking. Overall, microwave cooking had lesser impact on the production of carcinogenic compounds in bacon with only minor impact on sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study highlights the promising use of

  2. Biophysical evaluation of aminoclay as an effective protectant for protein stabilization during freeze-drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song JG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jae Geun Song, Sang Hoon Lee, Hyo-Kyung Han College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University, Goyang, South Korea Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate aminoclay (3-aminopropyl-functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate as an effective protectant for the stabilization of protein formulation in freeze-drying. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, as a model protein, was freeze-dried with aminoclay at various concentrations, and the effects of aminoclay on the structural stability of proteins were compared with those of the conventional stabilizers. The structural characteristics of the protein were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC, circular dichroism (CD, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, physicochemical and morphological characteristics were examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. XRPD and DSC patterns indicated that the glass transition temperature (Tg of the amorphous formulation of aminoclay mixed with proteins was gradually elevated as the concentration of aminoclay increased. FTIR and CD spectral analysis suggested that the protein structure was well maintained with aminoclay during the freeze-drying process and 3 months of storage at 4°C and 40°C. Furthermore, aminoclay conferred the greatest protection against aggregation and retained the monomer content of BSA even at a high temperature. The morphological characteristics of lyophilized proteins were also well conserved during the storage with aminoclay. These results suggested that aminoclay may be useful as an alternative stabilizer for maintaining the structural stability of protein formulations. Keywords: aminoclay, cryoprotectant, lyoprotectant, freeze-drying, protein, stability

  3. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S

    2008-01-01

    assembled in our laboratory. To identify coregulated genes, a distance matrix was constructed and we identified three clusters corresponding to the early, middle and late seed development. The gene expression pattern associated with the clusters was investigated using pathway specific analysis with specific......The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  4. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shared Midgut Binding Sites for Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in Two Important Corn Pests, Ostrinia nubilalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Van Rie, Jeroen; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2013-01-01

    First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect populations. One of such examples is the combination of Cry1A.105 with Cry1Fa and Cry2Ab to control O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda. Cry1A.105 is a chimeric protein with domains I and II and the C-terminal half of the protein from Cry1Ac, and domain III almost identical to Cry1Fa. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the chimeric Cry1A.105 has shared binding sites either with Cry1A proteins, with Cry1Fa, or with both, in O. nubilalis and in S. frugiperda. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from last instar larval midguts were used in competition binding assays with 125I-labeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa, and unlabeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae. The results showed that Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa competed with high affinity for the same binding sites in both insect species. However, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae did not compete for the binding sites of Cry1 proteins. Therefore, according to our results, the development of cross-resistance among Cry1Ab/Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry1Fa proteins is possible in these two insect species if the alteration of shared binding sites occurs. Conversely, cross-resistance between these proteins and Cry2A proteins is very unlikely in such case. PMID:23861865

  6. Coregulation of Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Gene Expression by Methyl Jasmonate and Soluble Sugars 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Hugh S.; DeWald, Daryll B.; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668757

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Shang, Huey-Fang; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The purified dioscorin from yam (Dioscorea alata L. cv. Tainong 1) tuber was previously reported (Hsu et al., 2002. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 6109-6113). In this report, we evaluated its immunomodulatory ability in vitro in the presence of polymyxin B (50 microg/ml) to eliminate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was able to stimulate nitric oxide production (expressed as nitrite concentrations) in RAW264.7 cells. The stimulation index on the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells against E. coli and the oxidative burst (determined by the intensity of rhodamine fluorescence) of RAW264.7 cells were both enhanced by different concentrations of dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml). The cytokine production, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in dioscorin-treated RAW264.7 cells or human monocytes, was measured in the cultured medium. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was found able to induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta production in RAW264.7 cells and human monocytes. To evaluate the effects of dioscorin on the proliferation of spleen cells from BALB/c mice, phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 2 microg/ml) alone or PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml) was used to treat spleen cells for 24h. The stimulated proliferation index of splenic cells ranged from 1.38- to 1.48-fold of PHA alone for PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml). We suggest that the tuber storage protein of yam dioscorin functions as an immunomodulatory substance.

  8. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  9. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  10. Viability and growth promotion of starter and probiotic bacteria in yogurt supplemented with whey protein hydrolysate during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dąbrowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH addition on growth of standard yoghurt cultures and Bifidobacterium adolescentis during co-fermentation and its viability during storage at 4ºC in yoghurts has been evaluated. WPH was obtained with the use of serine protease from Y. lipolytica yeast. Stirred probiotic yoghurts were prepared by using whole milk standardized to 16% of dry matter with the addition of either whey protein concentrate, skim milk powder (SMP, WPH-SMP (ratio 1:1, WPH. The hydrolysate increased the yoghurt culture counts at the initial stage of fermentation and significantly inhibited the decrease in population viability throughout the storage at 4ºC in comparison to the control. The post-fermentation acidification was also retarded by the addition of WPH. The hydrolysate did not increase the Bifidobacterium adolescentis counts at the initial stage. However, the WPH significantly improved its viability. After 21 days of storage, in the yogurts supplemented with WPH, the population of these bacteria oscillated around 3.04 log10 CFU/g, while in samples where SMP or whey protein concentrate was used, the bacteria were no longer detected.

  11. Viability and growth promotion of starter and probiotic bacteria in yogurt supplemented with whey protein hydrolysate during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Babij, Konrad; Szołtysik, Marek; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2017-11-22

    The effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) addition on growth of standard yoghurt cultures and Bifidobacterium adolescentis during co-fermentation and its viability during storage at 4ºC in yoghurts has been evaluated. WPH was obtained with the use of serine protease from Y. lipolytica yeast. Stirred probiotic yoghurts were prepared by using whole milk standardized to 16% of dry matter with the addition of either whey protein concentrate, skim milk powder (SMP), WPH-SMP (ratio 1:1), WPH. The hydrolysate increased the yoghurt culture counts at the initial stage of fermentation and significantly inhibited the decrease in population viability throughout the storage at 4ºC in comparison to the control. The post-fermentation acidification was also retarded by the addition of WPH. The hydrolysate did not increase the Bifidobacterium adolescentis counts at the initial stage. However, the WPH significantly improved its viability. After 21 days of storage, in the yogurts supplemented with WPH, the population of these bacteria oscillated around 3.04 log10 CFU/g, while in samples where SMP or whey protein concentrate was used, the bacteria were no longer detected.

  12. A Comparative Assessment of the Broiler:Corn Ratio and Its Impact on Broiler Processors' Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Sandra J.; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.; McKenzie, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Input prices for broiler production, particularly corn, are becoming increasingly volatile due to increasing competition for corn from ethanol and biofuels production suggesting volatility in poultry profits will follow indicator of profits relating feed input prices and broiler meat output prices, such as a Broiler:corn ratios. Total chicken exports, total chicken ready-to-cook production, number of eggs set, number of chicks placed, and cold storage chicken inventory are used to estimate. U...

  13. Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rule, D.M.; Nolting, S.P.; Prasfika, P.L.; Storer, N.P.; Hopkins, B.W.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Siebert, M.W.; Hendrix, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range of lepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to

  14. Diel pattern of circadian clock and storage protein gene expression in leaves and during seed filling in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julia; Terry, Marta I; Martos-Fuentes, Marina; Letourneux, Lisa; Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Fernández, Juan A; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2018-02-14

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock. We identified cowpea orthologues of the core clock genes VunLHY, VunTOC1, VunGI and VunELF3, the protein storage genes VunLEG, VunLEGJ, and VunCVC as well as nine candidate reference genes used in RT-PCR. ELONGATION FACTOR 1-A (ELF1A) resulted the most suitable reference gene. The clock genes VunELF3, VunGI, VunTOC1 and VunLHY showed a rhythmic expression profile in leaves with a typical evening/night and morning/midday phased expression. The diel patterns were not completely robust and only VungGI and VungELF3 retained a rhythmic pattern under free running conditions of darkness. Under field conditions, rhythmicity and phasing apparently faded during early pod and seed development and was regained in ripening pods for VunTOC1 and VunLHY. Mature seeds showed a rhythmic expression of VunGI resembling leaf tissue under controlled growth chamber conditions. Comparing time windows during developmental stages we found that VunCVC and VunLEG were significantly down regulated during the night in mature pods as compared to intermediate ripe pods, while changes in seeds were non-significant due to high variance. The rhythmic expression under field conditions was lost under growth chamber conditions. The core clock gene network is conserved in cowpea leaves showing a robust diel expression pattern except VunELF3 under growth chamber conditions. There appears to be a clock transcriptional reprogramming in pods and seeds compared to

  15. Low-airflow drying of fungicide-treated shelled corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.H.; Benson, P.W.

    1993-02-01

    Approved fungicides inhibit mold growth in shelled corn and allow for longer, natural-air drying. The longer drying periods permit lower than-normal airflows and smaller power units, thus reducing electrical demands on utilities in corn-producing states. Researchers placed approximately 67 m 3 (1900 bu) of one variety of shelled corn at approximately 24% moisture in each of five equally sized storage bins. They partitioned each bin vertically and filled one half of each bin with fungicide-treated corn and one half with untreated corn. Each of four bins used a different airflow. A fifth bin used the lowest of the four airflows but was equipped to capture and use solar energy. All corn dried rapidly with resulting good quality. The percentage of damaged kernels was significantly higher for untreated than for treated corn. The energy required for the lowest airflow system was approximately one half of that required for the higher, more traditional airflows. Because of lower-than-normal airflows, the electrical demand on the utility is approximately one fourth as great as that imposed when the higher, more traditional natural-air systems are used. The 1991 corn growing and drying seasons were unusual in central Illinois, the site of the study. Both harvest and drying occurred several weeks ahead of schedule. Additional work is needed to verify that findings hold true during more-normal Midwest corn growing and drying seasons; the investigators predict that they will. It should be noted that the fungicide used in this study has not yet been approved for widespread use in drying corn

  16. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations

  17. Investigation of total seed storage proteins of pakistani and japanese maize (zea mays l.) through sds-page markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of genetic diversity among the members of a species is of vital importance for successful breeding and adaptability. In the present study 83 genotypes of maize of Pakistani and Japanese origin were evaluated for the total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) through vertical slab unit. The total protein subunits were separated on 12% polyacrylamide gel using standard protocols. A total of 18 protein subunits were noted out of which 7 (39%) were monomorphic and 11 (61%) were polymorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 10 to 122 kDa. Coefficients of similarity among the accessions ranged between 0.89 and 1.00. The dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering method showed two main clusters: 1 and 2. First cluster comprised of 9 genotypes including Sahiwal-2002, while second cluster contained 74 genotypes including Aaiti-2002 and Sadaf. Over all a low level of polymorphism was observed in total seed storage protein patterns of maize genotypes from Pakistan as well as Japan. It is inferred from the present study that more genotypes of maize could be brought under study and more advanced biochemical techniques with more reliable results could be followed to bring assessment of genetic diversity of maize for planning breeding programs. (author)

  18. Properties and regulation of biosynthesis of cottonseed storage proteins. Comprehensive progress report, December 1, 1976 to September 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, III, L S

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression in cotton seed embryogenesis was studied by attempting to define what gene products are likely to be highly regulated during this developmental progression. The flow of nitrogen into the free amino acids pools of the developing cotyledons, and into the principal nitrogen nutritional reserve of the seed, the storage proteins was measured. This was continued by following the flow of nitrogen from the storage proteins to the principal exported amino acid asparagine that occurs during the first several days of germination. In this fashion the rise and fall of certain enzymes of amino acid intermediary metabolism could be postulated, and in some cases, verified. The subsets of abundant mRNAs whose appearance and disappearance coincided with developmental events in cotyledon embryogenesis/germination with the short range goal of identifying proteins/enzyme activities were delineated as well as their mRNAs that represent specific developmental stages and the long range goal of using these representatives as probes for studying the mechanisms controlling the rise and fall of these mRNAs and their protein products.

  19. Ensuring microbiological safety and extending the shelf life of shelled sweet corn kernels using hurdle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra

    2015-01-01

    Shelled sweet corn kernels are prone to microbial contaminations due to high moisture and nutrient contents. Post harvest handling further aggravates the condition and makes the product highly perishable and unsafe. In freshly shelled kernels total aerobic plate count, yeast mold count and presumptive coliforms were found to be ∼ 8, 7, and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. IMViC analysis confirmed presence of opportunistic pathogens like Escherichia coli and Enterobacteraerogenes in these samples. Besides, occurrence of mycotoxin such as ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as a possible carcinogenic compound, was found to be high in sweet corn samples spiked with toxigenic strain. To address this issue, a combination process including NaOCl washing (200 ppm for 5 min), hot water blanching (60℃ for 5 min), air drying, LDPE packaging, and finally gamma radiation (5 kGy) treatment was developed. The developed combination process was found to reduce microbial load to below detectable level and quite effectively inactivated Aspergillusochraceus spores as well as pre-formed toxin. These treatments were not found to affect the contents of biochemical constituents such as total and reducing sugars, proteins, phenolics, and flavonoids during storage. Prophylactic properties in terms of antioxidant capacity and potential to suppress chemical induced mutagenesis were not affected in these samples. Physical properties and sensory qualities were also found to be similar to fresh (control). Thus, the developed combination process ensured microbiological safety and extended shelf life of sweet corn kernels up to 30 days at 4℃ . (author)

  20. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Tongjun; Han, Linna; Liu, Yongmei

    2009-11-23

    Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic beta-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p corn silk extract 15 days later. Also, the body weight of the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice was increased gradually. However, ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin and gluconeogenesis induced by L-alanine were not inhibited by corn silk extract treatment (p > 0.05). Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05). Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured beta-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  1. Armazenamento de sementes de arroz e milho em diferentes embalagens e localidades paulistas Storage of rice and corn seeds in different containers and localities of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Razera

    1986-01-01

    -resistant plastic bag. The seeds were then maintained under non-controlled room temperature conditions in the localities of Campinas and Ubatuba, both in the State of São Paulo, and tested for moisture content at every three month interval for a period of 36 months. The seeds stored at Ubatuba deteriorated faster than those stored at Campinas, mainly when packed in water vapor permeable containers. For example, at Campinas, rice seeds held in cloth bags maintained seed germination higher than 80% up to 15 months, while those at Ubatuba did so only up to 6 months. Packing seeds in 0.25 mm thick plastic films was advantageous, mainly at Ubatuba where the germination of the corn seeds, for example, was null after 15 months when held in the other containers, and 97.5% when held in the plastic films. The packages made with cloth, paper, and 5 x 5 and 5 x 6 woven plastic gave similar results for the preservation of seed germination and vigor. This indicated the great difficulty, or even the impossibility of storing seeds in warm and humid areas, like Ubatuba, unless the storage temperature and/or relative humidity are controlled, or seed moisture is reduced to relatively low levels (10-11% or less and seeds are packed in a moisture-resistant container. The water vapor permeable containers showed to be adequate to mantain seed viability and vigor in regions with more favorable climate.

  2. Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

  3. Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

  4. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  5. Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas decne) with carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibitor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Liu, J S; Chen, H J; Chen, T E; Chang, C F; Lin, Y H

    1999-05-01

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne), was purified successively by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DE-52 ion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-75 column. Two protein bands (82 and 28 kDa) were found under nonreducing conditions after SDS-PAGE; but only one band (32 kDa) was detected under reducing conditions. The first 21 amino acids in the N-terminal region of the 28 kDa form were VEDEFSYIEGNPNGPENWGNL, which was highly homologous to deductive sequence of dioscorin from cDNA of another yam species (Dioscoreacayenensis Lam) reported by Conlan et al. (Plant Mol. Biol. 1995, 28, 369-380). Hewett-Emmett and Tashian (Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 1996, 5, 50 -77) mentioned that, according to DNA alignments, dioscorin from yam (D. cayenensis) was alpha-carbonic anhydrase (alpha-CA) related. In this report, we found that the purified dioscorin showed both CA dehydration activity using sodium bicarbonate as a substrate and CA activity staining after SDS-PAGE. A polyclonal antibody, which was raised against trypsin inhibitor (TI), a storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam var. Tainong 57), cross-reacted with dioscorin, which also showed TI activity determined by both activity staining after SDS-PAGE and trypsin inhibition determination.

  6. Effects of abscisic acid and high osmoticum on storage protein gene expression in microspore embryos of Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, R.W.; Mandel, R.M.; Pharis, R.P.; Moloney, M.M.; Holbrook, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Storage protein gene expression, characteristic of mid- to late embryogenesis, was investigated in microspore embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus). These embryos, derived from the immature male gametophyte, accumulate little or no detectable napin or cruciferin mRNA when cultured on hormone-free medium containing 13% sucrose. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to the medium results in an increase in detectable transcripts encoding both these polypeptides. Storage protein mRNA is induced at 1 micromolar ABA with maximum stimulation occurring between 5 and 50 micromolar. This hormone induction results in a level of storage protein mRNA that is comparable to that observed in zygotic embryos of an equivalent morphological stage. Effects similar to that of ABA are noted when 12.5% sorbitol is added to the microspore embryo medium (osmotic potential = 25.5 bars). Time course experiments, to study the induction of napin and cruciferin gene expression demonstrated that the ABA effect occurred much more rapidly than the high osmoticum effect, although after 48 hours, the levels of napin or cruciferin mRNA detected were similar in both treatments. This difference in the rates of induction is consistent with the idea that the osmotic effect may be mediated by ABA which is synthesized in response to the reduced water potential. Measurements of ABA (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using [ 2 H 6 ]ABA as an internal standard) present in microspore embryos during sorbitol treatment and in embryos treated with 10 micromolar ABA were performed to investigate this possibility. Within 2 hours of culture on high osmoticum the level of ABA increased substantially and significantly above control and reached a maximum concentration within 24 hours. This elevated concentration was maintained for 48 hours after culturing and represents a sixfold increase over control embryos

  7. Isolation and characterisation of cDNA clones representing the genes encoding the major tuber storage protein (dioscorin) of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, R S; Griffiths, L A; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R; Mantell, S; Ainsworth, C

    1995-06-01

    cDNA clones encoding dioscorins, the major tuber storage proteins (M(r) 32,000) of yam (Dioscorea cayenesis) have been isolated. Two classes of clone (A and B, based on hybrid release translation product sizes and nucleotide sequence differences) which are 84.1% similar in their protein coding regions, were identified. The protein encoded by the open reading frame of the class A cDNA insert is of M(r) 30,015. The difference in observed and calculated molecular mass might be attributed to glycosylation. Nucleotide sequencing and in vitro transcription/translation suggest that the class A dioscorin proteins are synthesised with signal peptides of 18 amino acid residues which are cleaved from the mature peptide. The class A and class B proteins are 69.6% similar with respect to each other, but show no sequence identity with other plant proteins or with the major tuber storage proteins of potato (patatin) or sweet potato (sporamin). Storage protein gene expression was restricted to developing tubers and was not induced by growth conditions known to induce expression of tuber storage protein genes in other plant species. The codon usage of the dioscorin genes suggests that the Dioscoreaceae are more closely related to dicotyledonous than to monocotyledonous plants.

  8. Genetic mapping and validation of the loci controlling 7S α' and 11S A-type storage protein subunits in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jeffrey D; Nguyen, Vi; Tashiro, Rebecca M; Anderson, Dale; Shi, Chun; Wu, Xiaoguang; Woodrow, Lorna; Yu, Kangfu; Cui, Yuhai; Li, Zenglu

    2018-03-01

    Four soybean storage protein subunit QTLs were mapped using bulked segregant analysis and an F 2 population, which were validated with an F 5 RIL population. The storage protein globulins β-conglycinin (7S subunit) and glycinin (11S subunits) can affect the quantity and quality of proteins found in soybean seeds and account for more than 70% of the total soybean protein. Manipulating the storage protein subunits to enhance soymeal nutrition and for desirable tofu manufacturing characteristics are two end-use quality goals in soybean breeding programs. To aid in developing soybean cultivars with desired seed composition, an F 2 mapping population (n = 448) and an F 5 RIL population (n = 180) were developed by crossing high protein cultivar 'Harovinton' with the breeding line SQ97-0263_3-1a, which lacks the 7S α', 11S A 1 , 11S A 2 , 11S A 3 and 11S A 4 subunits. The storage protein composition of each individual in the F 2 and F 5 populations were profiled using SDS-PAGE. Based on the presence/absence of the subunits, genomic DNA bulks were formed among the F 2 plants to identify genomic regions controlling the 7S α' and 11S protein subunits. By utilizing polymorphic SNPs between the bulks characterized with Illumina SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChips at targeted genomic regions, KASP assays were designed and used to map QTLs causing the loss of the subunits. Soybean storage protein QTLs were identified on Chromosome 3 (11S A 1 ), Chromosome 10 (7S α' and 11S A 4 ), and Chromosome 13 (11S A 3 ), which were also validated in the F 5 RIL population. The results of this research could allow for the deployment of marker-assisted selection for desired storage protein subunits by screening breeding populations using the SNPs linked with the subunits of interest.

  9. A storage-protein marker associated with the suppressor of Pm8 for powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S X; McIntosh, R A; Sharp, P J; The, T T

    1996-11-01

    A suppressor of resistance to powdery mildew conferred by Pm8 showed complete association with the presence of a storage-protein marker resolved by electrophoresis on SDS-PAGE gels. This marker was identified as the product of the gliadin allele Gli-A1a. The mildewresponse phenotypes of wheats possessing the 1BL.1RS translocation were completely predictable from electrophoretograms. The suppressor, designated SuPm8, was located on chromosome 1AS. It was specific in its suppression of Pm8, and did not affect the rye-derived resistance phenotypes of wheat lines with Pm17, also located in 1RS, or of lines with Pm7.

  10. Analysis of iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues in comparison with human liver ferritin by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M.I.; Milder, O.B.; Semionkin, V.A.; Malakheeva, L.I.; Prokopenko, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of iron storage proteins in liver and spleen from normal chicken and chicken with lymphoid leukemia in comparison with human liver ferritin were considered by Moessbauer spectroscopy (preliminary results). Small differences in Moessbauer hyperfine parameters for both normal and lymphoid leukemia chicken liver and spleen were observed. The value of quadrupole splitting for human liver ferritin was higher than those for chicken tissues. A decrease of iron content in lymphoid leukemia chicken tissues was also found, however, the reason of this fact (pathology or feeding) was not clear yet. (author)

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Corn Silk on Skin Pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Yoon Choi; Yeonmi Lee; Sung Soo Kim; Hyun Min Ju; Ji Hwoon Baek; Chul-Soo Park; Dong-Hyuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin prod...

  12. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  13. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  14. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  15. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P cooking. Gel-setting conditions had a greater (P cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre-cooking gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Protein mobilities and P-selectin storage in Weibel–Palade bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskin, Nikolai I.; Hellen, Nicola; Babich, Victor; Hewlett, Lindsay; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J.; Carter, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we measured the mobilities of EGFP-tagged soluble secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in individual Weibel–Palade bodies (WPBs) at early (immature) and late (mature) stages in their biogenesis. Membrane proteins (P-selectin, CD63, Rab27a) were also studied in individual WPBs. In the ER, soluble secretory proteins were mobile; however, following insertion into immature WPBs larger molecules (VWF, Proregion, tPA) and P...

  17. Performance of starter in yogurt supplemented with soy protein isolate and biotransformation of isoflavones during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T Thuy; Shah, Nagendra P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, soy protein isolate (SPI) (4%, v/w) was supplemented to the yogurt mix to increase the amount of biologically active isoflavone in yogurt (SY). The control yogurt was without any SPI supplementation (USY). The supplementation significantly (P yogurt starter including Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (Lb 11842) and Streptococcus thermophilus ST 1342 (ST 1342) during the fermentation process by 4.7%. The starter produced more acetic acid and less lactic acid in SY than that in USY and altered the ratio of lactic and acetic acid during the entire storage period. The viability of both Lb 11842 and ST 1342 in SY was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in USY from 14 d of the storage period, however, their concentration still remained high (8.11 to 8.84 log CFU/g). The starter transformed 72.8% of total inactive isoflavone glycosides (IG) to active isoflavone aglycones (IA), increasing the IA content from 1.35 to 15.01 mg/100 g sample. During the storage period, IA concentration slowly rose from 15.02 to 15.51 mg/100 g sample.

  18. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SM protein by the protein from the corn gluten flour (CGF, in the milk production, milk composition, voluntary intake and plasmatic urea. The experimental design was the triple Latin square 4x4, with four periods of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation to the diet and seven days for samples collection. The goats were fed and milked in the morning and afternoon. The substitution levels studied were: 0, 10, 30 and 50% of CGF (based in the crude protein. The substitution of the soybean meal by CGM did not affect the intake (kg/day and %BW of dry matter, crude protein and acid detergent fiber, but there was quadratic effect for neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day and %BW. There was effect on the levels of plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN, where the smallest values were in the intermediate levels of substitution, being the biggest values for the treatment with only SM. The milk production decreased lineally with the inclusion of CGM. The substitution levels resulted in lineal decrease in the fat production (kg/day, in the milk fat content (% and milk total solids content (%. There was quadratic effect for lactose production, being the smallest value for 31.6% of substitution level. It was no effect on in crude protein in the milk, which average was .083 kg/day. The crude protein content, lactose and total solids did not suffer effect of the substitution levels, being the average values of 2.98, 4.35 and 11.51%, respectively.

  19. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  20. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  1. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  2. seed storage proteins arl2 and its variants from the apa locus of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sion of arcelin and ARL2 tepary bean proteins. Furthermore, a reduction in size and weight of emerged adult insects to almost half was observed. This work demonstrates the superior resistance common bean backcross lines to A. obtectus conferred by the presence of the APA proteins introgressed from tepary bean.

  3. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg -1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ibl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites.

  5. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  6. Protein aggregation in aqueous casein solution. Effect of irradiation, dose level, concentration, storage and additives (carbohydrate and lipid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousri, R M

    1980-06-01

    From the vast amount of research efforts dealing with various aspects of radiation effects on foods and food components, it is apparent up to now that much remains to be studied in depth, much may have to be added or corrected about radiation-induced physico-chemical changes in foods. A great many reactions that take place when foodstuffs are subjected to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. The better understanding of some of the radiation-induced changes in pure proteins as such or in mixture with other food constituents could yield much data which could be meaningfully extrapolated to intact foods and consequently could help to improve the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. It was the purpose of our investigations to elucidate some of the changes in the chemical structure of a pure protein (casein), irradiated as such or with added carbohydrate and/or lipid. The effect of subsequent storage of the irradiated solutions has been also examined. The formation of protein aggregates was studied by gel filtration technique. The application of thin-layer gel filtration, its speed and adaptability to very small samples facilitated the measurements of the extent of aggregation which occurred in protein molecules after irradiation.

  7. Influence of sodium nitrite on protein oxidation and nitrosation of sausages subjected to processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Jia, Xu; Guo, Yan; Lei, Na; Hackman, Robert M; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of NaNO2 content on protein oxidation and nitrosation was investigated in cooked sausages at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg NaNO2/kg). Dependent on concentration, NaNO2 had both anti- and pro-oxidant effects on protein oxidation. The antioxidant effects of NaNO2 on the protein oxidation were evidenced by significantly lower carbonyl contents, higher free amines and lower surface hydrophobicities. The pro-oxidant effects of NaNO2 on protein oxidation resulted in a decrease of sulfhydryls and an increase of disulfide bonds. NaNO2 also improved the protein nitrosation inducing the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Moreover, 3-NT had significant correlations with parameters of protein oxidation, indicating that 3-NT may be a possible marker for protein oxidation. Results of this study contribute to an understanding of the impact of NaNO2 on food quality and help to identify optimal formulations of cured meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory effect of corn silk on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Sung Soo; Ju, Hyun Min; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyuk

    2014-03-03

    In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Corn Silk on Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  10. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  11. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J. Richard; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Perlack, Robert; Turhollow, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes

  12. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  13. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  14. Biological activities and applications of dioscorins, the major tuber storage proteins of yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yeh-Lin; Chia, Cho-Yun; Liu, Yen-Wenn; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Yam tubers, a common tuber crop and an important traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan, have many bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds, mucilage polysaccharides, steroidal saponins and proteins. Among the total soluble proteins, 80% of them are dioscorins. In the past two decades, many studies showed that dioscorins exhibited biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, including the enzymatic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and the protecting role on airway epithelial cells against allergens in vitro. Some of these activities are survived after chemical, heating process or enzymatic digestion. Despite of lacking the intact structural information and the detail action mechanisms in the cells, yam dioscorins are potential resources for developing as functional foods and interesting targets for food protein researchers.

  15. Biological Activities and Applications of Dioscorins, the Major Tuber Storage Proteins of Yam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Lin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam tubers, a common tuber crop and an important traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan, have many bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds, mucilage polysaccharides, steroidal saponins and proteins. Among the total soluble proteins, 80% of them are dioscorins. In the past two decades, many studies showed that dioscorins exhibited biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, including the enzymatic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and the protecting role on airway epithelial cells against allergens in vitro. Some of these activities are survived after chemical, heating process or enzymatic digestion. Despite of lacking the intact structural information and the detail action mechanisms in the cells, yam dioscorins are potential resources for developing as functional foods and interesting targets for food protein researchers.

  16. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  17. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  18. The Wandering of Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Salov, Valerii

    2017-01-01

    Time and Sales of corn futures traded electronically on the CME Group Globex are studied. Theories of continuous prices turn upside down reality of intra-day trading. Prices and their increments are discrete and obey lattice probability distributions. A function for systematic evolution of futures trading volume is proposed. Dependence between sample skewness and kurtosis of waiting times does not support hypothesis of Weibull distribution. Kumaraswamy distribution is more suitable for waitin...

  19. Storage influence on the functional, sensory and keeping quality of quality protein maize flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, D; Kumar, H V Dileep; Sreeramasetty, T A; Puttaramanaik; Gowda, K T Pandurange; Shivakumar, G B

    2014-11-01

    Apart from nutritional values functional and sensory properties affect the behavior of food system and its acceptability for consumption during storage. Hence keeping quality of maize flour (HQPM-7) with and without lime treatment(control) was studied in terms of functional (bulk density, pH, swelling capacity, water and oil absorption capacity, least gelation concentration, peroxide value), sensory (appearance, color, taste, texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability) and rolling parameters (water absorption by flour, rolling quality, diameter after baking ) for a period of 6 months under room temperature (25 ± 5 °C) in two types of packages viz, LDPE cover (P) and plastic box (B). Physical parameters such as length, breadth and thickness (11.26-10.52 mm, 9.67-9.14 mm, & 4.72-3.95 mm) were reduced in lime treated grains compared to control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in ash content of lime treated flour (1.67 ± 0.01 g) was observed compared to control (1.5 ± 0.02 g). Calcium content of lime treated maize flour increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 48 to 136 mg. There is a significant reduction in functional properties of flour after 3 and 2 months irrespective in polyethylene cover and plastic box. The properties like rolling quality, diameter after baking and water uptake by the flour were reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after 4 months of storage in treated and after 1 month in control samples. Sensory scores of roti (dry pan cake) decreased significantly after 3 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 4.0 and 3.4. In control samples mean taste (3.6), mouth feel (3.8) as well as OAA scores (3.8) decreased after second month. Hence lime treated maize flour with added nutritional benefits is suitable for making rotis of good palatability and can be stored in LDPE covers up to 3 months.

  20. The Use of Legume Seed for Expression and Storage of High Value Proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Tomáš; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2014), s. 69-76 ISSN 1212-1975 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1761 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : pea * pharming * protein bodies Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2014 http://agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/124126.pdf

  1. Changes in microbial populations of WPC34 and WPC80 whey protein during long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of whey protein (WPC34 and WPC80) as a food ingredient and as a base for making biodegradable products is increasing. The need to alleviate world hunger in arid and semi-arid regions demands that we investigate the behavior of native bacteria in these products, especially during long term st...

  2. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  3. Soybean protein-based microparticles for oral delivery of probiotics with improved stability during storage and gut resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrero, C; Irache, J M; González-Navarro, C J

    2018-01-15

    The present work describes the encapsulation of probiotics using a by-product as wall material and a process feasible to be scaled-up: coacervation of soybean protein concentrate (SPC) by using calcium salts and spray-drying. SPC was extracted from soybean flour, produced during the processing of soybean milk, by alkaline extraction following isoelectric precipitation. Two probiotic strains were selected for encapsulation (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 475) in order to evaluate the ability of SPC to encapsulate and protect bacteria from stress conditions. The viability of these encapsulated strains under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions and shelf-life during storage were compared with the most common forms commercialized nowadays. Results show that SPC is a feasible material for the development of probiotic microparticles with adequate physicochemical properties and enhanced significantly both probiotic viability and tolerance against simulated gastrointestinal fluids when compared to current available commercial forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimers of G-Protein Coupled Receptors as Versatile Storage and Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The status and use of transmembrane, extracellular and intracellular domains in oligomerization of heptahelical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are reviewed and for transmembrane assemblies also supplemented by new experimental evidence. The transmembrane-linked GPCR oligomers typically have as the minimal unit an asymmetric ~180 kDa pentamer consisting of receptor homodimer or heterodimer and a G-protein αβγ subunit heterotrimer. With neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors, this assembly is converted to ~90 kDa receptor monomer-Gα complex by receptor and Gα agonists, and dimers/heteropentamers are depleted by neutralization of Gαi subunits by pertussis toxin. Employing gradient centrifugation, quantification and other characterization of GPCR dimers at the level of physically isolated and identified heteropentamers is feasible with labeled agonists that do not dissociate upon solubilization. This is demonstrated with three neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors and could apply to many receptors that use large peptidic agonists.

  5. Purification and partial characterization of storage proteins in Lupinus angustifolius seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus angustifolius seed proteins have been purified by sequential dialysis and ion exchange chromatography, and their amino acid composition has been studied in order to determine their nutritional value as sources of essential amino acids. Albumins include a great variety of proteins. Globulins were resolved in α, β and δ conglutins. Conglutin α is the main protein in the seeds of L. angustifolius, representing 76.6% of the total. While lysine was found to be the limiting amino acid in L. Angustifolius seed proteins as a whole, tyrosine was the limiting amino acid in albumins, and methione and lysine were limiting in globulins. Lysine, methionine and histidine were limiting amino acids in  α conglutin.Se ha realizado una purificación por diálisis secuencial y cromatografía de intercambio iónico de las proteínas de la semilla de L. angustifolius, y su composición en aminoácidos ha sido estudiada para determinar su valor nutricional como fuentes de aminoácidos esenciales. Las albúminas están compuestas por una compleja mezcla de proteínas. Las globulinas se resolvieron en conglutinas α, β y δ. La conglutina  α es la proteína más abundante en las semillas de L. angustifolius representando el 76.6% del total. Las proteínas de la semilla de L. angustifolius son limitantes en lisina. Las albúminas son limitantes en tirosina y las globulinas en metionina y lisina. La α conglutina es limitante en lisina, metionina e histidina.

  6. 77 FR 47287 - Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... would be non-toxic to mammals. When proteins are toxic, they are known to act via acute mechanisms and..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This... Act of 1995 (UMRA) (Pub. L. 104-4). This action does not involve any technical standards that would...

  7. Incidência e viabilidade de sementes crioulas de milho naturalmente infestadas com fungos em pré e pós-armazenamento Incidence and viability of creole seeds of corn naturally infested with fungi in pre-and post-storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira Catão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de quatorze variedades de sementes de milho crioulas em pré e pós-armazenamento em embalagens de polietileno tereftalato (PET. Houve efeito das variedades e das épocas de avaliações sobre a incidência de fungos e germinação. Dentre a micobiota observada, Fusarium moniliforme (88%, Penicillium spp. (6,9% e Aspergillus spp. (2,1% tiveram a maior porcentagem de incidência. Após o armazenamento, houve decréscimo de F. moniliforme (69% e aumento de Penicillium spp. (35% e Aspergillus spp. (22%. A incidência desses fungos não comprometeu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes, que apresentaram elevadas porcentagens de vigor e germinação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanitary and physiological quality of fourteen varieties of creole corn seeds in pre-and post-storage in packaging of polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Among the mycobiota observed Fusarium moniliforme (88%, Penicillium spp. (6,9% and Aspergillus spp. (2,1% had the highest incidence. After storage there was a slight decrease in the percentage of F. moniliforme (69% and a increase of Penicillium spp. (35% and Aspergillus spp. (22%. The incidence of these fungi did not compromise the physiological quality of seeds that showed high percentages of vigor and germination.

  8. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among some accessions of sage (Salvia officinalis L. using electrophoresis of seed storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Mirjalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salvia (Lamiaceae comprises over 900 species in the world, with a relatively wide dispersion in the Iran’s flora. Until now, about 58 species of the genus have been reported and identified in Iran, in which 17 of them were endemic. In order to study, investigate and evaluate the intraspecific diversity, similarity and dissimilarity among Iranian Salvia officinalis accessions, an experiment was carried out using SDS-PAGE technique. In this study, the seeds from five accessions were collected from gene bank and were evaluated. The seed storage proteins were extracted by buffers and were measured. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed according to presence and absence of bands on the gel. A dendrogram was prepared using calculation of the accession’s similarity index. Mean comparison were done by Tukey’s test. The seed protein contents showed significant differences (p≤0.01 among accessions. A total of 39 bands were indicated on the gel. The maximum diversity was detected in the accession No. 2 while, the lowest band’s number were recorded with the accessions No. 1 and 5. Based on dendrogram, the accessions were divided into two groups; one includes accession No. 1 and 4 other accessions were located in the second group further classified into two subgroup including accessions No. 2 and 3 in one clade and accessions No. 4 and 5 in the other ones.

  10. Compositional analysis of genetically modified corn events (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared to conventional corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Abbott, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops continues to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment for these materials. The present study was designed to detect the genetic modifications and investigate the compositional analysis of GM corn containing traits of multiple genes (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared with non-GM corn. Values for most biochemical components assessed for the GM corn samples were similar to those of the non-GM control or were within the literature range. Significant increases were observed in protein, fat, fiber and fatty acids of the GM corn samples. The observed increases may be due to the synergistic effect of new traits introduced into corn varieties. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis showed high similarity among the protein fractions of the investigated corn samples. These data indicate that GM corn samples were compositionally equivalent to, and as nutritious as, non-GM corn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  12. Self-assembly of caseinomacropeptide as a potential key mechanism in the formation of visible storage induced aggregates in acidic whey protein isolate dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Nanna Stengaard; Jensen, Hanne Bak; Thu Le, Thao Thi

    2015-01-01

    Visible aggregates formed during storage in acidic whey protein isolate (WPI) dispersions represent a challenge to the beverage industry. Batch-to-batch variations are observed that prevents consistent quality and shelf-life prediction. Heat-treatment of WPI dispersions at 120°C for 20s instead...

  13. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were randomly subjected to four treatments...

  14. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  15. Effect of hydrolysis enzymatic process of corn using protease crude (Rhizopus oligosporus-C1) to produce corn hydrolisate rich folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-11-01

    Corn hydrolyzate (Zea mays L) as a functional food fortificant derived from natural folic acid has been evaluated through a hydrolysis process using protease enzyme Rhizopus oligosporus strain C1. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on two types of corn; yellow and white pearl variety corn, at concentration of protease enzyme (rough) 0.025; 0.125; and 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) with a hydrolysis time of 24 h at 30 °C, and pH 5.0. The results showed that the concentration of protease enzymes can increase the folic acid to the optimum condition, from the beginning to the end of the process time. Folic acid optimization of hydrolysis results in each corn was at the concentration of protease enzyme 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) in white corn and yellow corn at 24 hours hydrolysis, with folic acid composition, 283.56 µg/mL and 412.52 µg/mL, 1.07 and 1.04 mg/mL of soluble proteins, proteolytic activity 2.09 and 2.06 U/mL, total solids of 21.74 and 17.85%, total sugars of 0.56 and 2.22 mg/mL, and reducing sugar 91.72 and 48.47 mg/mL. In this condition, the increase of optimum folic acid for white corn was 33.57% and for yellow corn was 71.60% after hydrolysis.

  16. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  17. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  18. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extending the shelf life of fresh sweet corn by shrink-wrapping, refrigeration, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical, physical, sensory, and microbiological changes were monitored during storage of unwrapped and shrink-wrapped fresh sweet corn at 10 degree and 20 degree C. Wrapping essentially eliminated moisture loss and resulted in elevated carbon dioxide and decreased oxygen concentrations within packages. These effects, together with refrigeration markedly reduced the changes associated with senscence and post harvest deterioration, and hence resulted in at least a threefold extension in shelf life. The water-saturated atmosphere, however, enhanced microbial growth on shrink-wrapped corn. The initial microbial population was effectively decreased by treating the wrapped corn with 0.5 or 1.0 kGy (Co 60 ) irradiation

  1. Microbiological and technological quality of corn and faba bean as affected by varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, B.M.; Swailam, H.M.H.; Elsamahy, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of corn and faba bean grains subjected to different doses of gamma radiation. The microbiological, physical and physicochemical properties of irradiated grains were assessed as compared with control. corn starch was extracted from irradiated corn grains and its quality evaluated. The results showed that increasing irradiation dose caused a gradual reduction in total bacterial counts, counts of spore forming bacteria, coliform group, mold and yeast in corn grains. The same trend applies to the effect of storage period for irradiated samples. 7.5 KGy was found to eliminate all microorganisms. Increasing irradiation dose from 1.0 to 10.0 KGy caused an increase in soundness number and water absorption of corn grains, acidity, reducing power and solubility of isolated starch while the swelling power and water binding capacity of starch were reduced. The rate of change during storage period was lower in the irradiated samples than in the untreated ones. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  3. Fontes protéicas e energéticas com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais para vacas em lactação = Protein (raw or rosted soybeans and energy (coursely ground or steamflaked corn sources with varying ruminal degradabilities for lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éberson de Castilho Barnabé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a combinação de fontes de energia e proteína com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais. Foram utilizadas quatro vacas multíparas (23 kg leite dia-1 em Quadrado Latino 4 x 4 com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: duas fontes de proteína (soja crua ou tostada e duas de energia (milho moído, grosso oufloculado. O tratamento com milho moído grosso e soja tostada resultou em maior consumo de matéria seca (p 0,05 o desempenho lactacional. A tostagem da soja e a floculação do milho diminuíram (p The objective of this trial was the evaluation of ruminal degradation synchrony of protein and energy sources. Four Holstein cows (23 kg day-1 were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design and 2 x 2 factorial arrangement: two protein (raw vs. roasted soybeans with two energy sources (coarsely ground vs. steam-flaked corn. Dry matter intake was higher for cows fed coarsely ground corn with roasted soybean (p 0.05. Rumen pH was not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. Both roasted soybeans and flaking of corn decreased rumen ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.01. Animal fed steamflaked corn tended showed higher total VFA molar concentrations (p = 0.10, but there were no treatments effect on ruminal pH. A higher (p = 0.06 ruminal starch digestibility was observed for raw soybean treatment.

  4. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun

    2018-03-14

    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  5. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM proteins are related to lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Hayes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM proteins have been implicated in the partitioning of triacylglycerol to lipid droplets and the budding of lipid droplets from the ER. At the molecular level, the sole relevant interaction is that FITMs directly bind to triacyglycerol and diacylglycerol, but how they function at the molecular level is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two FITM homologues: Scs3p and Yft2p. Scs3p was initially identified because deletion leads to inositol auxotrophy, with an unusual sensitivity to addition of choline. This strongly suggests a role for Scs3p in phospholipid biosynthesis. Looking at the FITM family as widely as possible, we found that FITMs are widespread throughout eukaryotes, indicating presence in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Protein alignments also showed that FITM sequences contain the active site of lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase (LPT enzymes. This large family transfers phosphate-containing headgroups either between lipids or in exchange for water. We confirmed the prediction that FITMs are related to LPTs by showing that single amino-acid substitutions in the presumptive catalytic site prevented their ability to rescue growth of the mutants on low inositol/high choline media when over-expressed. The substitutions also prevented rescue of other phenotypes associated with loss of FITM in yeast, including mistargeting of Opi1p, defective ER morphology, and aberrant lipid droplet budding. These results suggest that Scs3p, Yft2p and FITMs in general are LPT enzymes involved in an as yet unknown critical step in phospholipid metabolism.

  6. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  7. Postnatal Deletion of Fat Storage-inducing Transmembrane Protein 2 (FIT2/FITM2) Causes Lethal Enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Tan, Bryan C; Seow, Colin; Ong, Wei-Yi; Lim, Yen Ching; Sun, Lei; Ghosh, Sujoy; Silver, David L

    2015-10-16

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are phylogenetically conserved cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids within a phospholipid monolayer. LDs compartmentalize lipids and may help to prevent cellular damage caused by their excess or bioactive forms. FIT2 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that has previously been implicated in LD formation in mammalian cells and tissue. Recent data indicate that FIT2 plays an essential role in fat storage in an in vivo constitutive adipose FIT2 knock-out mouse model, but the physiological effects of postnatal whole body FIT2 depletion have never been studied. Here, we show that tamoxifen-induced FIT2 deletion using a whole body ROSA26CreER(T2)-driven FIT2 knock-out (iF2KO) mouse model leads to lethal intestinal pathology, including villus blunting and death of intestinal crypts, and loss of lipid absorption. iF2KO mice lose weight and die within 2 weeks after the first tamoxifen dose. At the cellular level, LDs failed to form in iF2KO enterocytes after acute oil challenge and instead accumulated within the ER. Intestinal bile acid transporters were transcriptionally dysregulated in iF2KO mice, leading to the buildup of bile acids within enterocytes. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential role in regulating intestinal health and survival postnatally. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Evaluating different interrow distance between corn and soybean for optimum growth, production and nutritive value of intercropped forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Song, Yowook; Kim, Dong Woo; Fiaz, Muhammad; Kwon, Chan Ho

    2018-01-01

    Maize fodder is being used as staple feed for livestock but it lacks protein and essential amino acids; lysine and tryptophan. Intercropping maize with leguminous soybean crop is promising technique under limited land resources of South Korea but it can only give considerable advantages when adequate distance is provided between corn and soybean rows. Main aim of present study was to find-out adequate distance between corn and soybean seeding rows for optimum growth, yield and nutritive value of intercropped forage. Different interrow distances between corn and soybean were evaluated under four treatments, viz. 1) Corn sole as positive control treatment 2) Zero cm between corn and soybean (control); 2) Five cm between corn and soybean; 3) 10 cm between corn and soybean, with three replicates under randomized block design. Findings depicted that height and number of corn stalks and ears were similar ( P  > 0.05) among different treatments. Numerically average corn ear height was decreased at zero cm distance. Dry matter percentage in all components; corn stalk, corn ear and soybean was also found not different ( P  > 0.05) but dry matter yield in component of corn ear was lower ( P  value, total digestible nutrient yield in intercropped corn was also found lower ( P  value of forage at wider interrow distance i.e. 5 cm between corn and soybean might be due to adequate interseed distance. Conclusively, pattern of corn and soybean seeding in rows at 5 cm distance was found suitable which provided adequate interrow distance to maintain enough mutual cooperation and decreased competition between both species for optimum production performance and nutritive value of intercropped forage.

  9. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  10. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  11. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm is a devastating pest controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein. However, fall armyworm populations ...

  12. Corn Drying with Zeolite in The Fluidized Bed Dryer under Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drying is an important step to find high quality of corn. Based on Standard of National Industry, populer as SNI, number 01-3920-1995, the corn was well stored at moisture content 14% or below (wet basis. However, conventional corn drying dealed with in-efficient energy process and corn quality degradation. This research evaluated the performance of corn drying assisted by zeolite as moisture adsorbent. In this process, the zeolite and corn were placed in the dryer fluidized by warm air as drying medium under 40 - 50oC. The air evaporated water product from corn, and at same time the zeolite adsorbed moisture in air. So, the relative humidity of air in dryer can be kept low in which enhanced the driving force for drying. Beside that, the moisture adsoprtion by zeolite was exothermic process that can supply the energy for drying or keep the dryer temperature. Thus, the drying rate can be faster. This work foccussed to observe the effect of drying temperature, air velocity, and corn to zeolite ratio on drying time as well as corn quality. As indicators, the drying rate was estimated and the proxymates content such as protein, fat, and carbohydrate content were analyzed. The results showed that compared with conventional fluidised bed dryer, corn drying with zeolite, can speed up drying time as well as improving the constant of drying rate. In addition, the corn proximate nutrition content can be well retained. At operating temperature 40oC, air velocity 9 m.s-1, and zeolite to corn ratio 1:2, the drying time can be 60 minutes shorter compared to that without zeolite.

  13. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  14. Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles-Torrez, Veronica; Knodel, Janet J; Boetel, Mark A; Doetkott, Curt D; Podliska, Kellie K; Ransom, Joel K; Beauzay, Patrick; French, B Wade; Fuller, Billy W

    2018-02-09

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5-7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effects of diet, packaging, and irradiation on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and color of raw broiler thigh meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S; Zhang, W G; Lee, E J; Ma, C W; Ahn, D U

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment, packaging, and irradiation singly or in combination on the oxidative stability of broiler chicken thigh meat. A total of 120 four-week-old chickens were divided into 12 pens (10 birds/pen), and 4 pens of broilers were randomly assigned to a control oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil) or an antioxidant-added diet [500 IU of vitamin E + 200 mg/kg of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] and fed for 2 wk. After slaughter, thigh meats were separated, ground, packaged in either oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, and irradiated at 0 or 3 kGy. Lipid oxidation (TBA-reactive substances), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and color of the meat were measured at 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meats from birds fed the diet supplemented with antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) was significantly lower than the lipid and protein oxidation of birds fed the control diet, whereas the lipid and protein oxidation of broilers fed the oxidized oil diet was higher than that of birds fed the control diet. Vacuum packaging slowed, but irradiation accelerated, the lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meat during storage. Dietary antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) and irradiation treatments showed a stronger effect on lipid oxidation than on protein oxidation. A significant correlation between lipid and protein oxidation in meat was found during storage. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E + BHA and the irradiation treatment increased the lightness and redness of thigh meat, respectively. It is suggested that appropriate use of dietary antioxidants in combination with packaging could be effective in minimizing oxidative changes in irradiated raw chicken thigh meat.

  16. Coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis do milho submetido a diferentes temperaturas de secagem e períodos de armazenamento True digestibility of amino acids and digestible amino acids values of corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures and storage periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristine de Oliveira Carvalho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de amostras de milho submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de secagem (temperatura ambiente e secagem artificial a 80, 100 e 120°C e períodos de armazenamento (0, 60, 120 e 180 dias. A digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos foi determinada pelo método de "alimentação forçada" utilizando-se galos Leghorn adultos cecectomizados, alojados individualmente em baterias metálicas. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 4 (quatro temperaturas de secagem e quatro períodos de armazenamento com um galo por unidade experimental e oito repetições por temperatura de secagem e período de armazenamento. As perdas endógenas foram determinadas com galos em jejum. O aumento da temperatura de secagem ocasionou redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina + cistina e isoleucina e efeito quadrático sobre a digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina. Os maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina foram observados nas temperaturas 40, 25, 27, 32 e 40°C, respectivamente, obtidas por equação de regressão. Observou-se redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina e treonina com o tempo de armazenamento. A temperatura de secagem e o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de milho reduzem a digestibilidade da maioria dos aminoácidos.The objective of this experiment was to determine the true digestibility (TD of amino acids from corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures (room temperature and artificial drying at 80, 100 and 120°C, and different storage periods (0, 60, 120 and 180 days. The TD of amino acids was determined by the forced feeding method using cecectomized adult Leghorn roosters, placed in individual cages. A 4 × 4 factorial arrangement was used (four drying temperatures and four storage periods, in a completely randomized design

  17. Acetonitrile as a buffer additive for free zone capillary electrophoresis separation and characterization of maize (Zeamays L. ) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, S R; Lookhart, G L; Bietz, J A

    2000-02-01

    An improved method for separating and characterizing maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) storage proteins by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) was developed. Previous electrophoretic methods for analyzing these proteins required high concentrations of urea to maintain protein solubility during separation. To overcome disadvantages of urea, we developed a FZCE method that mimicked reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in that it used high levels of acetonitrile (ACN) at low pH. The optimized FZCE buffer system consisted of 80 mM phosphate-glycine buffer, nominal pH 2.5, containing 60% ACN and a cellulose derivative to dynamically coat capillary walls. Resolution was similar to or higher than that previously achieved by FZCE buffers utilizing 8 M urea as a buffer additive. ACN concentrations of at least 50% were necessary to achieve acceptable separations; this ACN concentration is approximately that necessary to extract these storage proteins. ACN was equally effective as traditional ethanol solvents and 8 M urea for solubilizing maize and sorghum proteins. The ACN-based FZCE buffer system gave high repeatability (buffers. This FZCE method may be applicable for the analysis of other hydrophobic proteins without the use of urea.

  18. Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on newly received growing cattle: antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, Tyler J; Montgomery, Sean P; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Vahl, Chris I; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cavalli, Kevin T; Hollenbeck, William R; Wahl, Ross A; Blasi, Dale A

    2018-04-14

    Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design. In addition, two animals were randomly and independently selected from each pen (16/dietary treatment) and used to measure fecal cortisol metabolite. Additionally, animals removed from the pen one (M1), two (M2), or three (M3) times and classified as morbid were bled in conjunction with a healthy control (H) removed at the same time and the serum analyzed for the same parameters. A quadratic response to time (P bovine viral diarrhea type 1 (BVD-I) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; P levels by day 27. Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were lowest on arrival, higher on day 14, and significantly higher on day 27. Titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVD-II) responded linearly (P levels on arrival and highest levels on day 27. Haptoglobin was elevated in morbid animals compared to healthy pen mates (P levels for BVD-I and IBR were also higher in healthy animals compared to animals pulled for morbidity (P energy receiving diets based on fermentable fiber from by-products can be fed to newly received growing cattle without negative effects on antibody production toward vaccines, inflammation, or overall stress. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations and titer levels for BVD-I and IBR viruses are higher in healthy animals compared to sick animals.

  19. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  20. Effect of ice storage on muscle protein properties and qualities of emulsion fish sausage from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittayanont, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in fish muscle and natural actomyosin (NAM from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis muscle during 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of iced storage were studied. Myosin heavy chain (MHC of NAM extracted from two fish species was degraded throughout iced storage. However, no changes in actin were observed. The total volatile base (TVB. trimethylamine (TMA and surface hydrophobicity increased, while the total sulfhydryl content and emulsion capacity of NAM from both fish species decreased significantly as the storage time increased (p<0.05. A Texture ProfileAnalysis (TPA and shear force of emulsion fish sausages prepared from two fish species kept in ice for 0, 4, 8 and 12 days were investigated. The results showed that hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force of sausage prepared from fish kept in ice were lower than those produced from fresh fish. However, no significant differences in adhesiveness were observed. Cooking loss of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species increased throughout storage time (p<0.05. The texture of bigeye snapper sausage was better than that of lizardfish sausages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species revealed bigger voids, thicker strands and less continuity of protein strands with increasing storage time. More microstructural changes were observed in sausages from lizardfish, compared to those in sausages from bigeye snapper.

  1. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  2. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of biodiversity using DSS method and seed storage protein comparison of populations in two species of Achillea L. in the west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Salehi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intarspecific and interspecific variations are the main reserves of biodiversity and both are important sources of speciation. On this basis, identifing and recognizing the intra and interspecific variations is important in order to recognition of biodiversity. This research was done to study biodiversity and electrophoresis comparison of seed storage proteins in the populations of the two species of the genus Achillea in Hamadan and Kurdistan provinces using of the method of determination of special station (DSS. For this purpose, 12 and 9 special stations were selected for the species A. tenuifolia and A. biebresteinii using the data published in the related flora. Seed storage proteins were extracted and then studied using electrophoresis techniques (SDS-PAGE. In survey of all special stations, 120 plant species were distinguished as associated species. The results of the floristic data for the both species determined six distinctive groups that indicated the existence of intraspecific diversity in this species. The result of analysis of ecological data and seed storage proteins for the two species was in accordance with the floristic data and showed six distinctive groups. The existence of the bands of no. 4, 5, 8, 12 and 13 in the special stations of A. tenuifolia and the bands of 14, 15 and 16 in the special stations of A. biebresteinii o separated the populations of the species in two quite different and distinctive groups.

  4. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  5. Ammonium accumulation in commercially available embryo culture media and protein supplements during storage at 2-8°C and during incubation at 37°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Bekers, Otto; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2016-06-01

    Does ammonium accumulate in commercially available culture media and protein supplements used for in vitro development of human pre-implantation embryos during storage and incubation? Ammonium accumulates in ready-to-use in vitro fertilization (IVF) culture media during storage at 2-8°C and in ready-to-use IVF culture media and protein supplements during incubation at 37°C. Both animal and human studies have shown that the presence of ammonium in culture medium has detrimental effects on embryonic development and pregnancy rate. It is, therefore, important to assess the amount of ammonium accumulation in ready-to-use IVF culture media under conditions that are common in daily practice. Ammonium accumulation was investigated in 15 ready-to-use media, 11 protein-free media and 8 protein supplements. Ammonium was measured by the use of an enzymatic method with glutamate dehydrogenase. To simulate the storage and incubation conditions during IVF treatments, ammonium concentrations were measured at different time-points during storage at 2-8°C for 6 weeks and during incubation at 37°C for 4 days. All ready-to-use, i.e. protein supplemented, culture media showed ammonium accumulation during storage for 6 weeks (ranging from 9.2 to 99.8 µM) and during incubation for 4 days (ranging from 8.4 to 138.6 µM), resulting in levels that might affect embryo development. The protein supplements also showed ammonium accumulation, while the culture media without protein supplementation did not. The main sources of ammonium buildup in ready-to-use culture media were unstable glutamine and the protein supplements. No additional ammonium buildup was found during incubation when using an oil overlay or with the presence of an embryo in the culture droplet. In addition to the unstable glutamine and the protein supplements, other free amino acids might contribute to the ammonium buildup. We did not investigate the deterioration of other components in the media. Break-down of

  6. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β...

  7. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BT CORN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Rice, Marlin E.

    2001-01-01

    A common perception is that the value of Bt corn arises from two components-Bt corn increases expected profit and reduces profit variability. This perception encourages farmers and the policy makers to add a risk benefit to estimates of the value of Bt corn to account for the variability reduction. However, a conceptual model generates a useful decomposition of the value of Bt corn and a condition determining the impact of Bt corn on profit variability. An empirical model finds that Bt corn i...

  8. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    : M1, M2 and M3, with one, two and three washing steps, respectively. The different products were characterised (i.e. lipid content, protein, water, iron, fatty acid profile and tocopherol content) and analysed for protein and lipid oxidation in order to investigate the impact of the washing steps...... was followed by determination of protein solubility, protein thiol groups and protein carbonyl groups using colorimetric methods as well as western blotting for protein carbonyl groups. Lipid and protein oxidation markers indicated that both lipid and protein oxidation took place during processing...

  9. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  10. [Study of the reineta protein modifications (Brama australis), put under freezing and storage to -18 degrees C and -30 degrees C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Quitral, Vilma; Larraín, M Angélica; Vinagre, Julia; Kriukov, Andrei; Chávez, Gloria

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to study functional and thermal properties of reineta (Brama australis) frozen meat, analysed by water retention capacity (WRC), gel forming capacity (GFC), texture, emulsifying capacity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For this study, reineta fillets were obtained and extracted by the same conditions, and cutted, packaged, frozen and stored at -18 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 7 months. The results obtained, showed that there were no signifficant differences in the responses to thermal treatment for all the specimens. For samples frozen at -18 degrees C and -30 degrees C, the protein contents were 23.5 + 0.0 and 25.4 + 1.0%, respectively. The WRC values were 0.45 + 0.1 and 1.59 +/- 0.0 g water/g protein, respectively. The gel forming capacity was only present in the fresh samples, whereas the frozen stored ones only form protein aggregates. The emulsifying capacity was between 960 and 1400 g oil / g protein, and the storage time increased this value. The miosin denaturation temperature (Td) and denaturation enthalpy (?H), obtained by DSC, fluctuated between 39.2 +/- 0.5 to 44.8 +/- 0.8 degrees C and 1.12 +/- 0.3 to 0.52 +/- 0.2 J/g, respectively. The actina values were between 71.0 +/- 0.6 to 75.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C and between 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 0.7 +/- 0.1 J/g. Cooperativity decreased as the storage time increased. This is showing a certain degree of protein displacement. The values found by thermal analyses showed a direct relationship with the functional properties, both decreasing with storage time.

  11. Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Whole Corn Stover and Its Morphological Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and ruminal degradability of corn stover in three maize-planting regions in Qiqihaer, Heilongjiang Province, China. The whole stover was separated into seven morphological fractions, i.e., leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem rind, stem pith, stem node, ear husk, and corn tassel. The assessment of nutritive value of corn stover and its fractions was performed based on laboratory assays of the morphological proportions, chemical composition, and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The chemical composition of corn stover was significantly different from plant top to bottom (p<0.05. Among the whole corn stover and seven morphological fractions, leaf blade had the highest crude protein (CP content and the lowest NDF and ADF contents (p<0.05, whereas stem rind had the lowest CP content and the highest ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL contents (p<0.05. Ear husk had significantly higher NDF content and relatively lower ADL content than other corn stover fractions. Overall, the effective degradability of DM, NDF, and ADF in rumen was the highest in leaf blade and stem pith, followed by ear husk. The results indicate that leaf blade, ear husk, and stem pith potentially have higher nutritive values than the other fractions of corn stover. This study provides reference data for high-efficiency use of corn stover in feeding ruminants.

  12. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-04-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (Pseeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  14. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Harb, Jamil; Qudeimat, Enas

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  17. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes...

  20. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, SIFR; Stringhini, JH; Ribeiro, AML; Pontalti, G; MacManus, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. ...

  1. THE CORN-EGG PRICE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Babula, Ronald A.; Bessler, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A vector autoregression (VAR) model of corn, farm egg, and retail egg prices is estimated and shocked with a corn price increase. Impulse responses in egg prices, t-statistics for the impulse responses, and decompositions of forecast error variance are presented. Analyses of results provide insights on the corn/egg price transmission mechanism and on how corn price shocks pulsate through the egg-related economy.

  2. Corned Beef: an Enigmatic Irish Dish

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    Corned beef and cabbage, which is consumed in America in large quantities each Saint Patrick’s Day (17th March), is considered by most Americans to be the ultimate Irish dish. However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli...

  3. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use.

  4. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  5. Nitrogen Soil Testing for Corn in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Evanylo, Gregory K.; Alley, Marcus M., 1947-

    2009-01-01

    An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. This publication reviews the link between nitrogen and corn production, nitrogen behavior, soil testing, test procedures and recommendations.

  6. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  7. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  8. ORFer--retrieval of protein sequences and open reading frames from GenBank and storage into relational databases or text files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssow, Konrad; Hoffmann, Steve; Sievert, Volker

    2002-12-19

    Functional genomics involves the parallel experimentation with large sets of proteins. This requires management of large sets of open reading frames as a prerequisite of the cloning and recombinant expression of these proteins. A Java program was developed for retrieval of protein and nucleic acid sequences and annotations from NCBI GenBank, using the XML sequence format. Annotations retrieved by ORFer include sequence name, organism and also the completeness of the sequence. The program has a graphical user interface, although it can be used in a non-interactive mode. For protein sequences, the program also extracts the open reading frame sequence, if available, and checks its correct translation. ORFer accepts user input in the form of single or lists of GenBank GI identifiers or accession numbers. It can be used to extract complete sets of open reading frames and protein sequences from any kind of GenBank sequence entry, including complete genomes or chromosomes. Sequences are either stored with their features in a relational database or can be exported as text files in Fasta or tabulator delimited format. The ORFer program is freely available at http://www.proteinstrukturfabrik.de/orfer. The ORFer program allows for fast retrieval of DNA sequences, protein sequences and their open reading frames and sequence annotations from GenBank. Furthermore, storage of sequences and features in a relational database is supported. Such a database can supplement a laboratory information system (LIMS) with appropriate sequence information.

  9. Wild blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients produced by three drying methods: Comparative physico-chemical properties, phytochemical content, and stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Roberta; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-15

    Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  11. Effects of season and inclusion of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and performance of nursing calves grazing native range in southeastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gibson, M; Caton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Nine ruminally and duodenally cannulated (145 +/- 21 kg of initial BW; Exp. 1) and sixteen intact (181 +/- 36 kg of initial BW; Exp. 2), commercial, Angus, nursing, steer calves were used to evaluate the effects of advancing season and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and performance while grazing native rangeland. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a supplement containing 41% soybean meal, 26.25% wheat middlings, 26.25% soybean hulls, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (control) or a supplement containing 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 14.25% wheat middlings, 14.25% soybean hulls, 14% soybean meal, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (CDDGS). Calves were offered supplement individually (0.45% of BW) once daily. Three 15-d collection periods occurred in June, July, and August. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in OM intake, or OM, N, NDF, or ADF digestion between control calves and those fed CDDGS. Forage and total OM intake increased (P Calves consuming CDDGS had decreased (P intake (% of BW) was less for CDDGS compared with control calves, but there were no differences in performance or subsequent carcass composition between treatments. Inclusion of 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles in a creep supplement for nursing calves produced similar results compared with a control creep feed based on soybean meal, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings.

  12. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Han; Yan, Feifei; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old male chicks (5 birds per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day -1 ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg -1 Bacillus subtilis) factorial design. Chickens were harvested at day 46, and pairs of whole legs were collected at 1 day postmortem. The chicken legs were deboned, ground, tray-packaged with oxygen-permeable film, and displayed for 3 days. Heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, color, protein functionality, lipid lipolysis and lipid/protein oxidation stability (P > 0.05). Display storage increased the pH and lipid oxidation of ground chicken legs (P chicken leg meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium storage during the unfolded protein response--significance in tissue ischemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treiman, Marek

    2002-01-01

    for the protein folding pathway require Ca(2+) binding for their activity. A number of factors, including Ca(2+) depletion, may interfere with the folding pathway within the ER, with a potential for cell injury through an accumulation of malfolded protein aggregates. The Unfolded Protein Response involves...... a transcriptional upregulation of a number of the ER-resident folding helper proteins and becomes triggered when the folding pathway is blocked. To be effective, these upregulated proteins require a sufficient supply of Ca(2+) cofactor within the ER lumen. In tissue ischemia, where the availablity of this cofactor...

  14. Effect of extrusion conditions and lipoxygenase inactivation treatment on the physical and nutritional properties of corn/cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Moguel, Odri; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge; Martínez-Ayala, Alma; González, Rolando; Drago, Silvina; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lipoxygenase inactivation and extrusion cooking on the physical and nutritional properties of corn/cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blends was studied. Corn was blended in an 80:15 proportion with cowpea flour treated to inactivate lipoxygenase (CI) or non-inactivated cowpea flour (CNI). Extrusion variables were temperature (150 degrees C, 165 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and moisture (15%, 17% and 19%). Based on their physical properties, the 165 degrees C/15% corn:CNI, and 165 degrees C/15% corn:CI, and 150 degrees C/15% corn:CI blends were chosen for nutritional quality analysis. Extrudate chemical composition indicated high crude protein levels compared with standard corn-based products. With the exception of lysine, essential amino acids content in the three treatments met FAO requirements. Extrusion and lipoxygenase inactivation are promising options for developing corn/cowpea extruded snack products with good physical properties and nutritional quality.

  15. Iron storage proteins are essential for the survival and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in THP-1 macrophages and the guinea pig model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Vineel; Puri, Rupangi Verma; Khera, Aparna; Tyagi, Anil K

    2012-02-01

    Iron is one of the crucial elements required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, excess free iron becomes toxic for the cells because it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen radicals, leading to oxidative damage. Hence, it is essential for the pathogen to have the ability to store intracellular iron in an iron-rich environment and utilize it under iron depletion. M. tuberculosis has two iron storage proteins, namely BfrA (Rv1876; a bacterioferritin) and BfrB (Rv3841; a ferritin-like protein). However, the demonstration of biological significance requires the disruption of relevant genes and the evaluation of the resulting mutant for its ability to survive in the host and cause disease. In this study, we have disrupted bfrA and bfrB of M. tuberculosis and demonstrated that these genes are crucial for the storage and supply of iron for the growth of bacteria and to withstand oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, the bfrA bfrB double mutant (H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB) exhibited a marked reduction in its ability to survive inside human macrophages. Guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited a marked diminution in the dissemination of the bacilli to spleen compared to that of the parental strain. Moreover, guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited significantly reduced pathological damage in spleen and lungs compared to that of animals infected with the parental strain. Our study clearly demonstrates the importance of these iron storage proteins in the survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis in the host and establishes them as attractive targets for the development of new inhibitors against mycobacterial infections.

  16. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Lettuce Seed Germination and Thermoinhibition by Sampling of Individual Seeds at Germination and Removal of Storage Proteins by Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

  18. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  19. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  20. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Al-Hijazeen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1 control (none added, (2 2.5 ppm TA, (3 5 ppm TA, (4 10 ppm TA, and (5 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05 lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05 lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage.

  1. Physicochemical, Thermal, and Sensory Properties of Blue Corn (Zea Mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ceren; Arslan-Tontul, Sultan; Candal, Cihadiye; Kilic, Ozlem; Erbas, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some physicochemical and sensory properties of blue corn cultivated in Turkey. The length and width of the cob with kernels, hectoliter, and 1000-kernel weight of blue corn were measured as 7.66, 2.02 mm, 84.40 kg/100 L, and 44.27 g, respectively. The gelatinization onset, peak, and end temperatures were measured as 61.12 °C, 64.35 °C, and 75.65 °C, respectively. The water activity, moisture content, total protein, lipid, and crude fiber contents of the blue corn sample were detected as 0.44, 9.39%, 13.13%, 4.30%, and 2.68%, respectively. Total starch and resistant starch contents of blue corn were determined as 63.94% and 8.89%, respectively. Also, total monomeric anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of blue corn were detected as 915.43 mg CGE/kg and 7.99 μmol TE/g, respectively. Additionally, the major fatty acids detected in blue corn samples were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Blue corn can be utilized in the production of enjoyable and healthier snacks, such as popcorn and chips, because of its color and high phenolic, anthocyanin, and fiber contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Incorporation of 15N-inorganic nitrogen into free-amino acids in germinating corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samukawa, Kisaburo; Yamaguchi, Masuro

    1979-01-01

    Incorporation of 15 N-labeled compounds, (K 15 NO 3 ) and ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , into free-amino acids was measured in germinating corn. Sterilized seeds of sweet corn (Choko No. 865) were sown on the filter papers soaked in 10 ml of the solution containing one of the labeled compounds (40 ppm N, 99 atom % excess) in petri dishes and germinated at 30 deg C. After 48 hours and 72 hours, 15 N-incorporation was measured in 5 seedlings selected owing to uniform growth. A GC-MS was used for measuring the ratio of 15 N isotopes present in free-amino acids. 15 N incorporation into free-amino acids hardly occurred when corn was germinated in the solution containing K 15 NO 3 , which suggested that endogenous nitrogen was used during the early germination stage of corn when nitrate is present. Incorporation into amino acids was greater when corn was germinated in the medium containing ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , than the case of the solution containing K 15 NO 3 . When corn was germinated in the solution containing ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , assimilation of 15 N into asparagine or aspartic acid was comparatively higher than that into the other amino acids, though the incorporation rate was low. Thus, in intact germinating corn, the hydrolyzed product of protein was utilized for germination with priority, and dependence on exogenous nitrogen was low. (Kaihara, S.)

  3. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  4. Reduction in energy consumption and operating cost in a dried corn warehouse using logistics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Y. Tippayawong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the major economic crops in Thailand. Corn postharvest operation involves various practices that consume a large amount of energy. Different energy conservation measures have been implemented but logistics consideration is not normally employed. In this work, attempt has been made to demonstrate that logistics techniques can offer a significant reduction in energy and cost. The main objective of this work is to identify and demonstrate possible approaches to improving energy efficiency and reducing operating cost for a dried corn warehouse operator. Three main problems are identified: (i relatively high fuel consumption for internal transfer process, (ii low quality of dried corn, and (iii excess expenditure on outbound transportation. Solutions are proposed and implemented using logistics operations. Improvement is achieved using plant layout and shortest path techniques, resulting in a reduction of almost 50% in energy consumption for the internal transfer process. Installation of an air distributor in the grain storage unit results in a decrease in loss due to poor-quality dried corn from 17% to 10%. Excess expenditure on dried corn distribution is reduced by 6% with application of a global positioning system.

  5. Proteome approaches to characterize seed storage proteins related to ditelocentric chromosomes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Woo, Sun-Hee; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hisashi

    2002-09-01

    Changes in protein composition of wheat endosperm proteome were investigated in 39 ditelocentric chromosome lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Chinese Spring. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining has resolved a total of 105 protein spots in a gel. Quantitative image analysis of protein spots was performed by PDQuest. Variations in protein spots between the euploid and the 39 ditelocentric lines were evaluated by spot number, appearance, disappearance and intensity. A specific spot present in all gels was taken as an internal standard, and the intensity of all other spots was calculated as the ratio of the internal standard. Out of the 1755 major spots detected in 39 ditelocentric lines, 1372 (78%) spots were found variable in different spot parameters: 147 (11%) disappeared, 978 (71%) up-regulated and 247 (18%) down-regulated. Correlation studies in changes in protein intensities among 24 protein spots across the ditelocentric lines were performed. High correlations in changes of protein intensities were observed among the proteins encoded by genes located in the homoeologous arms. Locations of structural genes controlling 26 spots were identified in 10 chromosomal arms. Multiple regulators of the same protein located at various chromosomal arms were also noticed. Identification of structural genes for most of the proteins was found difficult due to multiple regulators encoding the same protein. Two novel subunits (1B(Z,) 1BDz), the structure of which are very similar to the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 12, were identified, and the chromosome arm locations of these subunits were assigned.

  6. Quality of black beans as a function of long-term storage and moldy development: Chemical and functional properties of flour and isolated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Ziegler, Valmor; Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Oliveira, Maurício de

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture content and storage temperature on the percentage of moldy and fermented beans, mycotoxins levels, phenolic acids content, pasting properties of whole flour, as well as functional and thermal properties of protein isolates from black beans stored for 12 months. Beans stored under 14%/32 °C exhibited 16% of fermented grains, while at 17%/25 °C (42.3%) and 17%/32 °C (93.5%) of moldy plus fermented grains, named drastic conditions (DC). Mycotoxins were not present in grains from all storage conditions. Reduction of gallic, caffeic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid contents, and increase of sinapic acid were observed in DC. Reduction of peak, final, and setback viscosities of bean flours in DC indicate the application in refrigerated and frozen products. The increase in foaming and reduction in foam degradation of the proteins highlights their use in beverages where the foam is an important factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    by aerobic training in young and older men. METHODS: 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus...... lateralis just before immobilization (at inclusion), after immobilization, and the after 6 weeks' training. The biopsies were analyzed for muscle substrates; muscle perilipin protein (PLIN), glycogen synthase (GS), synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) protein content, and muscle 3-hydroxyacyl...... GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. CONCLUSION: Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises...

  8. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  9. A GIS methodology to identify potential corn stover collection locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Monica A. [Department of Community and Regional Planning, 583 College of Design, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3095 (United States); Anderson, Paul F. [Department of Landscape Architecture, 481 College of Design, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Agronomy, 481 College of Design, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    In this study, we use geographic information systems technology to identify potential locations in a Midwestern region for collection and storage of corn stover for use as biomass feedstock. Spatial location models are developed to identify potential collection sites along an existing railroad. Site suitability analysis is developed based on two main models: agronomic productivity potential and environmental costs. The analysis includes the following steps: (1) elaboration of site selection criteria; (2) identification of the study region and service area based on transportation network analysis; (3) reclassification of input spatial layers based on common scales; (4) overlaying the reclassified spatial layers with equal weights to generate the two main models; and (5) overlaying the main models using different weights. A pluralistic approach is adopted, presenting three different scenarios as alternatives for the potential locations. Our results suggest that there is a significant subset of potential sites that meet site selection criteria. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential sites through field visits, assess economic and social costs, and estimate the proportion of corn producers willing to sell and transport corn stover to collection facilities. (author)

  10. Experimental and computational analysis of a large protein network that controls fat storage reveals the design principles of a signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Al-Anzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach combining genetic, proteomic, computational, and physiological analysis was used to define a protein network that regulates fat storage in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A computational analysis of this network shows that it is not scale-free, and is best approximated by the Watts-Strogatz model, which generates "small-world" networks with high clustering and short path lengths. The network is also modular, containing energy level sensing proteins that connect to four output processes: autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, mRNA processing, and MAP kinase signaling. The importance of each protein to network function is dependent on its Katz centrality score, which is related both to the protein's position within a module and to the module's relationship to the network as a whole. The network is also divisible into subnetworks that span modular boundaries and regulate different aspects of fat metabolism. We used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to simultaneously block output from multiple network nodes. The phenotypic results of this blockage define patterns of communication among distant network nodes, and these patterns are consistent with the Watts-Strogatz model.

  11. Experimental and computational analysis of a large protein network that controls fat storage reveals the design principles of a signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Arpp, Patrick; Gerges, Sherif; Ormerod, Christopher; Olsman, Noah; Zinn, Kai

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining genetic, proteomic, computational, and physiological analysis was used to define a protein network that regulates fat storage in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A computational analysis of this network shows that it is not scale-free, and is best approximated by the Watts-Strogatz model, which generates "small-world" networks with high clustering and short path lengths. The network is also modular, containing energy level sensing proteins that connect to four output processes: autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, mRNA processing, and MAP kinase signaling. The importance of each protein to network function is dependent on its Katz centrality score, which is related both to the protein's position within a module and to the module's relationship to the network as a whole. The network is also divisible into subnetworks that span modular boundaries and regulate different aspects of fat metabolism. We used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to simultaneously block output from multiple network nodes. The phenotypic results of this blockage define patterns of communication among distant network nodes, and these patterns are consistent with the Watts-Strogatz model.

  12. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  13. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  14. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  15. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  17. Obtention and characterization of dried gels prepared with whey proteins, honey and hydrocolloids mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana C; Torrez Irigoyen, Martín R; Navarro, Alba S; Yamul, Diego K

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of honey and liquid whey derived from the dairy industry are produced in Argentina. Honey is exported in bulk and whey is transformed into whey protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of pH, composition and storage time on the properties of dried gels with honey, whey proteins and hydrocolloids. Color properties varied according to pH and composition. The fracture stress of dried gels prepared with corn starch was higher than that of gels prepared with guar gum in all conditions assayed. Young's modulus was higher at pH 7 for both compositions and increased with storage time. Rubbery characteristics were found in dried gels with guar gum, while both corn starch and guar gum made the microstructure rougher. Multivariate analysis showed that samples could be grouped by pH. Panelists preferred pH 7 products over acidic ones, and no significant differences in sensory properties were found using either corn starch or guar gum in the formulation. The results demonstrated that it is possible to generate a new product, which may open new applications for honey and whey in food formulations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Prats, Clara; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2016-03-01

    Aging and inactivity lead to skeletal muscle metabolic inflexibility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated how muscle lipid and glycogen stores and major regulatory proteins were affected by short-term immobilization followed by aerobic training in young and older men. 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis just before immobilization (at inclusion), after immobilization, and the after 6 weeks' training. The biopsies were analyzed for muscle substrates; muscle perilipin protein (PLIN), glycogen synthase (GS), synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) protein content, and muscle 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity The older men had higher intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) (73 %) and Glycogen (16%) levels compared to the young men, and IMTG tended to increase with immobilization. PLIN2 and 3 protein content increased with immobilization in the older men only. The young men had higher GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises as to whether IMTG accumulation in the older men is caused by or leading to the increase in PLIN2 and 3 protein content. Training decreased body fat and IMTG levels in both young and older men; hence, training should be prioritized to reduce the detrimental effect of aging on metabolism.

  19. Fontes protéicas e energéticas com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais para vacas em lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.238 Protein (raw or rosted soybeans and energy (coursely ground or steamflaked corn sources with varying ruminal degradabilities for lactating cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.238

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Imaizumi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a combinação de fontes de energia e proteína com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais. Foram utilizadas quatro vacas multíparas (23 kg leite dia-1 em Quadrado Latino 4 x 4 com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: duas fontes de proteína (soja crua ou tostada e duas de energia (milho moído, grosso ou floculado. O tratamento com milho moído grosso e soja tostada resultou em maior consumo de matéria seca (p 0,05 o desempenho lactacional. A tostagem da soja e a floculação do milho diminuíram (p The objective of this trial was the evaluation of ruminal degradation synchrony of protein and energy sources. Four Holstein cows (23 kg day-1 were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design and 2 x 2 factorial arrangement: two protein (raw vs. roasted soybeans with two energy sources (coarsely ground vs. steam-flaked corn. Dry matter intake was higher for cows fed coarsely ground corn with roasted soybean (p 0.05. Rumen pH was not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. Both roasted soybeans and flaking of corn decreased rumen ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.01. Animal fed steamflaked corn tended showed higher total VFA molar concentrations (p = 0.10, but there were no treatments effect on ruminal pH. A higher (p = 0.06 ruminal starch digestibility was observed for raw soybean treatment.

  20. Life cycle assessment of fertilization of corn and corn-soybean rotations with Swine manure and synthetic fertilizer in iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Evan Michael; Schauer, Richard Lynn; Rice, Charles W

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment is the predominant method to compare energy and environmental impacts of agricultural production systems. In this life cycle study, we focused on the comparison of swine manure to synthetic fertilizer as nutrients for corn production in Iowa. Deep pit (DP) and anaerobic lagoon (AL) treatment systems were compared separately, and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was chosen as the representative synthetic fertilizer. The two functional units used were fertilization of 1000 kg of corn in a continuous corn system and fertilization of a crop yielding 1000 kg of corn and a crop yielding 298 kg of soybean in a 2-yr corn-soybean rotation. Iowa-specific versions of emission factors and energy use were used when available and compared with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change values. Manure was lower than synthetic fertilizer for abiotic depletion and about equal with respect to eutrophication. Synthetic fertilizer was lower than manure for global warming potential (GWP) and acidification. The choice of allocation method and life cycle boundary were important in understanding the context of these results. In the DP system, methane (CH) from housing was the largest contributor to the GWP, accounting for 60% of the total impact. When storage systems were compared, the DP system had 50% less GWP than the AL system. This comparison was due to reduction in CH emissions from the storage system and conservation of nitrogen. Nitrous oxide emissions were the biggest contributor to the GWP of UAN fertilization and the second biggest contributor to the GWP of manure. Monte Carlo and scenario analyses were used to test the robustness of the results and sensitivity to methodology and important impact factors. The available crop-land and associated plant nutrient needs in Iowa was compared with manure production for the current hog population. On a state- or county-wide level, there was generally an excess of available land. On a farm level, there is often an excess

  1. Increased serum C-reactive protein level is associated with increased storage lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fa Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation is considered as one of the contributing mechanisms of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP level is the widely used biomarker of inflammatory status. This study investigated the association between serum CRP level in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS before and after medical treatment. METHODS: A total of 853 men with BPH and LUTS were enrolled. All patients completed the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS questionnaire and urological examinations. The parameters of uroflowmetry (maximum flow rate, Qmax; voided volume, VV, post-void residual (PVR, total prostate volume (TPV and transition zone index (TZI, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, and serum CRP levels were obtained. All patients were treated with alpha-blocker or antimuscarinic agent based on the IPSS voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S. Correlation analyses were performed between serum CRP levels with age, IPSS, TPV, TZI, Qmax, PVR, VV, PSA and between baseline and post treatment. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.9 ± 11.6 years old and the mean serum CRP levels were 0.31 ± 0.43 mg/dL. Univariate analyses revealed serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p<0.001, PSA levels (p = 0.005 and VV (p = 0.017, but not significantly associated with TPV (p = 0.854 or PVR (p = 0.068. CRP levels were positively associated with urgency (p<0.001 and nocturia (p<0.001 subscore of IPSS, total IPSS (p = 0.008 and storage IPSS (p<0.001 and negatively associated with IPSS- V/S ratio (p = 0.014. Multivariate analyses revealed that serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p = 0.004 and storage IPSS subscore p<0.001. Patients with IPSS-V/S<1 and treated with tolterodine for 3 months had significant decrease of CRP levels after treatment. CONCLUSION: Serum CRP levels are associated with storage LUTS and sensory bladder disorders, suggesting chronic

  2. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  3. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Dively, Galen P

    2017-06-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes.

  4. Variations in grain lipophilic phytochemicals, proteins and resistance to Fusarium spp. growth during grain storage as affected by biological plant protection with Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowska, Urszula; Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona

    2016-06-16

    Modern agriculture relies on an integrated approach, where chemical treatment is reduced to a minimum and replaced by biological control that involves the use of active microorganisms. The effect of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans on proteins and bioactive compounds (alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) in winter wheat grain and on the colonization of wheat kernels by fungal microbiota, mainly Fusarium spp. pathogens, was investigated. Biological treatment contributed to a slight increase contents of tocols, alkylresorcinols and sterols in grain. At the same time, the variation of wheat grain proteins was low and not significant. Application of A. pullulans enhanced the natural yeast colonization after six months of grain storage and inhibited growth of F. culmorum pathogens penetrating wheat kernel. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach of wheat grain protection with the use of the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans reduced kernel colonization by Fusarium spp. pathogens and increased the content of nutritionally beneficial phytochemicals in wheat grain without a loss of gluten proteins responsible for baking value. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The oviducal protein, heat-shock 70-kDa protein 8, improves the long-term survival of ram spermatozoa during storage at 17°C in a commercial extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, R E; Fazeli, A; Watson, P F; Holt, W V

    2012-01-01

    Poor fertility rates are often observed when fresh ram semen stored in conventional extenders is used for cervical artificial insemination (AI). Heat-shock 70-kDa protein 8 (HSPA8), found within the oviduct, prolongs boar, ram and bull sperm survival at body temperatures in vitro. Here, we aimed to determine whether supplementing extenders (INRA-96 and RSD-1) with HSPA8 (4 µg mL⁻¹) would improve their performance in maintaining freshly collected ram sperm viability and sperm nuclear DNA integrity during storage over 48 h at 17°C. Sperm function was assessed at 1, 6, 24 and 48h and this experiment was repeated using 25 × 10⁶ and 800 × 10⁶ spermatozoa mL⁻¹. INRA96 supplemented with HSPA8 maintained sperm viability significantly better than INRA96 alone at both sperm concentrations. However, sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (DF) increased significantly during storage using the higher sperm concentration, irrespective of the extender and the protein treatment used. Increasing levels of sperm nuclear DF over time could explain why poor fertility rates are often observed following cervical AI using stored ram semen. However, further research is required to ascertain whether supplementing the commercially available INRA96 extender with HSPA8 will improve fertility rates following cervical AI using stored ram semen.

  6. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  7. Faox enzymes inhibited Maillard reaction development during storage both in protein glucose model system and low lactose UHT milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Dathan, N.A.; Fiore, A.; Roviello, G.; Fiore, Di A.; Caira, S.; Cuollo, M.; Simone, De G.; Fogliano, V.; Monti, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fructosamines, also known asAmadori products, are formed by the condensation of glucose with the amino group of amino acids or proteins. These compounds are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can be formed either endogenously during aging and diabetes, and exogenously in

  8. Maturity and storage influence on the apple (Malus domestica) allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; Foxall, Robert; Rigby, Neil M.; Browne, Thomas; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Waldron, Keith W.; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of apples can provoke severe allergic reactions, in susceptible individuals, due to the presence of the allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, found largely in the fruit skin. Levels of Mal d 3 were determined in peel as a function of apple cultivar, position of the

  9. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g/kg of ext...

  10. Effect of chitosan on shelf life of restructured fish products from pangasius (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumari A; George Ninan; Joshy C G; Parvathy U; Zynudheen A A; Lalitha K V

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, restructured products were prepared from pangasius surimi and their qualities were analysed under chilled storage. Pangasius surimi had 75.82 % moisture, 16.91 % protein, 2.76 % fat and 0.95 % ash. Restructured products were prepared in three different formulations by incorporating corn starch (10 %) and chitosan (0.75 %). Formulation containing only corn starch (10 %) was served as control. In all the formulations, mono unsaturated fatty acids were higher (45.14 %). The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) showed an increasing trend and it was found to be higher in control (4.8 mg/100 g) on 10(th) day than the chitosan incorporated sample (3.5-4.2 mg/100 g) on 17(th) day during chill storage. Similarly, peroxide value (PV) was found to higher (8.85 milliequivalent of O2/kg) in control than the chitosan incorporated sample (4.5-6.8 milliequivalent of O2/kg) on 10(th) day. All the three formulations had an acceptable level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value that ranged between 0.023-0.098 mg of malanoldehyde/kg during chilled storage. Based on the sensory and microbiological analysis, products prepared without chitosan had a shelf life of 10 day whereas, products incorporated with chitosan had an extended shelf life of 17 day.

  11. Field evidence for the exposure of ground beetles to Cry1Ab from transgenic corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Claudia; Andow, David A

    2005-01-01

    Non-target organisms associated with the soil might be adversely affected by exposure to the CrylAb protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic corn (Zea mays L.). To check for such exposure, we used ELISA to test for Cry1Ab in ground beetles collected live from fields with Bt corn residues and Bt corn (Bt/Bt), Bt corn residues and non-Bt crops (Bt/non-Bt), or non-Bt corn residues and non-Bt crops (non-Bt/non-Bt). In fields with Bt corn residues (Bt/Bt and Bt/non-Bt), Cry1Ab was present in all seven species of ground beetles examined (Agonum placidum, Bembidion rupicola, Clivina impressefrons, Cyclotrachelus iowensis, Harpalus pensylvanicus, Poecilus chalcites, and Poecilus lucublandus). For the two most abundant species, P. chalcites and P. lucublandus, the proportion of beetles with Cry1Ab was significantly higher in Bt/Bt fields (0.50-1.0) and Bt/non-Bt fields (0.41-0.50) than in non-Bt/non-Bt fields (0.0). This is the first field evidence that some ground beetle species are exposed to Cry1Ab. The implications of exposure on the performance of these non-target organisms are unclear.

  12. Verification of radio frequency pasteurization treatment for controlling Aspergillus parasiticus on corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ajuan; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-05-16

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been proposed and tested to achieve a required anti-fungal efficacy on various food samples due to its advantage of deeper penetration depth and better heating uniformity. The purpose of this study was to validate applications of RF treatments for controlling Aspergillus parasiticus in corn while maintaining product quality. A pilot-scale, 27.12MHz, 6kW RF heating system together with hot air heating was used to rapidly pasteurize 3.0kg corn samples. Results showed that the pasteurizing effect of RF heating on Aspergillus parasiticus increased with increasing heating temperature and holding time, and RF heating at 70°C holding in hot air for at least 12min resulted in 5-6 log reduction of Aspergillus parasiticus in corn samples with the moisture content of 15.0% w.b. Furthermore, thermal resistance of Aspergillus parasiticus decreased with increasing moisture content (MC) of corn samples. Quality (MC, water activity - a w , protein, starch, ash, fat, fatty acid, color, electrical conductivity and germination rate) of RF treated corn met the required quality standard used in cereal industry. Therefore, RF treatments can provide an effective and rapid heating method to control Aspergillus parasiticus and maintain acceptable corn quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormone signaling linked to silkmoth sex pheromone biosynthesis involves Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of the insect PAT family protein Bombyx mori lipid storage droplet protein-1(BmLsd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structurally-related members of the PAT family of proteins, which are so name based on similarity amongst perilipin, adipophilin/adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and tail-interacting protein of 47 kilodaltons (TIP47), are cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins charac...

  14. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level.

  15. Cornelis den Hartog: an outstanding aquatic ecologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.; Brock, T.C.M.; Kempers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    A survey is given of the work and life of Cornelis den Hartog up to the date in 1996 on which he retired from his position as a professor at the University of Nijmegen. Cornelis (Kees) den Hartog made important contributions to aquatic ecology in the widest sense, e.G. On brackish water typology,

  16. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  17. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  18. Compositional variability of nutrients and phytochemicals in corn after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, P S; Naveena, N; Vishnuvardhana Rao, M; Bhaskarachary, K

    2017-04-01

    The result of various process strategies on the nutrient and phytochemical composition of corn samples were studied. Fresh and cooked baby corn, sweet corn, dent corn and industrially processed and cooked popcorn, corn grits, corn flour and corn flakes were analysed for the determination of proximate, minerals, xanthophylls and phenolic acids content. This study revealed that the proximate composition of popcorn is high compared to the other corn products analyzed while the mineral composition of these maize products showed higher concentration of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and low concentration of calcium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and sodium. Popcorn was high in iron, zinc, copper, manganese, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus. The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin were predominant in the dent corn and the total polyphenolic content was highest in dent corn while the phenolic acids distribution was variable in different corn products. This study showed preparation and processing brought significant reduction of xanthophylls and polyphenols.

  19. The Corn Smut ('Huitlacoche' as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Juárez-Montiel

    Full Text Available The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or 'huitlacoche'has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB, a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein. Mice orally immunized with 'huitlacoche'-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed.

  20. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  1. The Corn Smut (‘Huitlacoche’) as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Korban, Schuyler S.; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or ‘huitlacoche’has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB), a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein). Mice orally immunized with ‘huitlacoche’-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed. PMID:26207365

  2. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  3. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  4. Serotonin storage pools in basophil leukemia and mast cells: characterization of two types of serotonin binding protein and radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of [3H]serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamir, H.; Theoharides, T.C.; Gershon, M.D.; Askenase, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    The binding of serotonin to protein(s) derived from rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells and mast cells was studied. Two types of serotonin binding protein in RBL cells was found. These proteins differed from one another in molecular weight and eluted in separate peaks from sephadex G-200 columns. Peak I protein (KD = 1.9 x 10 -6 M) was a glycoprotein that bound to concanavalin A (Con A); Peak II protein (KD 1 = 4.5 x 10 - 8 M; KD 2 = 3.9 x 10 -6 M) did not bind to Con A. Moreover, binding of [ 3 H]serotonin to protein of Peak I was sensitive to inhibition by reserpine, while binding of [ 3 H]serotonin to protein of Peak II resisted inhibition by that drug. Other differences between the two types of binding protein were found, the most significant of which was the far more vigorous conditions of homogenization required to extract Peak I than Peak II protein. Electron microscope radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of [ 3 H] serotonin taken up in vitro by RBL cells or in vivo by murine mast cells indicated that essentially all of the labeled amine was located in cytoplasmic granules.No evidence for a pool in the cytosol was found and all granules were capable of becoming labeled. The presence of two types of intracellular serotonin binding proteins in these cells may indicate that there are two intracellular storage compartments for the amine. Both may be intragranular, but Peak I protein may be associated with the granular membrane while Peak II protein may be more free within the granular core. Different storage proteins may help to explain the differential release of amines from mast cell granules

  5. Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Monteiro Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the silages from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC; intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium mucunoides (CBCal; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Macrotyloma axillare (CBMac; and intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Stylozanthes capitata (CBSty. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. For each type of cultivation, five plots or replications of three linear meters were harvested, and the material was separated. The variables assessed were: dry matter productivity per area; dry matter productivity of corn per area; crude protein production per area and productivity of total digestible nutrients per area. The material originated from the cultures was ensiled, with dry matter between 28 and 32%. After, the material was placed and compacted appropriately in bucket silos. A sample was collected from each replication for determination of the contents of DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, lignin, neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF and TDN. A fraction of the sample of silages from each treatment was compressed for extraction of the juice and determination of the silage quality. There was difference between the forms of cultivation for the dry matter production per hectare. The CEC with production of 11920.1 kg DM/ha did not differ from CB (8997.41 kg DM/ha or CBCal (10452.10 kg DM/ha; however, it was superior to CBMac (8429.75 kg DM/ha and to CBSty (8164.83 kg DM/ha. The contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and TDN did not differ between the silages from the different treatments. All the silages presented

  6. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  7. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  8. Use of egg white protein powder based films fortified with sage and lemon balm essential oils in the storage of lor cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible film was produced by adding 3 % sorbitol (w/v to egg white protein powder (EWPP. The first group of lor cheese samples was coated with a film fortified by sage essential oil (SEO and the second group of samples was coated with films enriched by adding lemon balm essential oil (BEO at various concentrations [0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % (v/v]. The films were labeled as EWPPSEO(0.5, EWPPSEO(1, EWPPSEO(2, EWPPBEO(0.5, EWPPBEO(1, EWPPBEO(2 to indicate the type and the concentration of the additive. The third batch of the lor cheese samples was coated exclusively with non-fortified EWPP and the fourth batch was uncoated. All of the cheese samples were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Viable cell counts of these species, yeasts and moulds were determined after the cheese production. All the samples were stored at +4 °C. Their physicochemical and microbiological properties were examined on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th day of the storage. Thereat significant (P0.05. Physicochemical and antibacterial properties were more significant in SEO at all concentrations compared to BEO. However, the antifungal effect of BEO was higher than that of SEO. The antifungal effect of BEO was the same at 1 % (v/v and 2 % (v/v concentrations. E. coli O157:H7 was the most resistant microorganism to the essential oils while L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive. EWPP showed a bacteriostatic effect on the microorganisms and bactericidal effects were determined on the 30th day of the storage against L. monocytogenes and yeast-moulds.

  9. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  10. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  11. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  12. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  13. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  14. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantarudee Atip

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp. and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L. pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50. The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml, than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml. After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including

  15. Effects of different corn silage: Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full fat extruded soybeans addition increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect on fat, protein and lactose content in milk. Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage in diets. Increasing alfalfa silage content in the diets increased ...

  16. CRP-Mediated Carbon Catabolite Regulation of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation Is Enhanced by the Carbon Storage Regulator Protein, CsrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Willias

    Full Text Available The natural transmission of Yersinia pestis is reliant upon biofilm blockage of the flea vector. However, the environmentally-responsive adaptive regulators which facilitate Y. pestis biofilm production in accordance with the flea midgut milieu are not well understood. We seek to establish the impact of available carbon source metabolism and storage upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Our findings demonstrate that Y. pestis biofilm production is subject to carbon catabolite regulation in which the presence of glucose impairs biofilm production; whereas, the sole metabolism of alternate carbon sources promotes robust biofilm formation. This observation is facilitated by the cAMP receptor protein, CRP. In accordance with a stark growth defect, deletion of crp in both CO92 and KIM6+ Y. pestis strains significantly impaired biofilm production when solely utilizing alternate carbon sources. Media supplementation with cAMP, a small-molecule activator of CRP, did not significantly alter Y. pestis biofilm production. Furthermore, CRP did not alter mRNA abundance of previously-characterized hms biofilm synthesis and regulation factors. Therefore, our findings indicate CRP does not confer a direct stimulatory effect, but may indirectly promote Y. pestis biofilm production by facilitating the alternate carbon source expression profile. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the carbon storage regulator protein, CsrA, upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Contrary to what has been described for E. coli, Y. pestis biofilm formation was found to be enhanced by CsrA. Regardless of media composition and available carbon source, deletion of csrA significantly impaired Y. pestis biofilm production. CsrA was found to promote Y. pestis biofilm production independent of glycogen regulation. Loss of csrA did not significantly alter relative hmsH, hmsP, or hmsT mRNA abundance. However, deletion of hmsP in the csrA-deficient mutant enabled excessive biofilm production

  17. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  18. Deposition of insecticides on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates for control of corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  19. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  20. CAROTENOID RETENTION IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED BIOFORTIFIED GREEN CORN STORED UNDER RETAIL MARKETING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Alves Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Storing processed food products can cause alterations in their chemical compositions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed normal and vitamin A precursor (proVA-biofortified green corn ears that were packaged in polystyrene trays covered with commercial film or in multilayered polynylon packaging material and were stored. Throughout the storage period, the carotenoids were extracted from the corn kernels using organic solvents and were quantified using HPLC. A completely factorial design including three factors (cultivar, packaging and storage period was applied for analysis. The green kernels of maize cultivars BRS1030 and BRS4104 exhibited similar carotenoid profiles, with zeaxanthin being the main carotenoid. Higher concentrations of the carotenoids lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, the total carotenoids and the total vitamin A precursor carotenoids were detected in the green kernels of the biofortified BRS4104 maize. The packaging method did not affect carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed green corn ears during the storage period.

  1. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  2. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  3. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  4. Physic-chemical Study of Starch Extracted from Irradiated Corn Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo Sanchez, R. del; Alvarez Gil, M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on starch extracted from irradiated samples of corn flour were studied in the range 0,6 kGy-1,0 kGy. Amylographic properties, solubility and swelling powder of starch samples were determined immediately after irradiation and at 75 days storage at environment conditions (16 0 C-31 0 C, 55%-97% H.R.). Diffraction patterns of crystalline starch were also obtained by X-rays. Gelatinization temperature, swelling powder and diffraction patterns did not change upon irradiation, but a decrease in viscosity and an increase in starch solubility were observed within the dose-range and storage time studied. (author)

  5. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  6. Type of corn and grinding degree in a concentrate supplied to suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Santos Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effects of a concentrate consisting of two types of corn: flint and dent, with three different grinding degrees (1, 3 and 5 mm, as a function of intake, performance and digestibility of three crossbred dairy suckling heifers. A randomized block design involving 54 crossbred heifers in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was used to assess intake and performance patterns. In order to assess digestibility, the experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of 24 crossbred heifers. Weighting and measurements of height at withers and thoracic perimeter were performed. There was no significant interaction between grinding degree and corn type for any of the studied variables. The daily intake of concentrate dry matter was higher for flint corn (243 g/day as compared with dent corn (160 g/day. The grinding degree caused difference in the dry matter, crude protein and ether extract intake, with higher intake when 3 and 5 mm sieves were used in the process. There was no difference regarding average daily gain and increased withers, croup and thoracic perimeter. Likewise, feed conversion did not differ. Regarding dry matter digestibility, there was an effect resulting from the hardness of corn (78.9% for dent, and 84.3% and for flint corn. As for the grinding degree, the highest value of dry matter digestibility was found when using 5 mm sieves (84.2%, whereas the percentage values found for 1 mm and 3 mm mesh sieves were 79.1% and 78.1%, respectively. It is recommended that heifer calves in the early stage of growth be fed flint corn ground through 3 or 5 mm mesh sieves.

  7. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... in a complex and ridig cell wall structure. This thesis contains a thorough examination of the monosaccharide and structural composition of corn bran, which is used to assess and apply the relevant mono component enzyme preparations. In this way, the aim is to obtain the most effective minimal enzymatic......, especially with respect to xylose and glucose release, but vast amounts of the valuable monosaccharides are lost during this pretreatment and this is especially evident for arabinose. From a scientific point of view acid catalysed pretreatment renders the substrate in a state of disruption where assessment...

  9. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  10. Both dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lin, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Lin, Chien-Liang; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2002-10-09

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), was purified to homogeneity by DE-52 ion-exchange chromatography. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric methods to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in a dose-dependent manner (12.5-750 microg, respectively, 20.83-62.5% inhibitions) using N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-Phe-Gly-Gly (FAPGG) as substrates. The 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of ACE activity was 6.404 microM dioscorin (250 microg corresponding to 7.81 nmol) compared to that of 0.00781 microM (0.0095 nmol) for captopril. The commercial bovine serum albumin and casein (bovine milk) showed less ACE inhibitory activity. The use of qualitative TLC also showed dioscorin as ACE inhibitors. Dioscorin showed mixed noncompetitive inhibitions against ACE; when 31.25 microg of dioscorin (0.8 microM) was added, the apparent inhibition constant (K(i)) was 2.738 microM. Pepsin was used for dioscorin hydrolysis at 37 degrees C for different times. It was found that the ACE inhibitory activity was increased from 51.32% to about 75% during 32 h hydrolysis. The smaller peptides were increased with increasing pepsin hydrolytic times. Dioscorin and its hydrolysates might be a potential for hypertension control when people consume yam tuber.

  11. Effects of oral administration of yam tuber storage protein, dioscorin, to BALB/c mice for 21-days on immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Liu, Ju-Chi; Huang, Chun-Yao; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Shang, Huey-Fang; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2009-10-14

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam, was reported to have immunomodulatory activity in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell lines ( Food and Chemical Toxicology , 2007 , 45 , 2312 -2318 ). However, the immunomodulatory function of dioscorin after being ingested was not elucidated in vivo. Hence, BALB/c mice were given oral dioscorin (2.5 and 20 mg/kg/day) once a day for 21-days. Lymphocyte subpopulation changes in the peripheral blood and splenocytes, stimulation in phagocytosis of the polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) and monocytes, the natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, the splenocyte proliferation, and cytokine secretions in the presence of PHA were determined. The number changes of Peyer's patches and secreted IgA (sIgA) in the feces were determined. Oral dioscorin for 21-days increased the subpopulation in natural killer cells (CD49(+)) and/or B cells (CD19(+)), elevated the phagocytosis of PMN (p dioscorin and significant difference to those of the control (p dioscorin exhibited systemic and mucosal immunomodulatory activities after being ingested in vivo.

  12. Gamma-irradiation of wet corn. Microbiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Jeanne; Cahagnier, B.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of a survey of several years work on microbiological decontamination and control of wet corn by gamma-irradiation the following factors are studied: inhibiting and selective effect of gamma-irradiation (100 to 500krads) on the microflora of grains; evolution of residual microflora of irradiated wet grains (moisture content about 35%), during storage experiments under ventilated or airtight conditions. Two important points emerge from those studies. The microflora which develops on irradiated sample is much less varied than that of the control sample. The microbial population of an irradiated sample rises up in a few days on a level with the initial one of the control, then goes on increasing while remaining, as a rule, slightly inferior to that of the control placed under the same conditions. This greatly lowers the practical interest of irradiation, which can only be used together with another treatment able to inhibit the quick growth of the residual microflora [fr

  13. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  14. SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TEMPE JAGUNG PADA PEMBUATAN MIE BASAH [Substitution of Corn Tempe Flour on Wet Noodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Setyani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find the best formulation of corn tempe flour and wheat flour to produce chemically, physicochemically and organoleptically acceptable sweet noodle. The formulation consisted of 4 levels ratio of 100% corn tempe flour and wheat flour L1 (10:90, L2 (20:80, L3 (30:70, L4 (40:60 w/w with 6 replications. The experiment was arranged in Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, further were tested by using the Least Significant Difference (LSD test in 5% level of significance. The result showed that the best formula was L3 treatment (30% corn tempe flour  and 70% wheat flour. The characteristic  of this noodle were 23.31% moisture content, 1.55% ash, 8.50% fat,   9.11% protein, 57,2% carbohydrate, 9.85% cooking loss, and 13.50 %water absorption. The wet noodle score sensory of texture was 2,88 (rather chewy, taste’s and aroma score was 3.05 (typical corn, and the overall of acceptance was  2.93 (like.Keywords: chemical-physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics, corn tempe flour,  wet noodle,wheat.

  15. Corn yield for silage and grains in different integrated crop-livestock systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse da Silveira Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the objective was to assess the influence of two doses of N (90 and 180 kg N ha-1, added to the winter pastures, two integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, with and without trees and five positions between the tree rows, on the corn (Zea mays L. quality and productivity, for silage and grain. Adopting the complete randomized block design, the treatments included three replicates. In 2006, following the 14 x 3 m spacing (currently with 158 trees ha-1 the trees were planted in 6 out of the 12 paddocks. While the corn was implemented during summer of 2013/2014, cattle grazing on the annual pasture was done during the prior winter, in both ICLS. Corn for silage was reaped at the R5 phenological stage, whereas for grains it was done at 176 days post seeding. For silage, the corn plants were grinded and then stocked in the experimental mini PVC silos. The silage varied slightly in quality along the positions between the tree rows. The differences observed between N levels in the dry matter, crude protein (CP and grain productivity are expressions of the residual effects of the winter fertilization. Silage quality was improved by the shade effect which minimized the acid detergent fiber and raised the CP, although it reduced the corn production for silage and grains by 52%. Some feasible techniques to reduce these losses are discussed.

  16. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  17. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 4. Evaluation of various packaging materials for treated corn grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villacarlos, L.T.

    1976-03-01

    The effectiveness of five different containers, bell jar, malathion-impregnated bag, plastic woven sack, polyethylene bag (0.006 and 0.008 inch thickness) and polypropylene bags (0.004 inch thickness), in protecting irradiated or fumigated corn grains against reinfestation by rice weevils was evaluated. Results from this study showed that all materials tested except for the plastic woven sack prevented penetration by rice weevils from 1 to 6 months of storage. Fumigation with methyl bromide killed all the immature stages of the weevil but irradiation with 15 krad allowed a few to survive up to two months after irradiation. Fumigation was effective in killing all stages of the weevil but some residues were left after treatment. A dose higher than 15 krad that will kill all the stages of the weevils in a short time should be tried for disinfestation of stored grains

  18. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  19. Exploring economically and environmentally viable northeastern US dairy farm strategies for coping with rising corn grain prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, L T; Veith, T L; Cerosaletti, P E; Dewing, D E; Rotz, C A

    2009-08-01

    In 2008, corn grain prices rose $115/t of DM above the 2005 average. Such an increase creates tight marginal profits for small (profit losses by growing more corn silage and reducing corn grain purchases. This study applies the Integrated Farm Systems Model to 1 small and 1 medium-sized New York State dairy farm to predict 1) sediment and P loss impacts from expanding corn fields, 2) benefits of no-till or cover cropping on corn fields, and 3) alternatives to the economic challenge of the current farming system as the price ratio of milk to corn grain continues to decline. Based on the simulation results, expanding corn silage production by 3% of the cultivated farm area increased sediment and sediment-bound P losses by 41 and 18%, respectively. Implementing no-till controlled about 84% of the erosion and about 75% of the sediment-bound P that would have occurred from the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario. Implementing a conventionally tilled cover crop with the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario controlled both erosion and sediment-bound P, but to a lesser extent than no-till corn with no cover crop. However, annual farm net return using cover crops was slightly less than when using no-till. Increasing on-farm grass productivity while feeding cows a high-quality, high-forage diet and precise dietary P levels offered dual benefits: 1) improved farm profitability from reduced purchases of dietary protein and P supplements, and 2) decreased runoff P losses from reduced P-levels in applied manure. Moreover, alternatives such as growing additional small grains on marginal lands and increasing milk production levels demonstrated great potential in increasing farm profitability. Overall, it is crucial that conservation measures such as no-till and cover cropping be implemented on new or existing corn lands as these areas often pose the highest threat for P losses through runoff. Although alternatives that would likely provide

  20. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  1. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively, compared to 52 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation. (author)

  2. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m -2 y -1 , respectively, compared to 52 g m -2 y -1 for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation.

  3. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P digestibility values for broilers were higher (P digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Protein replacement therapy partially corrects the cholesterol-storage phenotype in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Krogh Nielsen

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2 disease is a fatal autosomal recessive neurovisceral degenerative disorder characterized by late endosomal-lysosomal sequestration of low-density lipoprotein derived cholesterol. The breach in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis is caused by deficiency of functional NPC2, a soluble sterol binding protein targeted to the lysosomes by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. As currently there is no effective treatment for the disorder, we have investigated the efficacy of NPC2 replacement therapy in a murine gene-trap model of NPC2-disease generated on the 129P2/OlaHsd genetic background. NPC2 was purified from bovine milk and its functional competence assured in NPC2-deficient fibroblasts using the specific cholesterol fluorescent probe filipin. For evaluation of phenotype correction in vivo, three-week-old NPC2(-/- mice received two weekly intravenous injections of 5 mg/kg NPC2 until trial termination 66 days later. Whereas the saline treated NPC2(-/- mice exhibited massive visceral cholesterol storage as compared to their wild-type littermates, administration of NPC2 caused a marked reduction in cholesterol build up. The histological findings, indicating an amelioration of the disease pathology in liver, spleen, and lungs, corroborated the biochemical results. Little or no difference in the overall cholesterol levels was observed in the kidneys, blood, cerebral cortex and hippocampus when comparing NPC2(-/- and wild type mice. However, cerebellum cholesterol was increased about two fold in NPC2(-/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. Weight gain performance was slightly improved as a result of the NPC2 treatment but significant motor coordination deficits were still observed. Accordingly, ultrastructural cerebellar abnormalities were detected in both saline treated and NPC2 treated NPC2(-/- animals 87 days post partum. Our data indicate that protein replacement may be a beneficial therapeutic approach in the

  5. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  6. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  7. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  8. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  9. Process and economic evaluation of the extraction and purification of recombinant beta-glucuronidase from transgenic corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista; Kusnadi; Howard; Nikolov

    1998-07-01

    A process model for the recovery and purification of recombinant beta-glucuronidase (rGUS) from transgenic corn was developed, and the process economics were estimated. The base-case bioprocessing plant operates 7500 h/year processing 1.74 million (MM) kg of transgenic corn containing 0.015% (db) rGUS. The process consists of milling the corn into flour, extraction of protein by using 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, and rGUS purification by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. About 137 kg of rGUS of 83% (db) purity can be produced annually. The production cost amounted to $43 000/kg of rGUS. The cost of milling, protein extraction, and rGUS purification accounted for 6, 40, and 48% of annual operating cost, respectively. The cost of transgenic corn was 31% of the raw material costs or 6% of the annual operating cost. About 78% of the cost of buffer and water were incurred in the protein extraction section, while 88% of other consumables were from the purification section. The sensitivity analysis indicated that rGUS can be produced profitably from corn even at the 0.015% (db) expression level, assuming a selling price of $100 000/kg GUS. An increase in rGUS expression levels up to 0.08% significantly improves the process economics.

  10. Heterologous Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1,4-β-Endoglucanase E1 Produced Within the Corn Biomass Converts Corn Stover Into Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Callista; Balan, Venkatesh; Biswas, Gadab; Dale, Bruce; Crockett, Elaine; Sticklen, Mariam

    Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires inexpensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which might be achieved through direct production of these enzymes within the biomass crops. Transgenic corn plants containing the catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endo-1,4-β glucanase and the bar bialaphos resistance coding sequences were generated after Biolistic® (BioRad Hercules, CA) bombardment of immature embryo-derived cells. E1 sequences were regulated under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and tobacco mosaic virus translational enhancer, and E1 protein was targeted to the apoplast using the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein to achieve accumulation of this enzyme. The integration, expression, and segregation of E1 and bar transgenes were demonstrated, respectively, through Southern and Western blotting, and progeny analyses. Accumulation of up to 1.13% of transgenic plant total soluble proteins was detected as biologically active E1 by enzymatic activity assay. The corn-produced, heterologous E1 could successfully convert ammonia fiber explosion-pretreated corn stover polysaccharides into glucose as a fermentable sugar for ethanol production, confirming that the E1 enzyme is produced in its active from.

  11. ELASTICITY OF CORN PRICE TRANSMISION AND ITS IMPLICATION TO FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn has important roles to Indonesian economy both for staple foods and for price transmission to other products. The high domestic demand for corn compared to its domestic production has made corn imports continue to grow. This research is aimed to know the elasticity of price transmission and its implication to corn’s farmers. The results of analysis show that corn price transmission is inelastic. The coefficient shows that corn market is oligopsony under the imperfect competition market. To help the corn farmers, the government has to provide fertilizer subsidy and farm credit with low interest rates, as well as impose import tariff on corn. Keywords: Corn, Elasticity of price transmission, oligopsony, imperfect competition marketJEL classification numbers: Q00, Q12, Q18

  12. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  13. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae, but not for the Bt + RNAi vector stack. Additionally, the resistant larvae demonstrated a weaker host response to the isoline corn roots when compared to the susceptible larvae. Although weaker, these host responses were significantly different from those observed in the negative controls, indicating that all hybrids tested do contain the contact cues necessary to elicit a host preference response by both Cry3Bb1-resistant and Cry3Bb1-susceptible larvae that would work to hinder resistance development in refuge in a bag fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.

  15. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  16. The effect of bound to dialdehudecellulose protein concentration on the activity of immobilized trypsin after γ-irradiation and in process of storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.A.; Ryl'tsev, V.V.; Ignatyuk, T.E.; Filatov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    It is found the complex effect of the bound enzyme concentration on the proteolytic activity of trypsin immobilized to dialdehydecellulose (preriodate oxidation) after γ-irradiation and in process of storage. It is shown the occurance of three stages of immobilized enzyme inactivation in process of immobilization and storage. The velocity of inactivation did not depend on bound trypsin concentration. The ratio of proteolytic activity of samples before and after γ-irradiation was increased with the increase of immobilized to carrier enzyme concentration and was not change (in range of experiment error) in process of storage. The results were compared with that of cryctlline trypsin

  17. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  18. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  19. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  20. Quantitative analysis of allantoin in Iranian corn silk

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khanpour*; M. Modarresi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Zea mays is cultivated in different parts of Iran and corn silk is used in traditional medicine. Allantoin is one of the major compounds in corn silk. The purpose of this research was the quantitatve analysis of allantoin in corn silks belonging to several regions of Iran. Methods: The samples of corn silk were prepared from three provinces of Iran (Kermanshah, Fars and Razavi Khorasan). The dried plant materials were infused in boiling distilled water with a temper...

  1. Influence of continuous cropping on corn and soybean pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzi, Camila; Camera, Juliane Nicolodi; Deuner, Carolina Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two tillage programs (conventional and no-tillage) and different rotations with soybeans and corn on the occurrence of Fusarium species. The work was conducted in the experimental field and Seed Laboratory at Iowa State University. The treatments were: tillage (no-tillage and conventional tillage), crop (corn and soybeans) and three different cropping sequences for corn and soybeans, respectively. Treatment with corn: (1) t...

  2. Effects of corn oil administered orally on conspicuity of ultrasonographic small intestinal lesions in dogs with lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E; Johnson, Eric G; Pesavento, Patricia A; Baker, Tomas W; Cannon, Allison B; Kass, Philip H; Marks, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangiectasia is one of the causes of protein-losing enteropathy in dogs and characteristic ultrasonographic small intestinal lesions have been previously described. The purpose of this study was to determine whether corn oil administered orally (COAO) would result in increased conspicuity of these characteristic small intestinal ultrasonographic lesions in dogs with lymphangiectasia. Affected dogs were included if they underwent corn oil administered orally and had a surgical full-thickness intestinal biopsy diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Control dogs had normal clinical examination and standard laboratory test findings. Ultrasound images of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained prior to and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after corn oil administered orally for all dogs. Parameters recorded for each ultrasound study were intestinal wall thickness, mucosal echogenicity, and presence or absence of hyperechoic mucosal striations (HMS) and a parallel hyperechoic mucosal line (PHML). Nine affected and five controls dogs were included in the study. Seven of the nine dogs with lymphangiectasia had hyperechoic mucosal striations prior to corn oil administered orally. Jejunal hyperechoic mucosal striations were significantly associated with lymphangiectasia at multiple time points (P dogs with lymphangiectasia 60 or 90 min after corn oil administered orally. Increased mucosal echogenicity was observed in all dogs at multiple time points after corn oil administered orally. A parallel hyperechoic mucosal line was present in the jejunum in 4/5 healthy and 6/9 dogs with lymphangiectasia at one or more time points after corn oil administered orally. Findings indicated that corn oil administered orally improves conspicuity of characteristic ultrasonographic lesions in dogs with lymphangiectasia, however some of these lesions may also be present in healthy dogs that recently received a fatty meal. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  3. Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

  4. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  5. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent...

  6. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  7. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  8. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  9. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy-corn milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-corn milk type was produced from a blend of soybean milk and corn milk extract at a ratio of 3:1. The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid (TDS), total titrable acidity (TTA) specific gravity (SG), apparent colloidal stability, pH and sensory ...

  10. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  11. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  12. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols...

  13. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Hand weeding by hoe was done once when the corn was app. 20 cm in height. Plots were harvested at the doughy stage of corn, cutting mid-rows of plots in order to avoid border effects, by removing at 4-5 cm height on 9 Sept.,. 2004 and 12 Sept., 2005, respectively. Corn was harvested from the middle 5.

  14. Winter rye cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been grown successfully in Iowa, but sometimes a cereal rye cover crop preceding corn can reduce corn yields. Our research examines the effect of a rye cover crop on infections of the succeeding corn crop by soil fungal pathogens. Plant measurements included: growth stage, height, r...

  15. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  16. Stressed-induced TMEM135 protein is part of a conserved genetic network involved in fat storage and longevity regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernat J Exil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of mitochondrial fat metabolism lead to sudden death in infants and children. Although survival is possible, the underlying molecular mechanisms which enable this outcome have not yet been clearly identified. Here we describe a conserved genetic network linking disorders of mitochondrial fat metabolism in mice to mechanisms of fat storage and survival in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. We have previously documented a mouse model of mitochondrial very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD deficiency. We originally reported that the mice survived birth, but, upon exposure to cold and fasting stresses, these mice developed cardiac dysfunction, which greatly reduced survival. We used cDNA microarrays to outline the induction of several markers of lipid metabolism in the heart at birth in surviving mice. We hypothesized that the induction of fat metabolism genes in the heart at birth is part of a regulatory feedback circuit that plays a critical role in survival. The present study uses a dual approach employing both C57BL/6 mice and the nematode, C. elegans, to focus on TMEM135, a conserved protein which we have found to be upregulated 4.3 (±0.14-fold in VLCAD-deficient mice at birth. Our studies have demonstrated that TMEM135 is highly expressed in mitochondria and in fat-loaded tissues in the mouse. Further, when fasting and cold stresses were introduced to mice, we observed 3.25 (±0.03- and 8.2 (±0.31-fold increases in TMEM135 expression in the heart, respectively. Additionally, we found that deletion of the tmem135 orthologue in C. elegans caused a 41.8% (±2.8% reduction in fat stores, a reduction in mitochondrial action potential and decreased longevity of the worm. In stark contrast, C. elegans transgenic animals overexpressing TMEM-135 exhibited increased longevity upon exposure to cold stress. Based on these results, we propose that TMEM135 integrates biological processes involving fat metabolism and energy expenditure in

  17. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin) Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pingli; Shen, Zhikang; Ming, Luchang; Li, Yibo; Dan, Wenhan; Lou, Guangming; Peng, Bo; Wu, Bian; Li, Yanhua; Zhao, Da; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Gongwei; He, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Rice seed storage protein (SSP) is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), prolamin (Pro), glutelin (Glu), and total SSP (Total). A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97) and NIL(Delong208), and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes ( PG5a , Wx , AGPS2a , RP6 , and, RM1 ). Several starch-metabolism-related genes ( AGPS2a , OsACS6 , PUL , GBSSII , and ISA2 ) were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6 , RM1 , Wx , and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would

  18. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice seed storage protein (SSP is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb, globulin (Glo, prolamin (Pro, glutelin (Glu, and total SSP (Total. A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97 and NIL(Delong208, and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes (PG5a, Wx, AGPS2a, RP6, and, RM1. Several starch-metabolism-related genes (AGPS2a, OsACS6, PUL, GBSSII, and ISA2 were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6, RM1, Wx, and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would provide

  19. Radish juice and corn oil as adjuvants that decrease the destructive alterations in hypoglycemia rats subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the decrease in different biochemical and histopathological alterations that may occur following the oral administration of aqueous extract of radish at the dose level (50 mg/100 g body weight) and the addition of 10% corn oil to the diet of hypoglycemia rats and /or exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The experiment included normal male albino rats and hypoglycemia ones.The hypoglycemia rats divided into tow groups; the first group was treated with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing corn oil and the other group was hypoglycemia rats exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation then treated also with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing 10% corn oil. Biochemical analysis included levels of blood sugar, total lipids, cholesterol, total protein and albumin, in addition to the activity of AST and ALT were evaluated. The level of TBARs and the histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also investigated. Treatment of irradiated hypoglycemia rats with radish juice either alone or combined with a diet containing 10% corn oil reverse the serum fasting glucose level nearly to the control level. Amelioration in lipid profile was recorded after the treatment of the hypoglycemia rats or those hypoglycemia irradiated then treated with radish juice and fed on a diet containing 10% corn oil. Also, significant amelioration was occurred in liver transaminases, total proteins, albumin and creatinine levels as compared to those of hypoglycemia group. TBARs levels showed remarkable decrease in liver and kidney tissues in comparison with control and hypoglycemia rats and/or gamma irradiated levels when it is treated with radish juice and diet containing corn oil. Also, the histopathological changes of the same tissues revealed the same trend. From the different observations , it is possible to conclude that treatment of rats with radish juice in addition to feeding on diet containing 10% corn oil could reduce the

  20. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  1. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  2. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  3. Bubbles, Bubbles, Tremors & Trouble: The Bayou Corne Sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In May 2012, thermogenic methane bubbles were first observed in Bayou Corne in Assumption Parish, Louisiana. As of July 2013, ninety one bubbling sites have been identified. Gas was also found in the top of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) about 125 ft below the surface. Vent wells drilled into the MRAA have flared more 16 million SCF of gas. Trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide also have been detected. Bayou Corne flows above the Napoleonville salt dome which has been an active area for oil and gas exploration since the 1920s. The dome is also a site of dissolution salt mining which has produced large caverns with diameters of up to 300 ft and heights of 2000 ft. Some caverns are used for storage of natural gas. Microseismic activity was confirmed by an Earthscope seismic station in White Castle, LA in July 2012. An array of microseismic stations set up in the area recorded more than 60 microseismic events in late July and early August, 2012. These microseismic events were located on the western side of the dome. Estimated focal depths are just above the top of salt. In August 2012, a sinkhole developed overnight just to the northwest of a plugged and abandoned brine filled cavern (see figure below). The sinkhole continues to grow in area to more than 20 acres and has consumed a pipeline right of way. The sinkhole is more than 750 ft deep at its center. Microseismic activity was reduced for several months following the formation of the sinkhole. Microseismic events have reoccurred episodically since then with periods of frequent events preceding slumping of material into the sinkhole or a 'burp' where fluid levels in the sinkhole drop and then rebound followed by a decrease in microseismic activity. Some gas and/or oil may appear at the surface of the sinkhole following a 'burp'. Very long period events also have been observed which are believed to be related to subsurface fluid movement. A relief well drilled into the abandoned brine cavern found that

  4. Henry Agard Wallace, the Iowa Corn Yield Tests, and the Adoption of Hybrid Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Richard C. Sutch

    2008-01-01

    This research report makes the following claims: 1] There was not an unambiguous economic advantage of hybrid corn over the open-pollinated varieties in 1936. 2] The early adoption of hybrid corn before 1937 can be better explained by a sustained propaganda campaign conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture, Henry Agard Wallace. The Department's campaign echoed that of the commercial seed companies. The most prominent hybrid seed company,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) 1 Functional use Baked... chapter 10 Do. Soft candy, § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter 20 Do. All other food categories 4 Do. 1 Parts... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section...

  6. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    sufficient to represent the viscoelastic behavior of the corn cob. The effect of moisture content and rates of loading on the mechanical model determined were investigated. 1. ..... F = applied force or residual force σ. = contact stress .... J. Agric. Engineering. Res. 7(4):. 300-315. Journal of the British Society for. Research in ...

  7. Analysis of heavy metals in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, B.; Dirdal, B.; Paus, P.E.

    1979-03-01

    Methods for the analysis of metals in Norwegian corn types have been tested. The main emphasis is on atomic absorption spectroscopy, with both wet and dry ashing, but the results are compared with emission spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis. In the latter only instrumental analysis has been carried out, restricting the number of metals which could be analysed. (JIW)

  8. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  9. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  10. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweet corn packed with a suitable liquid packing medium which may include water and the creamy component... as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (ii) The words “vacuum pack” or “vacuum packed... found, less the weight of the sieve, as the drained weight. Dry and weigh the empty container and...

  11. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of refrigerated storage on the quality characteristics of microwave cooked chicken seekh kababs extended with different non-meat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Pathak, Vikas; Fayaz, Hina

    2013-10-01

    Storage quality of chicken seekh kababs extended with different legumes at optimum level viz. 15% cowpea, 15% green gram and 10% black bean were assessed in terms of physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties under aerobic packaging conditions at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C). The chicken seekh kababs were prepared from spent hens meat by low power microwave method and extended with optimum level of different legume (hydrated 1:1 w/w) pastes replacing lean meat in the formulation. The chicken seekh kababs formulated without any extender served as control and were compared with extended chicken seekh kababs. The kababs were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and were analyzed at a regular interval of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The results indicated a significant (p  0.05) increase and almost all the sensory attributes showed a declining trend with advancement of storage. Total plate count and psychrophillic count also increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The products were acceptable throughout the storage period.

  13. The effects of kinds of lumus and the storage period on the quality of patin wadi based on the results of nutrient tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Indah Sari; Hastuti, Utami Sri; Lestari, Umi; Suwono, Hadi

    2017-05-01

    Wadi is the processed product of fish, due to local knowledge of the Dayak community, made of fresh fish with salt and lumus. The efforts to increase the quality of wadi as a kind of food were based on local knowledge, and are still ongoing. It is one of the ways to conserve wadi existence in the middle of the modern culture. It is important to add a variety of spices in suitable amounts as the innovation in producing wadi. People process wadi by using lumus made of rice and corn. Lumus gives a special taste and aroma t o wadi, furthermore, the effects of kinds of lumus and their concentrates, and the storage period on the nutrients of wadi are not known yet. This research used patin fish (Pangasius sp), white rice (Oryza sativa), white sticky rice (Oryza sativa var.glutinous), and corn (Zea mays) as the kinds of lumus. Each kind of lumus is mixed with fresh patin fish in different concentrations: 15%, 25% and 35%. The results of nutrient tests include measures of protein, carbohydrate, and fat, and show that patin which has been processed into wadi has more nutrients than fresh patin. The storage period and the varying concentrates of lumus effect the level of nutrients in patin wadi.

  14. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  15. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  16. Replacement Value of Untreated or Fungal Treated Carrot Leaves for Corn in Broiler Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources

  17. Utilization of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica from Papua as an Alternative Feedstuff to Substitute Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Tirajoh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papua foxtail millet (Setaria italica is a plant which has been used as a source of carbohydrate, but it has not been used optimally. High demand in consuming corn as a poultry feeds provides an opportunity for Papua foxtail millet to be used as a substitute for corn in feed. Evaluation of nutritive values and antinutrient shows that Papua foxtail millet potential to be used as feed stuff. Studies on cultivation technology, evaluation of the nutritive values and antinutrient and its benefits as an alternative feed are relatively limited. The results shows that the Papua foxtail millet contains dry matter (88.37%, ash (0.86%, protein (12.07%, fat (2.76%, crude fiber (1.93%, metabolizable energy (3,139 kcal/kg and anti-nutritional factors (3.07% of phytate and 0.01% of tannins. Several studies reported that the use of Papua foxtail millet at various levels (25-100% in feed, can substitute corn and give a positive response on consumption, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass composition and percentages and egg production. It can be concluded that the Papua foxtail millet can be used as a corn substitution in poultry feed.

  18. Quality assessment of corn batches received at a feed mill in the brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFC Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating factors that contribute to changes in the quality of corn used in compound poultry feeds. Samples were collected from 6488 bulk cargos received at a feed mill located close to Brasília, Brazil. The parameters studied were divided into two groups: those related to corn chemical composition, including crude protein (% CP, ether extract (% EE, crude fiber (% CF, nitrogen-free extract (% NFE, and estimated metabolizable energy (ME, and corn physical characteristics, including density, moisture, and grain physical damage. High coefficients of determination (R² and low coefficients of variation (CV were determined for th