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Sample records for corn pc code

  1. PC-Reactor-core transient simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    PC-REATOR, a reactor core transient simulation code has been developed for the real-time operator training on a IBM-PC microcomputer. The program presents capabilities for on-line exchange of the operating parameters during the transient simulation, by friendly keyboard instructions. The model is based on the point-kinetics approximation, with 2 delayed neutron percursors and up to 11 decay power generating groups. (author) [pt

  2. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy's ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections)

  3. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  4. Protection of feruloylated oligosaccharides from corn bran against oxidative stress in PC 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheng-wen; Wen, Xiao-xiao; Huang, Ru-qing; He, Rong-rong; Ou, Shi-yi; Shen, Wei-zai; Huang, Cai-huan; Peng, Xi-chun

    2014-01-22

    Feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) were prepared by autoclaving corn bran in oxalic acid (0.6%) solution, and their protection effects against oxidative stress in pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) cells were investigated. The FOs samples, which comprised a mixture of feruloylated mono- and dipentoses with 4.88% bound ferulic acid (FA), as well as xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose amounting to 46.43, 40.46, 3.76, and 8.68% of the total sugars, respectively, were prepared by autoclaving the pretreated corn bran in 0.6% oxalic acid and then further separated. Antioxidant activity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 in PC 12 neuronal cell culture model. The results showed that FOs exhibited higher antioxidant activity than free ferulic acid, with an IC50 value of 11 versus 128 μM for DPPH and an ORAC value of 4.77 versus 2.62 μmol Trolox/μmol. Tetrazolium blue assay showed that the addition of FOs with an FA concentration >50 μM significantly increased cell viability after treatment with H2O2. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the addition of FOs at concentrations of 800, 200, and 50 μM significantly decreased the apoptosis rate at the sub-G0 phase from 37.5 to 12.7, 16.2, and 20.9% (P cultures. The addition of FA at 800 μM showed an effect similar to that of FOs at 200 μM. Therefore, the FOs prepared from corn bran are potential functional ingredients for protection against oxidative stress.

  5. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  6. Codes CONV45 and CONV56 for a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.F.

    1988-03-01

    The codes CONV45 and CONV56 convert data files from ENDF/B-4 to ENDF/B-5 and from ENDF/B-5 to ENDF/B-6 format respectively. The codes which were received from US National Nuclear Data Center were implemented at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for use on personal computers. (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

  7. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  8. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  9. Development a computer codes to couple PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntjoro, S.; Budi Setiawan, M.; Nursinta Adi, W.; Deswandri; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Radionuclide dispersion analysis is part of an important reactor safety analysis. From the analysis it can be obtained the amount of doses received by radiation workers and communities around nuclear reactor. The radionuclide dispersion analysis under normal operating conditions is carried out using the PC-CREAM code, and it requires input data such as source term and population distribution. Input data is derived from the output of another program that is PWR-GALE and written Population Distribution data in certain format. Compiling inputs for PC-CREAM programs manually requires high accuracy, as it involves large amounts of data in certain formats and often errors in compiling inputs manually. To minimize errors in input generation, than it is make coupling program for PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM programs and a program for writing population distribution according to the PC-CREAM input format. This work was conducted to create the coupling programming between PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input and programming to written population data in the required formats. Programming is done by using Python programming language which has advantages of multiplatform, object-oriented and interactive. The result of this work is software for coupling data of source term and written population distribution data. So that input to PC-CREAM program can be done easily and avoid formatting errors. Programming sourceterm coupling program PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM is completed, so that the creation of PC-CREAM inputs in souceterm and distribution data can be done easily and according to the desired format.

  10. Neutron shielding point kernel integral calculation code for personal computer: PKN-pc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Kurosawa, Naohiro.

    1994-07-01

    A personal computer version of PKN code, PKN-pc, has been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray 1cm depth dose equivalents in water, ordinary concrete and iron for neutron source. Characteristics of PKN code are, to able to calculate dose equivalents in multi-layer three-dimensional system, which are described with two-dimensional surface, for monoenergetic neutron source from 0.01 to 14.9 MeV, 252 Cf fission and 241 Am-Be neutron source quick and easily. In addition to these features, the PKN-pc is possible to process interactive input and to get graphical system configuration and graphical results easily. (author)

  11. SHEAT for PC. A computer code for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for personal computer, user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Suzuki, Masahide

    2002-03-01

    The SHEAT code developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis which is one of the tasks needed for seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant. At first, SHEAT was developed as the large sized computer version. In addition, a personal computer version was provided to improve operation efficiency and generality of this code in 2001. It is possible to perform the earthquake hazard analysis, display and the print functions with the Graphical User Interface. With the SHEAT for PC code, seismic hazard which is defined as an annual exceedance frequency of occurrence of earthquake ground motions at various levels of intensity at a given site is calculated by the following two steps as is done with the large sized computer. One is the modeling of earthquake generation around a site. Future earthquake generation (locations, magnitudes and frequencies of postulated earthquake) is modeled based on the historical earthquake records, active fault data and expert judgment. Another is the calculation of probabilistic seismic hazard at the site. An earthquake ground motion is calculated for each postulated earthquake using an attenuation model taking into account its standard deviation. Then the seismic hazard at the site is calculated by summing the frequencies of ground motions by all the earthquakes. This document is the user's manual of the SHEAT for PC code. It includes: (1) Outline of the code, which include overall concept, logical process, code structure, data file used and special characteristics of code, (2) Functions of subprogram and analytical models in them, (3) Guidance of input and output data, (4) Sample run result, and (5) Operational manual. (author)

  12. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  13. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS for fasting glucose (FG and insulin (FI have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7 evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF=1.5% influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1% influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D, the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.

  14. Application of an integrated PC-based neutronics code system to criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.; Nigg, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM PC-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past four years. Four modules within the system are particularly useful for criticality safety applications. Using the neutronics portion of the integrated code system, effective neutron multiplication values (k eff values) have been calculated for a variety of benchmark critical experiments for metal systems (Plutonium and Uranium), Aqueous Systems (Plutonium and Uranium) and LWR fuel rod arrays. A description of the codes and methods used in the analysis and the results of the benchmark critical experiments are presented in this paper. In general, excellent agreement was found between calculated and experimental results. (Author)

  15. PRAAGE-1988: An interactive IBM-PC code for aging analysis of NUREG-1150 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Shier, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRA) contain a great deal of information for estimating the risk of a nuclear power plant but do not consider aging. PRAAGE (PRA+AGE) is an interactive, IBM-PC code for processing PRA-developed system models using non-aged failure rate data in conjunction with user-supplied time-dependent nuclear plant experience component failure rate data to determine the effects of component aging on a system's reliability as well as providing the age-dependent importances of various generic components. This paper describes the structure, use and application of PRAAGE to the aging analysis of the Peach Bottom 2 RHR system in the LPCI and SDC modes of operation. 4 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  16. User instructions for levelized power generation cost codes using an IBM-type PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Programs for the calculation of levelized power generation costs using an IBM or compatible PC are described. Cost calculations for nuclear plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. 7 refs., 36 figs., 4 tabs

  17. SALP-PC - A fault tree code on personal computer for plant safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, S.; Poucet, A.

    1988-01-01

    The interactive program package SALP-PC for fault tree analysis, developed on an Olivetti M24 personal computer (IBM compatible), is written in Fortran-77 to guarantee the maximum portability. It is composed of five processors, implementing the different phases of the fault tree analysis procedure. Allowed logical operators are AND, OR, NOT, K/N, XOR and INH. Boundary conditions can also be defined to obtain fault trees conditioned to the state of one or more components. The possibility to define incompatible events is also allowed. An extensive check on input data is performed. At each step of the analysis the user can restart, with modified input parameters, without having to repeat the previous steps. The minimal cut sets (MCSs) are obtained by reducing the tree according to the bottom-up technique. To save computer time the approach of determining only the most significant MCSs has been adopted, which implies the assessment of an estimate of the contribution of the non significant MCSs to the system failure. Other methods have been implemented to reduce both computer time and memory space as, for instance, the modularization and the application of the minimization procedure only when strictly necessary. This paper contains the description of the main characteristics of the program, the analysis procedure on which it is based and the developments being carried out. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. Bidirectional promoters link cAMP signaling with irreversible differentiation through promoter-associated non-coding RNA (pancRNA) expression in PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Agata, Kiyokazu; Nakashima, Kinichi; Imamura, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bidirectional promoters are the major source of gene activation-associated noncoding RNA (ncRNA). PC12 cells offer an interesting model for understanding the mechanism underlying bidirectional promoter-mediated cell cycle control. Nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated PC12 cells elongate neurites, and are in a reversible cell-cycle-arrested state. In contrast, these cells irreversibly differentiate and cannot re-enter the normal cell cycle after NGF plus cAMP treatment. In this study, using directional RNA-seq, we found that bidirectional promoters for protein-coding genes with promoter-associated ncRNA (pancRNA) were enriched for cAMP response element consensus sequences, and were preferred targets for transcriptional regulation by the transcription factors in the cAMP-dependent pathway. A spindle-formation-associated gene, Nusap1 and pancNusap1 were among the most strictly co-transcribed pancRNA–mRNA pairs. This pancRNA–mRNA pair was specifically repressed in irreversibly differentiated PC12 cells. Knockdown (KD) and overexpression experiments showed that pancNusap1 positively regulated the Nusap1 expression in a sequence-specific manner, which was accompanied by histone acetylation at the Nusap1 promoter. Furthermore, pancNusap1 KD recapitulated the effects of cAMP on cell cycle arrest. Thus, we conclude that pancRNA-mediated histone acetylation contributes to the establishment of the cAMP-induced transcription state of the Nusap1 locus and contributes to the irreversible cell cycle exit for terminal differentiation of PC12 cells. PMID:26945044

  19. Simulation of radiation dose rate distributions around casks in ships and vehicles by using QBF code for PC-9801 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Hisao

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of the present report is to show that the behavior of the spatial distribution of the radiation dose rate in a wide region can be easily visualized in various aspects of cask shipment even by personal computers which are very popular today, and that the QBF code system is a useful tool to perform this simulation. A great merit of using this code system is that one can easily analyze, with high reliability, roles of various important factors such as shielding structures and cask positions in the behavior of dose rate distributions. (J.P.N.)

  20. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The ORIGNATE processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. ORIGNATE is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel depletion and decay cases. ORIGNATE generates an input file that may be used to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  1. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  2. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The CSASIN processor for the criticality sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. CSASIN (formerly known as OFFSCALE) is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) available in SCALE-4. It is designed to assist a SCALE-4 user in preparing an input file for execution of criticality safety problems. Output from CSASIN generates an input file that may be used to execute the CSAS control module in SCALE-4. CSASIN features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up a CSAS input file and perform data checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  3. Simulations of cloudy hyperspectral infrared radiances using the HT-FRTC, a fast PC-based multipurpose radiative transfer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, S.; Aumann, H. H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The HT-FRTC uses principal components which cover the spectrum at a very high spectral resolution allowing very fast line-by-line-like, hyperspectral and broadband simulations for satellite-based, airborne and ground-based sensors. Using data from IASI and from the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) on board the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft, variational retrievals in principal component space with HT-FRTC as forward model have demonstrated that valuable information on temperature and humidity profiles and on the cirrus cloud properties can be obtained simultaneously. The NASA/JPL/UMBC cloudy RTM inter-comparison project has been working on a global dataset consisting of 7377 AIRS spectra. Initial simulations with HT-FRTC for this dataset have been promising. A next step taken here is to investigate how sensitive the results are with respect to different assumptions in the cloud modelling. One aspect of this is to study how assumptions about the microphysical and related optical properties of liquid/ice clouds impact the statistics of the agreement between model and observations. The other aspect is about the cloud overlap scheme. Different schemes have been tested (maximum, random, maximum random). As the computational cost increases linearly with the number of cloud columns, it will be investigated if there is an optimal number of columns beyond which there is little additional benefit to be gained. During daytime the high wave number channels of AIRS are affected by solar radiation. With full scattering calculations using a monochromatic version of the Edwards-Slingo radiation code the HT-FRTC can model solar radiation reasonably well, but full scattering calculations are relatively expensive. Pure Chou scaling on the other hand can not properly describe scattering of solar radiation by clouds and requires additional refinements.

  4. Isolation and characterization of the messenger RNA and the gene coding for a proline-rich zein from corn endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-zein, a proline-rich protein from corn endosperm, was investigated at the molecular level. Immunological and electrophoretic data indicated that gamma-zein was deposited into protein bodies in corn endosperm. Both isolated polysomes and poly(A) + mRNA were found to direct into vitro synthesis of gamma-zein in a wheat germ system. In vitro synthesized gamma-zein was immunoprecipitated from the total in vitro translation products. A cDNA expression library was constructed by reverse transcription of total poly(A) + mRNA using pUC8 plasmid as vector and E. coli strain DH1 as host. The library was screened for the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein by specific antibodies. The library was also screened with 32 P-labeled gamma-zein and alpha-zein cDNA probes. The results indicated that gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed in E. coli while alpha-zein was not. Seven independently selected clones, six of which were selected by antibody and one by a cDNA probe, were sequenced. A comparison of sequence information from seven clones revealed that their overlapping regions were identical. This suggests that gamma-zein is encoded by a single gene. This finding is in conflict with what was expected on the basis of extensive charge heterogeneity of gamma-zein in isoelectric focusing. Individual bands cut from an IEF gel were rerun and shown to give several bands suggesting that the charge heterogeneity of gamma-zein may be an artifact. Sequence information of gamma-zein indicated that the gene encodes a mature protein whose primary structure includes 204 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 21,824 daltons

  5. PC Pricer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PC Pricer is a tool used to estimate Medicare PPS payments. The final payment may not be precise to how payments are determined in the Medicare claims processing...

  6. ELIPGRID-PC: Upgraded version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Evaluating the need for and the effectiveness of remedial cleanup at waste sites often includes finding average contaminant concentrations and identifying pockets of contamination called hot spots. The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID code of singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign personal computer (PC) or compatible. A new version of ELIPGRID-PC, incorporating Monte Carlo test results and simple graphics, is herein described. Various examples of how to use the program for both single and multiple hot spot cases are given. The code for an American National Standards Institute C version of the ELIPGRID algorithm is provided, and limitations and further work are noted. This version of ELIPGRID-PC reliably meets the goal of moving Singer's ELIPGRID algorithm to the PC

  7. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  8. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin

    2015-01-01

    . To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels...... and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent......Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance...

  9. Biomimicry 1: PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, D C; Gunn, J; Malik, N; Holt, C M

    1998-01-01

    The surface properties of stents can be modified by coating them, for example with a polymer. Phosphorylcoline (PC) is the major component of the outer layer of the cell membrane. The haemo- and biocompatibility of a PC-containing polymer is thus based on biomimicry, and has been confirmed by several experiments showing much reduced thrombogenicity of PC-coated surfaces, and porcine coronary artery implants showing no sign of adverse effect. Clinical experience with the PC-coated BiodivYsio appears favourable. The PC coating can be tailored for take up and controlled elution of various drugs for stent-based local delivery, a property which is being actively explored.

  10. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  11. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  12. PC clusters at CERN's PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    These Linux-based PC clusters are mainly used for batch and interactive data processing. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDS 20 km tall, so high quality processing is required. To further facilitate this the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) has been set up to share processing power between facilities around the world.

  13. The PC graphics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2003-01-01

    Part I - Graphics Fundamentals PC GRAPHICS OVERVIEW History and Evolution Short History of PC Video PS/2 Video Systems SuperVGA Graphics Coprocessors and Accelerators Graphics Applications State-of-the-Art in PC Graphics 3D Application Programming Interfaces POLYGONAL MODELING Vector and Raster Data Coordinate Systems Modeling with Polygons IMAGE TRANSFORMATIONS Matrix-based Representations Matrix Arithmetic 3D Transformations PROGRAMMING MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS Numeric Data in Matrix Form Array Processing PROJECTIONS AND RENDERING Perspective The Rendering Pipeline LIGHTING AND SHADING Lightin

  14. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  15. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  16. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  17. Beware the PC Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    1992-01-01

    Decries the prevalence of "racism,""sexual harassment," and "speciesism" labels applied to supposed violators of "political correctness" (PC). When freedom of speech on college campuses is held hostage to political correctness, K-12 education is bound to be affected. This new brand of McCarthyism cheapens…

  18. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  19. NASA PC software evaluation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  20. Conical Nanopore PC Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clochard, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Template synthesis can be considered an alternative to conventional lithography methods. It is one way of providing a panel of nanoscale metallic wires, tubes or organic polymeric devices. Our interest is focused on track-etched membranes produced from swift heavy ions bombardment of polymer films. In comparison with self-assembly of block copolymers, this bottom-up approach has the advantage of being economic, it is not time-consuming and it allows track formation of diverse geometries. Tailoring of the conical nanopore tip opening would have a tremendous impact on sensing domain, as well as on fundamental understanding of perpendicular giant magneto Resistance properties observed in metallic multilayered cylindrical nanowires. By combining low-energy heavy ion beam radiation effects with asymmetric etching, the etching temperature and time can be tuned to prepare conical nanopores of controlled geometry from 0.5 to 1μm at the base to a few nanometers at the top. Asymmetric etching onto PC films was pH-monitored at various temperatures in the range of 65 degree to 80 degree. Fluence impact onto track etch pores was also investigated. The pore shape characterization was achieved by electronic microscopy measurements on membrane surfaces and on electrodeposited nanowires. We have also observed a difference in the conical shape of replicated nanowires. Some showed sting shapes and others displayed shell shapes depending on whether a neutralizing agent was used during etching or not

  1. Qualification plan for the Genmod-PC computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.B.; Wright, G.M.; Dunford, D.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    2002-07-01

    Genmod-PC is an internal dosimetry code that uses Microsoft Windows operating system, and that currently calculates radionuclide doses and intakes for an adult male. This report provides a plan for specifying the quality assurance measures that conform to the recommendations of the Canadian Standards Association, as well as AECL procedural requirements for a legacy computer program developed at AECL. (author)

  2. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer's 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer's published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program

  3. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  4. VIDEO-PC, SVGA Routines for FORTRAN on PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: These primitives are the lowest level routines needed to perform super VGA graphics on a PC. A sample main program is included that exercises the primitives. Both Lahey and Microsoft FORTRAN's have graphics libraries. However, the libraries do not support 256 color graphics at resolutions greater than 320x200. The primitives bypass these libraries while still conforming to standard usage of BIOS. The supported graphics modes depend upon the PC graphics card and its memory. Super VGA resolutions of 640x480 and 800x600 have been tested on an ATI VGA Wonder card with 512 K memory and on several 80486 PC's (unknown manufacturers) at retail stores. 2 - Method of solution: Both Lahey and Microsoft primitives depend upon sending the correct parameters to the PC BIOS (basic input output system) as discussed in the references. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The primitives were developed for 256 color VGA applications. It is known, for instance, that some CGA and 16 color VGA video modes will not operate correctly using these primitives. Potential users should try the test program on their PC/video card combination to determine applicability

  5. Construction and Analysis of a Novel 2-D Optical Orthogonal Codes Based on Modified One-coincidence Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianhua; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Ke; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhipeng; Yang, Shuwen

    2013-09-01

    A new two-dimensional OOC (optical orthogonal codes) named PC/MOCS is constructed, using PC (prime code) for time spreading and MOCS (modified one-coincidence sequence) for wavelength hopping. Compared with PC/PC, the number of wavelengths for PC/MOCS is not limited to a prime number. Compared with PC/OCS, the length of MOCS need not be expanded to the same length of PC. PC/MOCS can be constructed flexibly, and also can use available wavelengths effectively. Theoretical analysis shows that PC/MOCS can reduce the bit error rate (BER) of OCDMA system, and can support more users than PC/PC and PC/OCS.

  6. Densification characteristics of corn cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Corn cobs are potential feedstocks for producing heat, power, fuels, and chemicals. Densification of corn cobs into briquettes/pellets would improve their bulk handling, transportation, and storage properties. In this study, densification characteristics of corn cobs were studied using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus. With a maximum compression pressure of 150 MPa, effects of particle size (0.85 and 2.81 mm), moisture content (10 and 20% w.b.), and preheating temperature (25 and 85 C) on the density and durability of the corn cob briquettes (with diameter of about 19.0 mm) were studied. It was found that the durability (measured using ASABE tumbling can method) of corn cob briquettes made at 25 C was 0%. At both particle sizes, preheating of corn cob grinds with about 10% (w.b.) moisture content to 85 C produced briquettes with a unit density of > 1100 kg m{sup -3} and durability of about 90%. (author)

  7. Transfer and development of the PC version of ABAQUS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofeng; Zhu Yuqiao

    1998-01-01

    The transfer and development of the PC version of ABAQUS,a large nonlinear mechanical finite element analysis program, are carried out. Some special problem such as difference of the floating data format in different computers and the computer's unusual dead halt during the data transfer is solved and the visualized I/O capability is added in the redevelopment. Thus, by utilizing the visual capability, the intensity of analysis works is reduced, and the correctness of analysis is ensured. The PC ABAQUS are tested by the standard examples from VAX version of ABAQUS and the calculation results are correct. The results of calculation of stress and deformation for CEFR shell structure with PC ABAQUS and ADINA codes agree very well

  8. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  9. A PC board photometer controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sten, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 4-S/D meridian scanning photometer (MSP) reffered to in this report was originally built at the Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory, Uppsala, Sweden. After several years of reliable operation at the Norwegian Institute of Cosmic Physics, Oslo from 1969, the electronics was completely re-designed in 1985, using a CDP 1802 microprocessor and a FP1100 CASIO personal computer (PC) for control and data acquisition. The MSP was then set into operation at the Polish Academy of Science's Polar Station at Hornsund, Spitzbergen. This system was again changed in 1986 as described in the following, providing a greater flexibility and data-handling capacity. The new MSP controller (based on a PC board) is easier to build, utilizing the microprocessor and the direct memory acess controller of the PC

  10. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  11. Oefeningen met SPSS/PC+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, A.B.; Mazijk-Bokslag, van D.M.; Herstel, H.; Huisman, B.

    1991-01-01

    Dit verslag is op te vatten als een handleiding voor het gebruik van SPSS/PC. De handleiding is geschreven voor een cursus statistiek die in het voorjaar van 1990 voor twaalf RIKILT-medewerkers is gehouden. De cursus bevatte tevens een theoretisch gedeelte. De tekst daarvan is als RIKILT rapport

  12. PC-based temperature monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayne Lei Shwe; Pho Kaung; Zaw Win; Myint Kyi

    2001-01-01

    An economical and practical thermometer interface for the IBM compatible personal computer (PC) has been developed. It can indicate temperature changes as little as 0.4 0 C and covers a temperature range of zero to 100 0 C. Those involved in scientific studies can use it not only as a temperature recorde/display but also as a temperature controller. (author)

  13. Product evaluation : Dow Corning 888

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-10

    This report contains a product evaluation of Dow Corning 888 joint sealant. Dow Corning 888 is a one-part silicone material that cures to a low modulus silicone rubber upon exposure to atmospheric moisture. Its uses include transverse and longitudina...

  14. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from some feedstocks also could adversely affect crop quality by changing soil pH and reducing nutrients (e.g., Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, and P) in plant tissues. To evaluate effects of biochar on the nutrient quality of four crops, we conducted a greenhouse study using pots with: carrot (Daucus carota cv. Tendersweet), corn (Zea mays, cv. Golden Bantam), lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Black-Seeded Simpson) and soybean (Glycine max cv. Viking 2265). Plants were grown in one of two South Carolina sandy Coastal Plain soils (Norfolk and Coxville Soil Series), along with biochar (1% by weight) produced from pine chips (PC), poultry litter (PL), swine solids (SS), switchgrass (SG), and two blends of pine chips plus poultry litter (PC/PL, 50/50% and 80/20%). Each of the feedstocks and feedstock blends was pyrolyzed at 350, 500, and 700 ̊ C to produce the biochar used to amend the Norfolk and Coxville soils. Effects of biochar on leaf nutrients (% dry weight) statistically varied with species, soil, feedstock and temperature and nutrient. For carrot and lettuce, the PL, PL/PC, and SS biochars generally decreased leaf N, Ca, Mg, and P; while PL and PL/PC increased K and Na. Biochars had little effect on lea

  15. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  16. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  17. El blindaje de una PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La navegación en Internet y la consiguiente conexión a una red expone a una computadora a un sinfín de riesgos y peligros. Una PC que no sea utilizada para navegar en Internet o que no esté conectada a una red puede,incluso, ser también afectada por virus, por la utilización de disquetes contaminados que la contaminen con un virus. Para enfrentar esos problemas, la industria informática ha previsto una serie de protecciones y recaudos, de cuyo uso y utilización deben estar plenamente informados los usuarios de una PC.

  18. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  19. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PC 2 Phone Event Announcer

    OpenAIRE

    Parhizkar, Behrang; Alazizi, Abdulbasit Mohammad Abdulrahman; Ali, Mohammad Nabil Sadegh; Ramachandran, Anand; Navaratnam, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile phones are indispensable devices; it has become a trend now that college and university students are owners of such devices and this particular factor plays a very important role behind the coming up with the proposed system. “PC 2 Phone event Announcer”, is the name of the new proposed system suggested to solve the existing communication problem between the College staff and students. As the name suggests, it can be deduced that the system will involve computers and phones, ...

  1. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  2. Corning lightweight core fabrication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Edwards, Mary J.; Hobbs, Thomas W.

    2003-12-01

    Fabrication of lightweight mirrors from low expansion glasses can be achieved using various core and faceplate lightweighting techniques. Lightweighting can be achieved using abrasive waterjet cutting, CNC milling and a new approach that Corning is developing to produce lightweight cores based on Corning's patented ceramic extrusion process. The selection of which lightweighting technology to use is dependent on customer design considerations of the lightweight mirror. These lightweighting techniques are reviewed and discussed, along with advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Corning will also introduce and discuss their new core lightweighting process.

  3. Corns and Calluses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coding trends along with compliance guidelines and practice marketing materials, APMA has you covered whether you are ... Promote Your Practice Footprints Newsletter Public Education Campaigns Digital Brochures Reaching Out to the Media Feature Article ...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  5. Risk and the Value of Bt Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Paul D. Mitchell; Marlin E. Rice

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual model is developed to evaluate the effect of Bt corn on risk. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between marginal and aggregate risk effects and demonstrate that the effect of Bt corn on risk depends crucially on the price paid for the technology. Empirical results show that, depending on the price, Bt corn can be marginally risk increasing or decreasing and can either increase or decrease corn acreage. Also, depending on the price, Bt corn can provide a risk bene...

  6. Integrated bioethanol production from mixtures of corn and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sitong; Xu, Zhaoxian; Li, Xiujuan; Yu, Jianming; Cai, Mufeng; Jin, Mingjie

    2018-02-27

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover (CS), to ethanol has encountered issues of inhibition from degradation products, low ethanol titer and low ethanol productivity. This work integrated CS into corn ethanol process for effective conversion. CS was pretreated using either dilute alkali or dilute acid pretreatment. The pretreated CS was enzymatically hydrolyzed and then mixed with liquefied corn for ethanol fermentation. Fermentation strains, substrate mixing ratios and fed-batch strategy were investigated. The mixture of alkali pretreated CS and corn at solids loadings of 10% and 20%, respectively, resulted in 92.30 g/L ethanol. Ethanol titer was further improved to 96.43 g/L with a fed-batch strategy. The mixture of dilute acid pretreated CS and corn achieved a better performance, leading to 104.9 g/L ethanol with 80.47% ethanol yield and a productivity as high as 2.19 g/L/h. This work demonstrated effective conversion of CS and corn together to ethanol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  8. Corn in consortium with forages

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Keny Samejima Mascarenha Lopes; Ciniro Costa; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS) throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was c...

  9. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  10. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC - Evaluation and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, A.E.; Lawson, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion

  11. PC based vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay K.; Roy, D.A.; Pithawa, C.K.; Patil, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Health of large rotating machinery gets reflected in the vibration signature of the rotor and supporting structures and proper recording of these signals and their analysis can give a clear picture of the health of the machine. Using these data and their trending, it is possible to predict an impending trouble in the machine so that preventive action can be taken in time and catastrophic failure can be avoided. Continuous monitoring and analysis can give quick warning and enable operator to take preventive measures. Reactor Control Division, BARC is developing a PC based Vibration monitoring system for turbo generator machinery. The System can acquire 20 vibration signals at a rate of 5000 samples per second and also 15 process signals at a rate of 100 samples/ sec. The software for vibration monitoring system includes acquisition modules, analysis modules and Graphical User Interface module. The acquisition module involves initialization, setting of required parameters and acquiring the data from PC-based data acquisition cards. The acquired raw vibration data is then stored for analysis using various software packages. The display and analysis of acquired data is done in LabVIEW 7.0 where the data is displayed in time as well as frequency domain along with the RMS value of the signal. (author)

  12. PC driven integrated vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Brandea, Iulian; Anghel, Mihai

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of industrial plants by virtual instrumentation represents the most modern trend in the domain of electronic equipment. The integrated vacuum system presented here has several facilities, including the automated data storing of measurement results on hard disk and providing warning messages for operators when the measured parameters are lower or higher upper than the fixed values. The system can also work stand-alone, receiving the commands from the keyboards placed on his front panel but, when it is included in a automation complex system, a remote control from PC is necessary . Both parts of the system, power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, are controlled by an 80C31 microcontroller. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC and the power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. As software, after careful evaluation of several options, we chose to develop a hybrid software packing using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, display and storage. (authors)

  13. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  14. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BT CORN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Rice, Marlin E.

    2001-01-01

    A common perception is that the value of Bt corn arises from two components-Bt corn increases expected profit and reduces profit variability. This perception encourages farmers and the policy makers to add a risk benefit to estimates of the value of Bt corn to account for the variability reduction. However, a conceptual model generates a useful decomposition of the value of Bt corn and a condition determining the impact of Bt corn on profit variability. An empirical model finds that Bt corn i...

  15. ENDF utility codes version 6.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-5 and ENDF-6. Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting codes PLOTEF, GRALIB, graphic device interface subroutine library INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  16. Porting of graphic tools to PC environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Kazuhiko

    2000-10-01

    Because of high performance and low pricing of the PC(Personal computers) in these days, Distributed-processing has been so advanced that most of computations, which has been processed by main computers so far, are possible to be executed by PC. We have exported the graphic tools including PIFLIB, GGS and ARGUS, which were used on main frame computers, to PC environments. And we developed the WINPIF programs for PC graphic tools by converting from XPIF program which has been used on workstations as a general graphic tool. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  18. Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. corn belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...

  19. Corn defense responses to nitrogen availability and subsequent performance and feeding preferences of beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-Li; Hardy, Giles; Liu, Zhu-Dong; Wei, Wei; Dai, Hua-Guo

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have reported the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on plant constitutive defense responses; however, little is known about their effects on plant induced defense patterns and its consequence for insect herbivores. In our experiments, the effects of N availability on growth, nutritional quality (N content, protein/carbohydrate [P:C] ratio, modified gross energy [MGE]), and constitutive phenolics of corn, Zea mays L. were quantified. Moreover, the indirect effects of N fertilization on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner through larval performance and feeding preference were examined. N fertilization increased plant growth, and depressed defense traits by increasing N content and the P:C ratio, as well as decreasing the constitutive concentration of phenolics. Subsequently, beet armyworm showed higher performance and preferentially fed on high-N corn because of its low defense traits. After beet armyworm feeding, high-N corn significantly deterred larval feeding, and had negative effects on the performance of beet armyworm through decreasing P:C ratio and increasing induced phenolics. On the contrary, there were no significant changes in P:C ratio and phenolics in low-N corn after feeding damage. Larval performance and preference were also not affected by induced compounds in low-N corn, which suggested that the expression of induced defense was dependent on N availability. The result indicates that N availability can exert a variety of bottom-up effect on plant defense patterns to influence insect population dynamics, and thereby may represent a source of variation in plant-insect interactions.

  20. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  1. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally Bt hybrids suppressed corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  3. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  4. Nitrogen Soil Testing for Corn in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Evanylo, Gregory K.; Alley, Marcus M., 1947-

    2009-01-01

    An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. This publication reviews the link between nitrogen and corn production, nitrogen behavior, soil testing, test procedures and recommendations.

  5. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  6. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  7. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  8. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  9. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  10. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  11. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  12. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.

  13. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  14. Monte Carlo simulations on a 9-node PC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouriou, J.

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are frequently used in the fields of medical physics, dosimetry and metrology of ionising radiation. Nevertheless, the main drawback of this technique is to be computationally slow, because the statistical uncertainty of the result improves only as the square root of the computational time. We present a method, which allows to reduce by a factor 10 to 20 the used effective running time. In practice, the aim was to reduce the calculation time in the LNHB metrological applications from several weeks to a few days. This approach includes the use of a PC-cluster, under Linux operating system and PVM parallel library (version 3.4). The Monte Carlo codes EGS4, MCNP and PENELOPE have been implemented on this platform and for the two last ones adapted for running under the PVM environment. The maximum observed speedup is ranging from a factor 13 to 18 according to the codes and the problems to be simulated. (orig.)

  15. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  16. Intracranial artery velocity measurement using 4D PC MRI at 3 T: comparison with transcranial ultrasound techniques and 2D PC MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckel, Stephan; Leitner, Lorenz; Schubert, Tilman; Bonati, Leo H.; Lyrer, Philippe; Santini, Francesco; Stalder, Aurelien F.; Markl, Michael; Wetzel, Stephan G.

    2013-01-01

    4D phase contrast MR imaging (4D PC MRI) has been introduced for spatiotemporal evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular diseases. However, it still lacks validation with standards of reference. Our goal was to compare blood flow quantification derived from 4D PC MRI with transcranial ultrasound and 2D PC MRI. Velocity measurements within large intracranial arteries [internal carotid artery (ICA), basilar artery (BA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] were obtained in 20 young healthy volunteers with 4D and 2D PC MRI, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD). Maximum velocities at peak systole (PSV) and end diastole (EDV) were compared using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation of 4D PC MRI measured velocities was higher in comparison with TCD (r = 0.49-0.66) than with TCCD (0.35-0.44) and 2D PC MRI (0.52-0.60). In mid-BA and ICA C7 segment, a significant correlation was found with TCD (0.68-0.81 and 0.65-0.71, respectively). No significant correlation was found in carotid siphon. On average over all volunteers, PSVs and EDVs in MCA were minimally underestimated compared with TCD/TCCD. Minimal overestimation of velocities was found compared to TCD in mid-BA and ICA C7 segment. 4D PC MRI appears as valid alternative for intracranial velocity measurement consistent with previous reference standards, foremost with TCD. Spatiotemporal averaging effects might contribute to vessel size-dependent mild underestimation of velocities in smaller (MCA), and overestimation in larger-sized (BA and ICA) arteries, respectively. Complete spatiotemporal flow analysis may be advantageous in anatomically complex regions (e.g. carotid siphon) relative to restrictions of ultrasound techniques. (orig.)

  17. Intracranial artery velocity measurement using 4D PC MRI at 3 T: comparison with transcranial ultrasound techniques and 2D PC MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Stephan [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Leitner, Lorenz; Schubert, Tilman [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bonati, Leo H.; Lyrer, Philippe [University Hospital Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Santini, Francesco [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Stalder, Aurelien F. [Xuanwu Hospital - Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago (United States); Wetzel, Stephan G. [Neuroradiology, Swiss Neuro Institute, Klinik Hirslanden, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    4D phase contrast MR imaging (4D PC MRI) has been introduced for spatiotemporal evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular diseases. However, it still lacks validation with standards of reference. Our goal was to compare blood flow quantification derived from 4D PC MRI with transcranial ultrasound and 2D PC MRI. Velocity measurements within large intracranial arteries [internal carotid artery (ICA), basilar artery (BA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] were obtained in 20 young healthy volunteers with 4D and 2D PC MRI, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD). Maximum velocities at peak systole (PSV) and end diastole (EDV) were compared using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation of 4D PC MRI measured velocities was higher in comparison with TCD (r = 0.49-0.66) than with TCCD (0.35-0.44) and 2D PC MRI (0.52-0.60). In mid-BA and ICA C7 segment, a significant correlation was found with TCD (0.68-0.81 and 0.65-0.71, respectively). No significant correlation was found in carotid siphon. On average over all volunteers, PSVs and EDVs in MCA were minimally underestimated compared with TCD/TCCD. Minimal overestimation of velocities was found compared to TCD in mid-BA and ICA C7 segment. 4D PC MRI appears as valid alternative for intracranial velocity measurement consistent with previous reference standards, foremost with TCD. Spatiotemporal averaging effects might contribute to vessel size-dependent mild underestimation of velocities in smaller (MCA), and overestimation in larger-sized (BA and ICA) arteries, respectively. Complete spatiotemporal flow analysis may be advantageous in anatomically complex regions (e.g. carotid siphon) relative to restrictions of ultrasound techniques. (orig.)

  18. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  19. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  20. Production and Partial Characterization of Alpha-Amylase from Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn pomace, a by-product of corn from “ogi” production was used as a substrate for the production of alpha-amylase by a corn fermenting strain of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 4527. The corn pomace was fortified with potassium phosphate, magnesium sulphate and 2% w/v glucose to produce corn pomace basal medium, ...

  1. E-Books and the Tablet PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Jones, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the emerging technologies of e-books, electronic versions of texts, and the Tablet PC, a new hybrid laptop computer and personal digital assistant that features a writing tablet and stylus-based input/navigation. (Author/VWL)

  2. Shock treatment of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Austin; Rughoonundun, Hema; Petersen, Eric; Holtzapple, Carol; Holtzapple, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Corn stover digestibility was enhanced via shock treatment. A slurry of lime-treated corn stover was placed in a partially filled closed vessel. From the ullage space, either a shotgun shell was fired into the slurry, or a gas mixture was detonated. Various conditions were tested (i.e., pressures, depth, solids concentrations, gas mixtures). A high pressurization rate (108,000 MPa/s shotgun shells; 4,160,000 MPa/s hydrogen/oxygen detonation) was the only parameter that improved enzymatic digestibility. Stoichiometric propane/air deflagration had a low pressurization rate (37.2 MPa/s) and did not enhance enzymatic digestibility. Without shock, enzymatic conversion of lime-treated corn stover was 0.80 g glucan digested/g glucan fed with an enzyme loading of 46.7 mg protein/g glucan. With shock, the enzyme loading was reduced by ∼2× while maintaining the same conversion. Detonations are extraordinarily fast; rapidly cycling three small vessels (0.575 m 3 each) every 7.5 s enables commercially relevant shock treatment (2,000 tone/day). © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:815-823, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. [Dry eye syndrome and the PC screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iulia; Stan, Cristina; Marc, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    To study the correlation between PC screen exposure of over 8 hours and Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 years-old students. This is a cross-sectional, cohort clinical study, carried out in March 2012 - February 2013. All subjects completed a questionnaire, underwent a slit lamp examination and measurement of visual acuity. Among the 59 participants of this study, 26 were EXPOSED (> 8 hours of PC screen exposure = EXPOSED) and 33 were NONEXPOSED. The 18-25 - year old participants who were exposed over 8 hours to the PC screen had a relative risk of 5,5 to develop Dry Eye Syndrome, compared to NONEXPOSED participants. Results indicate that Dry Eye Syndrome incidence and intensity of symptoms had increased proportionally with the hours of exposure. Tear Film Breakup Time, the Ocular Protection Index and the PC Ocular Protection Index decreased with the hours of PC screen exposure, suggesting a behavioral change in the EXPOSED participants. Exposure of over 8 hours to the PC screen caused Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 - year old students, with a relative risk of 5,5.

  4. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    message symbols downstream, network coding achieves vast performance gains by permitting intermediate nodes to carry out algebraic oper- ations on the incoming data. In this article we present a tutorial introduction to network coding as well as an application to the e±cient operation of distributed data-storage networks.

  5. A novel endocrine-disrupting agent in corn with mitogenic activity in human breast and prostatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaverich, Barry; Mani, Shaila; Alejandro, Mary Ann; Mitchell, Andrea; Markaverich, David; Brown, Trellis; Velez-Trippe, Claudia; Murchison, Chris; O'Malley, Bert; Faith, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Housing adult rats on ground corncob bedding impedes male and female mating behavior and causes acyclicity in females. The suppressive effects on ovarian cyclicity are mimicked by a mitogenic agent purified from the ground corncob bedding material (corn mitogen; CM), which stimulates the proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MCF-7 cells) and ER-negative (MDA-MD-231 cells) breast cancer cells. Purified CM does not compete for [(3)H]estradiol binding to ER or nuclear type II sites, and its effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation are not blocked by the antiestrogen ICI-182,780. These results suggest that the active component is unlikely to be a phytoestrogen, bioflavonoid, mycotoxin, or other known endocrine-disrupting agent that modifies cell growth via ER or type II [(3)H]estradiol binding sites. CM also stimulates the proliferation of PC-3 human prostatic cancer cells in vitro, and the growth rate of PC-3 cell xenografts is accelerated in nude male mice housed on ground corncob as opposed to pure cellulose bedding. Consequently, this endocrine-disrupting agent in ground corncob bedding may influence behavioral and physiologic reproductive response profiles and malignant cell proliferation in experimental animals. Fresh corn (kernels and cob) or corn tortillas also contain CM, indicating that human exposure is likely; consequently, CM and/or related mitogens in corn products may influence human health and development. PMID:11836146

  6. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Zukoff, Sarah N.; Zukoff, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technolog...

  7. High-conversion hydrolysates and corn sweetener production in dry-grind corn process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most corn is processed to fuel ethanol and distillers’ grain animal feed using the dry grind process. However, wet milling is needed to refine corn starch. Corn starch is in turn processed to numerous products, including glucose and syrup. However, wet milling is a capital, labor, and energy intensi...

  8. FARMER DEMAND FOR CORN ROOTWORM BT CORN: DO INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Ines; Hurley, Terrance M.; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Farmer adoption of Bt corn and compliance with insect resistance management (IRM) regulations will influence the success of these regulations. The purpose of this paper is to use farmer survey data to estimate the demand for new corn rootworm Bt corn and the cost of complying with proposed IRM regulations.

  9. Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan

  10. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P bakery meal had SID values of most AA that were less than in corn, but corn gluten meal had SID values for most AA that were greater than the SID of AA in corn, bakery meal, and corn coproducts.

  11. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017....... Coding Class projektet er et pilotprojekt, hvor en række skoler i København og Vejle kommuner har igangsat undervisningsaktiviteter med fokus på kodning og programmering i skolen. Evalueringen og dokumentationen af projektet omfatter kvalitative nedslag i udvalgte undervisningsinterventioner i efteråret...

  12. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  13. Modulation of the Fecal Microbiota in Sprague-Dawley Rats Using Genetically Modified and Isogenic Corn Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penggao; Yang, Chun; Yue, Rong; Zhen, Yaping; Zhuo, Qin; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang; Xiao, Rong

    2018-01-17

    This study investigated the composition and proportions of fecal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats after consuming two genetically modified (GM) corn lines in comparison with the isogenic corn and the AIN93G standard feed for 10 weeks using bar-coded 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As a result, GM corn did not significantly alter the overall health and alpha-diversity of fecal microbiota. Fecal microbiota structures could be separated into noncorn and corn but not non-GM and GM corn subgroups. Both non-GM and GM corn caused the increase in bacterial populations related to carbohydrates utilization, such as Lactobacillus, Barnesiella, and Bifidobacterium, and the reduction in potentially pathogenic populations, such as Tannerella and Moraxellaceae. In conclusion, similar effects on the fecal microbiota were observed after consuming a GM- and non-GM-corn-based diet for long periods. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the functional relevance of the changes in the proportions of bacterial populations in these diets.

  14. PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.D.; Naik, K.V.; Jain, S.K.; Pathak, R.V.; Suman, B.

    1989-01-01

    Multiparameter data acquisition (MPA) systems which analyse nuclear events with respect to more than one property of the event are essential tools for the study of some complex nuclear phenomena requiring analysis of time coincident spectra. For better throughput and accuracy each parameter is digitized by its own ADC. A stand alone low cost IBM PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system developed by the authors makes use of Address Recording technique for acquiring data from eight 12 bit ADC's in the PC Memory. Two memory buffers in the PC memory are used in ping-pong fashion so that data acquisition in one bank and dumping of data onto PC disk from the other bank can proceed simultaneously. Data is acquired in the PC memory through DMA mode for realising high throughput and hardware interrupt is used for switching banks for data acquisition. A comprehensive software package developed in Turbo-Pascal offers a set of menu-driven interactive commands to the user for setting-up system parameters and control of the system. The system is to be used with pelletron accelerator. (author). 5 figs

  15. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  16. Processing method and corn cultivar affected anthocyanin concentration from dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Vermont P; Wang, Zhaoqin; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; West, Leslie; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with health benefits and potential use as food colorants. The objectives of this work were to (1) determine optimum parameters for the extraction of anthocyanins from dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), (2) develop a method of anthocyanin extraction from DDGS, (3) quantify and identify the extracted anthocyanins, and (4) determine the effect of processing methods and corn cultivars on anthocyanin concentration. DDGS samples were prepared from purple (PC) and dark (DC) corn and processed using conventional enzymes (C) and granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GC). Three independent variables (ethanol concentration (0, 12.5, and 25%); liquid-to-solid ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1 mL/g); and extraction temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C)) and two dependent variables (anthocyanin concentration and a-value (redness)) were used. Results showed that dark corn DDGS gave anthocyanin concentration higher than that of purple corn. The GC process showed total anthocyanin concentration higher than that of the conventional method of DDGS production. The maximum anthocyanin concentration was obtained at 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C for C-PC [321.0 ± 37.3 μg cyanidin-3 glucoside (C3G) equivalent/g DDGS]. For GC-PC, 25% ethanol, 30:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C gave 741.4 ± 12.8 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. For GC-DC, 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 °C extraction gave 1573.4 ± 84.0 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-malonyl) glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6″malonyl) glucoside. In conclusion, anthocyanin extraction from colored corn DDGS can be optimized using 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 mL/g ratio, and 22 °C.

  17. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, Sung Won; Jung, Jae Joon; Chung, Bub Dong

    2005-01-01

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  18. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, Sung Won; Jung, Jae Joon; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  19. Found a USB stick? Go and infect your PC!

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Err. Wait. Please no! USB sticks are not innocent little things. They can quickly mutate into malicious nasty beasts! Just in the recent past, at least two physics experiments were suffering as their control and data acquisition PCs, respectively, were infected by USB sticks holding malicious code. A bit longer ago, a series of laptops were infected at a 2008 computing conference as an infected USB stick made its tour around. Bad luck for those who ran a Windows operating system and inserted that stick…   So, you found a USB stick in the cafeteria? Take care. If this were a lollipop, you wouldn’t just pick it up and lick it, would you? So beware of USB sticks whose origin or previous usage you don’t know. They might infect your PC once plugged in. In order to be on the safe side, accept and share only USB sticks whose owner you trust. Run up-to-date anti-virus software on your PC, make sure that its operating system is patched...

  20. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  1. Population dose assessment: characteristics of PC CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Maria T.; Curti, Adriana R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the PC CREAM, a program for performing radiological impact assessments due to radioactive discharges into the environment during the operation of radioactive and nuclear facilities. PC CREAM is a suite of six programs that can be used to estimate individual and collective radiation doses. The methodology of PC CREAM is based on updated environmental and dosimetric models, including ICRP 60 recommendations. The models include several exposure pathways and the input files are easy to access. The ergonomics of the program improves the user interaction and makes easier the input of local data. This program is useful for performing sensitivity analysis, siting studies and validation of model comparing the activity concentration output data with environmental monitoring data. The methodology of each module is described as well as the output data. (author)

  2. Cornelis den Hartog: an outstanding aquatic ecologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.; Brock, T.C.M.; Kempers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    A survey is given of the work and life of Cornelis den Hartog up to the date in 1996 on which he retired from his position as a professor at the University of Nijmegen. Cornelis (Kees) den Hartog made important contributions to aquatic ecology in the widest sense, e.G. On brackish water typology,

  3. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  4. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the concentration of DE and ME in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 84 barrows (initial BW: 13.7±2.3 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 14 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Seven diets were formulated to contain corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal as the sole source of P. Seven additional diets were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that 600 units of microbial phytase was included in each diet. The STTD of P was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, and the STTD of P was also greater (Pbakery meal than in corn and hominy feed. Addition of phytase increased (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal but not in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or DDGS. In Exp. 2, 56 barrows (initial BW: 14.6±2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 7 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A corn-based diet consisting of 97.5% corn and vitamins and minerals was formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal, and 2 diets were based on hominy feed or bakery meal. The concentration of ME was 3,891, 3,675, 3,655, 3,694, 4,400, 3,169, and 3,150 kcal/kg DM in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, respectively. The ME (DM basis) in corn was greater (Pbakery meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, but less (Pbakery meal, and DDGS was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, but phytase can be included in diets containing corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal to improve P digestibility. The ME in corn gluten meal is greater than

  5. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980's by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.)

  6. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  7. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  8. Fast detection of covert visuospatial attention using hybrid N2pc and SSVEP features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Wang, Yijun; Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yu-Te; Qi, Hongzhi; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Ming, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Detecting the shift of covert visuospatial attention (CVSA) is vital for gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which might be the only communication approach for severely disabled patients who cannot move their eyes. Although previous studies had demonstrated that it is feasible to use CVSA-related electroencephalography (EEG) features to control a BCI system, the communication speed remains very low. This study aims to improve the speed and accuracy of CVSA detection by fusing EEG features of N2pc and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Approach. A new paradigm was designed to code the left and right CVSA with the N2pc and SSVEP features, which were then decoded by a classification strategy based on canonical correlation analysis. Eleven subjects were recruited to perform an offline experiment in this study. Temporal waves, amplitudes, and topographies for brain responses related to N2pc and SSVEP were analyzed. The classification accuracy derived from the hybrid EEG features (SSVEP and N2pc) was compared with those using the single EEG features (SSVEP or N2pc). Main results. The N2pc could be significantly enhanced under certain conditions of SSVEP modulations. The hybrid EEG features achieved significantly higher accuracy than the single features. It obtained an average accuracy of 72.9% by using a data length of 400 ms after the attention shift. Moreover, the average accuracy reached ˜80% (peak values above 90%) when using 2 s long data. Significance. The results indicate that the combination of N2pc and SSVEP is effective for fast detection of CVSA. The proposed method could be a promising approach for implementing a gaze-independent BCI.

  9. The SEDA computer code and its utilization for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1988-11-01

    The implementation of SEDA 2.0 computer code, developed at Ezeiza Atomic Center, Argentine for Angra 1 reactor is described. The SEDA code gives an estimate for radiological consequences of nuclear accidents with release of radiactive materials for the environment. This code is now available for an IBM PC-XT. The computer environment, the files used, data, the programining structure and the models used are presented. The input data and results for two sample case are described. (author) [pt

  10. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  11. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and softwa...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  12. Nutrient addition to corn masa flour: effect on corn flour stability, nutrient loss, and acceptability of fortified corn tortillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Cassís, Lorena; Solano, Lourdes; Duarte-Vázquez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Iron, zinc, and vitamin B complex are among the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in Mexico, with iron deficiency being the leading cause of anemia. Mexico has the highest per capita consumption of corn in the world, consumed mainly as tortilla. Thus, corn flour for making tortillas has been suggested as an effective strategy to overcome malnutrition in developing countries such as Mexico where corn is a staple food. The stability of micronutrients added to food is an important factor for the success of fortification programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of corn flour fortified with micronutrients, and to measure the effect of micronutrient fortification on the sensory quality and stability of the fortificants in fresh and stored tortilla. A commercially homogenized nonfortified corn flour (NCFC) produced from degermed white corn was fortified with a premix containing iron, zinc, thiamin, and riboflavin. Changes in thiamin, riboflavin, iron, and zinc content in fortified corn flour (FCF) and nonfortified corn flour (NFCF) during storage were investigated. Vitamin B1 and B2 content was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy while iron and zinc content was analyzed by atomic absorption. Thiamin content in FCF and NFCF showed a significant (p flour into tortillas. Storage time slightly affected the stability of riboflavin and thiamin in FCF while the cooking process produced considerable losses of both vitamins. Tortillas made from FCF were well accepted by Mexican adults. We conclude that the addition of vitamins and minerals in the forms and quantities used in this study do not modify the shelf-life of corn flour, and neither do they cause sensorial changes in tortillas made from FCF.

  13. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  14. Localized search cues in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B; Meihls, L N; Coudron, T A; Lim, E; Hibbard, B E

    2009-04-01

    Cues that elicit a characteristic localized search behavior by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were extracted from living corn, Zea mays L., roots with acetone. Larvae were exposed to corn roots or to an acetone extract of corn roots and then transferred into a bioassay arena where their movements were tracked and recorded. After a 5-min exposure to live corn roots, larvae produced highly convoluted tracks that were indicative of a localized search behavior, and these distinctive tracks were also produced by larvae exposed to an acetone extract of corn roots. Larvae exposed to a filter paper control moved in relatively straight paths that were indicative of ranging behavior. Larval tracks were recorded by means of a videocamera and tracking software, and four parameters of movement were used to quantify the tracks: mean turn angle, mean meander, total distance, and maximum distance from origin. For every parameter measured, tracks resulting from exposure to the control were significantly different from tracks resulting from exposure to live corn roots and to all doses of the corn root extract. In a separate experiment, larvae exposed to corn root pieces or corn root juice exhibited the localized search behavior, but larvae exposed to oat root pieces and oat root juice (nonhost) exhibited ranging behavior.

  15. Insecticide enhancement with feeding stimulants in corn for western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2005-08-01

    Amounts of the insecticide thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality of western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were reduced 100-fold when extracts of germinating corn, Zea mays L., were used to entice neonate larvae to feed on it. In behavioral bioassays, neonate rootworm larvae fed vigorously on filter paper disks treated with liquid pressed from corn roots. Moreover, disks treated with an acetone extract of corn (dried and rewetted with water) also elicited strong feeding from larvae. Larvae wandered away from filter paper disks treated with distilled water without feeding. Dilutions of thiamethoxam were tested in the bioassay alone or with corn extract and the efficacy of this insecticide was improved by the addition of the corn extract. For solutions containing 10 ppm thiamethoxam, 95% larval mortality occurred after 30 min of exposure when corn extract was present, but only 38% mortality occurred when the same concentration of insecticide alone (no feeding stimulants) was tested. Larval mortality after 24 h was significantly higher for corn extract-treated disks with 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ppm insecticide than for the same concentrations without corn extract. Thiamethoxam did not deter larval feeding on corn extract, even at the highest concentration of thiamethoxam tested.

  16. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  17. Investigasi Serangan Malware Njrat Pada PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rizky Septiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malware merupakan salah satu bentuk dari kejahatan komputer yang terjadi pada sebuah sistem jaringan komputer, malware Njrat termasuk jenis Trojan horse. Trojan adalah salah satu jenis malware yang ikut berkembang di dalamnya, yang memungkinkan attacker masuk ke dalam sistem tanpa diketahui oleh pemilik. Penggunaan trojan saat ini lebih ke arah kejahatan dunia maya (cyber crime, salah satu dari malware yang sangat berbahaya karena besarnya dampak kerugian yang ditimbulkan, mulai dari pencurian data penting sampai mengubah hak akses pada PC korban. Sasaran terbanyak penybaran trojan adalah pengguna sistem operasi windows. Penyebaran trojan ini dilakukan dengan metode social engineering, yaitu teknik yang menggunakan kelemahan manusia, sehingga user tanpa curiga langsung mengeksekusi sebuah program yang tidak dikenal.  Aktivitas malware berkaitan erat dengan  performa PC dan juga aktifitas network pada system computer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui cara kerja malware Njrat dan melakukan investigasi terhadap performa pada system computer. Metodologi yang digunakan dynamic analysis dengan melakukan analisa malware pada suatu sistem dan melihat aktivitas atau proses yang diaktifkan oleh malware tersebut. Dampak perubahan yang terjadi pada PC Target terlihat pada performa masing-masing PC yang telah disisipkan malware. Kata kunci            Malware, Njrat, System computer

  18. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment.

  19. An Introduction To PC-TRIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    The timber resource inventory model (TRIM) has been adapted to run on person al computers. The personal computer version of TRIM (PC-TRIM) is more widely used than its mainframe parent. Errors that existed in previous versions of TRIM have been corrected. Information is presented to help users with program input and output management in the DOS environment, to...

  20. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus…

  1. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  2. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  3. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  4. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  5. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  6. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Codes and Channels. A noisy communication channel is illustrated in Fig- ... nication channel. Suppose we want to transmit a message over the unreliable communication channel so that even if the channel corrupts some of the bits we are able to recover ..... is d-regular, meaning thereby that every vertex has de- gree d.

  7. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  9. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  10. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  11. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  12. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... quality of corn (Zea mays indendata) mixed with legumes such as various cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) ... seeding of soybean with corn in alternate-rows as 1 corn + 1 soybean or 1 corn + 2 ..... And also silage quality is many times more significant property than quantity.

  13. CITATION-LDI2, 2-D Multigroup Diffusion, Perturbation, Criticality Search, for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and trigonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data. This version of CITATION was released by ORNL as CITATION - Rev. 2, Supplement 3 in July 1972 and ran on mainframes. It was first ported to PC by AECL in October 1988. CITATION-PC included in the March 1996 package involved minor changes including the removal of overlay statements introduced in 1988. CITALDI-PC is a new modified version with list-directed input. The codes in this package accept cross sections in CITATION format. Macroscopic data may be entered according to format specifications in Section 008 of the published report. Microscopic data format is specified in Section 105. There are no codes in RSIC's code collection to generate data in CITATION format. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit, finite difference approximations in space and time have been implemented. The neutron-flux-eigenvalue problems are solved by direct iteration to determine the multiplication factor or the nuclide densities required for a critical system

  14. Ultrasonic Control of welded joints by using specific PC generated AVG diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Torriente, S.; Galeano Alvarez, N.J.; Frometas Castillo, T.; Gonzalez Mastrapa, J.J. Unidad Presupuestada Inversionista Para la Construccion de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua, Juragua . Laboratorio de Metales.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an algoritm easy to be implemented in a modern personnel computer (PC), which can be used to obtain the specific AVG diagrams required during the ultrasonic control of welded joints by the AVG method. The algoritm is illustrated by means of the derivation of some specific diagrams corresponding to given inspection testing. Also some results and standard practices given in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used to overcome common problems founded during the practical use of the AVG method with conventional shear wave ultrasonic transducers

  15. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  16. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Cicero; Amorim,Edson Perito; Barbosa Neto,José Fernandes; Cardoso Filho,Julio Alves; Sereno,Maria Jane Cruz de Melo

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in various subspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This type was originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations of sweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this pre...

  17. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte.

    OpenAIRE

    Cicero Almeida; Edson Perito Amorim; José Fernandes Barbosa Neto; Julio Alves Cardoso Filho; Maria Jane Cruz de Melo Sereno

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in varioussubspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This typewas originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations ofsweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this presen...

  18. Replacing corn with sorghum in the diet alters intestinal microbiota without altering chicken performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, N S; Pereira, R; Bortoluzzi, C; Rafael, J M; Napty, G S; Barbosa, J G M; Sciencia, M C M; Menten, J F M

    2017-10-01

    Sorghum grain can be used to replace corn in broiler diets. However, the effects related to an abrupt change between these grains are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and intestinal health of broilers fed diets containing corn and/or sorghum during different periods of rearing. To accomplish this aim, 2100 male chicks were fed the following experimental diets: C100% (corn-based diet); S100% (sorghum-based diet); C:S50% (diet based on corn and sorghum 1:1); PC-S (corn-based diet in the pre-starter phase and sorghum-based diet in subsequent phases); and PS-C (sorghum-based diet in the pre-starter phase and corn-based diet in subsequent phases). The study was conducted with two simultaneous trials in a randomized block design as follows: a performance trial up to 40 days occurred in floor pens (n = 8), and the metabolism trial occurred in cages (n = 10). Performance, jejunal morphometry, number of goblet cells, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and the coefficient of apparent metabolizability of dry matter (CMDM) of the diets, and the intestinal microbiota of small intestine and caeca at 10 and 21 days of age (16S gene sequencing) were evaluated. The different experimental diets did not affect performance, jejunal epithelium, AME, AMEn or CMDM. However, the experimental diets altered the percentages of the genera Clostridium, Weissella, Bacillus and Alkaliphilus in the small intestine. In addition, the genera Lactobacillus and Desulfotomaculum in the caeca were altered. The age also affected the microbiota of the intestinal segments. In conclusion, feeding sorghum in place of corn as well as the grain change after the pre-starter phase does not alter broiler performance. However, sorghum alters the intestinal microbiota, resulting in a lower percentage of Clostridium and a higher percentage of Lactobacillus in the small intestine and caeca, respectively. Journal of

  19. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  20. VENTURE-PC 1.1, Reactor Analysis System with Sensitivity and Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The VENTURE program solves the usual neutronics eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality search problems. It treats up to three dimensions, maps power density, and does first-order perturbation analysis at the macroscopic cross section level. The BURNER code solves the nuclide chain equations to estimate the nuclide concentrations and burnup at the end of an exposure time or after a shutdown period. This package is based on the CCC-459/BOLD VENTURE IV code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In January 1989 the University of Cincinnati contributed the first VENTURE-PC package to RSICC's collection. It was a subset of the mainframe version consisting of the VENTURE and BURNER modules plus several processing modules. VENTURE-PC was distributed as CCC-459 until July 1997 when a new version (with updated source code compatible with newer FORTRAN-77 compilers, some revisions, and extensions to solve much larger problems) was contributed by Argonne National Laboratory. The principle code modules included in the VENTURE-PC system are: VENTURE: Multigroup neutronics finite-difference diffusion theory. BURNER: Depletion calculation for reactor core analysis. Other modules within VENTURE-PC are: DVENTR: Venture input processor; DCRSPR: Neutron cross section processor; DUTLIN: Control file (CNTRL) input processor; DCMACR: Citation format cross section input processor; CRXSPR: Cross section processor; DENMAN: Fuel repositioning module. In August of 1999, Argonne again contributed an updated version of the code which overcomes problem size constraints caused by binary record length limits inherent to the Fortran 90 compiler. The need for long records is detected and avoided by sub-blocking them. Also, the latest Fortran 95 compiler offers substantial speed gains on the newest processors. The source code is updated to be compatible with either Fortran 90 or Fortran 95. In August 2002, the package was updated with

  1. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  3. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  4. PC 386-based version of DORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanker, E.

    1992-01-01

    Problems encountered during the adaptation of DORT on a personal computer using a Fortran77 compiler are described, modifications done to solve these are explained. Three test cases were run with the modified version and results are compared with those obtained on an IBM 3090/200. Numerical differences were observed in the last three decimal digits of the computations at most. The running times on the PC were found to be satisfactory for these test cases

  5. PC imaging system for reactor NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    PC-based systems have been given recent attention by EPRI to organize and manage inspection data (RP-2405-15, TestPro system); integrate with larger, mainframe computers to maintain dialogue for on-site and remote applications; and, in this project, to aid the operator in providing guidance to render decisions on the data. The PC system configuration for this project consisted of a central processing unit (CPU), a hard disk and a floppy disk, 640K bytes of system memory, a high-resolution graphics card and compatible color monitor, and a mouse for operator interaction with software. The software package was written in FORTRAN under the PC Disk Operating System (PC-DOS) and utilized a graphics package for image display. Application of this package to crack-counterbore discrimination in piping welds was investigated. Present automatic techniques utilize signal features from single, A-scan data to render a decision on whether the reflector is benign (i.e., counterbore, weld root) or a crack. However, experienced manual operators in the field make reliable decisions based on the integrated response from the reflector as the transducer is scanned past the suspicious region. Since this software package could display and manipulate ensemble A-scans, spatial features - similar to those used by experts - were developed as discriminants. Ultrasonic responses from intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) were discovered to vary both in time-of-flight and in their amplitude, whereas counterbore responses were more consistent. The software package contains methods for viewing and quantifying these spatial features

  6. PC Based wireless stepper motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Omar; Khan, Shahnawaz; Abideen, Zainul

    2013-01-01

    This project is about making an embedded system in order to control different functionalities of a stepper motor. The main functions of this stepper motor are to control the speed and direction. The whole hardware consists of two parts. One is the transmitter side and the other side is the receiver side. The transmitter side consists of PC, Encoder, a microcontroller and RF (Radio Frequency) transmitter. On the receiver side there is an RF receiver, a decoder, a microcontroller, a motor drive...

  7. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  8. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in response to ethanol policy incentives in recent years is well documented and may worsen this effect. We develop a spatially distributed dynamic environmental performance index (EPI), accounting for both desirable agricultural outputs and undesirable nonpoint source emissions from farm production, to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance within the UMRB between 2002 and 2007, which is characterized by increasing policy incentives for ethanol production. County-level production data from the USDA agricultural census are aggregated to hydrologic unit code (HUC8) boundaries using a geographic information system (GIS), and a previously developed statistical model, which includes net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) as well as precipitation and land use characteristics as inputs, is used to estimate annual nitrogen loadings delivered to streams from HUC8 watersheds. The EPI allows us to decompose performance of each HUC8 region over time into changes in productive efficiency and emissions efficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance for producers in this region at the watershed scale. The resu

  9. Atrazine Metabolism in Resistant Corn and Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, R. H.

    1968-01-01

    The metabolism of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) in the resistant species, corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) was not the same. In corn, atrazine was metabolized via both the 2-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation pathways while sorghum metabolized atrazine via the N-dealkylation pathway. Atrazine metabolism in corn yielded the metabolites, 2-hydroxy-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (hydroxyatrazine), 2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (hydroxycompound I), and 2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (hydroxycompound II). None of these hydroxylated derivatives appeared as metabolites of atrazine in sorghum. Hydroxycompounds I and II were formed in 2 ways in corn: (1) by benzoxazinone-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (compound I) and 2-chloro-4-amino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (compound II) that were formed by N-dealkylation of atrazine and (2) by N-dealkylation of hydroxyatrazine, the major atrazine metabolite in corn. The interaction of the 2-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation pathways in corn results in the formation of the 3 hydroxylated non-phytotoxic derivatives of atrazine. Images PMID:16656991

  10. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CdS/CoPc hybrid heterojunctions were fabricated and characterized. CdS films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and CoPc films coated on CdS by chemical precipitation. Ag contact metal deposited on CoPc by e-beam evaporation and glass/ITO/CdS/ ...

  11. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is...

  12. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  13. Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock

    1999-01-01

    The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Nonalcoholic beverages, § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter 20 Do. Frozen dairy desserts, § 170.3(n)(20) of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section 184.1262 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  15. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  16. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  17. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of free phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides from corn (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and simulated colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Preciado-Ortiz, R; Mendoza, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2017-10-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are alternative suitable ingredients for snacks, because of their content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) and oligosaccharides (OS). However, there is no information about the transformation of these compounds associated with food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, the objective of this work was to simulate the whole digestion process (mouth to colon) to estimate bioaccessibility and small intestine permeability of free PC and OS, and the antioxidant capacity of free PC. Digested nixtamalized corn-cooked common bean chips exhibited significant different quantities of free PC and OS, and higher antioxidant activity compared to methanolic extract. The free PC showed high values of apparent permeability coefficients (0.023-0.729×10 -3 ), related with their absorption in the small intestine. Both free PC and OS were retained in the non-digestible fraction of chips (10.24-64.4%) and were able to reach the colon. Our results suggest the digestion potential to increase chip bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Additional studies are required to evaluate their in vivo effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, H; Kalin, M; Miller, D

    1988-05-06

    Our review has emphasized that AI tools are programming languages inspired by some problem-solving paradigm. We want to underscore their status as programming languages; even if an AI tool seems to fit a problem perfectly, its proficient use still requires the training and practice associated with any programming language. The programming manuals for PC-Plus, Smalltalk/ V, and Nexpert Object are all tutorial in nature, and the corresponding software packages come with sample applications. We find the manuals to be uniformly good introductions that try to anticipate the problems of a user who is new to the technology. All three vendors offer free technical support by telephone to licensed users. AI tools are sometimes oversold as a way to make programming easy or to avoid it altogether. The truth is that AI tools demand programming-but programming that allows you to concentrate on the essentials of the problem. If we had to implement a diagnostic system, we would look first to a product such as PC-Plus rather than BASIC or C, because PC-Plus is designed specifically for such a problem, whereas these conventional languages are not. If we had to implement a system that required graphical interfaces and could benefit from inheritance, we would look first to an object-oriented system such as Smalltalk/V that provides built-in mechanisms for both. If we had to implement an expert system that called for some mix of AI and conventional techniques, we would look first to a product such as Nexpert Object that integrates various problem-solving technologies. Finally, we might use FORTRAN if we were concerned primarily with programming a well-defined numerical algorithm. AI tools are a valuable complement to traditional languages.

  19. Securing your PC and protecting your privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloman, Barbara F

    2004-10-22

    Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy.

  20. Evaluation of FPGA to PC feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linczuk, Pawel; Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Wojenski, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Rafal D.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Chernyshova, Maryna; Czarski, Tomasz; Gaska, Michal; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Malinowski, Karol

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the evaluation study of the performance of the data transmission subsystem which can be used in High Energy Physics (HEP) and other High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems. The test environment consisted of Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA and server-grade PC connected via the PCIe 4xGen2 bus. The DMA engine was based on the Xilinx DMA for PCI Express Subsystem1 controlled by the modified Xilinx XDMA kernel driver.2 The research is focused on the influence of the system configuration on achievable throughput and latency of data transfer.

  1. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  2. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae, but not for the Bt + RNAi vector stack. Additionally, the resistant larvae demonstrated a weaker host response to the isoline corn roots when compared to the susceptible larvae. Although weaker, these host responses were significantly different from those observed in the negative controls, indicating that all hybrids tested do contain the contact cues necessary to elicit a host preference response by both Cry3Bb1-resistant and Cry3Bb1-susceptible larvae that would work to hinder resistance development in refuge in a bag fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Preparation of antioxidative corn protein hydrolysates, purification and evaluation of three novel corn antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Du-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; He, Jun-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Corn gluten meal is a major co-product of corn wet milling. Corn gluten meal was hydrolyzed with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase+Flavourzyme and Flavourzyme+Alcalase. At the substrate concentration of 10%, corn protein hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase had a degree of hydrolysis of 17.83%, which was higher than that by Flavourzyme (3.65%). The hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase+Flavourzyme exhibited better antioxidant activities and was further purified. Three novel antioxidant peptides were purified by a series of chromatographic techniques. Sequences of the three peptides were identified as Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala, Tyr-Pro-Lys-Leu-Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu and Tyr-Pro-Gln-Leu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Glu, respectively. Among the three peptides, Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala exhibited good reducing power and excellent scavenging capacities for DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical, with IC50 values of 0.116 and 0.39mg/ml, respectively. The results from our study indicate antioxidant potency of corn protein hydrolysates and peptides separated from corn gluten meal and can provide basic understanding for the application of corn protein hydrolysates as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of twin-screw extrusion on soluble arabinoxylans and corn fiber gum from corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkhornart, Sasathorn; Lee, Seul Gi; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-09-01

    The effect of feed moisture content and screw speed in the extrusion process with and without chemical pretreatment of corn fiber was investigated. Different chemical pretreatment methods (NaOH and H2 SO4 solution) were compared. The improvement of reducing sugar, soluble arabinoxylans (SAX) content and the yield of corn fiber gum was measured. A high reducing sugar content was obtained in the filtrate fraction from the extruded destarched corn fiber (EDCF) with H₂SO₄ pretreatment. Feed moisture content most effectively improved both reducing sugar and SAX content of filtrate. Increasing feed moisture content and screw speed resulted in a higher SAX content in the filtrate of the EDCF with NaOH pretreatment. The SAX content of the residual solid from the EDCF with NaOH pretreatment was higher compared to H₂SO₄ pretreated and unpretreated samples and significantly increased with decreasing feed moisture content. The screw speed did not have a major impact after enzyme hydrolysis. The yield of corn fiber gum was increased by 12% using NaOH pretreatment combined with extrusion process as compared to the destarched corn fiber. The results show the great potential of the extrusion process as an effective pretreatment for disruption the lignocelluloses of corn fiber, leading to conversion of cellulose to glucose and hemicelluloses to SAX and isolation of corn fiber gum. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered.

  6. Verification of the CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Ahn, Kwang Il; Song, Yong Man; Choi, Young; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha; Jin, Young Ho.

    1997-09-01

    CONPAS is a computer code package to integrate the numerical, graphical, and results-oriented aspects of Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants under a PC window environment automatically. For the integrated analysis of Level 2 PSA, the code utilizes four distinct, but closely related modules: (1) ET Editor, (2) Computer, (3) Text Editor, and (4) Mechanistic Code Plotter. Compared with other existing computer codes for Level 2 PSA, and CONPAS code provides several advanced features: computational aspects including systematic uncertainty analysis, importance analysis, sensitivity analysis and data interpretation, reporting aspects including tabling and graphic as well as user-friendly interface. The computational performance of CONPAS has been verified through a Level 2 PSA to a reference plant. The results of the CONPAS code was compared with an existing level 2 PSA code (NUCAP+) and the comparison proves that CONPAS is appropriate for Level 2 PSA. (author). 9 refs., 8 tabs., 14 figs

  7. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  8. A method for sampling waste corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    observed that different particle size fractions from corn bran are not uniformly composed. The content of monosaccharides varies and results in differences in content and composition of cellulose and arabinoxylan. These differences in biomass composition may very well also be part of the explanation why...... bran fraction. Once the arabinoxylan structure is free of the cell wall matrix the hydrolysis seem to be restricted due to steric hindrance or lack of additional enzymes to catalyse the hydrolysis of certain unusual bonds. In particular, it is of outmost importance to target arabinosyl substitutions...... by completing the knowledge about corn bran arabinoxylan, which can then lead to the identification of missing, central enzyme activities, and thereby also make the work on corn bran generic. The thesis is based upon the scientific publications produced during the last four years and they represent...

  10. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  11. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  12. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  13. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not less...

  14. Corn cob lightweight concrete for non-structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J.; Vieira, J.; Pereira, H.; Jacinto, C.; Vilela, P.; Paiva, A.; Pereira, S.; Cunha, V.; Varum, H.

    2012-01-01

    A lightweight concrete using granulated corn cob (without corn) as an aggregate is proposed in this research work. Taking into account that corn cob, after extracting the corn, is generally considered an agricultural waste, an interesting economic and sustainable benefit may result by using it as a building material. Therefore, it can be an alternative sustainable lightweight aggregate solution in comparison to the most currently applied ones such as expanded clay, particles of co...

  15. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  16. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55 percent...

  17. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent...

  18. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols...

  19. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  20. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  1. Nutritional qualities of corn cob and waste paper incubated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate corn cob and waste paper cultured with edible mushroom (Pleurotus sajor) as a mean of improving their nutritive value for livestock animals. Waste paper and corn cob were 14.2 and 47.7% DM respectively. Crude fibre degradation was 25.0% for corn cob and 7.21% for waste paper ...

  2. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy-corn milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-corn milk type was produced from a blend of soybean milk and corn milk extract at a ratio of 3:1. The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid (TDS), total titrable acidity (TTA) specific gravity (SG), apparent colloidal stability, pH and sensory ...

  3. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and...

  4. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food...

  5. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  6. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137.265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  7. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  8. THE ECONOMICS OF REFUGE DESIGN FOR BT CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Jeffrey; Martin, Marshall A.; Preckel, Paul V.; Dobbins, Craig L.; Edwards, C. Richard

    1999-01-01

    Planting Bt corn on large areas may lead to European corn borer (ECB) resistance to Bt. Scientists recommend planting a non-Bt corn refuge as part of a resistance management strategy. Different refuge configurations may impact farm profits differently. This paper analyzes the economics of alternative refuge configurations in Indiana.

  9. Evidence of resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn by western corn rootworm: root injury in the field and larval survival in plant-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and recent management of western corn rootworm has included planting of Bt corn. Beginning in 2009, western corn rootworm populations with resistance to Cry3Bb1 c...

  10. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Meihls

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72% compared with control colonies (33%. For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest.

  11. High frequency coded imaging system with RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Marcin; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2008-08-01

    Coded transmission is an approach to solve the inherent compromise between penetration and resolution required in ultrasound imaging. Our goal was to examine the applicability of the coded excitation to HF (20-35 MHz) ultrasound imaging. A novel real-time imaging system for research and evaluation of the coded transmission was developed. The digital programmable coder- digitizer module based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip supports arbitrary waveform coded transmission and RF echo sampling up to 200 megasamples per second, as well as real-time streaming of digitized RF data via a high-speed USB interface to the PC. All RF and image data processing were implemented in the software. A novel balanced software architecture supports real-time processing and display at rates up to 30 frames/sec. The system was used to acquire quantitative data for sine burst and 16-bit Golay code excitation at 20 MHz fundamental frequency. SNR gain close to 14 dB was obtained. The example of the skin scan clearly shows the extended penetration and improved contrast when a 35-MHz Golay code is used. The system presented is a practical and low-cost implementation of a coded excitation technique in HF ultrasound imaging that can be used as a research tool as well as to be introduced into production.

  12. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  13. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-15

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed.

  14. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-01

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed

  15. Utilization of Chemometric Technique to Determine the Quality of Fresh and Used Palm, Corn and Coconut Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamizah Mat Agil; Mohd Zuli Jaafar; Suzeren Jamil; Azwan Mat Lazim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of natural oil and the deterioration of frying oil. A total of 12 different oil samples from palm oil, corn oil and coconut oil were used. The frying process was repeated four times at 180 degree Celsius in order to observe the stability of the oil towards oxidation. Three main parameters have been studied to determine oil qualities which were peroxide value, iodine value and acid value. This study emphasized on the usage of FTIR in the range of 4000-700 cm -1 . Alternatively, the chemometrics method based on pattern recognition has been used to determination the oil quality. Data analysis were conducted by using PCA and PLS method in the Matlab modeling. The PCA provided data classification according to types of oil while PLS predicted the oil quality of the parameters studied. For the classification of pure oil, the variance for PC1 was 70 % while PC2 was 15 %. For the fried/ used oil, PC1 gave 57 % while PC2 gave 25 %. By using PLS, the iodine the best model for pure oils value model variable based on correlation with R2CV > 0.984. Whereas, the peroxide value model for fried/ used oils, was the best obtained R 2 CV > 0.7423. (author)

  16. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  17. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  18. The readout performance evaluation of PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yuanping; Zhang Hongyu; Zhao Jingwei; Ye Mei; Tao Ning; Zhu Kejun; Tang Suqiu; Guo Yanan

    2003-01-01

    PowerPC, as a powerful low-cost embedded computer, is one of the very important research objects in recent years in the project of BESIII data acquisition system. The researches on the embedded system and embedded computer have achieved many important results in the field of High Energy Physics especially in the data acquisition system. The one of the key points to design an acquisition system using PowerPC is to evaluate the readout ability of PowerPC correctly. The paper introduce some tests for the PowerPC readout performance. (authors)

  19. Design of multichannel counting system for IBM PC and compatibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, B.; Ahmad, Z.; Osman, A.; Ysain, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    A Multichannel Counting System (MCCS), based on IBM-PC and compatible computer systems have been designed. The MCCS consists of a Multichannel Counting System plug-in interface card (MCCS-PC) for IBM PC and compatibles and a NIM-BIN module (MCCS-NB). The MCCS-PC provides simultaneous monitoring of upto seven independent SCA type inputs. An on board programmable timer provides elapsed time measurement. A menu-driven program for data acquisition and timer control has also been developed. (author) 8 figs

  20. Neural nets for radio Morse code recognizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hsin-Chia; Lin, Y. Y.; Pao, Hsiao-Tien

    1993-09-01

    This paper proposes a neural network recognition system for hand keying Radio Morse codes. The system has been trained and tested on real world data recorded from amateur radio Morse codes. The overall recognizing process can be partitioned into 3 major parts, the preprocessing, the feature extracting, and the character decoding. The whole operation is able to be performed in real-time on a PC/486 system. Self-Organizing Maps are used intensively in the recognition system to adaptively learn the variation of the Morse code signal. The average performance of the recognition system has been achieved about 96.4% with a rejection rate of 6.5%. It is hoped that many of the techniques would be applicable to a wide range of DSP and recognition tasks.

  1. Identification of feeding stimulants in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2008-04-01

    Using a bioassay-driven approach, we have isolated and identified a blend of compounds from the roots of germinating corn, Zea mays L., that serve as feeding stimulants for neonate western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The active blend is a combination of simple sugars (30:4:4 mg/ml glucose:fructose:sucrose in the corn root) plus at least one of the free fatty acids in germinating corn roots (2:5 mg/ml oleic acid:linoleic acid in the corn root). When an extract of germinating corn was partitioned into an ethyl acetate fraction and an aqueous fraction, full feeding occurred only when the two fractions were recombined, indicating that the phagostimulant was comprised of both polar and nonpolar components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of root extracts from germinating corn seedlings revealed a blend of 20 compounds from a variety of chemical classes, including small sugars, diacids, amino acids, inorganic compounds, and free fatty acids. When the major components were tested in feeding bioassays, the sugars and lipids were shown to be essential for feeding by larvae, but the two classes of compounds were only effective when combined. The sugars alone elicited feeding by only 40% of larvae, but the percentage of larvae feeding was increased significantly with the addition of linoleic acid (91.7% larvae feeding) or oleic acid (85.8% larvae feeding). The amino acids alone were not essential elements for feeding by western corn rootworm larvae.

  2. Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2013-04-01

    Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.

  3. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  4. Valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado, usado na ração pré-inicial para frangos de corte Nutritional value of heat processed corn in formulating broiler pre-starter diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Freitas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.

  5. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  6. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweet corn packed with a suitable liquid packing medium which may include water and the creamy component...) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (d) Butter or margarine in a quantity not less than 3 percent... husk per 400 g. (14 ounces) of drained weight. Place all pieces of cob under a measured amount of water...

  7. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  8. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  9. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    static radial compression, determine a viscoelastic or rheological model for the tested corn cob samples, and investigate the effects of moisture content and rate of loading on the viscoelastic constants that characterize the ... exchange of kinetic energy on that scale. As any other model, mechanical models give at most part ...

  10. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  11. Study of nuclear computer code maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeon Seung; Eom, Heung Seop; Lee, Jong Bok; Kim, Ho Joon; Choi, Young Gil; Kim, Ko Ryeo

    1989-01-01

    Software maintenance is one of the most important problems since late 1970's.We wish to develop a nuclear computer code system to maintenance and manage KAERI's nuclear software. As a part of this system, we have developed three code management programs for use on CYBER and PC systems. They are used in systematic management of computer code in KAERI. The first program is embodied on the CYBER system to rapidly provide information on nuclear codes to the users. The second and the third programs were embodied on the PC system for the code manager and for the management of data in korean language, respectively. In the requirement analysis, we defined each code, magnetic tape, manual and abstract information data. In the conceptual design, we designed retrieval, update, and output functions. In the implementation design, we described the technical considerations of database programs, utilities, and directions for the use of databases. As a result of this research, we compiled the status of nuclear computer codes which belonged KAERI until September, 1988. Thus, by using these three database programs, we could provide the nuclear computer code information to the users more rapidly. (Author)

  12. Tachykinins Processing is Significantly Impaired in PC1 and PC2 Mutant Mouse Spinal Cord S9 Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mouna; Kamali, Soufiane; Ruiz, Alberto Orduna; Beaudry, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Substance P (SP) play a central role in nociceptive transmission and it is an agonist of the Neurokinin-1 receptor located in the lamina I of the spinal cord. SP is a major proteolytic product of the protachykinin-1 primarily synthesized in neurons. Proprotein convertases (PCs) are extensively expressed in the central nervous system and specifically cleave at C-terminal of either a pair of basic amino acids, or a single basic residue. The proteolysis control of endogenous protachykinins has a profound impact on pain perception and the role of PCs remain unclear. The objective of this study was to decipher the role of PC1 and PC2 in the proteolysis surrogate protachykinins (i.e. Tachykinin 20-68 and Tachykinin 58-78) using cellular fractions of spinal cords from wild type (WT), PC1(-/+) and PC2(-/+) animals and mass spectrometry. Full-length Tachykinin 20-68 and Tachykinin 58-78 was incubated for 30 min in WT, PC1(-/+) and PC2(-/+) mouse spinal cord S9 fractions and specific C-terminal peptide fragments were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. The results clearly demonstrate that both PC1 and PC2 mediate the formation of SP and Tachykinin 58-71, an important SP precursor, with over 50 % reduction of the rate of formation in mutant PC1 and PC2 mouse S9 spinal cord fractions. The results obtained revealed that PC1 and PC2 are involved in the C-terminal processing of protachykinin peptides and suggest a major role in the maturation of the protachykinin-1 protein.

  13. Implications of corn prices on water footprints of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyo; Suh, Sangwon; Smith, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Previously reported water footprints (WFPs) of corn ethanol have been estimated based on the assumption that corn ethanol feedstock could be supplied by the same states where the corn is grown. However, ethanol conversion facilities may choose out-of-state feedstock suppliers depending on the total price of feedstock they have to pay including both the corn price and transportation costs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the WFPs and total water use (TWU) of corn ethanol considering an optimal allocation of corn with heterogeneous corn feedstock prices across states. The results show that the WFPs of corn ethanol are less than 100 l of water per liter of ethanol (Lw/Le) for all ethanol-producing states based on both the 2008 corn price and transportation costs for rail and truck. Results also reveal that WFPs are very sensitive to the market price of corn and that additional greenhouse gas emissions due to corn trade between states are not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  15. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that af...

  16. Nitrogen Use and Carbon Sequestered by Corn Rotations in the Northern Corn Belt, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Pikul

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N requirements for corn (Zea mays L., and increase soil carbon (C storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn–soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. rotations were conventional tillage (CS and ridge tillage (CSr. Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC, and a 4-year rotation of corn–soybean–wheat (Triticum aestivum L. companion-seeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.–alfalfa hay (CSWA. Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha–1 (highN, of 5.3 Mg ha–1 (midN, and with no N fertilizer (noN. Total (1990–2000 corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha–1 under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990–2000 corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 35 Mg ha–1 under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments was 0.68 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha–1 under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha–1 under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha–1 under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg–1 with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg–1 under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (–0.75 with CSWA and widened (0.72 under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce

  17. COMBINE/PC - a portable neutron spectrum and cross-section generation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Grimesey, R.A.; Curtis, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Use of personal computers and engineering workstations for complex scientific computations has expanded rapidly in the past few years. This trend is expected to continue in the future with the introduction of increasingly sophisticated microprocessors and microcomputer systems. In response to this, an integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM personal computer (PC)-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past 3 years. A key component of this system will be module to produce application-specific multigroup cross-section libraries that can be used in various neutron transport and diffusion theory code modules. This software module, referred to as COMBINE/PC, was recently completed at INEL and is the subject of this paper. COMBINE/PC was developed to provide an ENDF/B-based neutron cross-section generation capability of sufficient sophistication to handle a wide variety of practical fission and fusion-related applications while maintaining a compact machine-independent structure

  18. PC2 Ovotransferrin: Characterization and Alternative Immunotherapeutic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Chiurciu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and evaluation of immunotherapeutic potential of ovotransferrin PC2 (OTf PC2 were performed in this study. The ovoprotein was obtained from egg white from hens immunized with bacterial antigens, pathogenic for humans. For the negative control samples, OTf was extracted from eggs collected from Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF hens and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G-agarose column with two eluting peaks: I, representing ovalbumin, and II, ovotransferrin. The final apo-OTf form was reached by successive precipitation with ammonium sulfate and citric acid and the holo-OTf form by saturating the apo-form with FeCl3. Multiple OTf PC2 samples were analyzed through Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and, based on the molecular marker migration model, the ovotransferrin (76.5 kDa and ovalbumin (45 kDa were detected. The agglutination reaction exhibited statistically significant high specificity of the multiple OTf PC2, by reacting with the antigens used for hens’ immunization. Following ELISA, it was established that OTf PC2 from hyperimmune eggs has specificity for all antigens; the antibody titer was high, indicating that OTf PC2 possesses immunological properties similar to immunoglobulin Y (Ig Y. This study suggests that OTf PC2 immunological activity may play a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of infections resistant to antibiotics and OTf PC2 can also act as a valuable nutraceutical.

  19. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eMartin-Lannerée

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knock-out animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumours. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumour-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression.

  20. Haplotype combination of the caprine PC1 gene sequence variants ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proprotein convertase 1 (PC1) is an endopeptidase involved in proteolytic processing of peptide hormone precursors in granules of the regulated secretory pathway of endocrine cells. Mutations in PC1 gene are related to obesity-related traits which may influence the performance of animals, and therefore it has been the ...

  1. Haplotype combination of the caprine PC1 gene sequence variants ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mutations in PC1 gene are related to obesity-related traits which may influence the performance of animals, and therefore it has been the focus of this study. In this study, polymorphisms of the caprine PC1 gene were detected in. 407 individuals from three breeds by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. The results ...

  2. PC development gives Baptist Medical Center mainframe power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kador, J

    1991-01-01

    Sophisticated distributed applications are easier to develop and maintain when prototyped using personal computer (PC) technology. Baptist Medical System, the largest hospital system in Arkansas, is using PC technology to prototype and then develop mainframe-based applications that augment mission-critical, distributed systems.

  3. Combinatorial code of growth factors and neuropeptides define neuroendocrine differentiation in PC12 cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaujean, D.; Rosenbaum, C.; Muller, H.W.; Willemsen, J.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Bornstein, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Adrenal chromaffin cells constitute one of the first cell types to have been defined as a neuroendocrine cell type. Since they produce dopamine, these cells have been proposed for the treatment of neuronal deficits in human Parkinson's disease. However, the factors involved in the development of

  4. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  5. Progress on DART code optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Solis, Diego; Rest, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This work consists about the progress made on the design and development of a new optimized version of DART code (DART-P), a mechanistic computer model for the performance calculation and assessment of aluminum dispersion fuel. It is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA and ANL in the area of Low Enriched Uranium Advanced Fuels. It is held by the Implementation Arrangement for Technical Exchange and Cooperation in the Area of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed on October 16, 1997 between US DOE and the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic. DART optimization is a biannual program; it is operative since February 8, 1999 and has the following goals: 1. Design and develop a new DART calculation kernel for implementation within a parallel processing architecture. 2. Design and develop new user-friendly I/O routines to be resident on Personal Computer (PC)/WorkStation (WS) platform. 2.1. The new input interface will be designed and developed by means of a Visual interface, able to guide the user in the construction of the problem to be analyzed with the aid of a new database (described in item 3, below). The new I/O interface will include input data check controls in order to avoid corrupted input data. 2.2. The new output interface will be designed and developed by means of graphical tools, able to translate numeric data output into 'on line' graphic information. 3. Design and develop a new irradiated materials database, to be resident on PC/WS platform, so as to facilitate the analysis of the behavior of different fuel and meat compositions with DART-P. Currently, a different version of DART is used for oxide, silicide, and advanced alloy fuels. 4. Develop rigorous general inspection algorithms in order to provide valuable DART-P benchmarks. 5. Design and develop new models, such as superplasticity, elastoplastic feedback, improved models for the calculation of fuel deformation and the evolution of the fuel microstructure for

  6. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  7. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  8. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descenies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S 'chn' and 'SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument

  9. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  10. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  11. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  12. RISK AND RETURN TO IP GRAIN PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF HIGH OIL CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Todd D.; Gray, Allan W.; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Returns for soybeans, commodity corn and high oil corn under an export and domestic market buyer's-call contract were simulated. High oil corn is competitive with commodity corn when yield drag is two percent and bundling reduces seed cost. Commodity loan rate is important in reducing high oil corn price risk.

  13. ESTIMATING THE VALUE OF BT CORN: A MULTI-STATE COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Jeffrey; Martin, Marshall A.; Preckel, Paul V.; Edwards, C. Richard; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Bt corn offers a powerful tool to control European corn borers and some other pests. Because pest infestations and farming practices differ across the Corn Belt, economic benefits also differ. This research estimates the value of Bt corn across the Corn Belt. Results identify areas where Bt adoption is economically justified.

  14. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, David S; Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; French, B Wade; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1-expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to characterize the susceptibility of western corn rootworm populations to the rootworm-active proteins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and Cry34/35Ab1. Results demonstrate that there are heritable differences in susceptibility of Nebraska western corn rootworm populations to rootworm-active Bt traits. Proportional survival and corrected survival data coupled with field histories collectively support the conclusion that a level of field resistance to Cry3Bb1 has evolved in some Nebraska populations in response to selection pressure and that cross-resistance exists between Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A. There was no apparent cross-resistance between Cry34/35Ab1 and either Cry3Bb1 or mCry3A. The potential implications of these results on current and future corn rootworm management strategies are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, milho verde e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato S Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC and the second as green corn (GC or dry corn (DC, that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. A random block design with ten replicates was utilized. The yields of MM, MV and MS were higher when these products were individually harvested than when they were harvested in combination with baby corn (BC + GC and BC + DC. Cultivar BRS 2020 was the best for producing BC exclusively, considering the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number (NH of marketable husked ears. Considering weight (WH of BC marketable husked ears, cultivar AG 1051 was the best. Cultivars did not differ in baby corn yield when this product was harvested in combination with MS or MV, except with regard to NH and WH, with AG 1051 being superior. The cultivars did not differ between total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked green ears. However, cultivars AG 1051 and AG 2060 were the best with respect to marketable unhusked green ears and number and weight of marketable husked green ears. Cultivar AG 1051 was the best with regard to kernel yield.No milho, se a primeira inflorescência feminina é removida, existe frequentemente a produção de novas inflorescências femininas. Isso possibilita que a primeira espiga seja colhida como minimilho (MM e a segunda, como milho verde (MV, ou milho seco (MS, isto é, milho maduro. A flexibilidade proporcionada pela colheita de vários produtos permite ao agricultor competir melhor nos mercados. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de MM, MV e MS das cultivares AG 1051, AG 2060 e BRS 2020, ap

  16. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Disentangling the near-infrared continuum spectral components of the inner 500 pc of Mrk 573: two-dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A.; Riffel, R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Fischer, T. C.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2017-08-01

    We present a near-infrared (near-IR) study of the spectral components of the continuum in the inner 500 × 500 pc2 of the nearby Seyfert galaxy Mrk 573 using adaptive optics near-IR integral field spectroscopy with the instrument near-infrared integral field spectrograph of the Gemini North Telescope at a spatial resolution of ˜50 pc. We performed spectral synthesis using the starlight code and constructed maps for the contributions of different age components of the stellar population: young (age ≤100 Myr), young-intermediate (100 age ≤ 700 Myr), intermediate-old (700 Myr age ≤ 2 Gyr) and old (age > 2 Gyr) to the near-IR K-band continuum, as well as their contribution to the total stellar mass. We found that the old stellar population is dominant within the inner 250 pc, while the intermediate-age components dominate the continuum at larger distances. A young stellar component contributes up to ˜20 per cent within the inner ˜70 pc, while hot dust emission and featureless continuum components are also necessary to fit the nuclear spectrum, contributing up to 20 per cent of the K-band flux there. The radial distribution of the different age components in the inner kiloparsec of Mrk 573 is similar to those obtained by our group for the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 1066, Mrk 1157 and NGC 1068 in previous works using a similar methodology. Young stellar populations (≤100 Myr) are seen in the inner 200-300 pc for all galaxies contributing with ≥20 per cent of the K-band flux, while the near-IR continuum is dominated by the contribution of intermediate-age stars (t = 100 Myr-2 Gyr) at larger distances. Older stellar populations dominate in the inner 250 pc.

  18. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  20. A TDC-PC based DPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Lindgren, B.

    1988-09-01

    In spectroscopies like muon spin rotation or the time differential perturbed angular correlation method the experimentally determined quantity is a time interval between two events. The transformation of this time into a physically handy signal has in most cases been performed by a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The resulting voltage has been digitized in a separate analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and entered some type of multichannel analyser (MCA). Apart from not being very convenient the systems have some significant weaknesses: The available size of the total spectrum area is limited due to the MCA. Nonlinearities in TACs and ADCs and noise in the analog part are well known complications. There is no way to see the experimental result, besides the raw data, during the course of the experiment. Here a new type of data collecting system is described. The basic idea, is to substitute the TAC and EDC for a time-to-digital converter (TDC), that is coupled to a personal computer (PC). The computer, used here, is with 256 kbyte of memory, which is sufficient for both the data collection and for the TDC controlling and data treating program DEPACK. The spectrum area is variable, with a predefined standard size of 8 * 2048 channels. On-line data treatment can be performed with the DEPACK program. With the choice of a TDC all problems related to analog parts in the equipment can be circumvented. The TDC can measure both positive and negative times, which enables in a standard 4 detector setup, the simultaneous collection of 8 spectra. If not objected for other reasons, all fast circuit start and stop signals may access the TDC. Since the maximum conversion frequency of the module is 1 MHz an overload protection is not required

  1. Evaluation of combining ability in white corn for special use as corn grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Souto Bignotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the genetic potential of white corn for corn grits, 28 hybrids resulting from diallel crosses of eight parents, including parents and S1 generations, were evaluated. The combining abilities and levels of heterosis and inbreeding depression were estimated. The parents used were the main white maize hybrids of the Brazilian germplasm. The combinations HT 9332 x HT 392, IAC Nelore x HT 9332, IAC Nelore x HT 932, and IPR 119 x IAC Nelore are promising for reciprocal recurrent selection programs targeting higher grain yield. Hybrid IPR 127 was indicated as a source of industrial lines with favorable traits for dry-rolled corn production. Hybrid IAC Nelore had the lowest estimate of inbreeding depression and was recommended for the breeding of lines and participation in higher-yielding hybrids and composites.

  2. PC Farms for Offline Event Reconstruction at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretvas, A.

    1997-03-01

    Fermilab is investigating the use of PC's for HEP computing. As a first step we have built a full offline environment under Linux on a set of Pentium (P5) and Pentium Pro (P6) machines (the ''PC Farm''). The Pythia simulation has been ported to run serially and in parallel (using CPS) on the PC Farm. Fermilab software products and CDF offline packages have also been ported to Linux. Run 1 CDF data has been analyzed on both Linux and SGI (Irix) with essentially identical results. The performance of the system is compared to results with commercial UNIX systems

  3. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sound quality is, in essence, obtained by accurate waveform coding and decoding of the audio signals. In addition, the coded audio information is protected against disc errors by the use of a Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC). Reed-. Solomon codes were discovered by Irving Reed and Gus Solomon in 1960.

  5. The use of corn (ZEA MAYS) biomass in drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The most important agricultural crop in the world, besides wheat and rice is corn. In the last 10 years, Republic of Croatia has produced about 2000000 tons of corn. Most of that is used for food and feed and for seed production and it is 1000000 tons in quantity. This quantity demands between 35000 to 40000 tons of oil. For the reason, this paper describes the possibilities of the substitution of oil with corn biomass after harvesting. (author)

  6. Impact of certain corn cultivars on some ological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development, survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on five corn cultivars were evaluated at 25°C under laboratory conditions. The corn leaf aphid had a longer nymphal developmental time of 4.99, 4.98, 4.73, 4.46, and 5.60 day of Ada9516, K. Arifiye, ...

  7. A Corn Tissue Culture Cell Line with Altered Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-ie C, Hsing; Jack M, Widholm; Robert W, Rinne; Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica; Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana; Plant Physiology and Genetics Research Unit, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana

    1991-01-01

    A variant corn callus line derived from callus which originated from etiolated leaves of Illinois High Oil corn (Zea mays L.) has been identified. The variant corn callus line had increased lipid content concomitant with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and altered biotin-containing protein patterns relative to the wild type callus. The variant callus line also had altered fatty acid composition concomitant with decreased oleate desaturase activity compared to the wild type callus. T...

  8. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  9. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  10. Heat recovery investigation from dryer–thermal oxidizer system in corn-ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, annual corn ethanol production in the U.S. has exceeded 13,298,000,000 gallons. However, net energy balance for this sector became a subject of controversy in many discussions. The aim of the presented research is an investigation of thermal improvement opportunities in a corn ethanol plant. For this purpose, a complex mathematical model was developed for a dryer–thermal oxidizer system. Three variants were subjected thermodynamic analyses: one state of the art system and two proposed system modifications. The properties of humid gas, a mixture of combustion products and moisture evaporated from distiller's grain, were updated based on the steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. All calculations were performed by uniquely-developed C++ code. The results indicate major potential for improvement in the following areas: (i) water recovery from humid gas; (ii) heat recovery from moisture condensation – max. 44% of total primary energy usage (TPEU); and (iii) fuel savings by reduction of humid gas flow through a thermal oxidizer – max. 1.4% of TPEU. Also the presented analysis can be a starting point for further modifications in real corn ethanol manufacturing applications, leading towards pilot system implementation. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for dryer–oxidizer system in a corn ethanol plant was proposed. • Three configurations were discussed: with intercooler, regenerator, and recuperator. • Recovery rate of water condensed at various conditions and locations was quantified. • Heat recovery possibilities at various temperatures and locations have been assessed. • Energy savings in thermal oxidizer due to preliminary condensation were calculated

  11. Abnormal expression and processing of the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2 in human colorectal liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, George N; Metrakos, Peter; Chevet, Eric; Jenna, Sarah; Nguyên, Duc Thang; Khatib, Abdel M; Marcus, Victoria; Zhang, Yi; Chrétien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil

    2005-01-01

    The family of proprotein convertases has been recently implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in animal models. However, these studies have not yet been completely corroborated in human tumors. Using RT PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry we assessed the presence and the processing patterns of the convertases PC1 and PC2 as well as the PC2 specific chaperone 7B2 in human liver metastases originating from colorectal cancer and compared them to unaffected and normal liver. Furthermore, we assessed the presence and processing profiles of PC1, PC2 and 7B2 in primary colon cancers. mRNA, protein expression, and protein cleavage profiles of proprotein convertases 1 and 2 are altered in liver colorectal metastasis, compared to unaffected and normal liver. Active PC1 protein is overexpressed in tumor, correlating with its mRNA profile. Moreover, the enhanced PC2 processing pattern in tumor correlates with the overexpression of its specific binding protein 7B2. These results were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. The specific and uniform convertase pattern observed in the metastases was present only in a fraction of primary colon cancers. The uniformly altered proprotein convertase profile in liver metastases is observed only in a fraction of primary colon cancers, suggesting possible selection processes involving PCs during metastasis as well as an active role of PCs in liver metastasis. In addition, the exclusive presence of 7B2 in metastatic tumors may represent a new target for early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment

  12. Impact on Corn Prices from Reduced Biofuel Mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Wei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Press reports indicate that the Environmental Protection Agency may significantly reduce ethanol mandates to levels that can easily be met. To gain insight into what this decision implies about the price of corn we use a new model of the corn and RIN markets to project corn and ethanol prices and quantities through the 2019 marketing year under two ethanol mandate scenarios. The first scenario is the status quo where mandates that can be met with corn ethanol increase to 14.4 billion gallons ...

  13. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  14. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  15. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  16. Potential Market for Non-GMO Corn and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; John C. Beghin

    1999-01-01

    Demand for non-GMO (genetically modified organism) corn and soybeans is high in the EU and Japan, which are two of the largest markets for U.S. corn and soybeans. This presents a potential problem for markets if U.S. processors find themselves scrambling to locate and purchase non-GMO crops. By looking at how the 1998 U.S. corn and soybean crops were used, Babcock and Beghin project possible demand in the 99/00 marketing year for non-GMO corn and soybeans.

  17. Network Coding Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Brian; Adjih , Cédric; Bilbao , Josu; Firoiu , Victor; Fitzek , Frank; Samah , Ghanem ,; Lochin , Emmanuel; Masucci , Antonia; Montpetit , Marie-Jose; Pedersen , Morten V.; Peralta , Goiuri; Roca , Vincent; Paresh , Saxena; Sivakumar , Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Internet Research Task Force - Working document of the Network Coding Research Group (NWCRG), draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy-05 (work in progress), https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy/; This document summarizes a recommended terminology for Network Coding concepts and constructs. It provides a comprehensive set of terms with unique names in order to avoid ambiguities in future Network Coding IRTF and IETF documents. This document is intended to ...

  18. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  19. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  20. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic propertie...

  1. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  2. A PC based seismic data transcription system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Yong; Chung, Bu Heung; Jang, Seong Hyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Old seismic data recorded on magnetic tapes is often difficult to read because of the tape sticking problem known as the `sticky syndrome`. It has to be transcribed to other suitable media using dedicated multiple systems during the whole project years. The first system requirement is the capability of reading gapless magnetic tape, which is peculiar to the old seismic data tapes. The second requirement would be the availability of storage devices with compact and huge capacity. The system must be cheap enough compared to the total cost of the data being transcribed. We introduce a PC based seismic data transcribing system. The system is equipped with an tape drive which can handle 800, 1600, 3200, and 6250 BPI densities. Well known storage devices such as 8mm Exabyte, 4mm DDS-2, and the SCSI CD recorder, are selected for the output devices. These output media should provide more durability, compactness, and portability than the original. Linux is chosen for the operating system. Unfortunately, the Linux, like other Unix systems, is subject to the limit in maximum i/o block size. The maximum block size of the SCSI tape driver is fixed to 32 KB, which is far less than the requirements in SEG-A, B, and C seismic tapes. A kernel patch is written to extend such a limit up to 2048 KB. Input and output programs are written to handle the tape data in variable block mode. A unique disk file format is designed to preserve the IBG(inter-block gap) within the disk copy. A utility program is also provided to manipulate the disk copy and to convert to SU(Seismic Unix) compatible SEG-Y file. Of the total two months of the transcription period, we spend most of the time in reading the sticky magnetic tapes. The seismic tapes had to be `baked` to dry out the moisture before reading. It took nine days to burn the all 85 diskettes. Writing two sets of 8mm Exabytes took only one day. It is considered that 8mm Exabyte can be the optimum output media for the main seismic data storage

  3. Investigation of climate variability and climate change impacts on corn yield in the Eastern Corn Belt, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruoyu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for both food and biofuels requires more corn production at global scale. However, current corn yield is not able to meet bio-ethanol demand without jeopardizing food security or intensifying and expanding corn cultivation. An alternative solution is to utilize cellulose and hemi-cellulose from perennial grasses to fulfill the increasing demand for biofuel energy. A watershed level scenario analysis is often applied to figure out a sustainable way to strike the balance b...

  4. Software Defined Radio Datalink Implementation Using PC-Type Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zafeiropoulos, Georgios

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the feasibility of implementation and the performance of a Software Defined Radio datalink, using a common PC type host computer and a high level programming language...

  5. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  6. PC data station for Hitachi F-2000 spectrofluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakub Ali, Mohd; Dhoble, A.R.; Jadhav, R.T.; Godbole, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the PC based data station for stand-alone HIT ACHI F-2000 Spectrofluorimeter, for data acquisition, storage and analysis. The hardware link between the instrument and PC is made through RS232 serial port. The state of art software for control and data management is designed, developed and implemented in Visual Basic (Version 6). The software features on-screen editing of all operation parameters of the instrument and the operational control is achieved by Visual Basic command words communicated through serial port. Using this system, in addition to acquiring and storage of spectral data, it was possible to obtain the normalized absorption spectra of the samples. PC adapted Hitachi F-2000 Spectrofluorimeter can be successfully used for various operations such as photometric detection of UO22+ ions, recording of emission and excitation spectra and time evolution of fluorescence intensity on continuous UV irradiation. The data storage achieved through PC adaptation has also enabled recording of absorption spectra. (author)

  7. Select PC/windows flat to develop data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin

    1993-01-01

    Through needing analysis, and also, considering user's ability of payment, the characteristic of China computer market, the computer developing tending, and the system's compatibility and up grade capability, PC/Windows flat are selected to develop a data acquisition system

  8. 2010 ME70 Workshop (PC1003, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The third leg of the 2010 SEAMAP Reeffish Survey, PC 1003, was originally scheduled as an experimental multibeam sonar workshop. However, on July 12, 2010, FSV...

  9. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-induc...

  10. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Shannon's landmark paper 'A Mathematical Theory of. Communication' [1] laid the foundation for communica- ... coding theory, codes over graphs and iterative techniques, and informa- tion theory. .... An important consequence of independence is that if. {Xb X2 , . Xn} are independent random variables, each.

  11. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  12. Some features of Pc5 pulsations during a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.R.K.; Gupta, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The morphological features of Pc5 pulsations during a solar cycle are studied using Fort Churchill data for the years 1962 to 1972. Some of the characteristics noted are as follows: (1) Increasing sunspot numbers show little influence on the diurnal variations of the occurrence, amplitude and the period except perhaps some noticeable change in the absolute magnitude of these parameters during different hours of the day. (2) The morning occurrence peak dominates during all phases of the solar cycle. (3) With increasing magnetic activity the day side region(s) of generation of Pc5 is found to shift closer to the subsolar point and in the midnight sector, the occurrence region seemed to shift towards earlier hours with increasing magnetic activity and towards later hours with increasing sunspot numbers. (4) The amplitude of Pc5 pulsations is directly related to all the levels of magnetic activity. (5) The periods of Pc5 pulsations show strong correlation with increasing sunspot numbers and the amplitude and occurrences are found to vary in accordance with the magnetic activity all through the cycle. (6) The annual and semi-annual variations of Pc5 parameters have been demonstrated especially for the pulsations occurring in the morning close to 8 +- 1 h LT and for those occurring near the midnight hours. (7) a suspected 27-day recurrence tendency has been clearly noticed for the occurrence, amplitude and period of Pc5 pulsations. (author)

  13. Implications of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, infestation in an Aspergillus flavus-biocontrolled corn agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Mariangela; Accinelli, Cesare; Vicari, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A novel biocontrol strategy consisting of field application of bioplastic-based granules inoculated with a non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus L. strain has recently been shown to be effective for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study focused on other factors that may affect the feasibility of this biocontrol technique, and more specifically the role of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis H., in the dispersal and infestation of A. flavus in corn and its impact on crop yield. In spite of the high percentage of corn ears showing larval feeding damage, ECB-bored kernels accounted for only 3 and 4% in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Most of the damaged kernels were localised in the ear tip or immediately below. More precisely, the average incidence of ECB-bored kernels in the upper end of the ear was 32%. However, less than 5% of kernels from the central body of the ear, which includes the majority of kernels, were injured by ECB. Although ECB larvae showed a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 and thus had the potential to serve as vectors of the mould, fungal infection of kernels was poorly associated with insect damage. ECB infestation resulted in grain yield losses not exceeding 2.5%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Adaptation by western corn rootworm to Bt corn: characterizing inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used a laboratory-selected, Bt-resistant strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte, to characterize inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs associated with resistance to maize producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3...

  15. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Petraki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interface properties of cobalt(II phthalocyanine (CoPc and cobalt(II hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16 to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES. It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes.

  16. Application of PC-SAFT to glycol containing systems - PC-SAFT towards a predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    For equations of state of the SAFT type a major limitation is the procedure of obtaining pure compound parameters using saturated vapor pressure and liquid density data. However, for complex compounds such data are often not available. One solution is to develop a group contribution scheme...... for estimating pure compound parameters from low molecular weight data and extrapolate to complex compounds. For associating compounds this is not trivial since the two parameters for association (association energy and association volume) need to be fixed for a group. In this work, which focuses on glycols, new...... general pure compound parameters were obtained for PC-SAFT which are able to perform well for both vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE). Linear trends of non-association parameters were obtained with respect to the molar mass. However, identical values for the association...

  17. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  18. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – the successful bid to host the World Cup in 2022. Ambitious is the bid to stage the Olympic Games in 2020. Qatar not merely has ambitions, it realizes its ambitions. And when it does so it is not enough to say that the result is ‘world class’, for Qatar sets out to be a world leader in whatever it puts its hand to. Excellence is the norm. Al Jazeera has established itself as the broadcasting station of choice for many throughout the world. The Doha Museum of Islamic Art is recognized as being second to none. In addition, the scale and standard of development in Doha itself is setting new standards of excellence in the fields of architecture and civil engineering. Thus when Qatar focuses its energies on education and the law, high achievements are expected. I shall have the honour of helping to achieve those expectations when I succeed Lord Woolf as President of Qatar’s new and impressive Civil and Commercial Court. The College of Law at Qatar University is already achieving excellence in the field of legal education. So, naturally, all expect great things of this new International Review of Law and I am delighted to have been invited to welcome it by this foreword. The range of the first edition is both international and topical. Those countries that have experienced the turbulence of the Arab Spring are settling new constitutions, and other countries are bent on constitutional reform designed to avoid such turbulence. So an erudite article on

  19. Relationship between protein molecular structural makeup and metabolizable protein supply to dairy cattle from new cool-season forage corn cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Khan, Nazir A.; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-02-01

    Protein solubility, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility are strongly related to their inherent molecular makeup. This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate protein digestion in the rumen and intestine of dairy cattle, and estimate the content of truly metabolizable protein (MP) in newly developed cool-season forage corn cultivars. The second objective was to quantify protein inherent molecular structural characteristics using advance molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR) and correlate it to protein metabolic characteristics. Six new cool-season corn cultivars, including 3 Pioneer (PNR) and 3 Hyland (HL), coded as PNR-7443R, PNR-P7213R, PNR-7535R, HL-SR06, HL-SR22, HL-BAXXOS-RR, were evaluated in the present study. The metabolic characteristics, MP supply to dairy cattle, and energy synchronization properties were modeled by two protein evaluation models, namely, the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Both models estimated significant (P corn.

  20. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  1. Salinomycin Exerts Anticancer Effects on PC-3 Cells and PC-3-Derived Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. An in vivo experiment confirmed that salinomycin suppressed tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID mice xenograft model generated from implanted PC-3 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, since the total β-catenin protein level was reduced and the downstream target c-Myc level was significantly downregulated. We also showed that salinomycin, but not paclitaxel, triggered more apoptosis in aldehyde dehydrogenase- (ALDH- positive PC-3 cells, which were considered as the prostate cancer stem cells, suggesting that salinomycin may be a promising chemotherapeutic to target CSCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that salinomycin reduces resistance and relapse of prostate tumor by killing cancer cells as well as CSCs.

  2. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  3. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  4. Preparation and In vitro Digestibility of Corn Starch Phosphodiester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the process conditions and analyze in vitro digestibility of corn starch phosphodiester prepared by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Methods: By using response surface method, the effects of STMP concentration, pH, esterification temperature, and urea addition on digestion resistance of corn starch ...

  5. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  6. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germ...

  7. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... There is also evidence that suggests intercropping may benefit a non-legume which needs nitrogen if the other crop is a legume, since legumes will fix nitrogen in the soil (Portes,. 1984; Avcioglu et al., 2003). Intercropping of corn with legumes is an alternative to monocropping of corn and has a number of ...

  8. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  9. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  10. Climate change impacts on corn phenology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is changing around the world and will impact future production of all food and feed crops. Corn is no exception to these impacts and to ensure a future supply of this vital crop we must begin to understand how climate impacts both the phenological development of corn and the productivity. Te...

  11. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn cobs, an indigenous carbon source, were tested as substrate by Aspergillus niger for optimum synthesis of xylanase using the submerged fermentation technique. The trials for xylanase production were conducted at three concentration levels (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) of corn cobs, four different fermentation temperatures ...

  12. Fermented Corn Waste Liquor as a Potential Source for Probiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some fermented cereals are known to contain LAB, limited information is available on the massive production of LAB from low cost fermented meals such as corn mash waste. Hence the efficiency of 72h- corn waste liquor as a rich source for probiotic LAB was evaluated. The liquor aseptically recovered from ...

  13. The perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of corn farmers about biological control of. Caradrina by Braconid in Dezful Township, Khouzestan Province, Iran. The method used in this study was correlative descriptive and causal relation. A random sample of Dezful township corn farmers of.

  14. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Corn cobs, an indigenous carbon source, were tested as substrate by Aspergillus niger for optimum synthesis of xylanase using the submerged fermentation technique. The trials for xylanase production were conducted at three concentration levels (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) of corn cobs, four different fermentation ...

  15. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  16. Cultivation of mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) using corn cobs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the cultivation of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using corn cobs and saw dust as the main substrates. Lignocellulosic wastes such as corn cobs and saw dust were packaged inside heat – resistant polythene bags and pasteurized before being seeded with 7.5% w/w millet spawn of ...

  17. The perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina by Braconid in Dezful Township, Khouzestan Province, Iran. The method used in this study was correlative descriptive and causal relation. A random sample of Dezful township corn farmers of Khouzestan Province, ...

  18. Properties of extruded chia-corn meal puffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the properties of extruded corn meal puffs containing chia. Mixtures of corn meal and chia seeds (0-20%) were processed in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder at different moisture contents (18-22%) and final heating zone temperatures (120-160 °C). Extrusion processing pro...

  19. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  20. Effects of cover crops and weed management on corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Yeganehpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important replacement methods used instead of chemical herbicide and conventional tillage is cover and companion crops’ application which is a major factor in sustainable agriculture. In order to determine the best cover crop in controlling weeds of corn field and its further effects on corn yield, an experiment was carried out in a factorial arrangement based on RCB design with three replicates. The treatments of this experiment included companion crops (clover, hairy vetch, basil and dill as first factor and time of sowing cover and medicinal plant (synchronic sowing with corn and sowing 15 days after corn sowing as second factor. The results showed that ear weight, ear length, leaf weight, grain length and yield were significantly influenced by companion crops and sowing date. Whereas, weed biomass was influenced by cover crop type × sowing date interaction. Also, the results indicated that increasing biomass weed resulted in linear reduction of grain yield. The highest ear weight, ear length, leaf weight, grain length and yield were obtained for cultivation of clover with corn. Synchronic cultivation of companion crops with corn had higher grain length and yield compared with cultivation 15 days after corn. The lowest weed biomass was recorded for concurrent cultivation of corn with clover due to rapid growth and high competitive power of clover in the early stage of growth.

  1. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  2. Diet improvement for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and parts of Europe, and arguably the world’s most expensive pest to control. Several diet formulations are currently used by industry and researchers t...

  3. PC as physics computer for LHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Simmins, A; Yaari, R; Jarp, Sverre; Tang, Hong; Simmins, Antony; Yaari, Refael

    1995-01-01

    In the last five years, we have seen RISC workstations take over the computing scene that was once controlled by mainframes and supercomputers. In this paper we will argue that the same phenomenon might happen again. A project, active since March this year in the Physics Data Processing group of CERN's CN division is described where ordinary desktop PCs running Windows (NT and 3.11) have been used for creating an environment for running large LHC batch jobs (initially the DICE simulation job of Atlas). The problems encountered in porting both the CERN library and the specific Atlas codes are described together with some encouraging benchmark results when comparing to existing RISC workstations in use by the Atlas collaboration. The issues of establishing the batch environment (Batch monitor, staging software, etc.) are also covered. Finally a quick extrapolation of commodity computing power available in the future is touched upon to indicate what kind of cost envelope could be sufficient for the simulation fa...

  4. PC as physics computer for LHC?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarp, Sverre; Simmins, Antony; Tang, Hong

    1996-01-01

    In the last five years, we have seen RISC workstations take over the computing scene that was once controlled by mainframes and supercomputers. In this paper we will argue that the same phenomenon might happen again. A project, active since March this year in the Physics Data Processing group of CERN's CN division is described where ordinary desktop PCs running Windows (NT and 3.11) have been used for creating an environment for running large LHC batch jobs (initially the DICE simulation job of Atlas). The problems encountered in porting both the CERN library and the specific Atlas codes are described together with some encouraging benchmark results when comparing to existing to existing RISC workstation in use by the Atlas collaboration. The issues of establishing the batch environment (Batch monitor, staging software, etc) are also covered. Finally a quick extrapolation of commodity computing power available in the future is touched upon to indicate what kind of cost envelope could be sufficient for the simulation farms required by the LHC experiments. (author)

  5. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  6. Model and code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in model and code development for reactor physics calculations is summarized. The codes included CINDER-10, PHROG, RAFFLE GAPP, DCFMR, RELAP/4, PARET, and KENO. Kinetics models for the PBF were developed

  7. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  8. Autophagy Regulates Colistin-Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Yonghao; Ding, Wenjian; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli

    2015-01-01

    Colistin is a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent study demonstrated that colistin induces apoptosis in primary chick cortex neurons and PC-12 cells. Although apoptosis and autophagy have different impacts on cell fate, there is a complex interaction between them. Autophagy plays an important role as a homeostasis regulator by removing excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of autophagy and apoptosis regulation in PC-12 cells in response to colistin treatment. PC-12 cells were exposed to colistin (125 to 250 μg/ml), and autophagy was detected by visualization of monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled vacuoles, LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) immunofluorescence microscopic examination, and Western blotting. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, and Western blotting. Autophagosomes were observed after treatment with colistin for 12 h, and the levels of LC3-II gene expression were determined; observation and protein levels both indicated that colistin induced a high level of autophagy. Colistin treatment also led to apoptosis in PC-12 cells, and the level of caspase-3 expression increased over the 24-h period. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased colistin toxicity in PC-12 cells remarkably. However, rapamycin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 and decreased the rate of apoptosis of PC-12 cells. Our results demonstrate that colistin induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC-12 cells and that the latter was affected by the regulation of autophagy. It is very likely that autophagy plays a protective role in the reduction of colistin-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. PMID:25645826

  9. Development of the integrated system reliability analysis code MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.; Yoo, K.J.; Kim, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The major components in a system reliability analysis are the determination of cut sets, importance measure, and uncertainty analysis. Various computer codes have been used for these purposes. For example, SETS and FTAP are used to determine cut sets; Importance for importance calculations; and Sample, CONINT, and MOCUP for uncertainty analysis. There have been problems when the codes run each other and the input and output are not linked, which could result in errors when preparing input for each code. The code MODULE was developed to carry out the above calculations simultaneously without linking input and outputs to other codes. MODULE can also prepare input for SETS for the case of a large fault tree that cannot be handled by MODULE. The flow diagram of the MODULE code is shown. To verify the MODULE code, two examples are selected and the results and computation times are compared with those of SETS, FTAP, CONINT, and MOCUP on both Cyber 170-875 and IBM PC/AT. Two examples are fault trees of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Korea Nuclear Units (KNU)-1 and -2, which have 54 gates and 115 events, 39 gates and 92 events, respectively. The MODULE code has the advantage that it can calculate the cut sets, importances, and uncertainties in a single run with little increase in computing time over other codes and that it can be used in personal computers

  10. The FOCON96 1.0 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Szeremeta, A.; Thomassin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) has developed a computer code, FOCON96 1.0 to calculate the dosimetric consequences of atmospheric radioactive releases from nuclear installations after several years of usual operation. This communication describes the principal characteristics of FOCON96 1.0 and its functionalities. The principal elements of a comparison between FOCON96 1.0 and PC-CREAM ( European computer code developed by the N.R.P.B. and answering the same criteria) are given here. (N.C.)

  11. On the Delay Characteristics for Point-to-Point links using Random Linear Network Coding with On-the-fly Coding Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    . This metric captures the elapsed time between (network) encoding RTP packets and completely decoding the packets in-order on the receiver side. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on a point-to-point link between a Raspberry Pi device and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC...

  12. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  13. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  14. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  15. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  16. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  17. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the reading of data from memory the receiving process. Protecting data in computer memories was one of the earliest applications of Hamming codes. We now describe the clever scheme invented by Hamming in 1948. To keep things simple, we describe the binary length 7 Hamming code. Encoding in the Hamming Code.

  18. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  19. Low-airflow drying of fungicide-treated shelled corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.H.; Benson, P.W.

    1993-02-01

    Approved fungicides inhibit mold growth in shelled corn and allow for longer, natural-air drying. The longer drying periods permit lower than-normal airflows and smaller power units, thus reducing electrical demands on utilities in corn-producing states. Researchers placed approximately 67 m 3 (1900 bu) of one variety of shelled corn at approximately 24% moisture in each of five equally sized storage bins. They partitioned each bin vertically and filled one half of each bin with fungicide-treated corn and one half with untreated corn. Each of four bins used a different airflow. A fifth bin used the lowest of the four airflows but was equipped to capture and use solar energy. All corn dried rapidly with resulting good quality. The percentage of damaged kernels was significantly higher for untreated than for treated corn. The energy required for the lowest airflow system was approximately one half of that required for the higher, more traditional airflows. Because of lower-than-normal airflows, the electrical demand on the utility is approximately one fourth as great as that imposed when the higher, more traditional natural-air systems are used. The 1991 corn growing and drying seasons were unusual in central Illinois, the site of the study. Both harvest and drying occurred several weeks ahead of schedule. Additional work is needed to verify that findings hold true during more-normal Midwest corn growing and drying seasons; the investigators predict that they will. It should be noted that the fungicide used in this study has not yet been approved for widespread use in drying corn

  20. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  1. Improvement of the protein quality of corn with soybean protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; Elías, L G; Braham, J E

    1978-01-01

    In most Central American countries, lime-treated corn provides 31% of the total protein and 45% of the energy intake, and beans 24% of the protein and 12% of the calories. Such diet is low in protein quality and quantity, as well as in energy. To overcome these deficiencies, corn can be supplemented either with its limiting amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, or better still, with whole soybeans which improve not only the amount and quality of the protein consumed but, because of their high oil content, the energy intake as well. In addition, animal experiments have shown that for maximum utilization of these nutrients, adequate vitamin and mineral intake is indispensable. At a level of 15 parts of whole soybean or 8 parts soybean-derived products, to 85--92 parts of corn there were no significant changes in the rheological or organoleptic characteristics of the tortilla prepared there of. Higher levels of soybean products, however, may affect the consistency of the lime-treated corn dough and, therefore, the tortilla acceptability. Since corn is usually cooked, but not ground, at home, the soybean supplement can be successfully added at the wet--milling stage of dough preparation or whole soybeans and corn may be cooked together, when a nutritional intervention is desired at the village level. At an industrial scale, if whole soybeans are used, they may be cooked together with corn, and if soy flour is used, this can be mixed at the end of the process when the cooked corn is ground to a flour. A flow diagram for supplementing corn with 15% whole soybeans is presented. If interventions of this nature are to be successful, there is need for increasing the prestige of corn-based food, as well as of nutrition education programs in these populations.

  2. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Monika; Diffenbaugh, Noah; Hertel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%. (letter)

  3. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  4. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  5. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Zearalenone and Ochratoxin A in Naturally Contaminated Corn and Corn Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN and ochratoxin A (OTA are secondary toxic metabolites widely present in grains and grain products. In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI on ZEN and OTA in corn and the quality of irradiated corn were investigated. Results indicated that EBI significantly affected ZEN and OTA. The degradation rates of ZEN and OTA at 10 kGy in solution were 65.6% and 75.2%, respectively. The initial amounts significantly affected the degradation rate. ZEN and OTA in corn were decreased by the irradiation dose, and their degradation rates at 50 kGy were 71.1% and 67.9%, respectively. ZEN and OTA were more easily degraded in corn kernel than in corn flour. Moisture content (MC played a vital role in ZEN and OTA degradation. High MC was attributed to high ZEN and OTA degradation. The quality of irradiated corn was evaluated on the basis of irradiation dose. L* value changed, but this change was not significant (p > 0.05. By contrast, a* and b* decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with irradiation dose. The fatty acid value increased significantly. The pasting properties, including peak, trough, breakdown, and final and setback viscosities, were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05 by irradiation. Our study verified that EBI could effectively degrade ZEN and OTA in corn. Irradiation could also affect corn quality.

  6. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation for Neptun 10 PC medical linear accelerator and calculations of electron beam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Hashemi, S.M.; Momen Nezhad, M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, cancer has been one of the main ever increasing causes of death in developed countries. In order to fulfill the aforementioned considerations different techniques have been used, one of which is Monte Carlo simulation technique. High accuracy of the Monte Carlo simulation has been one of the main reason for its wide spread application. In this study, MCNP-4C code was employed to simulate electron mode of the Neptun 10 PC Linac, dosimetric quantities for conventional fields have also been both measured and calculated. Although Neptun 10 PC Linac is no longer licensed for installation in European and some other countries but regrettably nearly 10 of them have been installed in different centers around the country and are in operation. Therefore, in this circumstance, to improve the accuracy of treatment planning, Monte Carlo simulation for Neptun 10 PC was recognized as a necessity. Simulated and measured values of depth dose curves, off axis dose distributions for 6 , 8 and 10 MeV electrons applied for four different size fields, 6 x 6 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 , 15 x 15 cm 2 and 20 x 20 cm 2 were obtained. The measurements were carried out by a Welhofer-Scanditronix dose scanning system, Semiconductor Detector and Ionization Chamber. The results of this study have revealed that the values of two main dosimetric quantities depth dose curves and off axis dose distributions, acquired by MCNP-4C simulation and the corresponding values achieved by direct measurements are in a very good agreement (within 1% to 2% difference). In general, very good consistency of simulated and measured results, is a good proof that the goal of this work has been accomplished. In other word where measurements of some parameters are not practically achievable, MCNP-4C simulation can be implemented confidently. (author)

  8. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  9. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  10. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  11. Magnesium phthalocyanine(MgPc) thin films as nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Munish; Bedi, R. K.; Prakash, G. V.

    2006-05-01

    MgPc is a promising candidate for photovoltaic applications. It can be easily synthesized and is non-toxic to the envioronment. It is a self assembly molecule developed from deep-blue-green pigment. It exhibits a characteristic structural self organization which is reflected in an efficient energy migration in the form of extinction transport. MgPc relates to the similarity with chlorophyll. In the present work thin films of MgPc have been prepared on glass substrate under strict vacuum conditions(10 Â6 torr), thickness of few nanometers. Absorption spectra in Visible and IR regions have been observed which is good for fabrication of Photovoltaic cells and Nanostructures for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. Appreciable amount of cytotoxicity can be observed while using MgPc as photosensitizers which is a promising PDT agent. The films thus prepared have been studied for their electrical and optical characterizations. Investigations have been made from different stacking positions of molecular MgPc thin films for studying their self-assembling nature that can be useful for their applications as Molecular-Recognition in Drug delivery and sensors which is one of the key features of Nanotechnology.

  12. Abnormal expression and processing of the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2 in human colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Victoria

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of proprotein convertases has been recently implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in animal models. However, these studies have not yet been completely corroborated in human tumors. Methods Using RT PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry we assessed the presence and the processing patterns of the convertases PC1 and PC2 as well as the PC2 specific chaperone 7B2 in human liver metastases originating from colorectal cancer and compared them to unaffected and normal liver. Furthermore, we assessed the presence and processing profiles of PC1, PC2 and 7B2 in primary colon cancers. Results mRNA, protein expression, and protein cleavage profiles of proprotein convertases 1 and 2 are altered in liver colorectal metastasis, compared to unaffected and normal liver. Active PC1 protein is overexpressed in tumor, correlating with its mRNA profile. Moreover, the enhanced PC2 processing pattern in tumor correlates with the overexpression of its specific binding protein 7B2. These results were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. The specific and uniform convertase pattern observed in the metastases was present only in a fraction of primary colon cancers. Conclusion The uniformly altered proprotein convertase profile in liver metastases is observed only in a fraction of primary colon cancers, suggesting possible selection processes involving PCs during metastasis as well as an active role of PCs in liver metastasis. In addition, the exclusive presence of 7B2 in metastatic tumors may represent a new target for early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment.

  13. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  14. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  15. Effects of Cry34/35Ab1 corn on the survival and development of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-06-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major agricultural pest that is managed with transgenic corn, Zea mays L., expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). The effects of Bt corn producing Cry34/35Ab1 (event DAS-59122-7) and entomopathogens on the survival and development of larval D. v. virgifera were examined in laboratory, field and greenhouse experiments. Larvae preferred non-Bt over Bt corn in a laboratory experiment, and there was higher recovery from non-Bt corn than from Bt corn in a field experiment. In a greenhouse study, survival at 17 days did not differ significantly among non-Bt corn, Bt corn and a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn, but development was delayed on Bt corn. Older larvae fed non-Bt corn had lower survival when entomopathogenic nematodes were added, but no other effects of pathogen were detected. Bt corn producing Cry34/35Ab1 delayed larval development of D. v. virgifera and deterred feeding. In a mixture of Bt and non-Bt corn, larval development and survival were similar to non-Bt corn alone, suggesting that non-Bt plants in a blended refuge or a pure stand may produce a similar number of adult insects, and that timing of adult emergence may also be similar. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  17. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  18. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  19. Status of the Linux PC cluster for between-pulse data analyses at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.; Groebner, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Wade, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Some analyses that survey experimental data are carried out at a sparse sample rate between pulses during tokamak operation and/or completed as a batch job overnight because the complete analysis on a single fast workstation cannot fit in the narrow time window between two pulses. Scientists therefore miss the opportunity to use these results to guide experiments quickly. With a dedicated Beowulf type cluster at a cost less than that of a workstation, these analyses can be accomplished between pulses and the analyzed data made available for the research team during the tokamak operation. A Linux PC cluster comprised of 12 processors was installed at DIII-D National Fusion Facility in CY00 and expanded to 24 processors in CY01 to automatically perform between-pulse magnetic equilibrium reconstructions using the EFIT code written in FORTRAN, CER analyses using CERQUICK code written in interactive data language (IDL) and full profile fitting analyses (n e , T e , T i , V r , Z eff ) using IDL code ZIPFIT. This paper reports the current status of the system, the details of the between-pulse profile fitting analyses, and discusses some problems and concerns raised during the implementation and expansion of the system

  20. STATUS OF THE LINUX PC CLUSTER FOR BETWEEN-PULSE DATA ANALYSES AT DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PENG, Q; GROEBNER, R.J; LAO, L.L; SCHACHTER, J.; SCHISSEL, D.P; WADE, M.R.

    2001-08-01

    OAK-B135 Some analyses that survey experimental data are carried out at a sparse sample rate between pulses during tokamak operation and/or completed as a batch job overnight because the complete analysis on a single fast workstation cannot fit in the narrow time window between two pulses. Scientists therefore miss the opportunity to use these results to guide experiments quickly. With a dedicated Beowulf type cluster at a cost less than that of a workstation, these analyses can be accomplished between pulses and the analyzed data made available for the research team during the tokamak operation. A Linux PC cluster comprises of 12 processors was installed at DIII-D National Fusion Facility in CY00 and expanded to 24 processors in CY01 to automatically perform between-pulse magnetic equilibrium reconstructions using the EFIT code written in Fortran, CER analyses using CERQUICK code written in IDL and full profile fitting analyses (n e , T e , T i , V r , Z eff ) using IDL code ZIPFIT. This paper reports the current status of the system and discusses some problems and concerns raised during the implementation and expansion of the system

  1. A PC [personal computer]-based version of KENO V.a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.A.; Atkinson, C.A.; Briggs, J.B.; Taylor, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The use of personal computers (PCs) and engineering workstations for complex scientific computations has expanded rapidly in the last few years. This trend is expected to continue in the future with the introduction of increasingly sophisticated microprocessors and microcomputer systems. For a number of reasons, including security, economy, user convenience, and productivity, an integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM PC-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past 3 yr. Nuclear cross-section data and resonance parameters are preprocessed from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files Version 5 (ENDF/B-V) and supplied in a form suitable for use in a PC-based spectrum calculation and multigroup cross-section generation module. This module produces application-specific data libraries that can then be used in various neutron transport and diffusion theory code modules. This paper discusses several details of the Monte Carlo criticality module, which is based on the well-known highly-sophisticated KENO V.a package developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and previously released in mainframe form by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). The conversion process and a variety of benchmarking results are described

  2. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  3. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  4. Code for calculation of spreading of radioactivity in reactor containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, P.

    1992-09-01

    A detailed description of the new version of TIBSO code is given, with applications for accident analysis in a reactor containment system. The TIBSO code can follow the nuclear transition and the spatial migration of radioactive materials. The modelling of such processes is established in a very flexible way enabling the user to investigate a wide range of problems. The TIBSO code system is described in detail, taking into account the new developments since 1983. Most changes improve the capabilities of the code. The new version of TIBSO system is written in FORTRAN-77 and can be operated both under VAX VMS and PC DOS. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 21 tabs

  5. ENDF utility codes release 6.10. Description and operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-6 (and ENDF-5). Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting subroutines PLOTEF, GRALIB, INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  6. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  7. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A PC-based computer program for simulation of containment pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifaee, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that a PC-based computer program has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment during various transients. This containment model is capable of determining pressure and temperature history of a PWR containment in the event of a loss of coolant accident, as well as main steam line breaks inside the containment. Conservation of mass and energy equations are applied to the containment model. Development of the program is based on minimization of input specified information and user friendliness. Maximization of calculation efficiency is obtained by superseding the traditional trial and error procedure for determination of the state variables and implementation of an explicit solution for pressure. The program includes simplified models for active heat removal systems. The results are in close agreement between the present model and CONTEMPT-MOD5 computer code for pressure and temperature inside the containment

  9. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  10. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998... policies: Processing Sweet Corn Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  11. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may be...

  12. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  13. 21 CFR 358.550 - Labeling of corn and callus remover drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of corn and callus remover drug products... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.550 Labeling of corn and callus remover drug products... any, and identifies the product as a “corn and callus remover.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the...

  14. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions. 457.152... corn crop insurance provisions. The Hybrid Seed Corn Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and... policies Hybrid Seed Corn Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  15. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately upon...

  16. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  17. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying

    1989-01-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3 H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  18. Zapatista corn: a case study in biocultural innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Marisa

    2014-12-01

    In November 2001, Nature published a letter in which University of California Berkeley's biologists claimed to have found evidence of genetically modified (GM) DNA in regional varieties of maize in Oaxaca, even though the Mexican government had banned transgenic corn agriculture in 1998. While urban protesters marched against the genetic 'contamination' of Mexican corn by US-based agricultural biotech firms, rural indigenous communities needed a framework for understanding concepts such as GM before they could take action. This article analyzes how the indigenous organization, the Zapatistas, mobilized a program to address this novel entity. Their anti-GM project entailed educating local farmers about genetics, importing genetic testing kits, seed-banking landrace corn and sending seeds to 'solidarity growers' around the world. This article explores material-semiotic translations to explain one of the central aspects of this project, the definition and circulation of Zapatista corn--an entity defined not only through cultural geography, but also technological means. Through its circulation, Zapatista corn serves to perform a biocultural engagement with Zapatista's political project of resistance to neoliberalism. While much has been written about both regulatory policy and consumer activism against GM in the Global North, Zapatista corn also provides a case study in indigenous, anti-GM activism founded on biocultural innovation and the creation of alternative networks for circulating corn.

  19. Development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom ASOTAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks as alternative filler was studied with a view to replacing asbestos, which has been known to be carcinogenic. Corn husks was sourced and milled, before been sieved into sieve grades of 100 and 200 μm. The varying proportions of the as-screened corn husk fibres and silicon carbide were mixed with fixed proportions of graphite, steel dust and resin to produce brake pads by using compressional moulding. The hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, wear rate and porosity of the products were then determined. The result obtained showed that the brake pad produced with the corn husk passing the finer 100 μm screen gave better compressive strength, higher hardness, lower porosity and lower rate of wear, consequent on the finer distribution of the corn husks particles in the matrix. The results obtained for the brake pads were then compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad, corn husk based. The results were found to be in close agreement suggesting that corn husk can be used in the production of asbestos-free brake pads.

  20. Angular distributions of protons from the c13(d, p)c14 and c12(d, p)c13 reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, B.; Endt, P.M.; Hart, J.M. van der; Palmen, P.J.W.

    Angular distributions have been measured of protons from the groundstate transitions of the reactions C13(d, p)C14 and C12(d, p)C13 at a deuteron bombarding energy of 470 keV. The target consisted of barium carbonate enriched to 56% in C13 content. The angular distribution of C13(d, p)C14 protons

  1. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-06-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter has focused on disposition of PC Preheat experimental equipment at the CBTF as well as methods for disposal of about 100 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; a final report is due in December 2005.

  2. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  3. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  4. CC-3 CAMAC crate controller for IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, A.N.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    The specifications and implementation details of CAMAC Crate Controller CC-3 for IBM-PC compatible as a host computer, having capability to transfer high speed data with direct memory access (DMA) scheme and logic to execute CAMAC cycles directly from the crate controller, to implement the block algorithms specified in ANSI/IEEE Std. 683-1976 (Reaff-1981) are described. The maximum data transfer rate measured with 8 bit interface of PC-AT is 240K byte per second. This work is carried out under Seventh Five Year Plan Project on Modernisation of reactor Control Instrumentation and Development of CAMAC and Fastbus Instrumentation. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 appendixes

  5. Platform Comparison Between Games Console, Mobile Games And PC Games

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldus Galehantomo P.S

    2015-01-01

    In terms of platforms and game console, there are diffrences between, mobile games and pc gamesin the way it is used, the operator, the main event play, the game design and even the way the game work.We know that all the games on console platforms, PC and mobile, have their own characteristic which have advantages and drawbacks All platforms compete to win the rating for the sake of their platform continuity. For rating, all games platforms develop games that are more qualified. Those gam...

  6. Platform Comparison Between Games Console, Mobile Games And PC Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldus Galehantomo P.S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of platforms and game console, there are diffrences between, mobile games and pc gamesin the way it is used, the operator, the main event play, the game design and even the way the game work.We know that all the games on console platforms, PC and mobile, have their own characteristic which have advantages and drawbacks All platforms compete to win the rating for the sake of their platform continuity. For rating, all games platforms develop games that are more qualified. Those games will determine the quality of the platforms, so that the game developers of each platform developtheir games maximally to compete.

  7. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  8. Computer codes for level 1 probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) entails several laborious tasks suitable for computer codes assistance. This guide identifies these tasks, presents guidelines for selecting and utilizing computer codes in the conduct of the PSA tasks and for the use of PSA results in safety management and provides information on available codes suggested or applied in performing PSA in nuclear power plants. The guidance is intended for use by nuclear power plant system engineers, safety and operating personnel, and regulators. Large efforts are made today to provide PC-based software systems and PSA processed information in a way to enable their use as a safety management tool by the nuclear power plant overall management. Guidelines on the characteristics of software needed for management to prepare a software that meets their specific needs are also provided. Most of these computer codes are also applicable for PSA of other industrial facilities. The scope of this document is limited to computer codes used for the treatment of internal events. It does not address other codes available mainly for the analysis of external events (e.g. seismic analysis) flood and fire analysis. Codes discussed in the document are those used for probabilistic rather than for phenomenological modelling. It should be also appreciated that these guidelines are not intended to lead the user to selection of one specific code. They provide simply criteria for the selection. Refs and tabs

  9. Simple morphological control of ZnPc thin films grown on subpc underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Da Som; Yim, Sang Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Morphological templating in molecular double-layer thin films, i.e., the phenomenon where the surface morphology of the top layer is strongly influenced by that of the underlying layer, was investigated to control the surface nanomorphology of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films. Three types of molecular thin films, ZnPc single-layer, chloro[subphthalocyaninato]boron(III) (SubPc) single-layer, and ZnPc on SubPc (SubPc/ZnPc) double-layer thin films were grown on glass substrates and post-annealed at 250 °C. While the changes in surface roughness and morphology of the ZnPc single layer were negligible during post-annealing, the roughness of the SubPc/ZnPc double layer significantly increased, similar to that of the SubPc single-layer film. However, the lateral size of the surface crystallites of the SubPc/ZnPc film did not change apparently. Consequently, the fabricated regular, nanopillar-like surface morphology obtained by this simple treatment is expected to provide desirable interdigitated donor–acceptor interface with large contact area for small-molecule organic photovoltaic device applications. In addition, the ZnPc and SubPc single-layer thin films showed absorption maxima in different spectral regions; hence, the double-layer film absorbed the incident light effectively in a broader spectral range

  10. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  11. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  12. Impact of corn earworm injury on yield of transgenic corn producing Bt toxins in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and insecticide applications to suppress injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) were evaluated in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC, in 2012 and 2013. Based on kernel area injured, insecticide applications (chlorantraniliprole) every 3-4 d from R1 until H. zea had cycled out of corn reduced injury by 80-93% in Florence and 94-95% in Plymouth. Despite intensive applications of insecticide (13-18 per trial), limited injury still occurred in all treated plots in 2012, except in DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), based on kernels injured (both locations) and proportion of injured ears (Florence only). In 2013, ear injury was low in Plymouth, with no kernel injury in any insecticide-treated plots, except P1498R (non-Bt) and P1498YHR (Optimum Intrasect). Injury in Florence in 2013 did not occur in treated plots of DKC 68-04 (non-Bt), DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), and N785-3111 (Agrisure Viptera). Yields were not significantly affected by insecticide treatment and were not statistically different among near-isolines with and without Bt traits. Yields were not significantly associated with kernel injury based on regression analyses. The value of using Bt corn hybrids to manage H. zea is discussed.

  13. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC-PC

  14. CONSUMER PREFERENCE ANALYSIS TOWARDS CORN MILK USING KANO MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikasari D.M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe level of acceptance and customer satisfaction towards corn milk produced by ABEC (Agroindustrial Business and Entrepreneurship Center. It utilized the Kano model. The findings showed based on CSC (Customer Satisfaction Coefficient score that indicated the customer preference, the attributes of the corn milk with the highest CSC was its nutritional value. Its IBT was 0.48 and IWT was -0.58. The nutritional value contained information related to storage instruction, nutritional content, expiration date, producer contact number, halal label, and production permit (P-IRT. The corn milk packaging should convey those information otherwise customer satisfaction level was getting lower.

  15. Study On Noodle Making From Corn and Sago Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Bilang, Mariyati

    2014-01-01

    Non-rice commodity has been increasingly discussed as food alternative commodity. Type of processing food applied on this research was is noodle making from mixed sago and corn flours. The aim of this research was to investigate the quality of noodle from sago and corn flours, as well as to observe the impact of the addition of preservative materials towards the noodle???s self life. Treatments implemented in the research are the mixture of sago and corn flours with the proportion of 50%...

  16. Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation for Northern Indiana, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indiana sweet corn acreage harvested for fresh market averaged 5,233 acres annually from 2011- 2013, with a yield of 63 hundreweight per acre (149 crates or 3.1 tons per acre) and an annual value of $13.9 million (USDA NASS, 2014). Sweet corn fields for fresh market sales are located throughout the state. In northern Indiana, bicolor corn is most commonly grown. Varieties with improved eating quality are of interest to both producers and consumers. The term ‘supersweet’ commonly refers to ...

  17. Hydrocolloid occlusion for the treatment of neurovascular corns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Beck, Jan Walther; Reumert, L N

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hydrocolloid occlusion on neurovascular corns. The design was an observer-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Thirty consecutive patients participated in the trial. The patients received curettage alone or curettage with hydrocolloid...... occlusion. Six treatments were given over 12 weeks. A follow-up examination was performed 3 months after termination of the trial. Outcome measures were the size of the corns, a discomfort score, and an overall judgment of the trial. The results demonstrated no benefit of occlusion for symptoms or signs...... of neurovascular corns. The patients treated with occlusion were, however, generally more satisfied than the conventional group....

  18. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of deoxynivalenol in wheat and corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.C.; Zhang, G.S.; Chu, F.S.

    With the availability of antibody against deoxynivalenol triacetate (DON-triacetate), a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for DON in wheat was developed. DON is extracted from the sample with acetonitrile-water defatted with hexane, and then reacted with acetic anhydride to form DON-triacetate. The reaction mixture is loaded onto a C-18 cartridge to remove excess reagents and impurities. Acetylated DON is eluted from the cartridge with 50% methanol in water, and then analyzed by radioimmunoassay utilizing antiserum against DON-triacetate and tritiated DON-triacetate. Overall recovery for DON added to wheat between 50 and 5000 ppb was 86% with a standard deviation of 7% and coefficient of variation of 8%. The limit of detection for DON was about 20 ppb. Analysis of 12 naturally contaminated wheat, corn, and mixed feed samples for DON revealed that RIA results agreed well with thin layer chromatographic analyses performed by other laboratories.

  20. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the pituitary gland of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-09-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding PC1 and PC2 from a cDNA library constructed for the anterior pituitary gland of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and sequenced them. The bullfrog PC1 cDNA consisted of 2972 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 2208 bp and encoded a protein of 736 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC1 (95.1%) and mammalian PC1 (72.6%). The bullfrog PC2 cDNA consisted of 2242 bp with an open reading frame of 1914 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. This protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC2 (95.5%) and mammalian PC2 (84.8%). The catalytic triad of serine proteinases of the subtilisin family was found at Asp-168, His-209, and Ser-383 in the PC1 protein and at Asp-167, His-208, and Ser-384 in the PC2 protein. In situ hybridization staining revealed that PC2 mRNA was detected in corticotrope cells of the tadpoles, but not in those of the adults. In the adult, only PC1 mRNA was detected in the pars distalis but both PC1 and PC2 mRNAs were detected in the pars intermedia. The data also showed that PC1 mRNA was expressed in gonadotrope cells.

  2. Effect of nanoscale SubPc interfacial layer on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells based on P3HT/PC71BM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Yong; Noh, Seunguk; Nam, Young Min; Kim, Jun Young; Roh, Jeongkyun; Park, Myeongjin; Amsden, Jason J; Yoon, Do Y; Lee, Changhee; Jo, Won Ho

    2011-11-01

    The effect of a nanoscale boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) interfacial layer on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells based on poly (3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM) was studied. When a 1 nm SubPc layer was introduced between the active layer (P3HT:PC(71)BM) and MoO(x) in the device with ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PC(71)BM/SubPc/MoO(x)/Al configuration, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was increased from 3.42 (without SubPc) to 3.59%. This improvement is mainly attributed to the enhanced open-circuit voltage from 0.62 to 0.64 V. When the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters were estimated from the solubility parameters through the contact angle measurement, it revealed that the interaction between SubPc and PC(71)BM is more attractive than that between SubPc and P3HT at the interface of P3HT:PC(71)BM/SubPc, through which charges are well transported from the active layer to the anode. This is supported by a decrease of the contact resistance from 5.49 (SubPc 0 nm) to 0.94 MΩ cm (SubPc 1 nm). The photoelectron spectra provide another evidence for the enhanced PCE, exhibiting that the 1 nm thick SubPc layer extracts more photoelectrons from the active layer than other thicknesses.

  3. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  4. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    antenna required to establish a link with the satellite, the statistical parameters that characterize the rainrate process at the terminal site, the length of the propagation path within the potential rain region, and its projected length onto the local horizontal. The IBM PC version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14979) is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for an IBM PC compatible computer with a monitor and printer capable of supporting an 80-column format. The IBM PC version is available on a 5.25 inch MS-DOS format diskette. The program requires about 30K RAM. The source code and executable are included. The Macintosh version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14977) is written in Microsoft Basic, Binary (b) v2.00 for Macintosh II series computers running MacOS. This version requires 400K RAM and is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette, which includes source code only. The Macintosh version was developed in 1987 and the IBM PC version was developed in 1989. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

  5. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  6. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow t...... the transversal implementation of a universal set of gates by gauge fixing, while error-dectecting measurements involve only four or six qubits....

  7. Doubled Color Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  8. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  9. Application of sPC-SAFT and group contribution sPC-SAFT to polymer systems-Capabilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra; von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2009-01-01

    PC-SAFT model, with and without GC. The reported results contribute to a better understanding of the applicability of the sPC-SAFT model to binary polymer mixtures, and identify both models as good predictive tools for several industrial applications. Limitations are also identified and discussed....... predictive capability of the model demonstrates satisfactory description of the fluid behaviour of several polymer systems, including both vapour-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria. This work continues the systematic study on phase behaviour of polymer systems with the two versions of the s...

  10. Inheritance and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, David A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage pest insects. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt corn in the United States is western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Cry3Bb1 corn for management of western corn rootworm was commercialized in 2003, and beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn were found in Iowa. Here we quantify the magnitude, inheritance, and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in two strains (Hopkinton and Cresco) derived from field populations that evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. For Hopkinton, we found evidence for complete resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and nonrecessive inheritance. Additionally, no fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance were detected for Hopkinton. For Cresco, resistance was incomplete and recessive, and we detected fitness costs affecting developmental rate, survival to adulthood, and fecundity. These results suggest that variation may exist among field populations in both the inheritance and accompanying fitness costs of resistance. To the extent that field populations exhibit nonrecessive inheritance and a lack of fitness cost, this will favor more rapid evolution of resistance than would be expected when resistance is functionally recessive and is accompanied by fitness costs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  12. Bar Code Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  13. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  14. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  15. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  16. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  17. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, , .

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  18. Program EPICSHOW. A computer code to allow interactive viewing of the EPIC data libraries (Version 98-1). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.G.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    EPICSHOW (Electron Photon Interactive Code - Show Data) is an interactive graphics code that allows users to view and interact with neutron, photon, electron and light charged particle data. Besides on screen graphics the code provides hard copy in the form of tabulated listings and Postscript output files. The code has been implemented on UNIX, IBM-PC, Power MAC, and even Laptop computers. It should be relatively easy to use it on almost any computer. All of the data included in this system is based on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Databases and the neutron and photon data is used in the TART97 Monte Carlo transport code system. (author)

  19. Privacy Impact Assessment for the PC Label System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PC Label System collects contact information for individuals with an interest in EPA's Region 1. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  20. Nonylphenol diethoxylate inhibits apoptosis induced in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Sun, Yongkun; Song, Yutong; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    Nonylphenol and short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates such as NP 2 EO are present in aquatic environment as wastewater contaminants, and their toxic effects on aquatic species have been reported. Apoptosis has been shown to be induced by serum deprivation or copper treatment. To understand the toxicity of nonylphenol diethoxylate, we investigated the effects of NP 2 EO on apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and copper by using PC12 cell system. Nonylphenol diethoxylate itself showed no toxicity and recovered cell viability from apoptosis. In addition, nonylphenol diethoxylate decreased DNA fragmentation caused by apoptosis in PC12 cells. This phenomenon was confirmed after treating apoptotic PC12 cells with nonylphenol diethoxylate, whereas the cytochrome c release into the cytosol decreased as compared to that in apoptotic cells not treated with nonylphenol diethoxylates. Furthermore, Bax contents in apoptotic cells were reduced after exposure to nonylphenol diethoxylate. Thus, nonylphenol diethoxylate has the opposite effect on apoptosis in PC12 cells compared to nonylphenol, which enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. The difference in structure of the two compounds is hypothesized to be responsible for this phenomenon. These results indicated that nonylphenol diethoxylate has capability to affect cell differentiation and development and has potentially harmful effect on organisms because of its unexpected impact on apoptosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1389-1398, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. IBM PC based automatic drive system for Bulat setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchaninov, A.A.; Tolok, V.T.

    1999-01-01

    Non-expensive computer drive system for Bulat setup is described. System's hardware consists of IBM PC and conjunction block, providing 12 output channels, Software includes the main program, utilities and technology processes database. System may be used at surface modification processes, especially multilayer multicomponent coatings deposition

  2. Pc1 with a broad frequency spectrum - "Goose pulsations"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feygin, F. Z.; Prikner, Karel; Kangas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 519-536 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : geomagnetic pulsations * nonlinear particle-wave interaction * Pc1 wave packets * ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  3. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  4. Level of personal computer (PC) tablet penetration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of PC tablet should be limited to academic activities only, increase the bandwidth of internet connection so that students can have full access to internet to download educational material and to increase learning pace among others. Keywords: Touch-screen, personal computer, information and communication technology, ...

  5. Comparison between a newly developed PC-based Doppler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the accuracy of the resistance index (RI) of flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical artery measured using a newly developed PC-based continuous wave Doppler device (Umbiflow) with regard to systematic and random variations when compared with a commercial standard (Vasoflow). Design.

  6. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The results encourage utilizing CoPc as absorber organic material for solar cells. Keywords. Asymmetric Co(II)phthalocyanine; ... CdS and organic MPcs are also promising structures for solar cell applications because of their ... line structure with the strong intensity for plane (101) at. 2θ °= 28°. Figures 2 and 3 show the ...

  7. Antitumor effects of chrysanthemin in PC-3 human prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... caspase-3, 8 and 9 in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions: The study concluded that chrysanthemin ledanticancer effects in PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, activating caspasesignaling pathway and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Keywords: Chrysanthemin, anthocyanin, prostate cancer, ...

  8. Design and Development of a PC- Based temperature monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of the work involves a circuit that measures the surrounding temperature using appropriate sensors and the sensor output is then converted to digital signals after due processing and conditioning of the signals. There is also an interface circuit configured to make it compatible with the PC hardware. This design ...

  9. Orpinomyces cellulase celf protein and coding sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Liang; Chen, Huizhong; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2000-09-05

    A cDNA (1,520 bp), designated celF, consisting of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide (CelF) of 432 amino acids was isolated from a cDNA library of the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 constructed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that starting from the N-terminus, CelF consists of a signal peptide, a cellulose binding domain (CBD) followed by an extremely Asn-rich linker region which separate the CBD and the catalytic domains. The latter is located at the C-terminus. The catalytic domain of CelF is highly homologous to CelA and CelC of Orpinomyces PC-2, to CelA of Neocallimastix patriciarum and also to cellobiohydrolase IIs (CBHIIs) from aerobic fungi. However, Like CelA of Neocallimastix patriciarum, CelF does not have the noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found in CelA and CelC from the same organism. The recombinant protein CelF hydrolyzes cellooligosaccharides in the pattern of CBHII, yielding only cellobiose as product with cellotetraose as the substrate. The genomic celF is interrupted by a 111 bp intron, located within the region coding for the CBD. The intron of the celF has features in common with genes from aerobic filamentous fungi.

  10. On {\\sigma}-LCD codes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlet, Claude; Mesnager, Sihem; Tang, Chunming; Qi, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Linear complementary pairs (LCP) of codes play an important role in armoring implementations against side-channel attacks and fault injection attacks. One of the most common ways to construct LCP of codes is to use Euclidean linear complementary dual (LCD) codes. In this paper, we first introduce the concept of linear codes with $\\sigma$ complementary dual ($\\sigma$-LCD), which includes known Euclidean LCD codes, Hermitian LCD codes, and Galois LCD codes. As Euclidean LCD codes, $\\sigma$-LCD ...

  11. Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles-Torrez, Veronica; Knodel, Janet J; Boetel, Mark A; Doetkott, Curt D; Podliska, Kellie K; Ransom, Joel K; Beauzay, Patrick; French, B Wade; Fuller, Billy W

    2018-02-09

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5-7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  13. Effect of corn stover concentration on rheological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Natalia V; Hanley, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Corn stover, a well-known example of lignocellulosic biomass, is a potential renewable feed for bioethanol production. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment removes hemicellulose and makes the cellulose more susceptible to bacterial digestion. The rheologic properties of corn stover pretreated in such a manner were studied. The Power Law parameters were sensitive to corn stover suspension concentration becoming more non-Newtonian with slope n, ranging from 0.92 to 0.05 between 5 and 30% solids. The Casson and the Power Law models described the experimental data with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.90 to 0.99 and 0.85 to 0.99, respectively. The yield stress predicted by direct data extrapolation and by the Herschel-Bulkley model was similar for each concentration of corn stover tested.

  14. Efficient Server-Aided 2PC for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohassel Payman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secure Two-Party Computation (2PC protocols allow two parties to compute a function of their private inputs without revealing any information besides the output of the computation. There exist low cost general-purpose protocols for semi-honest parties that can be efficiently executed even on smartphones. However, for the case of malicious parties, current 2PC protocols are significantly less efficient, limiting their use to more resourceful devices. In this work we present an efficient 2PC protocol that is secure against malicious parties and is light enough to be used on mobile phones. The protocol is an adaptation of the protocol of Nielsen et al. (Crypto, 2012 to the Server-Aided setting, a natural relaxation of the plain model for secure computation that allows the parties to interact with a server (e.g., a cloud who is assumed not to collude with any of the parties. Our protocol has two stages: In an offline stage - where no party knows which function is to be computed, nor who else is participating - each party interacts with the server and downloads a file. Later, in the online stage, when two parties decide to execute a 2PC together, they can use the files they have downloaded earlier to execute the computation with cost that is lower than the currently best semi-honest 2PC protocols. We show an implementation of our protocol for Android mobile phones, discuss several optimizations and report on its evaluation for various circuits. For example, the online stage for evaluating a single AES circuit requires only 2.5 seconds and can be further reduced to 1 second (amortized time with multiple executions.

  15. Melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate in PC/zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang

    The effects of zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (ZnSPS) on the melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. Melt crystallization of pure PC is extremely slow due to its rigid chain. In the blend of PC and ZnSPS (PC-ZnSPS), the melt crystallization rate of PC can be enhanced. DSC was used to study the crystallization kinetics of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. The crystallization of PC at 190°C increased in both partially miscible and miscible blends with ZnSPS. For PC-ZnSPS blend with same PC composition as 80%, the crystallization rate was affected by the sulfonation level of ZnSPS. The induction time of crystallization for a partially miscible blend PC-ZnSPS9.98 (80/20) was 40 minutes, and the crystallization reaches 27% crystallinity within 14 hrs. The induction time for pure PC with the same thermal history was more than 24 hrs. The crystal structure of PC crystal formed in PC-ZnSPS blend was studied by WAXD, which showed no difference from the reported WAXD pattern for pure PC. Molecular weight change of PC was found during the thermal annealing of PC-ZnSPS blend at 190°C, but molecular weight alone cannot explain the change of crystallization rate of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. Discussion was made to address the mechanisms that are responsible for the crystallization rate enhancement of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. In order to understand and elucidate the reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend and its effect on the crystallization of PC, TG, GPC and GC-MS were used to investigate the stability of PC-ZnSPS blend and mixtures of PC with sodium tosylate (NaTS), zinc tosylate (ZnTS) and sodium benzoate (NaBZ). ZnSPS, NaTS and ZnTS undergo desulfonation of the sulfonate group at temperatures above 350°C. The desulfonation process can destabilize PC and lower the maximum mass loss rate temperature of PC for more than 70°C. NaTS, ZnTS and NaBZ have quite different effect on the thermal stability of PC at temperatures below 250

  16. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  17. IAA-glucopyranoside stimulation of corn coleoptiles elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously suggested that 1-O-IAGIuc growth stimulation occurs as the effect of its hydrolysis into a free IAA. In present experiments castanospermine, a known β-glucosidase inhibitor, was included. 1-O-IAGluc in the presence of castanospermine stimulated growth of corn coleoptiles segments even stronger then free IAA. So, it seems that 1-O-IAGluc itself, is responsible for the observed stimulation of corn coleoptile segments elongation.

  18. CORN PRODUCERS´ RESPONSE TO THE 2001 NITROGEN FERTILIZER PRICE INCREASE

    OpenAIRE

    Daberkow, Stan G.; McBride, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During the past few years, nitrogen fertilizer prices and price volatility have increased. Producers of nitrogen-intensive crops, such as corn, who are faced with increased nitrogen prices or price volatility, can adopt either cost-reducing or price variability-reducing strategies. Using a behavioral model in the logit specification and data from a 2001 national survey of U.S. corn producers, we found that the probability of forward pricing nitrogen fertilizer and the probability of using nit...

  19. Effects of Corn Cob Treated with Sodium Chloride on Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four dietary treatments involving 50% cotton seed cake (CSC) and 50% corn cob treated with 0,5,10, and 15% were determined using a Completely Randomized Design in a 20-day trial. Treated corn cob and CSC (5%NaCl) increased the consumption of DM (317.88+54.65g/d) and CP (39.95±1.49g/d) ...

  20. Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Corn Stover and Big Bluestem

    OpenAIRE

    Karunanithy, C.; Muthukumarappan, K.; Donepudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Moisture content is an important feedstock quality in converting it into energy through biochemical or thermochemical platforms. Knowledge of moisture sorption relationship is useful in drying and storage to preserve the quality of feedstocks. Moisture sorption isotherms for potential feedstocks such as corn stover and big bluestem are missing. EMC values of corn stover and big bluestem were determined using static gravimetric technique with saturated salt solutions (ERH 0.12–0.89) at differe...

  1. Inventory and Transformation Hedging Effectiveness in Corn Crushing

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the development of the U.S. ethanol industry, the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) launched the ethanol futures contract in March 2005. This contract is promoted by the CBOT as allowing ethanol producers to hedge corn crushing using strategies similar to those used in soybean crushing. The similarities end, however, when the lack of short-term correlation between corn and ethanol prices is compared to the strong correlation between soybean and soy product prices. This contrast mot...

  2. Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

  3. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when...

  4. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science, Bangalore. Her interests are in. Theoretical Computer. Science. SERIES I ARTICLE. Error Correcting Codes. 2. The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. In the first article of this series we showed how redundancy introduced into a message transmitted over a noisy channel could improve the reliability of transmission. In.

  5. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    set up a well defined goal - that of achieving a per- formance bound set by the noisy channel coding theo- rem, proved in the paper. Whereas the goal appeared elusive twenty five years ago, today, there are practi- cal codes and decoding algorithms that come close to achieving it. It is interesting to note that all known.

  6. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  7. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  8. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  9. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Computer. Science 'and Automation,. lISe. Their research addresses ... The fifty five year old history of error correcting codes began with Claude Shannon's path-breaking paper en- titled 'A ... given the limited computing power available then, Gal- lager's codes were not considered practical. A landmark.

  10. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  11. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Decoding Codes on Graphs - Low Density Parity Check Codes. A S Madhu Aditya Nori. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 49-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  13. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells increases tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Nixon, J B; Cohen, C; Dillehay, D; Eling, T E; Badr, K F

    2001-11-01

    The effect of overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) was studied in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. Stable PC-3 cell lines were generated by transfection with 15-LO-1-sense (15-LOS), 15-LO-1-antisense (15-LOAS) or vector (Zeo) and selection with Zeocin. After characterization by RT-PCR, western and HPLC, a PC3-15LOS clone was selected that possessed 10-fold 15-LO-1 enzyme activity compared with parental PC-3 cells. The PC3-15LOAS clone displayed little or no 15-LO-1 activity. These PC-3 cell lines were characterized for properties of tumorigenesis. The proliferation rates of the cell lines were as follows: PC3-15LOS > PC-3 = PC3-Zeo > PC3-15LOAS. Addition of a specific 15-LO-1 inhibitor, PD146176, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in vitro. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 also caused [(3)H]thymidine incorporation to increase by 4.0-fold (P < 0.01). Compared with parental and PC-3-Zeo cells, PC3-15LOS enhanced whereas PC3-15LOAS reduced the ability of PC-3 cells to grow in an anchorage-independent manner, as assessed by colony formation in soft agar. These data suggested a pro-tumorigenic role for 15-LO-1 in PC-3 cells in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of 15-LO-1 in vivo, the effect of 15-LO-1 expression on the growth of tumors in nude mice was investigated. The PC-3 cell lines were inoculated subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. The frequency of tumor formation was increased and the sizes of the tumors formed were much larger in the PC3-15LOS compared with PC3-15LOAS, parental PC-3 and PC-3-Zeo cells. Immunohistochemistry for 15-LO-1 confirmed expression throughout the duration of the experiment. The expression of factor VIII, an angiogenesis marker, in tumor sections was increased in tumors derived from PC3-15LOS cells and decreased in those from PC3-15LOAS cells compared with tumors from parental or Zeo cells. These data further supported the evaluation by ELISA of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by PC-3

  14. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Muqeet Rehman, M.; Zameer Abbas, S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Mahroof-Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H 2 Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H 2 Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. (paper)

  15. The composition of corn oil produced after fermentation via centrifugation in a commercial dry grind ethanol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical composition of corn oil obtained via centrifugation after fermentation of corn to make fuel ethanol, and compare its composition to that of corn germ oil (commercial corn oil) and experimental corn oils. The levels of free fatty acids in the post fermen...

  16. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  17. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  18. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  19. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  20. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

  1. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  2. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  3. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  4. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  5. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  6. Comparison of chemical, color stability, and phenolic composition from pericarp of nine colored corn unique varieties in a beverage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Sage; Luna-Vital, Diego; West, Leslie; Juvik, John A; Chatham, Laura; Paulsmeyer, Michael; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to compare the chemical stability and color of nine unique anthocyanin-rich colored corn varieties named/coded as V1, V2, V3… V9. Extracts were added to a beverage model and stored at 4 °C, 22°C, or 32°C for 12weeks. After 12 weeks of storage at 32°C, variety V6 [high condensed form (CF), high cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G)] had the longest anthocyanin half-life, based on the quantification by HPLC. V3 [high pelargonidin (Pg), high acylated form (C3-mal)] and V5 (high CF, high C3G, high C3-mal) had the most favorable hue. V5 and V6 had some of the smallest changes in color over time. These findings suggest that an abundance of condensed forms with C3G in corn extracts could contribute to the improved stability. Beverage storage parameters also influenced color parameters; low temperatures and low pH enhanced color and anthocyanin stability. The most promising corn varieties for future experiments are V3, V5, and V6 based on color retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Corn Stover Lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Resch, Michael G.; Karp, Eric M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-12-05

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as an effective biomass pretreatment strategy to depolymerize lignin into tractable fragments in high yields. We investigate the RCF of corn stover, a highly abundant herbaceous feedstock, using carbon-supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 200 and 250 degrees C in methanol and, in the presence or absence of an acid cocatalyst (H3PO4 or an acidified carbon support). Three key performance variables were studied: (1) the effectiveness of lignin extraction as measured by the yield of lignin oil, (2) the yield of monomers in the lignin oil, and (3) the carbohydrate retention in the residual solids after RCF. The monomers included methyl coumarate/ferulate, propyl guaiacol/syringol, and ethyl guaiacol/syringol. The Ru and Ni catalysts performed similarly in terms of product distribution and monomer yields. The monomer yields increased monotonically as a function of time for both temperatures. At 6 h, monomer yields of 27.2 and 28.3% were obtained at 250 and 200 degrees C, respectively, with Ni/C. The addition of an acid cocatalysts to the Ni/C system increased monomer yields to 32% for acidified carbon and 38% for phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C. The monomer product distribution was dominated by methyl coumarate regardless of the use of the acid cocatalysts. The use of phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C or the high temperature condition without acid resulted in complete lignin extraction and partial sugar solubilization (up to 50%) thereby generating lignin oil yields that exceeded the theoretical limit. In contrast, using either Ni/C or Ni on acidified carbon at 200 degrees C resulted in moderate lignin oil yields of ca. 55%, with sugar retention values >90%. Notably, these sugars were amenable to enzymatic digestion, reaching conversions >90% at 96 h. Characterization studies on the lignin oils using two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatrography revealed

  8. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: II - indices of fertilizer efficiency and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the efficiency of nitrogen (N fertilization is low, inducing a temporal variability of crop yield, economic losses, and environmental impacts. Variable-rate N fertilization (VRF, based on optical spectrometry crop sensors, could increase the N use efficiency (NUE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corn grain yield and N fertilization efficiency under VRF determined by an optical sensor in comparison to the traditional single-application N fertilization (TSF. With this purpose, three experiments with no-tillage corn were carried out in the 2008/09 and 2010/11 growing seasons on a Hapludox in South Brazil, in a completely randomized design, at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The following crop properties were evaluated: aboveground dry matter production and quantity of N uptake at corn flowering, grain yield, and vegetation index determined by an N-Sensor® ALS optical sensor. Across the sites, the corn N fertilizer had a positive effect on corn N uptake, resulting in increased corn dry matter and grain yield. However, N fertilization induced lower increases of corn grain yield at site 2, where there was a severe drought during the growing period. The VRF defined by the optical crop sensor increased the apparent N recovery (NRE and agronomic efficiency of N (NAE compared to the traditional fertilizer strategy. In the average of sites 1 and 3, which were not affected by drought, VRF promoted an increase of 28.0 and 41.3 % in NAE and NRE, respectively. Despite these results, no increases in corn grain yield were observed by the use of VRF compared to TSF.

  9. Conversion of a mainframe simulation for maintenance performance to a PC environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-based simulation capable of generating human error probabilities (HEPs) for maintenance activities is presented. The HEPs are suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and are an important source of information for data management systems such as NUCLARR- the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability. (1) The basic computer model MAPPS--the maintenance personnel performance simulation has been developed and validated by the US NRC in order to improve maintenance practices and procedures at nuclear power plants. This model validated previously, has now been implemented and improved, in a PC environment, and renamed MicroMAPPS. The model is stochastically based, able to simulate the performance of 2 to 15 person crews for a variety of maintenance conditions. These conditions include aspects of crew actions as potentially influenced by the task, the environment, or characteristics of the personnel involved. The nature of the software code makes it particularly appropriate for determining changes in HEP rates due to fluctuations in important task, environment,. or personnel parameters. The presentation presents a brief review of the mainframe version of the code and presents a summarization of the enhancements which dramatically change the nature of the human computer interaction

  10. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P DNC (P DNC diet resulted in linear (P DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance.

  11. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO 3 layers and organic layers of C 60 , SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C 60 and MgPc:C 60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO 3 /organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO 3 . The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (E HL ) of C 60 , SubPc, and MgPc and the effective E HL of SubPc:C 60 and MgPc:C 60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔE L ) or HOMO (ΔE H ) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C 60 , respectively, and to −0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C 60 , respectively. Exponential tails below E HL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states

  12. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  13. Modeling a western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), maturation delay and resistance evolution in Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Koo; Krupke, Christian H; Murphy, Alexzandra F; Spencer, Joseph L; Gray, Michael E; Onstad, David W

    2014-06-01

    Emergence delay and female-skewed sex ratios among adults of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Bt corn have been reported in field studies. The authors used a simulation model to study the effect of a maturation delay and a female-skewed sex ratio for D. v. virgifera emerging from Bt corn on the evolution of Bt resistance. The effect of skewed toxin mortality in one sex on evolution of Bt resistance was insignificant. An emergence delay among resistant beetles from Bt corn slowed resistance evolution. A shift in the time of emergence for homozygous susceptible beetles from Bt corn did not have a significant effect on the evolution of Bt resistance in D. v. virgifera. This simulation study suggested that skewed toxin mortality in one sex and an emergence delay for beetles in Bt corn are not major concerns for managing resistance by D. v. virgifera to single-toxin or pyramided Bt corn. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  15. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  16. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  17. Laser propagation code study

    OpenAIRE

    Rockower, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti- sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g. 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture shape scaling rela...

  18. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  19. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  20. Decoding the productivity code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    , that is, the productivity code of the 21st century, is dissolved. Today, organizations are pressured for operational efficiency, often in terms of productivity, due to increased global competition, demographical changes, and use of natural resources. Taylor’s principles for rationalization founded...... that swing between rationalization and employee development. The productivity code is the lack of alternatives to this ineffective approach. This thesis decodes the productivity code based on the results from a 3-year action research study at a medium-sized manufacturing facility. During the project period...

  1. CALIPSOS code report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanselau, R.W.; Thakkar, J.G.; Hiestand, J.W.; Cassell, D.S.

    1980-04-01

    CALIPSOS is a steady-state three-dimensional flow distribution code which predicts the fluid dynamics and heat transfer interactions of the secondary two-phase flow in a steam generator. The mathematical formulation is sufficiently general to accommodate two fluid models described by separate gas and liquid momentum equations. However, if the user selects the homogeneous flow option, the code automatically equates the gas and liquid phase velocities (thereby reducing the number of momentum equations solved to three) and utilizes a homogeneous density mixture. This report presents the basic features of the CALIPSOS code and includes assumptions, equations solved, the finite-difference grid, and highlights of the solution procedure

  2. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  3. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A. [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)], E-mail: yazici@gantep.edu.tr; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Bozkurt, Hueseyin [University of Gaziantep, Department of Food Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by {sup 60}Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 degC. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), T{sub m}(E{sub a})-T{sub stop} and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  4. Heat Extraction of Corn Fiber Hemicellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkő, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Alexandra; Szengyel, Zsolt; Gáspár, Melinda; Réczey, Kati; Stålbrand, Henrik

    Water-soluble hemicellulose was extracted from corn fiber with microwave-assisted heat treatment. The effects of treatment temperature and initial pH of the aqueous extraction media were investigated regarding hemicellulose recovery and molecular mass of the isolated polysaccharides. In treatments carried out at neutral pH (simple water extraction), it has been demonstrated that hemicellulose recovery could be increased by applying higher treatment temperatures. However, the molecular weight of isolated hemicellulose gets significantly lower. For example, 10% of the raw materials' xylan was extracted at 160°C and about 30% recovery was reached at 210°C. However, the molecular mass of the isolated polysaccharide at 210°C (5.82×104) was about half of that measured at 160°C (1.37×105). Reducing the pH with sulfuric acid resulted in shorter polymer chains (1.7×104) and lower hemicellulose yields (2.2%). Application of sodium hydroxide in the treatment showed that, compared with acid, considerably higher yields (11%) with longer polysaccharide chains (1.3×105) could be obtained.

  5. Properties of corn starch subjected hydrothermal modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryszkin, Artur; Zięba, Tomasz; Kapelko-Żeberska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heating a water dispersion of corn starch to various temperatures, followed by its freezing and defrosting, on selected properties of re-formed starch pastes. A suspension of starch was heated to various temperatures ranging from 59 to 94°C, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. The differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler Toledo, 822E) thermal characteristics of starch pre-heated to temperatures not inducing complete pasting revealed transitions of: (I) retrograded amylopectin, (II) non-pasted starch, (III) amylose-lipid complexes, (IV) retrograded amylose, and (V) highly thermostable starch structures. The application of higher temperatures during heating caused disappearance of transitions II and V. The increase of pre-heating temperature induced firstly a decrease and then stabilization of the swelling power as well as a successive decrease in starch solubility. Pastes pre-heated to temperatures over 79°C contained large macroparticles that were increasing viscosity of the re-formed starch paste (their size was positively correlated with viscosity value).

  6. Kondrashov Gammas. PC database for gamma-rays from radionuclides. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    A PC database by V. Kondrashov containing energies and yields of gamma-rays from radionuclides is described. The PC diskette is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, cost free upon request. (author)

  7. Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750...

  8. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINES BY CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro.Das PC, McElroy WK, Cooper RL.Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.Epidemiological, wildlife, and lab...

  9. Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750...

  10. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley Power's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter work completed the securing the proper disposition of all PC Preheat experimental equipment at the PSCF and CBTF and completing negotiations with AES Westover (a power plant in Johnson City, New York) to accept 130 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. The coal transport to Westover occurred at the end of August. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; immediate efforts are focused on completing a draft final report, which is due in October 31, 2005 and the final report in December.

  11. A PC based control system for the CERN ISOLDE separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, R.; Bret, A.; Deloose, I.; Pace, A.; Shering, G.

    1992-01-01

    The control system of the two isotope separators of CERN, named ISOLDE, is being completely redesigned with the goal of having a flexible, high performance and inexpensive system. A new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware available for the huge Personal Computer (PC) market is being implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the separators. 8 MS-DOS TM i386-based PCs with about 80 acquisition/control boards are used to access the equipments while 3 other PCs running Microsoft Windows TM and Microsoft Excel TM are used as consoles, the whole through a Novell TM Local Area Network with a PC Disk Server used as a database. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming work load and costs that are expected to build the system before the start of the separators in March 1992. (author)

  12. Radioimmunoassay data processing program for IBM PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Medical Applications Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has previously developed several programs for use on the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable calculator to facilitate better quality control in radioimmunoassay through improved data processing. The program described in this document is designed for off-line analysis using an IBM PC (or compatible) for counting data from standards and unknown specimens (i.e. for analysis of counting data previously recorded by a counter), together with internal quality control (IQC) data both within and between batch. The greater computing power of the IBM PC has enabled the imprecision profile and IQC control curves which were unavailable on the HP-41C version. It is intended that the program would make available good data processing capability to laboratories having limited financial resources and serious problems of quality control. 3 refs

  13. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Min Theint

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Software configuration. The hardware components include induction coil sensors which senses the frequency changes of metal a PIC microcontroller personal computer PC buzzer light emitting diode LED and webcam. The software configuration includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroCprogramming language is used to implement the control system. This control system is based on the PIC 16F887 microcontroller.This system is mainly used in mining and high security places such as airport plaza shopping mall and governmental buildings.

  14. A embedded Linux system based on PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Mei; Zhao Jingwei; Chu Yuanping

    2006-01-01

    The authors will introduce a Embedded Linux System based on PowerPC as well as the base method on how to establish the system. The goal of the system is to build a test system of VMEbus device. It also can be used to setup the small data acquisition and control system. Two types of compiler are provided by the developer system according to the features of the system and the Power PC. At the top of the article some typical embedded Operation system will be introduced and the features of different system will be provided. And then the method on how to build a embedded Linux system as well as the key technique will be discussed in detail. Finally a successful read-write example will be given based on the test system. (authors)

  15. EZVIDEO, DISSPLA Graphics Software Simulation on IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: EZVIDEO simulates a subset of the DISSPLA plotting package to make plots on the IBM PC screen. Screen dumps can also be made to an attached LaserJet or Epson printer to make hard copy without using terminal emulators. The forerunner of EZVIDEO was called EZPLOT. 2 - Method of solution: The subroutines in the EZVIDEO system are based on the Hewlett Packard HP 9000 simulation of DISSPLA. These routines manipulate the pen movements on the screen and are also capable of capturing these same movements so that a hardcopy can be made to dot matrix or laser printer. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: For plotting on the IBM PC, the plotting emulator PCPLOT is needed

  16. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  17. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  18. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  19. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.

  20. Superoxide dismutase in radioresistant PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopovic, J.; Adzic M; Niciforovic, A.; Vucic, V.; Zaric, B.; Radojcic, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of gamma-ionizing radiation (IR) resistance of human prostate cancer cells PC-3 is not known. Since low-LET-IR effects are primarily achieved through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IR-induced expression of ROS-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes, Mn- and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Mn- and CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT), and their upstream regulator transcription factor NFκB was followed. Significant elevation of both SODs was found in cells irradiated with 10- and 20 Gy, while CAT and NFκB expression was unchanged. Since, such conditions lead to accumulation of H 2 O 2 , it is concluded that radioresistance of PC-3 cells may emerge from positive feed-forward vicious circle established between H 2 O 2 activation of NFκB and elevated MnSOD activity. (author)