WorldWideScience

Sample records for corn borer moth

  1. Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

  2. Using RNA sequencing to characterize female reproductive genes between Z and E Strains of European Corn Borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Lewis, Sara M; Dopman, Erik B

    2014-03-12

    Reproductive proteins often evolve rapidly and are thought to be subject to strong sexual selection, and thus may play a key role in reproductive isolation and species divergence. However, our knowledge of reproductive proteins has been largely limited to males and model organisms with sequenced genomes. With advances in sequencing technology, Lepidoptera are emerging models for studies of sexual selection and speciation. By profiling the transcriptomes of the bursa copulatrix and bursal gland from females of two incipient species of moth, we characterize reproductive genes expressed in the primary reproductive tissues of female Lepidoptera and identify candidate genes contributing to a one-way gametic incompatibility between Z and E strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Using RNA sequencing we identified transcripts from ~37,000 and ~36,000 loci that were expressed in the bursa copulatrix or the bursal gland respectively. Of bursa copulatrix genes, 8% were significantly differentially expressed compared to the female thorax, and those that were up-regulated or specific to the bursa copulatrix showed functional biases toward muscle activity and/or organization. In the bursal gland, 9% of genes were differentially expressed compared to the thorax, with many showing reproduction or gamete production functions. Of up-regulated bursal gland genes, 46% contained a transmembrane region and 16% possessed secretion signal peptides. Divergently expressed genes in the bursa copulatrix were exclusively biased toward protease-like functions and 51 proteases or protease inhibitors were divergently expressed overall. This is the first comprehensive characterization of female reproductive genes in any lepidopteran system. The transcriptome of the bursa copulatrix supports its role as a muscular sac that is the primary site for disruption of the male ejaculate. We find that the bursal gland acts as a reproductive secretory body that might also interact with male

  3. Flight Tunnel Response of Male European Corn Borer Moths to Cross-Specific Mixtures of European and Asian Corn Borer Sex Pheromones: Evidence Supporting a Critical Stage in Evolution of a New Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Moore, Kevin; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Previous flight tunnel studies showed that 3-5 % of male European corn borer (ECB) moths, Ostrinia nubilalis, could fly upwind and make contact with sources releasing the sex pheromone of the closely related Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrina furnacalis, [2:1 (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (Z12-14:OAc) : (E)-12-teradecenyl acetate (E12-14:OAc)] and that 2-4 % of ACB males could similarly fly upwind to the sex pheromone blends of the ECB Z- [97:3 (Z)-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc) : (E)-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:Ac)] and E-strains (1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc) pheromones. The results supported the hypothesis that the evolution of the ACB pheromone system from an ECB-like ancestor included a stage in which males could be attracted to the unusual females emitting Z12- and E12-14:OAc while retaining their responsiveness to the ancestral pheromone blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc. Here, we showed further that ECB E-strain males exhibited upwind oriented flight and source contacts to sources containing all combinations of ECB and ACB components. Maximal response levels were observed with the E-strain 99:1 E11/Z11-14:OAc blend, and high response levels also were observed with two other blends containing E11-14:OAc as the major component (E11:E12 and E11:Z12). Upwind flight and source contact also occurred at lower levels with the remaining blend combinations in which Z11-, E12-, or Z12-14:OAc was the major component. Our current results support the hypothesis concerning the evolution of ACB from an ECB-like ancester by showing that males were able to respond to females producing either the 12-14:Ac isomers, 11-14:Ac isomers, or even mixtures of all four components.

  4. Silent genes and rare males: A fresh look at pheromone blend response specificity in the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Linn Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The response of male moths from two pheromone races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, was measured in a flight tunnel assay to different ratios of structurally different compounds that comprise the sex pheromone of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. For both O. nubilalis races, between 1 and 5% of the males completed upwind flights to two different blends of the O. furnacalis pheromone components (the 2:1 Z/E12-14:OAc female-produced blend, and a 97:3 Z/E mix, confirming that rare males exist in the O. nubilalis populations that can detect and respond to mixtures of the O. furnacalis pheromone components. Rare males that responded to the O. furnacalis blends also responded to their own O. nubilalis blends (97:3 or 1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc, indicating that rare O. nubilalis males are not preferentially sensitive to mixtures of the O. furnacalis compounds, but rather that they have a broad range of response specificity, which includes recognition of a wide range of conspecific female-produced ratios, and also recognition of heterospecific mixtures. The results support the hypothesis that saltational shifts in pheromone blend composition (Roelofs et al., 2002 can lead to the evolution of a new species-specific communication system, in part because the broad response specificity of some males includes the ability to respond in an agonistic manner to novel mixtures of compounds.

  5. Homology of olfactory receptor neuron response characteristics inferred from hybrids between Asian and European corn borer moths (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Baker, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    First generation hybrid males from crosses between the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, and the "univoltine Z-strain" European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, were examined with respect to behavioral and physiological responses to ACB and ECB pheromones. The hybrid males often flew to the pheromone of ECB Z-strain, but very rarely to the ACB pheromone. We mapped the tuning profiles of each ORN of the F(1) hybrids with respect to the relevant pheromone components and a common behavioral antagonist by employing differential cross-adaptation and varying doses of the ligands. In the trichoid sensilla of F(1) hybrid males, the three co-compartmentalized ORNs produced spikes that were very difficult to distinguish by size, unlike the parental populations. Comparing the responses to ACB and ECB components at different doses reveals overlapping profiles similar to males of both parental types, but more responsiveness to the ECB pheromone components. We were unable to detect any differences in the ORN tuning profiles when comparing males with different behavioral phenotypes. While the two ECB pheromone races have similar ORN tuning properties that are different from those in ACB, the spike-amplitude patterns of ECB E-strain and ACB have greater homology when compared to ECB Z-strain.

  6. Sources of resistance to pink stem borer and european corn borer in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Mansilla, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn) is an important insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in Europe. However, the larvae of pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) produce important damage to the stems, especially in Southern Europe. The first step in an insect-resistance breeding program is to identify sources of resistance. The objective of this work was to study the resistance/tolerance of several populations of maize to attack by corn borers in general, and of Sesamia nonagr...

  7. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  8. Current European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, injury levels in the northeastern United States and the value of Bt field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric W; Breining, James A; Shaffer, John A; Fleischer, Shelby J; Roth, Gregory W; Tooker, John F

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates that some populations of European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), have declined to historic lows owing to widespread adoption of Bt corn hybrids. To understand current ECB populations in Pennsylvania field corn, the authors assessed larval damage in Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at 29 sites over 3 years. The influence of Bt adoption rates, land cover types and moth activity on levels of ECB damage was also considered. Bt hybrids reduced ECB damage when compared with non-Bt, but these differences inconsistently translated to higher yields and, because of higher seed costs, rarely improved profits. No relationships were detected between land use or Bt adoption and ECB damage rates, but positive relationships were found between plant damage and captures of Z-race ECB moths in pheromone traps in the PestWatch network. ECB damage levels were generally low and appear to be declining across Pennsylvania. In many locations, farmers may gain greater profits by planting competitive non-Bt hybrids; however, Bt hybrids remain valuable control options, particularly in the parts of Pennsylvania where ECB populations persist. Moth captures from PestWatch appear to provide insight into where Bt hybrids are most valuable. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  10. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  11. Hydroxycinnamate Synthesis and Association with Mediterranean Corn Borer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Butrón, Ana

    2016-01-27

    Previous results suggest a relationship between maize hydroxycinnamate concentration in the pith tissues and resistance to stem tunneling by Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) larvae. This study performs a more precise experiment, mapping an F2 derived from the cross between two inbreds with contrasting levels for hydroxycinnamates EP125 × PB130. We aimed to co-localize genomic regions involved in hydroxycinnamate synthesis and resistance to MCB and to highlight the particular route for each hydroxycinnamate component in relation to the better known phenylpropanoid pathway. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for p-coumarate, two QTLs for ferulate, and seven QTLs for total diferulates explained 81.7, 26.9, and 57.8% of the genotypic variance, respectively. In relation to borer resistance, alleles for increased hydroxycinnamate content (affecting one or more hydroxycinnamate compounds) could be associated with favorable effects on stem resistance to MCB, particularly the putative role of p-coumarate in borer resistance.

  12. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2005-04-01

    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  13. Induced defenses in maize following attack by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the course of the past two decades, insect pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) annually resulted in losses to US maize production exceeding one billion dollars. Despite the global significance of O. nubilalis and other stem borers, relatively little is known about the nat...

  14. Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

    2013-06-01

    In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack.

  15. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is the primary target of the widely adopted transgenic corn events MON810 and Bt11, expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxin, Cry1Ab. Resistant strains of O. nubilalis have been selected in the laboratory by exposure to Bt ...

  16. Genetic mapping of male pheromone response in the European corn borer identifies candidate genes regulating neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Teun; Heckel, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The sexual pheromone communication system of moths is a model system for studies of the evolution of reproductive isolation. Females emit a blend of volatile components that males detect at a distance. Species differences in female pheromone composition and male response directly reinforce reproductive isolation in nature, because even slight variations in the species-specific pheromone blend are usually rejected by the male. The mechanisms by which a new pheromone signal–response system could evolve are enigmatic, because any deviation from the optimally attractive blend should be selected against. Here we investigate the genetic mechanisms enabling a switch in male response. We used a quantitative trait locus-mapping approach to identify the genetic basis of male response in the two pheromone races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Male response to a 99:1 vs. a 3:97 ratio of the E and Z isomers of the female pheromone is governed by a single, sex-linked locus. We found that the chromosomal region most tightly linked to this locus contains genes involved in neurogenesis but, in accordance with an earlier study, does not contain the odorant receptors expressed in the male antenna that detect the pheromone. This finding implies that differences in the development of neuronal pathways conveying information from the antenna, not differences in pheromone detection by the odorant receptors, are primarily responsible for the behavioral response differences among the males in this system. Comparison with other moth species reveals a previously unexplored mechanism by which male pheromone response can change in evolution. PMID:27698145

  17. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfstedt Christer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary

  18. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Santiago, Rogelio

    2011-04-01

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of resistant and susceptible inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Composition of cell wall polysaccharides, lignin concentration and composition, and cell wall bound forms of hydroxycinnamic acids were measured. As expected, most of the cell wall components were found at higher concentrations in the rind than in the pith tissues, with the exception of galactose and total diferulate esters. Pith of resistant inbred lines had significantly higher concentrations of total cell wall material than susceptible inbred lines, indicating that the thickness of cell walls could be the initial barrier against corn borer larvae attack. Higher concentrations of cell wall xylose and 8-O-4-coupled diferulate were found in resistant inbreds. Stem tunneling by corn borers was negatively correlated with concentrations of total diferulates, 8-5-diferulate and p-coumarate esters. Higher total cell wall, xylose, and 8-coupled diferulates concentrations appear to be possible mechanisms of corn borer resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating E-Race European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Adult Activity in Snap Bean Fields Based on Corn Planting Intensity and Their Activity in Corn in New York Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Huseth, Anders S; Nault, Brian A

    2016-07-24

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a major pest of processing snap bean because larvae are contaminants in pods. The incidence of O. nubilalis-contaminated beans has become uncommon in New York, possibly because widespread adoption of Bt field corn has suppressed populations. Snap bean fields located where Bt corn has been intensively grown in space and time may be at lower risk for O. nubilalis than fields located where Bt corn is not common. To manage O. nubilalis infestation risk, growers determine insecticide application frequency in snap bean based on pheromone-trapping information in nearby sweet corn fields; adult activity is presumed equivalent in both crops. Our goal was to determine if corn planting intensity and adult activity in sweet corn could be used to estimate O. nubilalis populations in snap bean in New York in 2014-2015. Numbers of O nubilalis adults captured in pheromone-baited traps located in snap bean fields where corn was and was not intensively grown were similar, suggesting that O. nubilalis does not respond to local levels of Bt corn in the landscape. Numbers of Ostrinia nubilalis captured in pheromone-baited traps placed by snap bean fields and proximal sweet corn fields were not related, indicating that snap bean growers should no longer make control decisions based on adult activity in sweet corn. Our results also suggest that the risk of O. nubilalis infestations in snap bean is low (∼80% of the traps caught zero moths) and insecticide applications targeting this pest should be reduced or eliminated. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Implications of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, infestation in an Aspergillus flavus-biocontrolled corn agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Mariangela; Accinelli, Cesare; Vicari, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A novel biocontrol strategy consisting of field application of bioplastic-based granules inoculated with a non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus L. strain has recently been shown to be effective for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study focused on other factors that may affect the feasibility of this biocontrol technique, and more specifically the role of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis H., in the dispersal and infestation of A. flavus in corn and its impact on crop yield. In spite of the high percentage of corn ears showing larval feeding damage, ECB-bored kernels accounted for only 3 and 4% in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Most of the damaged kernels were localised in the ear tip or immediately below. More precisely, the average incidence of ECB-bored kernels in the upper end of the ear was 32%. However, less than 5% of kernels from the central body of the ear, which includes the majority of kernels, were injured by ECB. Although ECB larvae showed a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 and thus had the potential to serve as vectors of the mould, fungal infection of kernels was poorly associated with insect damage. ECB infestation resulted in grain yield losses not exceeding 2.5%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Datasets for transcriptomic analyses of maize leaves in response to Asian corn borer feeding and/or jasmonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is one of the most widely grown crops throughout the world. However, many corn fields develop pest problems such as corn borers every year that seriously affect its yield and quality. Corn's response to initial insect damage involves a variety of changes to the levels of defensive enzymes, toxi...

  2. Tolerance of Bt corn (MON 810) to maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramkumar; Channappa, Ravi K; Deeba, Farah; Nagaraj, Nandi J; Sukavaneaswaran, Mohan K; Manjunath, T M

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic corn (MON 810), expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, Cry1Ab, was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for its tolerance to the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. Bt corn (MON 810) provided effective protection against the stem borer even under a high level of larval infestation in the greenhouse. The observed tolerance is examined and discussed in the light of the susceptibility of C. partellus to the Cry1Ab protein in laboratory bioassays. The implications of the tissue concentrations of Cry1Ab in MON 810, and baseline susceptibility recorded in the current study, for insect-resistance management are discussed.

  3. A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Enyan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2017-01-01

    The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that O. furnacalis larvae fed on these transgenic leaves had lower food consumption and smaller body size compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the feeding control of O. furnacalis and valuable for production of potential transgenic corn. PMID:28290513

  4. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  5. Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

  6. Diallel Analysis of Southwestern Corn Borer Leaf Feeding Damage in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...

  7. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  9. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  10. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  11. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  12. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants. PMID:28006032

  13. Microbial diversity in the midguts of field and lab-reared populations of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeni Belda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet. Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the

  14. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-04

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming.

  15. Datasets for transcriptomic analyses of maize leaves in response to Asian corn borer feeding and/or jasmonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the most widely grown crops throughout the world. However, many corn fields develop pest problems such as corn borers every year that seriously affect its yield and quality. Corn′s response to initial insect damage involves a variety of changes to the levels of defensive enzymes, toxins, and communicative volatiles. Such a dramatic change secondary metabolism necessitates the regulation of gene expression at the transcript level. In this paper, we summarized the datasets of the transcriptome of corn plants in response to corn stalk borers (Ostrinia furnacalis and/or methyl jasmonate (MeJA. Altogether, 39, 636 genes were found to be differentially expressed. The sequencing data are available in the NCBI SRA database under accession number SRS965087. Our dataset will provide more scientific and valuable information for future work such as the study of the functions of important genes or proteins and develop new insect-resistant maize varieties.

  16. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed.

  17. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae......) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...

  18. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  19. Changes in phenolic concentrations during recurrent selection for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A

    2008-09-10

    Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point.

  20. Plant responses to hidden herbivores: European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) attack on maize induces both defense and susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbivore-induced plant defenses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems or roots. Early attempts to characterize maize responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) larv...

  1. European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestation level and plant growth stage on whole-plant corn yield grown for silage in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Youngman, R R; Laub, C A; Brewster, C C; Jordan, T A; Teutsch, C

    2009-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to determine the effect of different levels of hand-infested third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant yield and plant growth stage in corn, Zea mays L., grown for silage. In 2004 and 2005, European corn borer infestation level had a significant negative impact on whole-plant yield (grams of dry matter per plant) with increasing infestation; however, whole-plant yield was not significantly affected by plant growth stage in either year. In 2004, the six larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (23.4%) in mean (+/-SEM) whole-plant yield (258.5 +/- 21.0 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb control (337.3 +/- 11.1 g dry matter per plant). In 2005, the five larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (8.3%) in mean whole-plant yield (282.3 +/- 10.8 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bt CrylAb control (307.8 +/- 8.3 g dry matter per plant). The relationship between mean whole-plant yield and European corn borer larvae infestation level from the pooled data of both years was described well by using an exponential decay model (r2 = 0.84, P = 0.0038). The economic injury level for silage corn was estimated to be approximately 73% higher than for corn grown for grain based on similar control costs and crop values. In addition, plant growth stage and European corn borer infestation level had no effect on percentage of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein values in either year of the study.

  2. Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

    2002-01-01

    In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it

  3. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  4. Expression of a Modified Crylle Gene in E.Coli and in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Resistance to Corn Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG

    2004-01-01

    The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE PRESENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with natural population of European corn borer (ECB were conducted in three vegetation seasons (2012-2014 at Agricultural Institute in Osijek. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design as split-split plot method, with three repetitions. This plot has been constantly maize - soybean rotation for already 15 years. It was a 3x3x4 factorial experiment with three irrigation levels (A1- non-irrigated (only natural precipitation, A2-from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3-from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1-0, B2-100 and B3-200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1-0SSK 596; C2-0SSK 617; C3-0SSK 602 and C4-0SSK 552.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotypes on occurrence and damage of maize plants by the European corn borer larvae and relation between leaf feeding larvae with nitrogen and silicon concentration as well as C/N ratio. At the end of each growing season, ten maize plants from each variant were cut. Ear weight for each specific plant (g, tunnel length (cm, number of larvae in stalk, number of larvae in the ear shank, ear shank damage (cm and total number of larvae in maize plantwere determined. In silking stage (middle of July ten leaves (below the ear, from 10 maize plants were sampled on each variant. Nitrogen, carbon and silicon concentrations were determined in maize leaf (% and C/N ratio calculated. In 2014, a significantly lower ECB attack was determined taking into account lower temperatures and higher amount of precipitate compared to the previous years. Dominance of Z-type European corn borer on pheromone traps in the area of eastern Slavonia was confirmed. Increasing the level of soil water content, damage from larvae was reduced and increasing the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. We have confirmed different hybrid resistance in regards to damage from larvae

  6. Research Prospects in Corn Resistance Mechanisms to Corn Borers%玉米对钻蛀性害虫的抗性机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭井菲; 何康来; 王振营

    2014-01-01

    Corn is a major food crop in the world. Corn borers are the most destructive insect pests, which can substantially reduce the yield and quality of corn. Chemical control and genetically modified insect resistant corn could effectively control corn borer damage to certain degree. However, as the environmental and food safety concerns caused by insecticide application and increasing public concern of genetically modified insect resistant corn in food and ecological safety, the research of corn resistance mechanisms to corn borers is of more important significance in reducing corn borer damage. Mechanisms of resistance to stem borers, including physiological and biochemical factors, such as secondary metabolites, cell wall structure component and physical structure, were summarized in this paper. Also, suggestions and prospects of further research were put forward on base of the summary.%玉米是重要的粮食作物,玉米钻蛀性害虫是玉米生产上为害最重的害虫,其为害严重影响玉米的产量和品质。农药的应用和 Bt 抗虫玉米的种植在一定程度上有效地控制了玉米钻蛀性害虫的为害,但随着化学防治带来的环境和食品安全问题以及人们对转 Bt 玉米的食用和环境安全的担心,利用玉米自身的抗虫性控制钻蛀性害虫为害显得尤为重要。玉米对钻蛀性害虫的抗虫机制主要涉及玉米次生代谢产物和细胞壁结构成分等生理生化特性以及茎秆外表皮穿刺强度等物理结构特性等。本文从生理生化特性和物理结构特性方面总结了玉米抗虫性机制,并针对玉米抗虫机制的研究现状提出建议和展望,以期为培育抗性品种以及钻蛀性害虫的综合治理提供参考。

  7. Chemical Changes during Maize Tissue Aging and its Relationship with the Mediterranean Corn Borer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Malvar, Ana; Ordas, Bernardo; Souto, Carlos; Encina, Antonio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Santiago, Rogelio

    2017-10-02

    Mediterranean Corn Borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagrioides Lef, is an important pest of maize in temperate areas causing significant stalk lodging and yield losses. The main focus of the current study were to determine possible changes in chemical traits (phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, sugars, fibers, and lignin) during plant development after the flowering stage, and to assess how those traits may differ in diverse genotypes of maize, MCB resistant and susceptible respectively. Higher values for some particular traits in more mature tissues seemed to increase their effectiveness against the MCB attack. A reduced amount of borer damage in the field was recorded in the resistant inbred line and in older tissues (7.90 cm vs. 31.70 cm as mean for stalk tunnel length). In accordance with these results, the resistant inbred line showed higher hemicellulose cross-linkage (due to ferulic and diferulic acids), soluble sugars content, and higher stalk strength. The use of resistant varieties and early sowings is highly recommended as an integrated approach in order to reduce the yield losses produced by this pest.

  8. Feeding regulation by neuropeptide Y on Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2017-06-01

    The Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis is a major agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide Y (npy) gene in O. furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from cDNA library, which contains an ORF of 273 bp by encoding 90 amino acid residues. The mature OfurNPY is composed of 29 amino acids with amidation in C-terminal. The spatiotemporal expression analysis showed that npy highest expression level was in the midgut of the fifth instar larvae (the gluttony period). When the expression of npy was knocked down by feeding or injecting dsNPY, larval food consumption, body size, and body weight were significantly inhibited compared to controls. These results indicate that NPY is an important regulator in the control of feeding of O. furnacalis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HÜBNER REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.

  10. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both...... the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept....../could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls....

  11. Systematics and biology of Cotesia typhae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), a potential biological control agent against the noctuid Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Laure; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chantre, Célina; Bodet, Matthieu; Kaoula, Ferial; Benoist, Romain; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane; Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Jeannette, Rémi; Obonyo, Julius; Silvain, Jean-François; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many parasitoid species are subjected to strong selective pressures from their host, and their adaptive response may result in the formation of genetically differentiated populations, called host races. When environmental factors and reproduction traits prevent gene flow, host races become distinct species. Such a process has recently been documented within the Cotesia flavipes species complex, all of which are larval parasitoids of moth species whose larvae are stem borers of Poales. A previous study on the African species C. sesamiae, incorporating molecular, ecological and biological data on various samples, showed that a particular population could be considered as a distinct species, because it was specialized at both host (Sesamia nonagrioides) and plant (Typha domingensis) levels, and reproductively isolated from other C. sesamiae. Due to its potential for the biological control of S. nonagrioides, a serious corn pest in Mediterranean countries and even in Iran, we describe here Cotesia typhae Fernandez-Triana sp. n. The new species is characterized on the basis of morphological, molecular, ecological and geographical data, which proved to be useful for future collection and rapid identification of the species within the species complex. Fecundity traits and parasitism success on African and European S. nonagrioides populations, estimated by laboratory studies, are also included. PMID:28769725

  12. 应用白僵菌防治玉米螟的研究进展%Research Progress of Prevention and Controlling Corn Borer by Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晴; 佘花娣; 佟文悦

    2013-01-01

    The damage characteristics of corn borer, biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of Beauveria bassiana were introduced briefly.The present situation, problems and corresponding measures of prevention and controlling corn borer using Beauveria bassiana were summarized, and the new direction was discussed so as to promote the corn safety production and improve the control efficiency of corn borer.%简要介绍了玉米螟的为害特点以及白僵菌的生物学特性、致病机理,对利用白僵菌防治玉米螟的现状、存在问题及相应措施进行了阐述,并对防治玉米螟的新方向进行了展望,以促进玉米安全生产和提高玉米螟的防治效率。

  13. Resistance Identification of Maize Germplasms to Corn Borer%玉米种质资源抗螟性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青青; 郭成; 郭满库; 魏宏玉; 郭建国

    2014-01-01

    为明确玉米不同品种(系)之间的抗螟性差异,采用田间自然感螟法,于2010~2011年在甘肃省天水市甘谷县对478份玉米种质资源进行田间抗性鉴定。结果表明:在216份农家种资源、216份自交系和46份杂交种中共筛选出高抗材料86份、抗螟材料85份、中抗材料167份,分别占供鉴材料的18.0%、17.8%和34.9%;其余140份为感螟和高感材料,占29.3%。%So as to confirm the borer-resistance differences among different corn varieties ( inbred lines ) , the study adopted the method of being naturally infected by Ostrinia furnacalis under field conditions , and identified the resistance of 478 maize germ-plasms to corn borer in Gan ’ gu county, Tianshui city, Gansu province from 2010 to 2012.The results showed that: among 478 maize germplasms (216 peasant variety resources , 216 inbred lines and 46 hybrids), 86 high-resistant materials (18.0% of all materials), 85 borer-resistant materials (17.8%), 167 middle-resistant materials (34.9%) were screened out;the other 140 materials were susceptible or highly susceptible to corn borer , accounting for 29.3%of all tested materials.

  14. The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

    2002-01-01

    Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in

  15. EFFICIENCY OF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT AGAINST THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN SEED MAIZE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Raspudić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a chemical treatment against larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. The experiment was set up in 2010 and 2011 in Čepin (eastern Croatia in two treatments: control treatment and insecticide treatment. The trial involved two hybrids of FAO group 400: PR37N01 and PR37F73. Biology of pests was monitored in order to determine population size and larvae development stage as well as the optimal time of insecticide application. After determination of thresholds, maize was treated with chemical formulations of active substance dimethoate. Towards the end of vegetation, length of stem damage, number of larvae in maize stalk and ear as well as grain yield were recorded by dissection of maize stalks. Statistical analysis shows that year, hybrid and chemical treatment significantly influenced the incidence of this pest and justified the use of chemical preparations with mandatory monitoring biology of this pest.

  16. EFFICASY OF NATURAL POPULATION OF Trichogramma WASPS AGAINST EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural infestation of European corn borer (ECB eggs by Trichogramma wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under field conditions. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia in 2013. The experiment included two levels of irrigations, two nitrogen rates and two maize genotypes. Parameters of ECB feeding activity and maize tolerance (cob mass, tunnel length, number of ECB larvae per plant, as well as number of parasitized ECB eggs by Trihogramma wasps were evaluated. Genotypes were significantly different in terms of tolerance to ECB injury. In treatments with nitrogen fertilization, ECB feeding activity was increased at both nitrogen rates. Agricultural practices did not significantly affect parasitism of ECB eggs by Trichogramma. Correlation between parameters of ECB feeding activity and parasitism by Trichogramma was slight to moderate and not significant. Natural occurrence of Trichogramma wasps were not significantly affected by agricultural practices in maize, and population of these parasitoids was low significantly affect ECB feeding activity.

  17. Salivary signals of European corn borer induce indirect defenses in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-11-01

    Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants.

  18. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Prophenoloxidases from Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect phenoloxidase (PO belongs to the type 3 copper protein family and possesses oxidoreductase activities. PO is typically synthesized as a zymogen called prophenoloxidase (PPO and requires the proteolytic activation to function. We here cloned full-length cDNA for 3 previously unidentified PPOs, which we named OfPPO1a, OfPPO1b, and OfPPO3, from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée, in addition to the previously known OfPPO2. These conceptual PPOs and OfPPO2 all contain two common copper-binding regions, two potential proteolytic activation sites, a plausible thiol-ester site, and a conserved C-terminal region but lack a secretion signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus. O. furnacalis PPOs were highly similar to other insect PPOs (42% to 79% identity and clustered well with other lepidopteran PPOs. RT-PCR assay showed the transcripts of the 4 OfPPOs were all detected at the highest level in hemocytes and at the increased amounts after exposure to infection by bacteria and fungi. Additionally, we established an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system to produce recombinant O. furnacalis PPO proteins for future use in investigating their functions. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the activation and functioning mechanisms of O. furnacalis PPOs.

  19. Diferulate content of maize sheaths is associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Sandoya, German; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

    2006-11-29

    The leaf sheaths of selected inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with variable levels of stem resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèvbre) were evaluated for antibiotic effect on insect development. Phytochemical analyses of leaf sheaths were conducted for cell wall phenylpropanoid content to gain a better understanding of maize-resistance mechanisms. Laboratory bioassays established that sheath tissues from different genotypes significantly affected the growth of neonate larvae. Three hydroxycinnamates, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5' b (benzofuran form), were identified. Significant negative correlations were found between larvae weight and diferulic acid content for six genotypes. These results are in agreement with previous studies concerning the role of cell wall structural components in stem borer resistance.

  20. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems.

  1. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J Dafoe

    Full Text Available Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems.

  2. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner pheromone reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.

  3. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  4. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

  5. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  6. Research on Corn Borer Prevention by Using Beauveria Bassiana Sealing Method%白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳广

    2014-01-01

    Corn borer is one of the main pests of maize crops. Using beauveria bassiana sealing method can decrease the quantity of corn borer larva. The article introduces the features and growing condition of corn borer, expounds the theory, methods, effects, considerations and advantages of using beauveria bassiana sealing method for corn borer prevention, provides a reference for the application and extension for the technique.%玉米螟是危害玉米作物的主要害虫之一,利用白僵菌可以有效减少玉米螟幼虫数量。介绍玉米螟的危害特点与发生条件,阐述白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟技术的原理、方法、效果、注意事项及优点,为该技术的推广应用提供参考。

  7. Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Romay, Maria C; Butron, Ana

    2009-11-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few experiments have been carried out to detect QTL for corn borer resistance in the B73 x Mo17 population. The objective of this work was to locate QTL for resistance to stem tunneling and kernel damage by MCB in the IBM population. We detected a QTL for kernel damage at bin 8.05, although the effect was small and two QTL for stalk tunneling at bins 1.06 and 9.04 in which the additive effects were 4 cm, approximately. The two QTL detected for MCB resistance were close to other QTL consistently found for European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) resistance, indicating mechanisms of resistance common to both pests or gene clusters controlling resistance to different plagues. The precise mapping achieved with the IBM population will facilitate the QTL pyramiding and the positional cloning of the detected QTL.

  8. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  9. Impact on bacterial community in midguts of the Asian corn borer larvae by transgenic Trichoderma strain overexpressing a heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H) and the Simpson (1-D) indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.

  10. Impact on bacterial community in midguts of the Asian corn borer larvae by transgenic Trichoderma strain overexpressing a heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.

  11. Construction of transgenic Trichoderma koningi with chit42 of Metarhizium anisopliae and analysis of its activity against the Asian corn borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying Y; Tang, Jun; Fu, Ke H; Gao, Shi G; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The chit42 gene was cloned from Metarhizium anisopliae CY1 and was inserted into Trichoderma koningii T30 genome by protoplast transformation. Sixteen transgenic isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The chit42 gene was 1275 bp in length and its coded protein was approximately 42 kDa in size. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis and the measurement of the chitinase activity under induced conditions were conducted. Mortality of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) was used for assessing efficacy of culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of transgenic Trichoderma strains against the insect. The results indicated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain harboring chit42 gene from Metarhizium anisopliae CY1 showed significant lethal effect on the Asian corn borer larvae. Study on growth inhibition of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae was carried out. The transgenic Trichoderma could better hinder the growth and development of the silkworm larvae than the wild-type Trichoderma did. The inhibition to the expression of three genes associated with development and anti-stress response in the mid-gut of the Asian corn borer larvae was more significant in the transcriptional level after larvae were fed with transgenic biomass than with the wild type. Evaluation of inhibition on the growth of maize ear rot pathogens was carried out in vitro test and the transgenic strains kept antagonistic activity against Fusarium verticilloides.

  12. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, J.; Huang, F.; Onstad, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of populatio

  13. Effects of Droplet Distribution on Insecticide Toxicity to Asian Corn Borers (Ostrinia furnaealis) and Spiders (Xysticus ephippiatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dai-bin; ZHANG Lin-na; YAN Xiao-jing; WANG Zhen-ying; YUAN Hui-zhu

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of horizontal boom produced droplets downwards into maize canopies at lfowering period and its effects on the efifcacies of emamectin benzoate, lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole against the second generation of Asian corn borer (ACB) larvae and their toxicity to spiders were studied. When insecticides were sprayed downwards into the maize canopies, randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves led to great variations of droplet coverage and density within the canopies. Consequently, the efifcacies of lambda-cyhalothrin and emamectin benzoate against ACB larvae were decreased because of randomly filtering out droplets by upper leaves. But field investigation showed that lambda-cyhalothrin was extremely toxic to hunting spiders, Xysticus ephippiatus, and not suitable to IPM programs in regulation of the second generation of ACB. Therefore,randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves decreased lambda-cyhalothrin’s efifcacy against ACB larvae, but did little to decrease its toxicity to X. ephippiatus. Amamectin benzoate can reduce the populations of X. ephippiatus by 58.1-61.4%, but the populations can recover at the end of the experiment. Chlorantraniliprole was relatively safe to X. ephippiatus. It only reduced the populations of X. ephippiatus by 22.3-33.0%, and the populations can totally recover 9 d after application.

  14. Effect of maize lines on larval fitness costs of Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L; Abel, Craig A; Coates, Brad S; Spencer, Terrence A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2014-04-01

    Crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted and enable management of key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the evolution of Bt resistance could diminish these benefits. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur in the absence of Bt toxin when individuals with resistance alleles show a reduction in fitness relative to susceptible individuals, and they can delay the evolution of resistance. Ecological factors including host-plant variety can affect the magnitude of fitness costs, and consequently, the degree to which fitness costs delay resistance. In this study, we measured fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1F in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a similar genetic background. Fitness costs were tested on three lines of maize, Zea mays L., by measuring larval survival and development in two greenhouse experiments with plants in either the vegetative or reproductive stage. Both experiments showed that maize line significantly affected larval survival and developmental rate. However, larval survival, mass, and developmental rate did not differ between the Cry1F-resistant and susceptible strains, indicating a lack of fitness costs of resistance to Cry1F for the larval fitness components measured in this experiment. Future experiments should test for fitness costs of Cry1F resistance affecting survival to adulthood and adult life-history parameters.

  15. Landscape refuges delay resistance of the European corn borer to Bt-maize: a demo-genetic dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyunov, Yuri; Zhadanovskaya, Ekaterina; Bourguet, Denis; Arditi, Roger

    2008-08-01

    We constructed a reaction-diffusion model of the development of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt crops in pest populations. Kostitzin's demo-genetic model describes local interactions between three competing pest genotypes with alleles conferring resistance or susceptibility to transgenic plants, the spatial spread of insects being modelled by diffusion. This new approach makes it possible to combine a spatial demographic model of population dynamics with classical genetic theory. We used this model to examine the effects of pest dispersal and of the size and shape of the refuge on the efficiency of the "high-dose/refuge" strategy, which was designed to prevent the development of resistance in populations of insect pests, such as the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). We found that, with realistic combinations of refuge size and pest dispersal, the development of resistance could be considerably delayed. With a small to medium-sized farming area, contiguous refuge plots are more efficient than a larger number of smaller refuge patches. We also show that the formal coupling of classical Fisher-Haldane-Wright population genetics equations with diffusion terms inaccurately describes the development of resistance in a spatially heterogeneous pest population, notably overestimating the speed with which Bt resistance is selected in populations of pests targeted by Bt crops.

  16. Host-specific salivary elicitor(s) of European corn borer induce defenses in tomato and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Joe; Peiffer, Michelle; Ray, Swayamjit; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-07-01

    Plants turn on induced defenses upon insect herbivory. In the current study, we evaluated the role of European corn borer (ECB) elicitors (molecules secreted by herbivores) that either induce/suppress defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Zea mays (maize), two very important crop plants that are grown for food and/or fuel throughout the world. We used a combination of molecular, biochemical, confocal and scanning electron microscopy, caterpillar spinneret ablation/cauterization, and conventional insect bioassay methods to determine the role of ECB elicitors in modulating defenses in both tomato and maize crop plants. Our results clearly demonstrate that the components present in the ECB saliva induce defense-related proteinase inhibitors in both tomato (PIN2) and maize (MPI). Presence of glucose oxidase in the ECB saliva induced defenses in tomato, but not in maize. However, ECB saliva induced genes present in the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway in both tomato and maize. Although ECB saliva can induce defenses in both tomato and maize, our results suggest that host-specific salivary components are responsible for inducing host plant defenses. Proteomic analysis of ECB salivary elicitors and plant receptors/signaling mechanisms involved in recognizing different ECB elicitors remains to be determined. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, in comparison with four other Noctuid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif "ATAGA" followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite "(AT)(7)", without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  18. Fitness costs associated with Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops producing insecticidal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted in order to manage key insect pests. Bt crops can provide an effective tool for pest management; however, the evolution of Bt resistance can diminish this benefit. The European corn b...

  19. FLIGHT OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HBN. AS FOLLOWED BY LIGHT- AND PHEROMONE TRAPS IN VÁRDA AND BALATONMAGYARÓD 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KESZTHELYI

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in 2002 in the outskirts of two settlements: Balatonmagyaród (Zala county and Várda (Somogy county. In the corn fields Jermy’s light- and Arco-Pheron MZ pheromone traps were placed in order to follow up the course of flight. From the material collected the corn borer specimens were isolated, then separated by sex. The generation number of the populations appearing on the respective areas, and the characteristics of the flight were determined. The meteorological data of the areas obtained from Keszthely and Kaposvár for the period concerned were compared woth the data of flight. In that way the effect of the different meteorological elements on the flight and on the trend of the female ratio could be established. The results showed the presence of two-generation corn borer populations in both places. In Balatonmagyaród the first- while in Várda the second generation proved larger. The meteorological elements significally influenced the possibility of trapping in the case of both sexes. As for the female sex ratio close correlations were found with the minimum (P=100%; r=0.297-, maximum (P=99.9%; r=0.267-, average (P=100%; r=0.308 temperature and precipitation (P=98.2%; r=0.187 data. Considerable asynchrony was observed between the data obtained with the two prognostic means that we ascribed to the unreliability of the pheromone trap.

  20. Modeling the impact of cross-pollination and low toxin expression in corn kernels on adaptation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Onstad, D W; Hellmich, R L; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D; Prasifka, J R

    2012-02-01

    We used a mathematical model with processes reflecting larval mortality resulting from feeding on cross-pollinated ears or Bt ears of corn to analyze the risk of evolution of Cry-toxin resistance in Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). In the simulations, evolution of resistance was delayed equally well by both seed mixtures and blocks with the same proportion of refuge. Our results showed that Bt-pollen drift has little impact on the evolution of Bt resistance in O. nubilalis. However, low-toxin expression in ears of transgenic corn can reduce the durability of transgenic corn expressing single toxin, whereas durability of pyramided corn hybrids is not significantly reduced. The toxin-survival rate of heterozygous larvae in Bt-corn ears expressing one or two proteins has more impact on evolution of Bt resistance in O. nubilalis than the parameters related to larval movement to Bt ears or the toxin-survival rate of the homozygous susceptible larvae in Bt ears. Bt resistance evolves slower when toxin mortality is distributed across the first two larval stadia than when only the first instars are susceptible to Bt toxins. We suggest that stakeholders examine toxin-survival rates for insect pests and take into account that instars may feed on different parts of Bt corn.

  1. Parasitoid inventarisation of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796 and options for its biological control in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka RAZINGER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB is an important maize pest in central and northern Europe. Presently it is controlled by insecticides or biological agents such as Trichogramma brassicae in several European countries, excluding Slovenia, where the pest’s pressure is highly variable and no appropriate mechanization is available. Lessening the dependence on chemical pesticides is an integral part of the European Union’s agenda for agriculture. Mass release of Trichogramma spp. could be seen as a promising alternative for ECB control in countries with a highly fluctuating ECB pressure and no mechanization for insecticide applications. However, no records of naturally occurring hymenopteran parasitoids of ECB exist in Slovenia. To address this important under-researched topic and provide the expert basis for potential introduction of ECB egg parasitoids in Slovene maize production, a systematic inventarisation programme of ECB parasitoids was launched in 2010. Additionally, ECB flight was monitored in 2011 and 2012 at two locations in Slovenia: Jablje and Rakičan. In both locations two ECB generations  were observed. ECB was fist observed at the end of May in Rakičan. During the five years of the systematic survey we discovered two ECB parasitoid species. ECB egg masses were parasitized by Trichogramma brassicae, whereas ECB pupae were parasitized by Tycherus nigridens, with 6 or 7 % parasitation rate, respectively. T. nigridens represents a new taxon report for Slovenia. We conclude that there is a strong need for undertaking systematic surveys of natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  2. High basal defense gene expression determines sorghum resistance to the whorl-feeding insect southwestern corn borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Ning; Lei, Jia-Xin; Rooney, William L; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2013-06-01

    Southwestern corn borer (SWCB, Diatraea grandiosella) and fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda) are major pests of sorghum in the southern United States. Host plant resistance is a desirable means for reducing plant damage and yield losses from both insects. In this study, we evaluated 12 sorghum lines for whorl-stage resistance to leaf-feeding SWCB and FAW in greenhouse and laboratory bioassays. Differential plant responses were detected against the two insects. Among 12 lines tested, CM1821, Della and PI196583 were resistant to both insects, while BTx2752 was largely susceptible. Line R.09110 was resistant to SWCB, but susceptible to FAW, whereas Redbine-60 was susceptible to SWCB, but not to FAW. In addition, we quantified various chemical components in the plants and determined their association with insect resistance. Tannin and chlorophyll in leaves did not show any significant correlation with resistance to either insects, but contents of soluble protein in general were negatively correlated with resistance to both insects. Endogenous soluble sugar and dhurrin were only positively correlated with resistance to SWCB, but not with FAW resistance. To gain some molecular insight into resistance mechanism of sorghum to SWCB, we performed qPCR reactions for key genes encoding enzymes involved in dhurrin and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis on selected resistant or susceptible lines. Although these genes were rapidly and strongly induced by insect feeding in all lines, the observed resistance is likely explained by higher constitutive dhurrin contents in some resistant lines and higher basal JA biosynthesis in others. Our results suggest that sorghum utilizes multiple strategies to defend itself against SWCB.

  3. High basal defense gene expression determines sorghum resistance to the whorl-feeding insect southwestern corn borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ning Cheng; Jia-Xin Lei; William L.Rooney; Tong-Xian Liu; Keyan Zhu-Salzman

    2013-01-01

    Southwestern corn borer (SWCB,Diatraea grandiosella) and fall armyworm (FAW,Spodoptera frugiperda) are major pests of sorghum in the southern United States.Host plant resistance is a desirable means for reducing plant damage and yield losses from both insects.In this study,we evaluated 12 sorghum lines for whorl-stage resistance to leaf-feeding SWCB and FAW in greenhouse and laboratory bioassays.Differential plant responses were detected against the two insects.Among 12 lines tested,CM1821,Della and PI196583 were resistant to both insects,while BTx2752 was largely susceptible.Line R.09110 was resistant to SWCB,but susceptible to FAW,whereas Redbine-60 was susceptible to SWCB,but not to FAW.In addition,we quantified various chemical components in the plants and determined their association with insect resistance.Tannin and chlorophyll in leaves did not show any significant correlation with resistance to either insects,but contents of soluble protein in general were negatively correlated with resistance to both insects.Endogenous soluble sugar and dhurrin were only positively correlated with resistance to SWCB,but not with FAW resistance.To gain some molecular insight into resistance mechanism of sorghum to SWCB,we performed qPCR reactions for key genes encoding enzymes involved in dhurrin and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis on selected resistant or susceptible lines.Although these genes were rapidly and strongly induced by insect feeding in all lines,the observed resistance is likely explained by higher constitutive dhurrin contents in some resistant lines and higher basal JA biosynthesis in others.Our results suggest that sorghum utilizes multiple strategies to defend itself against SWCB.

  4. Shifts in sensory neuron identity parallel differences in pheromone preference in the European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A Koutroumpa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance mechanisms among Lepidoptera: progress on genomic approaches to uncover causal mutations in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Brad S

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic plants that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) protein toxins (Bt crops) effectively control feeding by the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, although documented resistance evolution among a number of species in both the laboratory and field has heightened concerns about the durability of this technology. Research has provided major insights into the mutations that alter Bt toxin binding receptor structure and function within the midgut of Lepidoptera that directly impacts the efficacy of Bt toxins, and potentially leads to the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in the field. In this manuscript we provide an overview of available data on the identification of genes involved in high levels of resistance to Cry toxins, with emphasis on resistance described for O. nubilalis as the main target of Bt corn.

  6. Repetitive Genomic Elements in a European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, BAC Library were Indicated by BAC End Sequencing and Development of Sequence Tag Site Markers: Implications for Lepidopteran Genomic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia, and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36,864 clones with estim...

  7. Resistance evolution to Bt crops: predispersal mating of European corn borers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroise Dalecky

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0-67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%. However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated, the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%, and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices.

  8. BT799玉米对亚洲玉米螟抗性研究%Resistance of transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月琴; 何康来; 江帆; 王依冬; 张天涛; 王振营; 白树雄

    2014-01-01

    Objectives] To review the resistance of transgenic Bt corn to target pests which is one of the primarily steps for research and development of insect-resistant, transgenic corn. This review mainly evaluates the resistance of transgenic Cry1Ac gene corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and measured the quantity of Cry1Ac protein expressed in corn plant tissues. [Methods] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, laboratory bioassay and field studies with artificial infestation were employed in this study. [Results] The expression levels of Cry1Ac protein were 768.0 ng/g (protein/fresh leaves), 1452.8-2978.5 ng/g (protein/dry mass of silk, husk and young kernels). Leaf-feeding rates in field trials indicated that BT799 and CC-2XBT799 were highly resistant to ACB. The survival of ACB larvae feeding on Zhengdan 958K, a single cross hybrid containing BT799, was significantly lower (0-37.5%) than that of larvae that fed on non-Bt Zhengdan 958 (89.9%-100.0%). In addition, larval survival of Cry1Ac-, Cry1Ie-, and Cry1F-selected ACB strains (ACB-AcR, ACB-IeR and ACB-FR) were significantly different when fed on Zhengdan 958K. ACB-IeR had the lowest survival followed by ACB-FR, both of them had significantly lower survival than those that fed on the control Zhengdan 958. However, the survival of ACB-AcR was not significantly different from larvae feeding on the control Zhengdan 958. [Conclusion] These results suggests that the transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 is highly toxic to the ACB and can provide effective control for ACB in the field.%【目的】抗螟性鉴定是转基因抗虫玉米研发的重要一环。本文主要就转基因玉米BT799对亚洲玉米螟的抗性展开评价,同时测定了BT799植株组织中Cry1Ac蛋白的表达量。【方法】采用了酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)、室内生测和田间人工接虫鉴定3种方法。【结果】转基因抗虫玉米BT799组织中Cry1Ac蛋白含量分别为768

  9. Distribution and variations of three 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones in maize induced by the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cuihong; Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Rongjiang; Xue, Kun; Yan, Fengming; Xu, Chongren

    2006-01-01

    Contents of three 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones in tissue samples from different parts (young leaf, second leaf, old leaf, stem and root) of young maize plants of 4-leaves stage, fed by the third instar larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Samples were taken immediately (set A) or 48 h (set B) after larvae had fed on the second leaf for 48 h. The three 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones investigated in our experiments were 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA). In samples of set A, the levels of DIMBOA and HMBOA were significantly lifted in the old leaf (L3) and young leaf (L1), respectively, while amounts of these two chemicals in other plant parts were not significantly different between larvae-fed plants and intact plants. Concentrations of DIBOA in each plant part remained unchanged. In samples of set B, no concentration differences for any of these three 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones between larvae-fed plants and controls were observed in any plant part. The feeding of the Asian corn borer seems to have limited effects on induction of these three 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones in young maize plants of the variety investigated.

  10. Efficiency of insecticide and bioinsecticide treatments against infestation of European corn borer and their effect on maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gošić-Dondo Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 and 2009, efficacy of insecticidal products, based on thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, were tested. Furthermore, effects of entomophatogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on the infestation intensity of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, were established over effects of both, 10 different treatments of maize seed (8 treatments and 2 controls and the application of the fungal inoculum. Trials were carried out on maize crop under field conditions in accordance with the EPPO method. Results obtained in the studies with the product Cruiser 350 FS (350g l-1 thiamethoxam applied in the amount of 0.9 l per 100 kg of seed and the products Imidor 600 FS and Gaucho 600FS (600g l-1 imidacloprid applied in the amount of 0.7 l per 100 kg of seed, point out to satisfactory efficacy in controlling ECB and satisfactory effects on maize yields. The intensity of ECB infestation, expressed in percentages, ranged from 50.1% to 74.1%. The interrelation between average percentages of infested plants and obtained yields in both investigation years (2008-2009 in Zemun Polje was established. Results over treatments indicate that the highest percentages (62.2% of infested plants were observed in the control variant (K1- Captan. Moreover, as expected, the lowest yield was also recorded in this variant. The treatment with the fungicide Maxim combined with the insecticide Criuser proved to be the most efficient. At the same time, the percentage of infested plants was the lowest in this treatment (53.32% and the yield was the highest (8.610 t ha-1. The infestation level of maize plants in this treatment was significantly reduced over years of investigation in comparison with remaining treatments. Meteorological factors during the years of investigation, especially unfavourable agroecological conditions in 2009, affected the average yield of maize per hectare. The yield (8.314 t ha-1 recorded in the treatment with the inoculum of B. basssiana was almost equal to

  11. Sex-linked pheromone receptor genes of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are in tandem arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly

  12. Genetic Basis of Cry1F-Resistance in a Laboratory Selected Asian Corn Borer Strain and Its Cross-Resistance to Other Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhenying; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR) that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold), and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold). The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h) of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain) indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins.

  13. Management of fumonisin contamination in maize kernels through the timing of insecticide application against the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Reyneri, Amedeo; Vanara, Francesca; Pascale, Michelangelo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Campagna, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is the principal pest of maize in Central and South Europe. It is known to promote Fusarium verticillioides infection in maize grain, a recognized producer of fumonisins. Field experiments were performed in 2006 and 2007 in two sites in NW Italy to determine the effects of the timing of insecticide application on ECB damage, fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination under natural conditions. Different insecticide application timings were compared, from maize flowering to approximately 15 days after the flight peak of adult ECB. At harvest, the ears were rated for incidence and severity of ECB damage, fungal ear rot symptoms and fumonisin (FB(1) + FB(2)) contamination. In all years/sites, treatments applied at the beginning of consistent ECB flight activity were most effective in controlling insect damage on ears. Fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination were significantly affected by ECB control. The efficacy of the best timing of insecticide application in controlling fumonisin contamination was, on average, 93% compared to the untreated control. Contamination levels of these mycotoxins increased with either an earlier or later treatment. Furthermore, an earlier insecticide application showed lower fumonisin contamination than a treatment applied after the adult flight peak. Production of maize kernels and maize-based foods that do not exceed the maximum international and EU permitted levels for fumonisins could be enhanced by appropriate insecticide treatment against second generation ECB. The optimum time for insecticide application is between the beginning of consistent adult flight activity and the flight peak.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON PATHOGENICITY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALSAMO VUILLEMIN TO THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER, OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HBN. (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cagán

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of ultraviolet (UV light on the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn., and radial growth of fungus was studied in laboratory conditions. The suspensions of B. bassiana isolate SK99 were exposed to UV light. Four different doses of UV light were used in the experiment. The distance between exposed suspensions and UV light source was 0.3 m. Exposure duration was 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes (as A, B, C and D variants. Control variant SK99 and obtained variants SK99A, SK99B, SK99C and SK99D were cultivated 21 days on Sabourard-dextrose agar. The larvae of O. nubilalis were infected with dry powder consisted of mycelia and spores from fungus cultures. During 10 days, the mortality of infected larvae was evaluated. It was ascertained that UV light exposition significantly influenced the mortality effect of B. bassiana isolates to O. nubilalis larvae. Variant SK99C showed the highest level of infectivity. Radial growth of UV variants was slower with rising time of exposure. The best ability to grow possessed non-irradiated isolate SK99 and the worse variant SK99D. The difference between these two variants was significant.

  15. Polymerization of the CrylAb and CrylF Transgenic Corn on the Impact of the Asian Corn Borer Survival and Average Weight%聚合CrylAb和CrylF基因抗虫玉米对亚洲玉米螟存活率及平均体重的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦; 丛斌; 钱海涛

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, the Asian com borer larvae were fed on the polymerization of Cry1Ab and Cry1F transgenic corn 335YH,696YH artificial diet. We study the impaction on survival and average weight of the Asian corn borer larvae. The results showed that 25% of the amount of processing, the corn borer larvae survival rate was less than 38%, the average weight was less than 45 mg. This indicates polymerization of the CrylAb and CrylF transgenic corn seed can inhibit the growth and survival of the Asian corn borer larvae. 335YH,on the 25% and 50% usage,the survival of the Asian corn borer are no significant difference,but 50% compared with 25% usage, larval on the latter grows better. Dose effects 696YH on larval lethality and inhibiting the growth.%实验用聚合crylAb和CrylF基因抗虫玉米335YH、696YH的人工饲料饲养亚洲玉米螟幼虫,研究人工饲料中聚合基因玉米对其存活率和平均体重的影响.结果表明:在25%用量处理下,玉米螟幼虫的存活率均低于38%,平均体重均低于45mg,说明聚合CrylAb和cryIF基因抗虫玉米种子能抑制供试亚洲玉米螟幼虫的生长和存活.335YH25%用量和50%用量的致死性差异不大,但50%用量比25%用量抑制幼虫生长的效果更好.696YH品种对幼虫的致死性和抑制生长效果受剂量影响较大.

  16. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  17. Downregulation and Mutation of a Cadherin Gene Associated with Cry1Ac Resistance in the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of resistance in target pests is a major threat to long-term use of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins. To manage and/or delay the evolution of resistance in target insects through the implementation of effective strategies, it is essential to understand the basis of resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of insect resistance to Bt crops is the alteration of the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors in the midgut. A Cry1Ac-selected strain of Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, a key pest of maize in China, evolved three mutant alleles of a cadherin-like protein (OfCAD (MPR-r1, MPR-r2 and MPR-r3, which mapped within the toxin-binding region (TBR. Each of the three mutant alleles possessed two or three amino acid substitutions in this region, especially Thr1457→Ser. In highly resistant larvae (ACB-Ac200, MPR-r2 had a 26-amino acid residue deletion in the TBR, which resulted in reduced binding of Cry1Ac compared to the MPR from the susceptible strain, suggesting that the number of amino acid deletions influences the level of resistance. Furthermore, downregulation of OfCAD gene (ofcad transcription was observed in the Cry1Ac resistant strain, ACB-Ac24, suggesting that Cry1Ac resistance in ACB is associated with the downregulation of the transcript levels of the cadherin-like protein gene. The OfCAD identified from ACB exhibited a high degree of similarity to other members of the cadherin super-family in lepidopteran species.

  18. Domain III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie Toxin Plays an Important Role in Binding to Peritrophic Membrane of Asian Corn Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dongmei; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Chunlu; He, Kanglai; Guo, Shuyuan

    2015-01-01

    The insecticidal IE648 toxin is a truncated Cry1Ie protein with increased toxicity against Asian corn borer (ACB). Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that disrupt insect midgut cells to kill the larvae. However, the peritrophic membrane (PM) is an important barrier that Cry toxins must cross before binding to midgut cells. Previously, it was shown that Cry toxins are able to bind and accumulate in the PM of several lepidopteran insects. Binding of IE648 toxin to PM of ACB was previously reported and the goal of the current work was the identification of the binding region between Cry1Ie and the PM of ACB. Homologous competition binding assays showed that this interaction was specific. Heterologous competition binding assays performed with different fragments corresponding to domain I, domain II and domain III allowed us to identify that domain III participates in the interaction of IE648 with the PM. Specifically, peptide D3-L8 (corresponding to Cry1Ie toxin residues 607 to 616), located in an exposed loop region of domain III is probably involved in this interaction. Ligand blot assays show that IE648 interact with chitin and PM proteins with sizes of 30, 32 and 80 kDa. The fact that domain III interacts with proteins of similar molecular masses supports that this region of the toxin might be involved in PM interaction. These data provide for the first time the identification of domain III as a putative binding region between PM and 3D-Cry toxin. PMID:26295704

  19. Domain III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie Toxin Plays an Important Role in Binding to Peritrophic Membrane of Asian Corn Borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Feng

    Full Text Available The insecticidal IE648 toxin is a truncated Cry1Ie protein with increased toxicity against Asian corn borer (ACB. Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that disrupt insect midgut cells to kill the larvae. However, the peritrophic membrane (PM is an important barrier that Cry toxins must cross before binding to midgut cells. Previously, it was shown that Cry toxins are able to bind and accumulate in the PM of several lepidopteran insects. Binding of IE648 toxin to PM of ACB was previously reported and the goal of the current work was the identification of the binding region between Cry1Ie and the PM of ACB. Homologous competition binding assays showed that this interaction was specific. Heterologous competition binding assays performed with different fragments corresponding to domain I, domain II and domain III allowed us to identify that domain III participates in the interaction of IE648 with the PM. Specifically, peptide D3-L8 (corresponding to Cry1Ie toxin residues 607 to 616, located in an exposed loop region of domain III is probably involved in this interaction. Ligand blot assays show that IE648 interact with chitin and PM proteins with sizes of 30, 32 and 80 kDa. The fact that domain III interacts with proteins of similar molecular masses supports that this region of the toxin might be involved in PM interaction. These data provide for the first time the identification of domain III as a putative binding region between PM and 3D-Cry toxin.

  20. Genetic Basis of Cry1F-Resistance in a Laboratory Selected Asian Corn Borer Strain and Its Cross-Resistance to Other Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhenying; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR) that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold), and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold). The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h) of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain) indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27518813

  1. A Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy reveals two divergent allelic classes within the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.

  2. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia inferens, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhou Du

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN, in which the dihydrouridine (DHU arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  3. 黑龙江不同积温带玉米品种抗螟性分析%Maize Resistance to Corn Borer in Different Temperature Zones of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 王丽艳; 程晓娟; 赵长江; 林志伟; 孙强; 吴金花; 金永玲

    2013-01-01

      通过对百株折茎率、折雄率、茎秆钻蛀率及越冬幼虫数量和体重等指标分析,分析7个黑龙江省不同积温带玉米品种的抗虫性。研究结果表明,供试的7个不同积温带品种表现高抗的品种为垦单5和高油4515,中抗品种郑单958和兴垦3;高感品种为哲单37和绥玉19,中感品种德美亚1号。%Based on the analysis of the stalk broken rate, the tassel broken rate, the bored stems rate, the number of over-wintering larvaes and the weight, maize resistance to corn borer was studied in 7 temperature zones of Hei-longjiang province. The results showed that there were 7 maize varieties having resistance to corn borer, including 2 high resistant varieties, Kendan5 and Gaoyou4515;2 middle-resistant varieties, Zhengdan958 and Xingken3;2 high sensitive varieties, Zhedan37 and Suiyu19;one middle-sensitive, Demeiya1.

  4. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Andre LB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2

  5. 基于高光谱成像的玉米螟无损检测最优波段的选取%Optimal Wavelengths Determination for Non-destructive Detection of Corn Borer on Corn Stem Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田有文; 邢晓琪; 王小奇; 崔博

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of nondestructive detection early pest of corn stalk and to provide theoretical basis of forecast early warning and precision spraying for corn pest, using hyperspectral imaging technology, a subsection hybrid distance method was proposed. The optimal wavelengths of corn borer on the corn stalks were determined for non-destructive detection. A signal band feature image was extracted. The wormhole was segmented to realize the detection of corn borer fast, accurately and non-destructively.First of all, through analysis of maize stalk hyperspectral images, according to the difference of spectral reflectance of corn stalk hyperspectral images of corn stalk region and background region of each band, the 450 nm band image was selected.The mask image was got by using the method of threshold segmentation. Then according to the characteristics of band spectrum correlation small between wavelengths visible range 530nm to 600nm and infrared range 750nm to 900nm, hybrid distance was used as measurement parameters to screen the best single band and dual bands combination. Finally, the 754.8nm band was determined the optimal band. This band image was features image. The corn borer hole was segmented by threshold segmentation and mathematical morphology method to detect the corn borer hole region to determine corn stalk the existence of pest. The results showed that the detection accuracy of corn borer was 100% through detection analysis of 60 corn borer samples on corn stem and 40 normal corn stem samples in the test set and validation set. The detection accuracy of normal corn stem is 90% and the overall detection accuracy is 96%. It is result that the optimal wavelengths obtained in this paper would provide the reference for the development of maize stem pests multi-spectral imaging detector.%为解决玉米茎秆虫害早期无损检测问题,以提供玉米虫害预测预警与精确喷药理论依据,利用高光谱成像技术,提出了

  6. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-06-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process-genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases-one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies.

  7. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  8. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: crambidae) to Four Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred in...

  9. Repetitive genome elements in a European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, bacterial artificial chromosome library were indicated by bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing and development of sequence tag site markers: implications for lepidopteran genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2009-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36 864 clones with an estimated average insert size of >or=120 kb and genome coverage of 8.8-fold. Screening OnB1 clones comprising approximately 2.76 genome equivalents determined the physical position of 24 sequence tag site markers, including markers linked to ecologically important and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance traits. OnB1 bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence reads (GenBank dbGSS accessions ET217010 to ET217273) showed homology to annotated genes or expressed sequence tags and identified repetitive genome elements, O. nubilalis miniature subterminal inverted repeat transposable elements (OnMITE01 and OnMITE02), and ezi-like long interspersed nuclear elements. Mobility of OnMITE01 was demonstrated by the presence or absence in O. nubilalis of introns at two different loci. A (GTCT)n tetranucleotide repeat at the 5' ends of OnMITE01 and OnMITE02 are evidence for transposon-mediated movement of lepidopteran microsatellite loci. The number of repetitive elements in lepidopteran genomes will affect genome assembly and marker development. Single-locus sequence tag site markers described here have downstream application for integration within linkage maps and comparative genomic studies.

  10. Effectiveness of spinosad against seven major storedgrain insects on corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG; BHADRIRAJU SUBRAMANYAM

    2007-01-01

    In January 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency registered spinosad as a stored grain protectant. No referenced data on the efficacy of spinosad on corn in suppressing major stored-grain insects have been published. In this paper, we evaluated the efficacy of spinosad against seven major stored-grain insects on shelled corn in the laboratory. Insect species tested were the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Jacquelin duVal); rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky); and Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Corn kernels were treated with spinosad at 0,0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 active ingredient (a.i.) mg/kg for controlling the seven species. Beetle adults or P.interpunctella eggs were introduced into each container holding 100 g of untreated or insecticide-treated corn. The seven insect species survived well on the control treatment, produced 28 to 336 progeny, and caused significant kernel damage after 49 days. On spinosad-treated corn, adult mortality of C. ferrugineus, R. dominica, O. surinamensis, S. oryzae, and S. zeamais was > 98% at 1 and 2 mg/kg after 12 days. Spinosad at > 0.5 mg/kg completely suppressed egg-to-larval survival after 21 days and egg-to-adult emergence of P. interpunctella after 49 days, whereas 16% T. castaneum adults survived at 1 mg/kg after 12 days. Spinosad at 1 or 2 mg/kg provided complete or near complete suppression of progeny production and kernel damage of all species after 49 days. Our results indicate that spinosad at the current labeled rate of 1 mg/kg is effective against the seven stored-grain insect pests on corn.

  11. A rearrangement of the Z chromosome topology influences the sex-linked gene display in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Jeremy A; Coates, Brad S; Nusawardani, Tyasning; Rider, S Dean; Fraser, Lisa M; Hellmich, Richard L

    2011-07-01

    Males are homogametic (ZZ) and females are heterogametic (WZ) with respect to the sex chromosomes in many species of butterflies and moths (insect order Lepidoptera). Genes on the Z chromosome influence traits involved in larval development, environmental adaptation, and reproductive isolation. To facilitate the investigation of these traits across Lepidoptera, we developed 43 degenerate primer pairs to PCR amplify orthologs of 43 Bombyx mori Z chromosome-linked genes. Of the 34 orthologs that amplified by PCR in Ostrinia nubilalis, 6 co-segregated with the Z chromosome anchor markers kettin (ket) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), and produced a consensus genetic linkage map of ~89 cM in combination with 5 AFLP markers. The O. nubilalis and B. mori Z chromosomes are comparatively co-linear, although potential gene inversions alter terminal gene orders and a translocation event disrupted synteny at one chromosome end. Compared to B. mori orthologs, O. nubilalis Z chromosome-linked genes showed conservation of tissue-specific and growth-stage-specific expression, although some genes exhibited species-specific expression across developmental stages or tissues. The O. nubilalis Z chromosome linkage map provides new tools for isolating quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in sex-linked traits that drive speciation and it exposes genome rearrangements as a possible mechanism for differential gene regulation in Lepidoptera.

  12. 玉米种质资源对六种重要病虫害的抗性鉴定与评价%Screening and Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Five Diseases and Asian Corn Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段灿星; 朱振东; 武小菲; 杨知还; 王晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    在2003-2005年间,对604份玉米种质进行了抗弯孢菌叶斑病和玉米螟鉴定,筛选出抗弯孢菌叶斑病的材料93份,抗玉米螟材料22份.2006-2009年间,对836份玉米种质进行了抗大斑病、茎腐病、穗腐病和瘤黑粉病的鉴定与评价,筛选出一批高抗和多抗的资源.在836份资源中,对大斑病1、2和N号3个生理小种具有抗性的材料均为50%左右;抗茎腐病材料为41.3%,高抗和抗性种质分别为264和81份;穗腐病高抗和抗性种质分别为5和171份,占比为21.1%;瘤黑粉病高抗和抗性种质各261和14份,占总鉴定材料的32.9%.上述结果表明抗大斑病、茎腐病和瘤黑粉病的种质资源较为丰富.通过对抗性结果进行对比分析,发现不同生态区玉米种质的抗性强弱以及抗性多样性存在明显差异,黑龙江和内蒙古的种质对病虫害的抗性强弱及多样性程度明显高于四川种质.此外,玉米自交系对病虫害的抗性强弱以及多抗性程度高于农家种.%Among 604maize accessions screened in 2003 -2005,93 were resistant to Curvularia leaf spot and 22 were resistant to Asian corn borer. From 2006 to 2009 ,836 maize accessions were identified and evaluated for resistance to northern corn leaf blight, Pythium stalk rot, Fusarium ear rot and common smut and some of them were highly resistant and multiplely resistant. Approximately 50% of maize accessions with resistance to northern corn leaf blight racel ,2 and N were screened,respectively. 41. 3% of accessions were resistant to Pythium stalk rot,including 264 highly resistant and 81 resistant. 5 and 171 accessions were highly resistant and resistant to Fusarium ear rot,respectively,accounting for 21. 1% of total accessions screened. 32. 9% of accessions with different resistance to common smut was screened,261 highly resistant and 14 resistant lines were discovered. Based on the above data, we thought there were relatively abundant maize germplasm with

  13. Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Takanashi

    Full Text Available Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, and compared them with those of O. furnacalis. As in O. furnacalis, males of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in O. nubilalis, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our

  14. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Rosa; Revilla Pedro; Butrón Ana; Santiago Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety....

  15. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  16. Population Distribution and Range Expansion of the Invasive Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest that was first introduced into southern Texas in 1980 and has been expanding its range eastward along the United States Gulf Coast. The pest attacks rice (Oryza sativa L.), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), corn (Zea mays L.), and other graminaceous crops, and its establishment in Louisiana is expected to have severe economic impacts on crop production. Range expansion and population distribution of E. loftini were monitored with a network of 77 pheromone traps throughout southwestern Louisiana from 2013 to 2015. Eoreuma loftini was ubiquitous throughout the study region, with male moths captured in every habitat sampled. Spatial analysis revealed the population is characterized by high and low density clusters, with the greatest trap captures occurring in southeastern Calcasieu Parish and southern Jefferson Davis Parish. Trap captures in more northern regions of the study were lower than in southern parishes. Trap captures in areas where the pest has been established for >3 yr were greatest in rice habitats. The weighted mean population center moved eastward at a rate of ∼11 km per year. Human-aided movement of E. loftini was probably not involved in the eastward expansion documented during this study. Seasonal population peaks were detected in March-April, July-August, and October-November. This study indicates this species is continuing its spread eastward along the United States Gulf Coast and will likely become established throughout Louisiana within the next 20 yr. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Searching for new sources of pink stem borer resistance in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Santiago Carabelos, Rogelio; Ordás Pérez, Amando; A. Rial; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana

    2006-01-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested inbred lines, field and popcorn materials, from the collection maintained at the Misión Biológica de Galicia and (ii) the study of the...

  18. Raspberry Crown Borer [Pennisetia marginata

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet described raspberry crown borer, a pest that attacks raspberry plants in northern Utah, causing cane-wilt and death. It includes life history, host injury, monitoring and thresholds, and management techniques.

  19. Role of Ostrinia Nubilalis in Vectoring Aspergillus Flavus in a Corn Field in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of corn in Europe and in several agricultural areas of the USA. In addition to direct yield losses, the ECB is expected to act as a vector for carrying spores of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Therefore the object...

  20. Abundance and Spatial Dispersion of Rice Stem Borer Species in Kahama, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alfonce; Rwegasira, Gration M

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framer's fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of Kahama District. Stem borer larvae were extracted from the damaged tillers in 16 quadrants established in each field. Adult Moths were trapped by light traps and collected in vials for identification. Results indicated the presence of Chilo partellus, Maliarpha separatella, and Sesamia calamistis in all study areas. The most abundant species was C. partellus (48.6%) followed by M. separatella (35.4%) and S. calamistis was least abundant (16.1%). Stem borers dispersion was aggregated along the edges of rice fields in three locations (wards) namely: Bulige, Chela, and Ngaya. The dispersion in the fourth ward, Kashishi was uniform as established from two of the three dispersion indices tested. Further studies would be required to establish the available alternative hosts, the extent of economic losses and the distribution of rice stem borers in the rest of the Lake zone of Tanzania.

  1. Resistance Evaluation of Btcry1Ah-transgenic Maize to Asian Corn Borer,Cotton Bollworm and Oriental Armyworm%转Bt cry1Ah基因抗虫玉米对亚洲玉米螟、棉铃虫和黏虫的抗性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋苗; 汪海; 张杰; 何康来; 梁革梅; 朱莉; 黄大昉; 郎志宏

    2016-01-01

    Bt cry1Ah gene was transferred into inbred line maize Zong31 via Agrobacterium-mediated method,and transgenic maize HGK60 with significant resistance to corn borer was acquired. In order to investigate its insecticidal activity to Lepidoptera pests,we evaluated the insecticidal effects of HGK60 to Asian corn boner(Ostrinia furnacalis),cotton bollworm(Mythimna separate(Walker))and oriental armyworm(Helicoverpa armigeraHubne)through laboratory and field bioassay. The results of laboratory bioassay indicated that no Asian corn boner feeding on HGK60 leaves survived. HGK60 presented the toxic effect on neonate of cotton bollworm,and different tissues of it had different insecticidal effects. Compared to the non-transgenic maize,the body-weight of armyworm neonate was significantly inhibited after a week of feeding HGK 60 leaves. The results of field bioassay showed that HGK60 had solid insecticidal effects to O. furnacalis and H. armigera in high resistance level,while the efficacy to M. separate was in resistance level.%利用农杆菌介导法将Btcry1Ah基因转入玉米自交系综31,获得对玉米螟有显著抗性的转基因玉米HGK60,为了研究其对鳞翅目害虫的杀虫活性,在室内和田间分别用亚洲玉米螟、棉铃虫和黏虫幼虫对HGK60玉米的杀虫效果进行检测。室内生物活性检测结果表明,取食HGK60玉米心叶的亚洲玉米螟幼虫在3d后死亡率达100%;HGK60玉米对棉铃虫幼虫有毒杀作用,玉米不同部位对棉铃虫幼虫的杀虫效果存在差异;与非转基因玉米对照相比,取食HGK60玉米叶片一周后的黏虫幼虫体重增长明显受到抑制。田间生物活性检测结果表明,HGK60玉米对于亚洲玉米螟和棉铃虫有很强的杀虫活性,达到高抗级别,对于黏虫有一定的杀虫活性,为抗性级别。

  2. Ecological Aspects of Maize Stem Borer at Intercropping and Monoculture Planting

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Hidayat, Purnama; Rauf, Aunu; Sartiami,Dewi

    2003-01-01

    Asian corn borer population Beberapa aspek ekologi hama penggerek batang jagung diamati pada pertanaman jagung milik petani dan pada plot percobaan di Bogor. Tingkat serangan penggerek batang jagung pada pertanaman berumur 50 hst adalah 7,59% pada tanaman tumpangsari jagung manis dengan ubi jalar, 8,66% pada tanaman monokultur jagung manis, dan 9,51% pada tanaman tumpangsari jagung manis dan singkong. Pengamatan peletakan telur pada plot percobaan menunjukkan bahwa populasi telur pada p...

  3. Effects of Maize Planting Density on Occurrence of Asian Corn Borer and Trichogramma Parasitism%玉米种植密度对玉米螟发生及赤眼蜂寄生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娟; 鲁新; 周淑香; 张国红; 丁岩; 刘宏伟

    2013-01-01

    Asian corn bore(ACB) and Trichogramma were investigated with diverse maize planting density in a maize field. The results showed that the 100-maize plants egg masses amount and eggs number were relatively high of the 1st and 2nd generation ACB with low planting density. The corn was damaged serious by the 1st-generation ACB in 45 000 plants/ha maize field. In addition, The correlation analysis showed that egg masses amount, eggs number, bored-hole number, hole pass length, alive worm amount per 100-maize plants and the parasitism rate of ACB egg masses were negatively correlated with planting density. Healthy plants number was positively correlated with planting density. The broken-up ear stem rate, the broken-ear handle rate, the broken-tassel rate increased a little as maize planting density increases. The planting density had almost no effect on natural parasitism rate of Trichogramma. There were slightly higher the egg masses parasitism rate(figure 44.24%) and the eggs parasitism rate(figure 39.00%) of the 1st-generation ACB with 30 000 plants/ha than other planting density. Both were very high the egg masses par-asitism rate and the eggs parasitism rate of the 2nd-generation ACB with diverse planting density. The average values were 84.59%and 80.84%.%通过对不同种植密度玉米田内玉米螟、赤眼蜂调查,初步认为,在低种植密度下一、二代玉米螟百株落卵块数、落卵粒数较高,种植密度为45000株/hm2玉米田的一代玉米螟危害较重。相关分析表明,一、二代百株玉米的落卵块数、落卵粒数、蛀孔数、隧道长度、活虫数及一代卵块寄生率等与种植密度呈负相关;健株数与种植密度呈正相关;穗上折率、穗柄折率、雄穗折率随种植密度增加折率略有增加。玉米不同种植密度对赤眼蜂的自然寄生率影响较小,30000株/hm2种植密度一代玉米螟的卵块寄生率和卵粒寄生率略高,为44.24%和39.00%;二代玉米螟

  4. 亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷对亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis化学通讯系统的干扰作用%EFFECTS OF SUBLETHAL MALATHION ON THE CHEM ICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OF ASIAN CORN BORER, OSTRINIA FURNACALIS (GUENEE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智化; 肖春; 杜家纬; 许少甫

    2001-01-01

    Topically applied sublethal doses of malathion may interrupt chemical communication between the two sexes of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), by affecting calling and sex pheromone titre released by the females. ( 1 ) Studies on the effects of sublethal malathion on the chemical conmunication system of 0. furnacalis indicated that probability of females calling and sex pheromone titre were obviously decreased, but periodicity was not affected. (2) The recovery test indicated that the calling percentages of the 1st, 2 nd and 4 th day post-treatment were 50%, 53% and 73% respectively. Sex pheromone titre was 55%, 75% and 100% of control fenale respectively.There was a trend toward recovery. The sexual chemical communication system could control within narrow level.%胸部点滴亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷对亚洲玉米螟化学通讯产生明显的干扰作用,同时抑制了雌蛾求偶活动和性信息素释放量,但不影响求偶高峰期出现的时间;顺反异构体比例不受影响,且其变异系数能控制在10%以内,表明亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷处理使亚洲玉米螟化学通讯能控制在较为狭窄的范围之内.受马拉硫磷影响后通讯系统的恢复实验表明:随时间的推移,雌蛾求偶百分数和性信息素释放量呈回升趋势.500 ng/♀剂量处理的当天、第二天、第四天的求偶百分数分别为正常雌蛾的50%、53%、73%,释放量为正常雌蛾的55%、75%、100%.

  5. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  6. Death of the Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Woolf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The image of moths gathering around a source of light recurs in Woolf’s private writings and becomes an import motif also in her novels and essays. It is most probably the description of moths in her sister’s letter that become an initial inspiration for writing of The Waves, Woolf’s most radical experiment in novelistic form, where she strives to create a subject-less perspective. On the other hand The Death of The Moth, a 1927 essay, whose first translation into Polish comes together with the present commentary from the translator, is a crystal-clear description of the world as seen by the writer/narrator at her desk, surrounded by exuberant life but witnessing death. 

  7. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  8. Down regulation of a gene for cadherin but not alkaline phosphatase associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of tran...

  9. CORN FLAVOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  10. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  11. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and tissue expression of immulectin gene from the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)%亚洲玉米螟免疫凝集素基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 刘洋; 赵华福; 张文庆; 胡建

    2014-01-01

    C-type lectin, a kind of pattern recognition molecule, recognizes the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and participates the cellular defense reaction in insects. In this paper, an immulectin (OfIML), C-type lectin with two carbohydrate-recognition domains, was cloned by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and 3′/5′RACE from the larval hemocytes of corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. The cDNA of OfIML is 1 241 base pairs in length, and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 924 nucleotides, which encoding a protein of 307 amino acids with a predicted molecularmass of approximately 34.65 ku. Alignment of OfIML with C-type lectins of other insects indicates that OfIML is a member of Lepidoptera immulectins. OfIML possesses two carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), an amino-terminal domain, CRD1 (residues 1-135), and a carboxyl-terminal domain, CRD2 (residues 136-287). RT-PCR analyses shows that OfIML is expressed in cuticle, fat body, midgut, tracheae, and malpighian tubules, especially in hemocytes. The cDNA sequence has been deposited with GenBank under accession No. ABZ81710. OfIML is a kind of insect immunlectin, which contains two carbohydrate-recognition domains, and it possibly plays an important role during the immune reaction of O. furnaclis depending on its molecular structure and expression in tissues.%C 型凝集素作为模式识别分子可以识别部分脂多糖(LPS),进而参与昆虫细胞的防御反应。本文通过RT-PCR和3′/5′RACE技术从亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis 5龄幼虫血细胞中克隆得到免疫凝集素基因(OfIML)。OfIML mRNA全长为1241 bp,其中开放读码框(ORF)为924 bp,编码307个氨基酸(aa),分子量约为34.65 ku。与其它昆虫的C型凝集素比对分析结果显示,OfIML属于鳞翅目免疫凝集素,并且含有一个独特的结构特征,即一前一后2个糖识别域,氨基末端(CRD1,aa#1-135)和羧基末端(CRD2, aa#136-287)。RT-PCR

  12. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvar Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21, each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm, reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm, although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H-one (DIMBOA, a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and

  13. Insect Resistance Management in Bt Maize: Wild Host Plants of Stem Borers Do Not Serve as Refuges in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, J

    2017-02-01

    Resistance evolution by target pests threatens the sustainability of Bt maize in Africa where insect resistance management (IRM) strategies are faced by unique challenges. The assumptions, on which current IRM strategies for stem borers are based, are not all valid for African maize stem borer species. The high dose-refuge strategy which is used to delay resistance evolution relies heavily on the presence of appropriate refuges (non-Bt plants) where pests are not under selection pressure and where sufficient numbers of Bt-susceptible individuals are produced to mate with possible survivors on the Bt maize crop. Misidentification of stem borer species and inaccurate reporting on wild host plant diversity over the past six decades created the perception that grasses will contribute to IRM strategies for these pests in Africa. Desired characteristics of refuge plants are that they should be good pest hosts, implying that larval survival is high and that it produces sufficient numbers of high-quality moths. Refuge plants should also have large cover abundance in areas where Bt maize is planted. While wild host plants may suffice in IRM strategies for polyphagous pests, this is not the case with stenophagous pests. This review discusses data of ecological studies and stem borer surveys conducted over the past decade and shows that wild host plants are unsuitable for development and survival of sufficient numbers of stem borer individuals. These grasses rather act as dead-end-trap plants and do not comply with refuge requirements of producing 500 susceptible individuals for every one resistant individual that survives on Bt maize.

  14. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  15. Comparisons of Transcriptional Profiles of Gut Genes between Cry1Ab-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Ostrinia nubilalis Revealed Genes Possibly Related to the Adaptation of Resistant Larvae to Transgenic Cry1Ab Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) gut 2,895 unique genes expressions were quantified and compared between a laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant (R) strain and a susceptible (S) strain after fed transgenic corn (MON810) leaves expressing Cry1Ab by microarray. A total of 398 gut genes were di...

  16. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  17. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  18. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals....... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  19. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-06-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production of biofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity. We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn, miscanthus, switchgrass and native prairie, to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity. Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops. Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops, and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments. The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape.

  20. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terry Harrison; May R.Berenbaum

    2013-01-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production ofbiofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity.We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn,miscanthus,switchgrass and native prairie,to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity.Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops.Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops,and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus.Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments.The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape.

  1. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  2. All or nothing: Area-wide approach frustrates peachtree borers in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating disruption research has been done in the southeast against borers attacking peach since the sex pheromones of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and lesser peachtree borer, S. pictipes (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) were identified. However, replicated trials over thr...

  3. Feeding behavior of neonate Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Cry1Ab Bt corn: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E; Pizzolato, T D

    2011-06-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the United States and Canada. The development of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect. To assess the feeding behavior of neonate O. nubilalis on Bt corn, we examined differences in feeding behavior, based on presence of plant material in the gut, between Cry1Ab Bt corn and non-Bt near isoline corn for four intervals over a 48-h period. Feeding experiments revealed that there was significantly less feeding on Bt corn compared with non-Bt near isoline corn. The behavior of neonates on the plant corresponded with the differences in feeding on the two corn lines. The findings also showed that > 50% of the larvae initially left the plant before there was evidence in the gut of feeding regardless of whether the source was Bt or non-Bt corn. A higher quantity of plant material was found in the gut of larvae recovered from leaves of non-Bt compared with Bt corn. At the end of 48 h among the larvae that had left the plant, a greater proportion from Bt corn had plant material in the gut than did those from non-Bt corn.

  4. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  5. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  7. Gypsy moths get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer

    1999-01-01

    In June, those large, black, hairy caterpillars really begin to get your attention as they devour your trees, pelt you car with unpleasent dropping, and lounge about on your porch. I am describing the gysy moth, of course, an annoying caterpillar because of its voracious appette, large size, and abundance in many parts of eastern North America.

  8. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  9. Laboratory Rearing of the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    developed for a regular supply of eggs, larvae, pupae and adult moths for research ... Emerged moths (1-day old) were set in 5 cylindrical plastic cages (15 .... contain appropriate nutrients for late instars that normally feed on young or.

  10. Nutritional Value of the Maize Stalk Borer and American Bollworm as Unconventional Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The maize stalk borer and American bollworm were grown in an artificial media to evaluate their potential as human food sources. Approach: Both cultures were started from moths and the life cycle and culture structures were evaluated. Results: The larvae of both insects reached maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. The growth rate of the youngest larvae was found to be the highest and the increase in the body weight during the growth period appeared to be linear. The larvae of these insects started to decrease in weight after they reached the maximum size. For efficient systems for the commercial production of the maize stalk borer and the American bollworm, the larvae should be harvested when they are 39 and 21 days old, respectively. The protein contents were 38.0 and 33.0% and the fat contents were 14.5 and 14.4% for the dried larvae of the American bollworm and maize stalk borer, respectively. The larvae of both insects contained the essential amino acids and minerals. Only 10% mortality was observed with older larvae of both species. A system where eggs are separated from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the possible danger of losing the population due to microbial infection. The high moisture content of the larvae (60.4-61.0% could cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as novel food. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study show the potential of using insects as a protein source for human consumption to alleviate protein deficiency in many parts of the world, especially in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Further research is required to evaluate their growth characteristics on low substrates. Future research should also evaluate environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and heat and CO2 production on food consumption and protein yield per gram

  11. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  12. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) abundance and seasonal flight activity in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and woodlands in five eastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A

    2009-06-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.

  13. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1 has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  14. Susceptibility of Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis and Bt Corn Under Long-Term Laboratory Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Li-ping; HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; ZHOU Da-rong; BAI Shu-xiong

    2005-01-01

    The susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation and Bt corn was evaluated using insect bioassays for 6 years. Four strains of O. furnacalis were developed by laboratory selection from the laboratory strain reared on a non-agar semi-artificial diet. The RR-1 strain was exposed to a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) incorporated into the artificial diet, the RR-2 strain was exposed to Bt corn (MON810)tissue incorporated into the diet, and the SS-1 and SS-2 strains were reared on the standard diet with or without non-Bt corn tissues material. Decreasing susceptibility of O. furnacalis to Bt and to Bt corn were found in each selected strain although the ED50 and larval weight fluctuated from generation to generation. The resistance of Bt-exposed strain (RR-1)to Btk increased 48-fold by generation 39; the Bt corn-exposed strain (RR-2) increased its resistance 37-fold to Btk by generation 24. No larvae of SS-1 survived when they were exposed to the leaves of Bt corn, Bt1 1 and MON810. However,2-54% of the RR-1 (generation 46) and RR-2 (generation 20) larvae survived a 3 day-exposure to the leaves of Bt1 1 and MON810. The survival of both selected strains on Bt corn silk increased by 10-69%, and the larval weights after many generations selection were increased by 15-22% compared with the unselected susceptible strain. The young larvae were much more susceptible to Bt than older larvae. The highest mortality occurred when the larvae were exposed to Bt at the neonate stage. All of the results suggested that ACB could not only develop resistance to Bt preparation but also to Bt corn. Bt had significant effects on the growth and development of Asian corn borer than on the larval mortality. In order to maintain the long-term effectiveness of Bt pesticide and Bt corn, the resistance management should pay much attention to the larvae that may have opportunities to grow and developed on non

  15. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  16. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests.

  17. 转Bt cry1F基因抗虫玉米对米蛾生长发育的影响%Effect of Transgenic Insect-resistant Corn with crylF Gene on Growth and Development of Rice Moth,Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜松男; 丛斌; 马晓慧; 张柱亭; 吴尊曌

    2011-01-01

    In this article,three varieties of transgenic insect-resistant corn with cry1F gene, 32A91, 32W09 and X1132X,and non-transgenic corn were used as test materials to feed Corcyra cephalonica larvae.In contrast to non-transgenic corn,the survial rate of larvae in transgenic con showed a signficant decrease.For the emergence rate of adult Corcyra cephalonica, 32W09 group demostrated an obvious decline in comparison with non-transgenic corn XY420.However, the other two groups had no significant differences.%采用转Bt cry1F基因的32A91、32W09和X1132X 3个玉米品种及其对应的3种非转基因玉米为试材,分别饲养米蛾幼虫,比较转基因和非转基因玉米对米蛾生长发育的影响.结果表明,转cry1F基因玉米对米蛾幼虫存活率的影响均表现为显著降低;转基因玉米32W09饲养的米蛾成虫羽化率显著低于非转基因玉米XY420饲养的米蛾成虫羽化率.

  18. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  19. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction.

  20. Juvenile hormone-mediated termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singtripop, T; Wanichacheewa, S; Sakurai, S

    2000-01-01

    Larvae of the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis are in diapause for more than nine months (Singtripop, T., Wanichaneewa, S., Tsuzuki, S., Sakurai, S. 1999. Larval growth and diapause in a tropical moth, Omphisa fuscidentalis Hampson. Zool. Sci. 16, 725-733). To examine the endocrine mechanisms underlying this larval diapause, we assayed the responsiveness of the diapausing larvae to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene). 20E injection caused the larvae to halt movement, followed by deposition of a pupal cuticle. Topical application of JHA induced pupation in a dose-dependent manner. JHA also induced pupation of the larvae whose brains were removed before JHA application. In those larvae, the prothoracic glands became active and competent to respond to brain extracts within seven days after JHA treatment, and the hemolymph ecdysteroid concentration began to increase 12 days after JHA application. These results indicate that JHA stimulates the prothoracic glands of diapausing Omphisa larvae, terminating larval diapause, in contrast with previous findings that JH inhibits the brain-prothoracic gland axis and thus maintains the larval diapause. Current results therefore suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for larval diapause in this species.

  1. Development of Monitoring Technique for Cocoa Pod Borer(Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness and effiency of CPB control were influenced by the right time of control. To decided this methods, information about CPB infestation was needed. An experiment had been conducted to get a simple and accurate technique for CPB monitoring. The experiment was located in Tirawuta, a smallholder cocoa plantation in Kolaka district, South-East Sulawesi. The evaluated monitoring pods techniques using observing all ripe cocoa pod as standard method, i.e. pod colour changes as an indicator of CPB attack, observation on 100 pods during harvesting, moth trapping and observation on the presence of the holes caused by CPB. The collected data expressed as the percentage of CPB attack and compared with each other. Based on the Chi 2 value and time consumed for monitoring, it could be concluded that the observation of 100 attacked pods during harvesting was the most accurate technique closest to the standard method, with a lowest 2 value and not significantly different to standard method. On the contrary the visual observation on the pod colour showed the less accurate technique with  2 value of 242,25–335,33 followed by the bservation on the present of holes on the pod with  2 value of 243,45–282,87. Furthermore, monitoring technique by moth trapping could not be compared with the other techniques since their unit was unequal. However, no insect could be trapped during a night trapping using either chemical trapping or sticky trap. Development of sticky trap by variation in trap colour could be trapped of CPB moth during more than one week. Red trap was the most interesting (preferred for the CPB followed by the yellow, white and blue ones. There was significant correlation between number of tree sample and the time needed for observation. Larger size of tree sample consumed a longer time for the observation, but in visual symptom and entry/exit hole observation methods, larger sample size did not significantly influence its accuracy

  2. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  3. Emerald ash borer dispersal in Maryland: go forth young pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...

  4. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  5. Trapping effect of synthetic pheromone blends on two stem borers, Chilo suppressalis and Scripophaga incertulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two internal feeders of rice plant, rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) are major hurdles in achieving higher yields in Central China. Synthetic sex pheromone was an effective method to control the two borers. A new series of sex pheromone blends were formulated and tested.

  6. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  7. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland... to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary... Coordinator, Emerald Ash Borer Program, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  8. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota... rule is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of...

  9. 76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer... revised treatment schedule will be sufficient to treat emerald ash borer. DATES: Effective Date:...

  10. Host location and host discrimination behavior of Telenomus isis, an egg parasitoid of the African cereal stem borer Sesamia calamistis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi-Olaye, A; Schulthess, F; Poehling, H M; Borgemeister, C

    2001-04-01

    In the Republic of Benin, the scelionid egg parasitoid Telenomus isis (Polaszek) is one of the most important control factors of the noctuid maize stem borer Sesamia calamistis. In the present study, the role of various sources of contact kairomones (male or virgin or mated female moths) and of the moth's oviposition substrate (leaf sheath versus filter paper: host plant species) in host location and oviposition behavior of T. isis was investigated in Munger cells, open arenas, and/or Petri dish assays. Furthermore, its ability to distinguish between unparasitized eggs and eggs parasitized by a conspecific female or by the trichogrammatid Lathromeris ovicida was studied. In the Munger cell experiment, T. isis spent more time in moths' odor fields than in the control. There was no difference between virgin and mated females. In the open arena assay, traces left by both the male and female moths acted as contact cues, which elicited an arrestment response in the parasitoid. The residence and patch retention time in the arena with virgin or mated females of S. calamistis was about 4.8 times as long as that with males. The presence of maize leaf sheaths stimulated the oviposition behavior of T. isis when compared to eggs offered on filter paper. During the first 6 hr, more eggs were parasitized on maize leaves, although there was no difference in the final number of offspring between the two substrates. In addition, if eggs of S. calamistis were offered together with different host plant species or alone, maize and sorghum were both more attractive than millet or the egg alone and equally attractive between themselves, indicating that the plant tissue influences host finding of T. isis. Both T. isis and L. ovicida recognized markings of conspecific females, and intraspecific superparasitism was therefore low. Interspecific superparasitism was more than three times higher for L. ovicida than for T. isis, indicating that only T. isis was able to recognize the marking of

  11. Insecticidal Effect of Labramin, a Lectin—Like Protein Isolated from Seeds of the Beach Apricot Tree, Labramia bojeri, on the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez D.S.T.; Freire M.D.G.M.; Mazzafera P.; Araujo-Jnior R.T.; Bueno R.D.; MacEdo M.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the insecticidal effect of labramin, a protein that shows lectinlike properties. Labramin was isolated from seeds of the Beach Apricot tree, Labramia bojeri A. DC ex Dubard (Ericales: Sapotaceae), and assessed against the development of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of stored products such as corn, wheat, rice, and flour. Results showed that labramin caused 90% larval mortality when i...

  12. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal... are amending the South American cactus moth regulations by adding the State of Louisiana to the list of areas quarantined because of South American cactus moth. As a result of this action,...

  14. The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemah, R; Gounou, S; Schulthess, F

    2002-12-01

    Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses.

  15. 转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米及其抗虫性研究进展%Transgenic Corn with Bt Toxin Protein Gene and Insect-resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春英; 宋建成

    2001-01-01

    本文从转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米的培育及商品化,Bt毒蛋白基因在转基因玉米中的遗传分离与整合、对玉米螟及其它害虫的杀虫效果、对天敌种群数量和玉米病害发生程度的影响、玉米螟对转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米产生抗性及解决措施、应用转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米潜在的生态风险性等方面对国内外最新研究进展进行了综述。%This review briefly focused on the progress at home and overseas in the study of transgenic corn transformed with Bt toxic protein gene,including the breeding and commercial production of transgenic corn transformed with Bt toxic protein gene,genetic segregation and combination of Bt toxin protein in transgenic corn,insecticidal effect on corn borer and other pests,influence on natural enemy population amount and corn disease,corn borer tolerance to Bt toxic protein gene and countermeasures,and the potential ecological risk of transgenic corn transformed with Bt toxic protein gene.

  16. Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.

  17. Actinomycetales from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  18. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  19. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  20. Identification and Evaluation on the Resistance to Insect Pest and Disease of Sweet and Waxy Corn Varieties%甜糯玉米新品种抗病虫性的鉴定与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂跃; 俞琦英; 谭禾平; 韩海亮; 苏婷

    2012-01-01

    From 2002 to 2010, two hundred and fifty new varieties of sweet and waxy com were chosen to identify on resistance to northern corn leaf blight(NCLB), southern corn leaf blight(SCLB), corn stalk rot(CSR) and corn borer (CB), respectively. The results showed that the average disease levels were significantly different between years, while the borer level was not significantly different. Among all varieties, 80.0% were moderately resistant or better to NCLB, 76.4% were moderately resistant or better to SCLB, 77.2% were moderately resistant or better to stalk rot, while there was only 5.8% moderately resistant or better to corn borer. According to different types of corn, sweet corn showed the better comprehensive resistance than waxy corn. What's more, twelve varieties of sweet corn such as "Micui 678", "Huazhen", "Lvsechaoren" , etc., and ten varieties of waxy corn such as "Zhenuoyu 4", "Jintianzihuanuo" and so on, those showed the stronger resistance to diseases and borer.%2002~2010年对250个甜、糯玉米新品种进行玉米大斑病、小斑病、茎腐病和亚洲玉米螟的抗性鉴定.结果表明,不同年份间的平均病害级别差异显著,玉米螟的食叶级别无显著差异.所有鉴定品种中,对大斑病表现中抗以上的占80.0%,对小斑病表现中抗以上的占76.4%,对茎腐病表现中抗以上的占77.2%,对玉米螟表现中抗及以上的仅占5.8%.根据玉米类型分析,甜玉米的综合抗性高于糯玉米,甜玉米品种“蜜脆678”、“华珍”和“绿色超人”等12个品种以及糯玉米“浙糯玉4号”和“京甜紫花糯”等10个品种的综合抗性较佳,表现出较强的抗病虫性.

  1. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  2. Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli S. Gould; Leah S. Bauer; Jian. Duan

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North...

  3. Emerald ash borer responses to induced plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Therese M. Poland; James Miller; Lukasz Stelinski; Linda Buchan; Gary Grant; Peter de Groot; Linda MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Herbivore feeding and methyl jasmonate, a volatile derivative of the stress-eliciting plant hormone, jasmonic acid, induce responses in plants which include the synthesis and emission of volatiles. These induced volatiles can serve to attract or repel herbivores; therefore, they may have potential use in pest management programs. The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB),...

  4. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  5. Curative control of the peachtree borer using entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. Current management relies upon preventative control using broad spectrum chemical insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos, applied in the late summer or early fall. However, due to missed applications, p...

  6. Management tactics for emerald ash borer: chemical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Andrew R. Tluczek

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid native to northeast Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in infested areas of eastern North America. EAB apparently arrived in infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s near Detroit, MI, but was not identified as...

  7. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of coco

  8. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  9. Life-history responses of the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis to temperature change: Breaking the temperature-size rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dao-Meng; He, Hai-Min; Zou, Chao; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2016-10-01

    Temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. In the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°C under L18:D 6. Larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. Larval and pupal developmental times were not significantly different between females and males. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in C. suppressalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR), both males and females gained the highest body weight at 31°C. Females were significantly larger than males at all temperatures, showing a female biased sex size dimorphism (SSD). Contrary to Rensch's rule, SSD and body weight in C. suppressalis tended to increase with rising temperature. Male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared to females. We discuss the adaptive significance of the reverse-TSR in the moth's life history.

  10. THE STEM BORER INFESTATION ON RICE CULTIVARS AT THREE PLANTING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarsih Suharto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.

  11. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, ... the surfaces is your tender skin! What's a Blister? A blister is an area of raised skin ...

  12. Corns and calluses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rowers get calluses on their hands that prevent blisters from forming. People with bunions often develop a callus over the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems. Symptoms ...

  13. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...... are excited by sound stimuli. Those two cells differ in threshold by approximately 19 dB. The morphology of the ear suggests that the two larger scolopidia function as auditory sensilla; the two smaller scolopidia, located near the tympanal frame, were not excited by sound. We present a biophysical model...

  14. Compositional equivalency of Cry1F corn event TC6275 and conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Phillips, Amy M; Collins, Randy A; Tagliani, Laura A; Claussen, Fred A; Graham, Christopher D; Bickers, Brenda L; Harris, Travis A; Prochaska, Lee M

    2004-05-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants have been transformed to express a Cry1F insecticidal crystal protein originally isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This protein controls lepidopteran pests of maize, including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). As part of the safety assessment for crops containing transgenes, a compositional analysis of the food and feed is conducted. This analysis is designed to detect unintended changes in the nutrient and antinutrient content of the raw commodities produced by the crop due to the insertion of the genes into the genomic DNA of the plant (pleotropic effects). Samples of transgenic and nontransgenic maize forage and grain were collected from six field sites located in the U.S. and Canada. Forage samples were analyzed for proximates and minerals, and grain was further analyzed for fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients. Results demonstrated that maize expressing the Cry1F protein was equivalent to nontransgenic maize with respect to these important components. Comparison of the variability within the nontransgenic and transgenic hybrid, as compared to composition values reported in the literature, suggest that factors other than transgenes may contribute more substantially to the composition of crops.

  15. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  16. Of Mice Moths and Men Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Schuppli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, Grace Murray Hopper a pioneer in early computing made an unusual entry into her daily logbook: lsquo;Relay #70 Panel F (moth in relay. First actual case of bug being found.rsquo; Accompanying this entry is an actual celluloid tape encrusted bug, or more specifically a moth, fastened to the page of the logbook. According to Hopper, one of the technicians in her team solved a glitch in the emHarvard Mark II/em computer by pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays. Word soon went out that they had lsquo;debugged the machinersquo; and the phrase quickly entered our lexicon. After languishing for years this mythic moth was eventually transported to the emSmithsonian/em where it now lies in archival state. The mothrsquo;s dynamic vitality had introduced a kind of surplus or aberrant code into the machine, which in effect pushed the machine towards a state of chaos and breakdown. Its failure to act as desired, to perform the coding sequences of its programmed history suggests that even a seemingly inert or lifeless machine can become lsquo;more and other than its historyrsquo;. (Elizabeth Grosz, 2005 Hopperrsquo;s bug is thus a material witness to the creative co-evolution of the machine with the living matter of the moth. Moreover, as a cipher for machinic defect the bug reminds us that mutations are in fact necessary for systems to change and evolve. The crisis introduced into a biological system or machine through the virulence of the bug is terminal only to the extent that it becomes the source for another kind of order, another kind of interaction. This is used as a casenbsp;study to argue that chaos is not only an animating force in the constitution of new systems but is necessary for the evolution of difference.

  17. Exposure and nontarget effects of transgenic Bt corn debris in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter D; Dively, Galen P; Swan, Christopher M; Lamp, William O

    2010-04-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transformed with a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) comprises 49% of all corn in the United States. The input of senesced corn tissue expressing the Bt gene may impact stream-inhabiting invertebrates that process plant debris, especially trichopteran species related to the target group of lepidopteran pests. Our goal was to assess risk associated with transgenic corn debris entering streams. First, we show the input of corn tissue after harvest was extended over months in a stream. Second, using laboratory bioassays based on European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)], we found no bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein in senesced corn tissue after 2 wk of exposure to terrestrial or aquatic environments. Third, we show that Bt near-isolines modify growth and survivorship of some species of invertebrates. Of the four nontarget invertebrate species fed Bt near-isolines, growth of two closely related trichopterans was not negatively affected, whereas a tipulid crane fly exhibited reduced growth rates, and an isopod exhibited reduced growth and survivorship on the Cry1Ab near-isoline but not on the stacked Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 near-isoline. Because of lack of evidence of bioactivity of Bt after 2 wk and because of lack of nontarget effects on the stacked near-isoline, we suggest that tissue-mediated differences, and not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, caused the different responses among the species. Overall, our results provide evidence that adverse effects to aquatic nontarget shredders involve complex interactions arising from plant genetics and environment that cannot be ascribed to the presence of Cry1Ab proteins.

  18. Habitat Impact on Ultraviolet Reflectance in Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletalová, L; Zapletal, M; Konvička, M

    2016-10-01

    A comparison of 95 species of Central European moths, representing 11 families and inhabiting various habitats, was carried out in order to detect the potential impact of biotope on the ultraviolet (UV) light reflectance of their wings. Based on digitized photographs taken under UV light conditions, a phylogeny-controlled redundancy analysis relating UV reflectance to preferred habitat type (xerophilous, mesophilous, and hygrophilous) and habitat openness (open, semiopen, and closed) was carried out. Species preferring hygrophilous habitats displayed significantly higher UV wing reflectance than species inhabiting xerothermic and mesic habitats, and this pattern remained significant even after controlling for phyletic relationships. In contrast, UV wing reflectance displayed no pattern related to habitat openness. Given the higher UV reflectance of water and humid surfaces, we interpret these results, which are based on the first comprehensive sampling of UV reflectance in Central European moths, in terms of predator avoidance under habitat-specific light conditions. We conclude that the moisture content of the environment may markedly contribute to the variation of appearance of moth wings for better imitation habitat characteristics and therefore to increase protection. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  20. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... Canada to prevent the introduction and ] spread of emerald ash borer in the United States, contact...

  1. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  2. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia ly

  3. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  4. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  5. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  6. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  7. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  8. Breeding Resistant Sugarcane for Managing the Stem Borer Diatraea saccharalis: Progress and Prospects for Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is an important insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Growing resistant varieties is a component of the Integrated Pest Management Program as practiced in Louisiana for managing this insect; however, the release of stem borer resistant varieties is intermi...

  9. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonhof, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible

  10. Factors affecting stem borer parasitoid species diversity and parasitism in cultivated and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on stem borer parasitoid diversity, abundance, and parasitism were studied in cultivated and natural habitats in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Comparing habitat types, we found partial support for the "natural enemy" hypothesis, whereby, across all localities, parasitoid diversity was higher in more diverse host plant communities in natural habitats, whereas parasitoid abundance was higher in cultivated habitats. For both habitats, parasitoid richness was mainly influenced by stem borer density and/or its interaction with stem borer richness, whereas parasitoid abundance was mainly affected by stem borer abundance. Parasitoid richness was higher in localities (with bimodal rainfall distribution) with increased spatial and temporal availability of host plants that harbored the borers. Across seasons, parasitoid richness was lower in both cultivated and natural habitats in the driest locality, Mtito Andei. Overall, parasitoid diversity was low in Suam and Mtito Andei, where maize cultivation was practiced on a commercial scale and intense grazing activities persist across seasons, respectively. Across localities, habitats, and seasons, stem borer parasitism was positively correlated with parasitoid richness and abundance. Furthermore, the interaction of rainfall and altitude influenced the presence and absence of parasitoids, and consequently, stem borer parasitism. Parasitism was positively and negatively correlated with temperature in cultivated and natural habitats, respectively. Overall, natural habitats seem to serve as important refugia for sustaining parasitoid diversity, which in turn can affect stem borer parasitism in the cereal cropping system.

  11. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonhof, M.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many

  12. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  13. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  14. The Research Progress of Inducing Source Materials of Oriental Fruit Moth%梨小食心虫诱源物质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉红凡; 刘文旭; 马爱红; 孙海鹏; 李建成; 路子云

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth was world widely distributed fruit borer, and it was hard to be con-trolled for its boring habits. Integrated pest management (IPM) is the focus of people’s attention, which is in line with the current requirements of environmental protection. In IPM of the oriental fruit moth, trapping was an important part. At present,the main inducing source materials for oriental fruit moth in-cluding sex pheromone,sugar-acetic-acid liquid,plant volatiles and different light source in its trapping control. The research progress and influence factors of inducing source materials were introduced, and its application prospect was analysized in this article.%梨小食心虫是世界性分布的蛀果害虫,具有钻蛀为害习性,因此很难进行有效防治。害虫综合治理符合当前人们对环保的要求,成为关注的焦点。在梨小食心虫综合治理体系中,诱捕诱杀成虫是重要的组成部分。目前在梨小食心虫的诱捕防治中,主要的诱源物质包括性信息素、糖醋液、植物源引诱剂、光源等。介绍了不同诱源物质的研究进展、影响因素等,并对其应用前景进行了分析。

  15. Influence of maize/lablab intercropping on lepidopterous stem borer infestation in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluleke, Mary H; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Ayisi, Kingsley K

    2005-04-01

    Lepidopterous stem borers seriously affect production of maize, Zea mays L., in sub-Saharan Africa. Intercropping maize with legumes such as lablab, Lablab purpurens (L.), is one of the effective systems to control stem borers. Sole culture maize and maize/lablab intercrop system of different lablab densities were planted at two locations to investigate the effects of intercrop system on incidence and severity of stem borers with particular reference to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Stem borer infestation was found to be more severe in sole culture maize than maize in maize/lablab intercrop. There was a significantly negative relationship between lablab densities and maize grain yields, suggesting a possible competition for resources between the two crops. It was concluded that density of lablab and date of planting of lablab in maize/lablab intercropping have significant affects on stem borer populations and maize grain yields.

  16. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  17. Implications of Transgenic Corn Cultivation on the Ecology of Agricultural Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantull, L.; Swan, C.

    2005-05-01

    Corn has been genetically-modified by introducing a gene that codes for a toxic protein from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into corn DNA. Genetically-modified crops provide internal resistance to herbivorous pests like the European Corn Borer (Ostrina nubilalis). With the use of transgenic crops on the rise, research is being done to consider its environmental effects on non-target taxa and ecosystems. Stream ecosystems occupy topographic low points in the landscape and thus are affected by agricultural land use. In many temperate streams, the main energy source is from terrestrial organic detritus, mostly in the form of dead leaves and wood, delivered via wind or natural leaf fall. Stream insects consume this material, contributing to organic matter breakdown and creating biomass for predators. With the heightened practice of no-till agriculture, crop detritus remaining on fields as a by-product of harvesting has been documented to enter adjacent streams. Given insect larvae are critical to the transformation of energy from detritus to higher trophic levels, we explored the implications of detritus containing Bt on both insect performance and litter decay in six streams. The presence of Bt in senesced corn leaf litter resulted in significant reductions in both insect feeding rate and organic matter breakdown. Furthermore, colonization of corn litter containing Bt by detritivorous insects was significantly reduced when compared to non-Bt isoline litter controls. We conclude that detritus generated from harvesting transgenic corn negatively impacts insect feeding behavior and colonization dynamics, and may contribute substantially to the reduction of organic matter breakdown rates in agricultural streams.

  18. An illustrative guide to the identification of the known species of Diatraea Guilding (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Crambinae) based on genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Diatraea is one of the most economically important groups of moths in the Western Hemisphere. The larvae are stem borers that feed on species of Poaceae, or grasses, such as sugarcane, corn, rice, and sorghum, as well as many other native grasses. Interest in this group has risen considera...

  19. Sexual communication in castniid moths: Males mark their territories and appear to bear all chemical burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Carmen; Sarto i Monteys, Victor; Rosell, Gloria; Puigmartí, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Castniid moths (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) display a butterfly-like reproductive behavior, i.e., they use visual stimuli for mate location and females have apparently lost their pheromone glands in an evolutionary context. In this paper we report for the first time the identification of three new compounds, namely n-octadecyl acetate, (Z)-9-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate, in males of the Castniid Palm Borer, Paysandisia archon, which could be involved in its short-range courtship behavior, and also shed light on recent controversies on the sexual behavior of the species. The compounds are produced in a ring-shaped gland of the male terminalia and have occasionally been detected in very minor amounts (ng) in ovipositor extracts of females, but only while mating or just after copulation. We also report that males use the already known (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol to mark their territory by rubbing their midlegs against the upper side of nearby leaves, especially palm leaves. This compound, produced in large amounts, is mostly concentrated in the midleg basitarsi and its maximum production is detected on the sexually mature 1-day-old specimens. In addition, analysis of male wings extracts confirms the presence of Z,E and E,E-farnesals, which are mostly produced in the median band of hindwings of 48–53 h-old insects. The biological significance of farnesals in this species is unknown. Our results point out that the chemical communication of P. archon relies mostly on males, which appear to bear all chemical burden in this respect. PMID:28178286

  20. Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael E

    2011-06-08

    The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to

  1. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  2. Detection of Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation Using Sex Pheromone Trap and its Control by Pod Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rahmawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14 moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98% was relatively similar with the control (20.25%. Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59% was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%. The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB.   Intisari Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai

  3. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  4. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop.

  5. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sarto i Monteys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths", which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as

  6. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  7. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  8. A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  10. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  11. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  12. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  13. Mechanism of rice variety resistance to the yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) has become the main rice insect pest once again along the Changjiang River sinee 1990s. Unfortunately, no rice variety with resistance to YSB has been reported so far.

  14. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  15. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  16. Increment-borer methods for determining fire history in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Barrett; Stephen F. Arno

    1988-01-01

    Describes use of increment borers for interpreting fire history in coniferous forests. These methods are intended for use in wildernesses, parks, and other natural areas where sawing cross-sections from fire-scarred trees is prohibited.

  17. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  18. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  19. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  20. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  1. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J; Kevin J Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal ar...

  2. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  3. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of... South American cactus moth regulations by adding the entire State of Louisiana to the list of... American cactus moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on December 27, 2010,...

  4. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  5. The Evolution and Expression of the Moth Visual Opsin Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W.; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies. PMID:24205129

  6. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Xu

    Full Text Available Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R, blue (B and ultraviolet (UV opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  7. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  8. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  9. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to produce corn silk extract. The extract may be concentrated at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract....

  10. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  11. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  12. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  13. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  14. Resolving The Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ricarte, Angelo; Hughes, A Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P; Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, David J

    2013-01-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.9 arcsec that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution. The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constr...

  15. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  16. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A; Leal, Walter S

    2010-05-18

    Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

  17. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang

    2003-01-01

    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  18. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae.

  19. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  20. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during 1971, 1972 and 1973, since data on the ecology and econo

  1. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  2. Observations on the ecology and epidemiology of Xyleborus destruens Bldf., the near-primary borer in teak plantations in Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, L.G.E.

    1961-01-01

    While looking for a suitable plot for girth-increment investigations in a thriving 8-year old teak plantation near Batang, Central Java, in June 1918, officers of the Forest Research Institute discovered an unknown, rather conspicuous borer infestation of the trunks. The borer, recognized to be a

  3. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of twe pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are des

  4. Strategic removal of host trees in isolated, satellite infestations of emerald ash borer can reduce population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel J. Fahrner; Mark Abrahamson; Robert C. Venette; Brian H. Aukema

    2017-01-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive beetle causing significant mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and western Russia. The invasive range has expanded to more than half of the states in the United States since the initial detection in Michigan, USA in 2002. Emerald ash borer is typically managed with a combination of techniques...

  5. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  6. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Thakur, N.L.; Raghukumar, S.; Yennawar, P.L.; Anil, A.C.

    on the wood throughout the year. On the contrary, growth of most fungi and five species of wood-borers was adversely affected during the low salinity monsoons. Two fungi and one wood-borer colonized wood preferentially during the monsoon season. Contrary...

  8. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  9. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  10. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.

    1979-09-01

    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  11. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  12. Preliminary Study on Resistance of the Rice Stem Borer (Chilo Suppressalis) to Fipronil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei-hua; HAN Zhao-jun; HAO Ming-li

    2005-01-01

    By means of topical application, fipronil resistance was surveyed in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, from 12 diferent areas in east China from 2001 to 2004. The rice stem borers in most regions of Jiangsu and Anhui were still susceptible to fipronil. But in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province and Cixi, Zhejiang Province, their sensitivity became decreased (resistance ratios were 3.1 and 3.6,respectively), and the medium level of resistance (resistance ratio was 21.2) was found in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province. So, it was still at the early stage for fipronil resistance development in this pest. Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had a little effect on both susceptible and resistant borers (synergism ratios were 1.1-1.2). Tho ugh triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl meleate (DEM) had no effect on the susceptible borers, they had significant synergism on fipronil in the resistant population to fipronil (synergism ratios were 1,8 and 1.6, respectively), indicating esterase and glutathion S-transferase may be involved in the resistance mechanism. Bioassay with currently used insecticides indicated that triazophos (because of high resistance), trichlorphon and acephate had very low toxicity to resistant borers. But diazinon, pyridaphenthion, decamethrin and avermeotin showed high toxicity and had no cross resistance to fipronil, which could be considered as substitute insecticides in the resistance managment.

  13. Aerial insecticide treatments for management of Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloderbeck, P E; Buschman, L L

    2011-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an increasingly important pest of soybean and sunflower in central North America. Nine large-scale field trials were conducted over a 3-year period to determine if Dectes stem borer could be managed with insecticide treatments. Aerial applications of lambda on July 6, 12 and 15 were successful in significantly reducing adults, but applications on July 1, 20 and 24 were less successful. These data suggest that for central Kansas two aerial applications may be required to control Dectes stem borers in soybean. Based on our experience the first application should be made at the peak of adult flight about July 5(th) and the second application 10 days later. The local treatment schedule should be developed to follow the local Dectes stem borer adult emergence pattern. Treated aerial strips 59 m (195 ft) wide were not large enough to prevent reinfestation, but treated half-circles (24 ha or 60 acres) were successful in reducing in Dectes stem borer infestation of soybean. Sweep net samples of adults were not successful in identifying a treatment threshold, so treatment decisions will need to be based on field history of infestation. Further studies are needed to identify better sampling methods that can be used to establish treatment thresholds and to refine the best timing for treatments.

  14. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-wei SHI; Yan HE; Xiang-hua JI; Ming-xing JIANG; Jia-an CHENG

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Knsehel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest office Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepi-doptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 24 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated nega-tively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  15. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Rami; Overholt, W A; Khan, Z R; Polaszek, A

    2002-01-01

    Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stem borers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stem borers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stem borers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stem borer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stem borers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum.

  16. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.

  17. Biology and damage traits of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA WEI; YUN WU; RICHARD REARDON; TIE-HUAN SUN; MIN LU; JIANG-HUA SUN

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a major stem borer of ash (Fraxinus spp.). It is univoltine in Tianjin, while it is semivoltine in Heilongjiang Province, and both univoltine and semivoltine in Changchun, Jilin Province,where the majority is univoltine. The longevity of emerald ash borer adults is 17.2 ± 4.6 days (n = 45), eggs 9.0 ± 1.1 days (n = 103), univoltine larvae 308 days, semivoltine larvae 673 days, and pupae 61.2± 1.6 days (n = 45). It takes about 100 days from the time larvae bore into the phloem to when they complete the pupal cell. In a 10-year-old velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) plantation in Tianjin, emerald ash borer preferred to oviposit on the regions of boles from 50-150 cm above ground, accounting for 76.7% of the total girdling.Girdling on the south side of the tree boles accounted for 43.40% of the total girdling. The emerald ash borer population density is higher at the edge of the plantation compared with the center.

  18. The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y

    2013-02-01

    Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cold hardiness and overwintering strategy of the pink maize stalk borer,Sesamia nonagrioides Lef (lepidoptera, noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillyboeuf, N; Anglade, P; Lavenseau, L; Peypelut, L

    1994-09-01

    The cold-hardening capacity of larvae of the pink maize stalk borer,Sesamia nonagrioides Lef., was examined. Supercooling points (SCPs) of field collected diapausing larvae from south-east and south-west France and non-diapausing and diapausing laboratory-reared larvae did not differ and ranged between -5 and -8°C. Thus, this insect possesses sufficient supercooling ability to avoid freezing over its normal environmental temperature ranges. Despite this, we found thatSesamia presents paradoxical cold reactions. Mortality of cold acclimated diapausing larvae after short-term exposure to temperatures above the SCP is high, supporting the view thatSesamia is cold-sensitive. On the other hand,Sesamia could survive freezing for at least 24 h to temperatures close to the SCP. This ability does not seem to be related to haemolymph trehalose, the sole cold-accumulated compound detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Despite the mildness of the winter 1990-1991, only 5% of the field population survive and pupate in April. The main part of the population died from November to January, the period during which larvae were mainly located in the part of the corn stem above the ground and experienced air temperatures. After January, all surviving larvae were excuusively located in the root, 10 cm below the soil, where they experienced milder temperatures than air. They exhibited a constant low rate of mortality, possibly independent of the cold. In their current distribution area, survival of overwintering larvae ofS. nonagrioides is only related to the microclimate of the overwintering site and freezing tolerance capacity seems to be irrelevant. This study allows us to propose a non-pollutant pest control method based on the "behavioral strategy" of this insect.

  1. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  2. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...

  3. Global gypsy--the moth that gets around

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.E. Wallner

    1998-01-01

    It is difficult to document the total economic impacts of exotic insect pests on eastern U.S. forests. Annual losses to a single introduced pest, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., have exceeded $30 million from 1980 to 1996. The complicated behavior and actions of humans in accelerating the spread of this "global gypsy" are discussed....

  4. The cost of gypsy moth sex in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Bigsby; Mark J. Ambrose; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1860s, gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), has periodically defoliated large swaths of forest in the eastern United States. Prior research has suggested that the greatest costs and losses from these outbreaks accrue in residential areas, but these impacts have not been well quantified. We addressed this lacuna with a case...

  5. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  6. Walnut development affects chemical composition and codling moth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Mills, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated for early and late blooming walnut cultivars in California whether variation in nut phenology resulted in differences in nutritional quality and whether this, in turn, affected the performance of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the extent of nut damage. 2. Mid-season, dur

  7. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; van Wijk, Michiel; Ke, Gao; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Schal, Coby; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far. We tested the hypothesis that the male sex pheromone in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens perfumes the female and functions as an anti-aphrodisiac. Indeed, virgin females perfumed with male pheromone extract, or with its main component, mated significantly less than control virgin females, and this effect persisted for two successive nights. This chemical mate guarding strategy was disadvantageous for H. virescens females, because the reproductive output of twice-mated females was significantly higher than that of once-mated females. Since the female and male sex pheromones are biosynthetically related in this and other moth species, chemical mate guarding may also impose selection pressure on the long-range female sex pheromone channel and consequently affect the evolution of sexual communication. PMID:27934963

  8. Gypcheck environmentally safe viral insecticide for gypsy moth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Reardon; John Podgwaite; Roger. Zerillo

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is an update of handbook FHTET-2009-01, Gypchek - Bioinsecticide for the Gypsy Moth, printed in July, 2009. This update contains information on virus production, safety evaluations, results of efficacy and deposition evaluations, commercial production, and a copy of the revised registration label, material safety data sheet, and...

  9. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  10. Influence of trap placement and design on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Oliver, Jason B; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Youssef, Nadeer; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    The key to an effective pest management program for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera Buprestidae), is a survey program equipped with tools for detecting and delimiting populations. We studied the effects of trap design, color, and placement on the efficacy of sticky traps for capturing the emerald ash borer. There were significant differences in trap catch along a transect gradient from wooded to open field conditions, with most beetles being caught along the edge, or in open fields, 15-25 m outside an ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) (Oleaceae) woodlot. Greater emerald ash borer catch occurred on purple traps than on red or white traps. Traps placed in the mid-canopy of ash trees (13 m) caught significantly more beetles than those placed at ground level. We also describe a new trap design, a three-sided prism trap, which is relatively easy to assemble and deploy.

  11. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle.

  12. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  13. Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Landmann, Tobias; Kyalo, Richard; Ong'amo, George; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Sulieman, Saad; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-05-01

    Average maize yield in eastern Africa is 2.03 t ha-1 as compared to global average of 6.06 t ha-1 due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In eastern Africa, maize yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% and 21% of the total production. The objective of the present study was to explore the possibility of RapidEye spectral data to assess stem borer larva densities in maize fields in two study sites in Kenya. RapidEye images were acquired for the Bomet (western Kenya) test site on the 9th of December 2014 and on 27th of January 2015, and for Machakos (eastern Kenya) a RapidEye image was acquired on the 3rd of January 2015. Five RapidEye spectral bands as well as 30 spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were utilized to predict per field maize stem borer larva densities using generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming Poisson ('Po') and negative binomial ('NB') distributions. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were used to assess the models performance using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The Zero-inflated NB ('ZINB') models outperformed the 'NB' models and stem borer larva densities could only be predicted during the mid growing season in December and early January in both study sites, respectively (RMSE = 0.69-1.06 and RPD = 8.25-19.57). Overall, all models performed similar when all the 30 SVIs (non-nested) and only the significant (nested) SVIs were used. The models developed could improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers within integrated pest management (IPM) interventions.

  14. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  15. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  16. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  17. Multicolored sweet-waxy corn variety-Caitiannuo 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Corn, as the third largest grain crop in China, isgrown on approximately 200 million ha per year. With theimprovement of people's living standard, variousrequirements for corn breeding have presented. Nowadays,the aim of corn breeding is not only for increasing yield,but also for higher quality and other special demands, suchas sweet corn, waxy corn, colored corn, oil-rich corn,lysine-rich corn, etc.

  18. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  19. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the

  20. Aquatic degradation of Cry1Ab protein and decomposition dynamics of transgenic corn leaves under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Rita; Schaller, Jörg; Lintow, Sven; Gert Dudel, E

    2015-03-01

    The increasing cultivation of genetically modified corn plants (Zea mays) during the last decades is suggested as a potential risk to the environment. One of these genetically modified variety expressed the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resulting in resistance against Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer. Transgenic litter material is extensively studied regarding the decomposition in soils. However, only a few field studies analyzed the fate of the Cry1Ab protein and the impact of green and senescent leaf litter from corn on the decomposition rate and related ecosystem functions in aquatic environments. Consequently, a microbial litter decomposition experiment was conducted under controlled semi-natural conditions in batch culture using two maize varieties: one variety with Cry1Ab and another one with the appertaining Iso-line as control treatment. The results showed no significant differences between the treatment with Cry1Ab and the Iso-line regarding loss of total mass in dry weight of 43% for Iso-line and 45% for Bt-corn litter, lignin content increased to 137.5% (Iso-line) and 115.7% (Bt-corn), and phenol loss decreased by 53.6% (Iso-line), 62.2% (Bt-corn) during three weeks of the experiment. At the end of the experiment Cry1Ab protein was still detected with 6% of the initial concentration. A slightly but significant lower cellulose content was found for the Cry1Ab treatment compared to the Iso-line litter at the end of the experiment. The significant higher total protein (25%) and nitrogen (25%) content in Bt corn, most likely due to the additionally expression of the transgenic protein, may increase the microbial cellulose degradation and decrease microbial lignin degradation. In conclusion a relevant year by year input of protein and therefore nitrogen rich Bt corn litter into aquatic environments may affect the balanced nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  2. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect's digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms.

  3. 气候变化对水稻三化螟物候及多度的影响%Phenology and Abundance of Yellow Rice Borer, Tryporyza incertulas Walker(Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) in Relation to Climatic Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立敏; 陈斌; 李正跃; 杨仕生; 孙文

    2012-01-01

    以云南省建水县稻区1986~1997年连续24年同黑光灯下监测诱集的水稻三化螟种群数量及越冬代虫口基数为依据,结合当地1986~1997年最高温度、最低温度、平均温度及相对湿度等主要气象资料,采用多元回归法分析了三化螟物候和多度与气象条件间的相互关系.结果表明,三化螟成虫种群数量在年际闻变化明显,从1986~1997年连续24年间,灯下三化螟成虫的始见期与1~2月的平均温度显著相关,当年11月到次年2月,灯下未诱集到三化螟成虫,从7月到9月,灯下虫量迅速增加,于9月灯下虫量达高蜂.灯下三化螟成虫种群与最高温度、最低温度和平均温度间具有显著相关性,瞳着温度的升高,灯下虫量逐渐增加,但随着相对湿度的增加而降低,降雨量对灯下虫量无明显影响.灯下虫量与气象因素间的多元回归分析及逐步回归分析后获得逐步回归方程Y=-546.67 +10.52X2 -0.52X4 +6.25X5,相关系数R=0.38(F=12.95,P<0.01).灯下虫量与气象因素闻的总体多元回归方程为Y=-723.17 -3.81X1 +26.00X2 - 10.82X3 -0.48X4 +7.67X5 (F=12.39,P<0.01),其中X1为最高温度;X2为平均温度;X3为最低温度;X4为降雨量;X5为相对湿度.越冬代幼虫的虫口密度与次年3月和4月灯下成虫数量具有显著的相关性,且越冬代幼虫的虫口密度是影响灯下虫量的关键因子.%Phenology and abundance of yellow fice borer,Tryporyza incertulas (Walker),were examined throughout 24 consecutive years from the population under the black-light trap and stalk checking in Jianshui county,Yunnan Province,China.The population of moth of T.incertulas varied significanfly between years.The onset of the flight period of the moth from the 1st of March was signilicantly correlated with mean temperature of January and February,whereas the population density of the moth under the light was significautly correlated with mean temperature.No moth was trapped between

  4. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  5. Analysis on transgentic corn hybrids' resistance to corn borer%转Bt基因玉米的应用效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金益; 王振华; 马文荣; 李伟玲; 周广旭

    2000-01-01

    分析了对美国Monsanto公司提供的转Bt基因玉米及其近等基因品系进行的接种亚洲玉米螟试验。结果表明,在黑龙江省转Bt基因玉米品系在心叶期和穗期对亚洲玉米螟的抗性明显高于其近等基因品系,但在籽粒产量上无明显优势。

  6. Tissue Distribution and Purification of Prophenoloxidase in Larvae of Asian Corn Borer, Ostriniafurnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Jing FENG; Wen-Jun FU

    2004-01-01

    Using ammonium sulphate precipitation, Blue-Sepharose CL-6B, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, prophenoloxidase (PPO) was isolated and purified from hemolymph of Ostriniafurnacalis larvae. This zy- mogen was a heterodimer, and composed of two subunits with the relative molecular mass ranging from 66.2 kD to 97.4 kD determined by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence test showed that PPO was present in integument, hemolymph plasma and cell membrane of granular hemocytes and oenocytoids of O. furnacalis larvae.

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiling of a ryanodine receptor gene in Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor (RyR Ca(2+ release channel is the target of diamide insecticides, which show selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the species-specific action of diamide insecticides, we have cloned and characterized the entire cDNA sequence of RyR from Ostrinia furnacalis (named as OfRyR. The OfRyR mRNA has an Open Reading Frame of 15324 bp nucleotides and encodes a 5108 amino acid polypeptide that displays 79-97% identity with other insects RyR proteins and shows the greatest identity with Cnaphalocrocis medinalis RyR (97%. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the OfRyR was expressed at the lowest level in egg and the highest level in adult. The relative expression level of OfRyR in first, third and fifth-instar larva were 1.28, 1.19 and 1.99 times of that in egg. Moreover, two alternative splicing sites were identified in the OfRyR gene. One pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b were present in the central part of the predicted SPRY domain, and an optional exon (c was located between the third and fourth RyR domains. Diagnostic PCR demonstrated that exons a and b existed in all developmental stages of OfRyR cDNA, but exon c was not detected in the egg cDNA. And the usage frequencies of these exons showed a significant difference between different developmental stages. These results provided the crucial basis for the functional expression of OfRyR and for the discovery of compound with potentially selective insect activtity.

  8. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac and Beauveria bassiana on Asiatic corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Mu; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Ning, Xia; Zhang, Bo; Han, Fei; Guan, Xiu-Min; Tan, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2008-10-01

    In this study, interactions between Cry1Ac, a toxic crystal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), and Beauveria bassiana on the mortality and survival of Ostrinia furnacalis was evaluated in the laboratory. The results showed that Cry1Ac is toxic to O. furnacalis. Not only were larval growth and development delayed, but pupation, pupal weight and adult emergency also decreased when larvae were fed on artificial diet containing purified Cry1Ac toxin. When third instars O. furnacalis were exposed to combination of B. bassiana (1.8x10(5), 1.8x10(6) or 1.8x10(7) conidia ml(-1)) and Cry1Ac, (0.2 or 0.8 microg g(-1)), the effect on mortality was additive, however, the combinations of sublethal concentrations showed antagonism between Cry1Ac (3.2 or 13 microg g(-1)) and B. bassiana (1.8x10(5) or 1.8x10(6) conidia ml(-1)). When neonates were reared on sublethal concentrations of Cry1AC until the third instar, and survivors exposed B. bassiana conidial suspension, such treatments showed additive effect on mortality of O. furnacalis except for the combination of Cry1Ac (0.2 microg g(-1)) and B. bassiana (1.8x10(6) conidia ml(-1)) that showed antagonism.

  9. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  10. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY, New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp. trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England.

  11. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  12. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  13. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Kevin J Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to...

  14. Investigation on Parasitic Insect Natural Enemies of Oriental Fruit Moth in Jinzhong%晋中梨小食心虫寄生性天敌昆虫调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 尤希宇; 赵龙龙; 孟豪; 马瑞燕

    2012-01-01

    Oriental fruit moth is one of the most serious fruit tree borer insects in northern China. To explore and utilize its insect natural enemies resources, we selected two types of representative sample areas and investigated their natural insect enemy resources. It showed that the two dominant natural parasitic insect enemy of oriental fruit moth were Coccygomimus disparis and Elodia mono, and the eclosion peak period of the two natural enemies were located in the 0:00-13:00 indoor condition. The two natural enemies co-existed in A area, but the parasitic fly was the dominated natural enemy in which the fruit trees developed naturally. However, the parasitic wasp was the dominated species, the parasitic fly rarely occurred and the occurrences of the two natural enemies were all delayed in fine management B area. In the survey the oriental fruit moth population and the two natural enemies' dynamics showed a significant negative correlation in high density periods. The two natural enemies would successfully control the oriental fruit moth after July.%梨小食心虫是北方果树最严重的食心虫之一,为了探索和利用其天敌昆虫资源,选择山西省太谷地区具有代表性的2类样地,对其天敌资源进行了调查.研究发现,该地区的2种优势寄生性天敌种为舞毒蛾黑瘤姬蜂和亮黑伊乐寄蝇,该2种天敌室内羽化的高峰期多分布在0:00-13:00时段.在果树自然放养的A地,2种天敌并存,但以亮黑伊乐寄蝇为优势种.在人工管理频繁的B地,舞毒蛾黑瘤姬蜂为优势天敌种,亮黑伊乐寄蝇极少发生,并且天敌推迟发生.调查还发现,在梨小食心虫种群的盛发期,其数量变化和2种天敌的发生呈负相关,7月份后,2种天敌可对梨小食心虫形成明显的控制作用.

  15. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  16. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  17. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  18. Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

  19. Evaluation of recovery and monitoring methods for parasitoids released against emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Parisio; Juli R. Gould; John D. Vandenberg; Leah S. Bauer; Melissa K. Fierke

    2017-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive forest pest and the target of an extensive biological control program designed to mitigate EAB-caused ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, hymenopteran parasitoids of EAB from northeastern Asia have been released as biological control agents in North...

  20. Host boring preferences of the tea shot-hole borer Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-native shot-hole borer, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), was discovered in Florida’s avocado production area in Homestead in 2010. It is a highly polyphagous ambrosia beetle that carries Fusarium fungal symbionts. In susceptible host trees, the fung...

  1. Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemah, R; Schulthess, F; Poehling, M; Borgemeister, C; Goergen, G

    2001-06-01

    The importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of Cameroon between 1995 and 1996. The borer species encountered were Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Eldana saccharina Walker on both host plants, and Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot on maize only. Busseola fusca was the predominant host accounting for 44-57% and 96% on maize and elephant grass, respectively, followed by E. saccharina on maize with 27-39%. Fifteen hymenopterous, two dipterous and one fungal species were found on these stem and cob-borers. Among those were six pupal, six larval, four egg, one larval-pupal parasitoid and four hyperparasitoids. The scelionid parasitoids Telenomus busseolae Gahan and T. isis Polaszek were found on B. fusca eggs in all locations. During the first season, mean egg parasitism was low and ranged between 3.1% and 27% versus 54-87% during the second season. Species belonging to the Tetrastichus atriclavus Waterston complex were recovered from all four borer species. The majority and most common larval and pupal parasitoid species belonged to the ingress-and-sting guild. Larval and pupal parasitism were very erratic and on more than 50% of the sampling occasions no parasitoids were recovered. Parasitoid diversity was higher on elephant grass than maize.

  2. An assessment of the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and landscape pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...

  3. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  4. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  5. Evaluation of recovery and monitoring methods for parasitoids released against Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive insect pest, and the target of an extensive biological control campaign designed to mitigate EAB driven ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, environmental releases of three species of hymenopteran parasitoids of EA...

  6. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  7. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall.

  8. Biology and Sampling of Red Oak Borer Populations in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon Crook; Fred Stephen; Melissa Fierke; Dana Kinney; Vaughn Silisbury

    2004-01-01

    A complex interaction of multiple factors has resulted in >75 percent mortality/decline of more than 1 million acres of red oak (Quercus, subgenus Erythrobalanus) on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests. The most striking feature of this oak decline event is an unprecedented outbreak of red oak borer. A visual stand assessment...

  9. Population biology of emerald ash borer and its natural enemies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao

    2008-01-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), also known as emerald ash borer (EAB), was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002 following investigations of declining and dying ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Agrilus planipennis has also spread to Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia,...

  10. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  11. Heat treatment of Firewood for Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard D. Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB)-infested states and into adjoining areas has been a contributor to its spread throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to prevent further human-aided spread of EAB and to facilitate interstate commerce, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and cooperating...

  12. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  13. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  14. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  15. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  16. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoyang Zhao; Miguel A. Alvarez Gonzales; Therese M. Poland; Omprakash. Mittapalli

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong...

  17. Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and Transmembrane Orientation of the Olfactory Co-Receptor Orco from Two Important Lepidopteran Rice Pests, the Leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Su; HUANG Yuan-jie; QIAO Fei; ZHOU Wen-wu; GONG Zhong-jun; CHENG Jia-an; ZHU Zeng-rong

    2013-01-01

    In insects, the sense of smell is mainly mediated by olfactory receptors (Ors). Olfactory co-receptor (Orco), which is co-expressed with the Ors in almost all olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), is demonstrated to be an essential component in the insect olfactory system. It can be potential target for developing novel olfactory-disruption strategy to control insect pests. In this study, two full-length cDNA sequences encoding Orcos (CmedOrco and ChsupOrco) were cloned from two Lepidopteran rice pests, the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. The amino acid sequences of CmedOrco and ChsupOrco showed high similarity to the previously identiifed Orcos from other insect species. Bioinformatic prediction and cellular immunofluorescence indicated that CmedOrco and ChsupOrco were both seven-transmembrane proteins with intracellular N-termini and extracellular C-termini. mRNA expression levels of the two Orcos were much higher in male and female antennae than those in non-olfactory tissues, and the ChsupOrco transcripts reached a peak level in adults compared to other life stages. Our results provide a foundation from which it will be possible to elucidate the roles of Orco in moth olfaction and for the development of environment-friendly management strategies of these two rice insect pests.

  18. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing.

  19. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.;

    1995-01-01

    , we report the pattern of spread at scales of 1 km2. By locating all bushes of the insect's foodplant (Pyracanrha spp.) within 1-km2 quad- rats, the precise pattern of colonisation at finer spatial scales could be established. Where the 1-km2 site was colonised by moths from the main advancing front......We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Here...... the results in terms of a two-stage mod- el of invasion that produces different patterns at small and large geographical scales....

  20. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems.

  1. The Active Space of Mexican Rice Borer Pheromone Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Allison, Jeremy D; Reagan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the United States. Traps baited with the synthetic female sex pheromone of E. loftini are used for monitoring and management of this invasive pest. However, the active space, or radius of attraction, of these traps is not known. Two field experiments examined the effect of intertrap distance on trap captures with hexagonal arrays of traps deployed in rice stubble habitat in Texas (2011) and Louisiana (2013). Trap capture increased with increasing intertrap distance. Trap interference occurred at intertrap distances ≤50 m in the 2011 experiment. Results from the experiment conducted in 2013 indicate that trap interference occurs at intertrap distances of 50 m, but not at distances ≥100 m. These results suggest that under field conditions, E. loftini pheromone traps attract males from distances of 50-100 m. The active space of pheromone traps also was examined under controlled wind conditions by direct observation of male response to detection of the female sex pheromone. Eoreuma loftini males responded to the pheromone blend by becoming active, fanning their wings, and rapidly walking in circles. The mean distance from the pheromone source at which males responded was 47.6 m. This work provides the first documentation of active space for traps baited with female sex pheromone for a crambid species, and these data will improve pheromone trap deployment strategies for E. loftini monitoring and management.

  2. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect’s digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms. PMID:28248990

  3. Improved corn protein based articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  4. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  5. Conservation genetics of the protected moth "Graellsia isabellae" (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Evolutionary and molecular genetics provides valuable information for the efficient conservation of endangered species. In this thesis, I have used a combination of newly generated genetic and ecological data to assess the conservation status of the protected moth Graellsia isabellae. Firstly, I reconstructed the evolutionary history of this iconic insect by using genetic data obtained from samples obtained across the whole known distribution area: Iberia Peninsula and French Alps....

  6. Automatic Moth Detection from Trap Images for Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Weiguang; Taylor, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the number of insect pests is a crucial component in pheromone-based pest management systems. In this paper, we propose an automatic detection pipeline based on deep learning for identifying and counting pests in images taken inside field traps. Applied to a commercial codling moth dataset, our method shows promising performance both qualitatively and quantitatively. Compared to previous attempts at pest detection, our approach uses no pest-specific engineering which enables it to ...

  7. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  9. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit moth larvae treated with phosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Wang, Yuejin

    2012-01-01

    Phosphine has been used worldwide for the control of stored-product insects for many years. However, the molecular mechanism of its toxicity is not clearly understood. In the current study, larvae of the peach fruit moth were fumigated with phosphine. Proteomic analysis was then performed to identify the regulated proteins. Our results confirmed the phosphine toxicity on the peach fruit moth. The median lethal time LT50 was 38.5 h at 330 ppm at 25 degrees C. During fumigation, the respiration of the peach fruit moth was extremely inhibited. Of the 26 regulated proteins, 16 were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry after a 24 h treatment. The proteins were classified as related to metabolism (25 %), anti-oxidation (6 %), signal transduction (38 %), or defense (19 %). The rest (13 %) were unclassified. Phosphine regulation of ATP and glutathione contents, as well as of ATP synthase and glutathione S-transferase 2 activities were confirmed by enzyme activity analysis. These results demonstrate that complex transcriptional regulations underlie phosphine fumigation. New theories on the mechanism of phosphine toxicity may also be established based on these results.

  10. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  11. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Buchmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  12. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Stephen L

    2011-12-14

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  13. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, R; Souto, X C; Sotelo, J; Butrón, A; Malvar, R A

    2003-10-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), is one of the most important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. The objectives of this work were to evaluate, at different times during the growth of maize, structural traits related to the entry point and tissues on which larvae feed and to determine the relationship between these structural traits and the stem borer resistance. Six inbred lines with different levels of stem resistance to S. nonagrioides were evaluated in several trials. Potential structural resistance factors included rind and pith puncture resistance (RPR and PPR), rind thickness, length of the meristematic area (LMA), and pith parenchyma interlumen thickness (PPIT). Surprisingly, the inbred lines that showed the strongest stalks, EP42 and EP47, were not stem resistant to pink stem borer attack, while the stem resistant inbreds A509, CM151, and PB130 were among the least resistant to rind puncture. There were no significant differences among resistant and susceptible inbreds for the rind thickness. However, the susceptible inbred EP42 had the softest internode pith, and the resistant inbred PB130 showed the hardest, as was expected. Susceptible inbred lines in general showed higher values for the LMA, while the PPIT was important for individual inbreds. The results suggest that the usefulness of these characters as estimators of pink stem borer resistance is limited to some genotypes. Besides, even among those genotypes, other mechanisms of resistance that do not involve stalk strength could be present. Among the traits considered, the LMA was the most promising as an indicator of resistance to pink stem borer, although further experimentation is necessary.

  14. Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice.

  15. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  16. HOST SPECIFICITY AND THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF TWO YUCCA MOTH SPECIES IN A YUCCA HYBRID ZONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Pellmyr, Olle; Brock, Marcus

    1998-10-01

    Host specialization is an important mechanism of diversification among phytophagous insects, especially when they are tightly associated with their hosts. The well-known obligate pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas represent such an association, but the degree of host specificity and modes of specialization in moth evolution is unclear. Here we use molecular tools to test the morphology-based hypothesis that the moths pollinating two yuccas, Yucca baccata and Y. schidigera, are distinct species. Host specificity was assessed in a zone of sympatry where the hosts are known to hybridize. Because the moths are the only pollinators, the plant hybrids are evidence that the moths occasionally perform heterospecific pollination. Nucleotide variation was assessed in a portion of the mitochondrial gene COI, and in an intron within a nuclear lysozyme gene. Moths pollinating Y. baccata and Y. schidigera were inferred to be genetically isolated because there was no overlap in alleles at either locus, and all but one of the moths was found on their native host in the hybrid zone. Moreover, genetic structure was very weak across the range of each moth species: estimates of FST for the lysozyme intron were 0.043 (SE = ± 0.004) and 0.021 (SE = ± 0.006) for the baccata and schidigera pollinators, respectively; estimated FST for COI in the baccata moths was 0.228 (± 0.012), whereas schidigera pollinators were fixed for a single allele. These results reveal a high level of migration among widely separated moth populations. We predict that pollen-mediated gene flow among conspecific yuccas is considerable and hypothesize that geographic separation is a limited barrier both for yuccas and for yucca moths. © 1998 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  18. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  19. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  20. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized.

  1. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region.

  2. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  3. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth.

  4. Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K

    2006-01-01

    The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy,

  5. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  6. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allo

  7. An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2010-09-14

    Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude.

  8. Effects of gypsy moth-oriented silvicultural treatments on vertebrate predator communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Greer; Robert C. Whitmore

    1991-01-01

    The impact of forest thinning, as an alternative gypsy moth management technique, on insectivorous birds and small mammals is being investigated in the West Virginia University Forest. The effects of thinning on predation of gypsy moth larvae and pupae by vertebrates are also being examined. Pre-thinning studies were conducted during the spring, summer, and fall of...

  9. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  10. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  11. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  12. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, Å.K; Liénard, M.A.; Groot, A.T.; Hedenström, E; Löfstedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major compo

  13. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  14. Corning: supplier of multiple optical materials for telescope projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Navan, W. David; Edwards, Mary J.

    2006-06-01

    Corning manufactures several optical materials that can be used as reflective and transmissive optics for telescope optical systems. Corning can manufacture these materials in a large range of sizes and configurations. This paper discusses Corning's portfolio of optical materials and their properties, along with Corning's manufacturing capabilities using these materials. Specific examples of optical blanks that Corning has supplied will be discussed.

  15. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  16. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  17. Early results from genetic trials on the growth of Spanish cedar and itssusceptibility to the shoot borer moth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheila E. Ward; Kevyn E. Wightman; Bartolo. Rodriguez Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) is a neotropical broadleaf tree species that is in high demand for furniture and interior fittings. In 1998, seed collections were made from Spanish cedar in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, for genetic conservation and tree improvement projects. Progeny from these collections were established in genetic trials at Bacalar, Noh Bec, and Zoh...

  18. Larval diapause termination in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suang, Suphawan; Manaboon, Manaporn; Singtripop, Tippawan; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Yu; Tiansawat, Pimonrat; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulate larval growth and molting. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is terminating larval diapause especially in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we here measured the expression levels of genes which were affected by juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in diapausing O. fuscidentalis larvae. Corresponding mRNA expression changes in the subesophageal ganglion (SG) and prothoracic gland (PG) were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The data showed similar response patterns of JH receptor gene (OfMet), diapause hormone gene (OfDH-PBAN), ecdysone receptor genes (OfEcR-A and OfEcR-B1) and ecdysone inducible genes (OfBr-C, OfE75A, OfE75B, OfE75C and OfHR3). JHA induced the expressions of OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in both SG and PG, whereas ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were induced by JHA only in PG. For 20E treatment group, expressions of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes in both SG and PG were increased by 20E injection. In addition, the in vitro experiments showed that OfMet and OfDH-PBAN were up-regulated by JHA alone, but ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were up-regulated by JHA and 20E. However, OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the SG was expressed faster than OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the PG and the expression of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes induced by JHA was much later than observed for 20E. These results indicate that JHA might stimulate the PG indirectly via factors (OfMet and OfDH-PBAN) in the SG, which might be a regulatory mechanism for larval diapause termination in O. fuscidentalis. PMID:28369111

  19. On the correlation of moth flight to characteristics of a turbulent plume

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Tal; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms control male moth's navigation towards a female releasing sex pheromone. Optomotor anemotaxis is a visual mechanism for the moth flight direction relative to the ground, mechanoreceptors are used for calculating its speed relative to the air current and chemoreceptors on the antennae for sampling the pheromone concentration in the air. All together result in a zigzagging flight pattern of the male moth that depends on the characteristics of its encounters with the pheromone plume. The zigzagging flight pattern includes constant counter-turnings across the wind line in an angle up to 90 degree (casting). In this paper we address how air turbulence manifests the male flight behavior in respect to the streamwise current that carries the pheromone, emphasizing a relationship between the flight speed and the turbulent plume properties. The interaction between the moth flight and the flow field characteristics was examined in a wind tunnel where moth trajectory was recorded. Particle image veloci...

  20. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  1. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  2. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  3. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P. Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L. grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll. Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

  4. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  6. Production of ethyl alcohol from corn silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H.J.; Ponitz, H.

    1973-01-01

    Corn silage may be employed as a raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol when starch is first cracked by pressure cooking and subsequently saccharified by microbial amalyses. Cracking conditions are: pressure increase 1.6 atmosphere within 60 minutes; maximum maintained for 35 minutes. The fermentation is complete after 72 hours. Extract decreases of fermented mashes made from corn silage are less than when dried corn is used. In the most advantageous case the degree of fermentation was -0.2 weight % of the extract. The maximum yields of alcohol were 26.0.1. pure alcohol/100 kg corn silage and 61.2.1. pure alcohol/100 kg starch. The latter is 3.9.1. pure alcohol lower than when dried corn was used. Despite the high bacterial infection of corn silage practically infection-free processing is assured.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly...

  8. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  9. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  10. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand were collected: A. maenas Doubleday, A. selene Hübner and A. rhodopneuma Röber. A. maenas was the most widespread species in the country with an average of 0.001037 individuals/spot sample and was found all year round. The highest abundance was in Narathiwat province, the northernmost border of the Sundaic region. A. selene was found at higher latitudes ranging from 20 °N at Doi Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai to 13 °N at Prachub Kirikhan province with an average of 0.003303 individuals/spot sample and were found all year round, with the highest abundance in July. By applying IUCN Categories & Criteria A. maenas and A. selene were designated as Vulnerable (VU and Near Threatened (NT species respectively. A. rhodopneuma moths were found only at Doi Phuka National Park, Nan province with 0.000263 individuals/spot sample from February to April and are therefore designated as a Critically Endangered (CR species. A. sinensis was not found during this study and is therefore assigned the status of extinct (EX.

  11. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  12. Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer

    1992-05-01

    The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.

  13. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Russell H

    2012-07-11

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles' response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands.

  14. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  16. Distribution, Predictors, and Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Infestation of White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donnie L; Cipollini, Don

    2017-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America that was recently found infesting white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus L.). Initial reports of the infestation of white fringetree by emerald ash borer occurred in southwestern Ohio and Chicago, IL. We examined white fringetrees at additional sites in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania in Summer and Fall 2015 and Winter 2016 for emerald ash borer infestation. Our aim was to examine white fringetrees at a limited number of sites with emerald ash borer infestation and to relate tree size, crown dieback, epicormic sprouting, tree sex, and adjacency to ash or white fringetrees with the likelihood of beetle infestation. A higher proportion of infested trees exhibited epicormic sprouting and the likelihood that a tree was infested increased with increasing crown dieback, variables that may be both predictors and responses to attack. The proportion of trees infested with emerald ash borer increased with increasing tree size. Signs consistent with emerald ash borer infestation were found in 26% of 178 white fringetrees, with at least one host infested at each site in all states. Infestation rates of white fringetrees increased with the density of white fringetrees at each site. The Chicago Botanic Garden site had a significantly lower infestation (3.7%) than other sites, which may be due to proactive management of ash. Overall, these data indicate white fringetree has been utilized by emerald ash borer throughout their overlapping ranges in the United States in ornamental settings likely due to ecological fitting. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Myctolaimellus robiniae n. sp. (Diplogasterida: Cylindrocorporidae) from Larval Cavities of the Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae Forster

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, A.; Winter, J.; Harman, D.

    2000-01-01

    A new nematode species of the family Cylindrocorporidae and the genus Myctolaimellus from subcortical cavities made by the locust borer (Megacyllene robiniae Forster) in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is described. Males of the new species have a length of 700 to 1,050 µm; a bursate tail, peloderan with nine pairs of rays; and knobbed, curved spicules with tips bending gently into a hook. The distinctive gubernaculum is half the length of the spicules, deeply grooved longitudinally al...

  18. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  19. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage...

  20. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  1. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  2. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuMoucheng; ChenXiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties,supper-sweet corn(S),standard-sweet corn(M),corn-non corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein,vitamin,total sugar showed as parabola.Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually.Total sugar,protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn.VE and VC were very plentiful,and lysine was high.Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  3. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols.... (b) Specifications. Corn endosperm oil conforms to the following specifications: Total fatty...

  4. Characterization of cysteine protease-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing; Xia, Yong-Gui; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2014-02-01

    The striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major pest for rice production in China and the rest of Southeast Asia. Chemical control is the main means to alleviate losses due to this pest, which causes serious environmental pollution. An effective and environmentally friendly approach is needed for the management of the striped rice stem borer. Cysteine proteases in insects could be useful targets for pest management either through engineering plant protease inhibitors, targeting insect digestive cysteine proteases, or through RNA interference-based silencing of cysteine proteases, disrupting developmental regulation of insects. In this study, eight cysteine protease-like genes were identified and partially characterized. The genes CCO2 and CCL4 were exclusively expressed in the larval gut, and their expression was affected by the state of nutrition in the insect. The expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CCO1 was significantly affected by the type of host plant, suggesting a role in host plant - insect interactions. Our initial characterization of the striped rice stem borer cysteine protease-like genes provides a foundation for further research on this important group of genes in this major insect pest of rice.

  5. Ecosystem engineering and manipulation of host plant tissues by the insect borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Uribe-Mú, Claudia A; Martínez-Méndez, A Karen; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Cristobal-Pérez, E Jacob; García-Oliva, Felipe; Quesada, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by insect herbivores occurs as the result of structural modification of plants manipulated by insects. However, only few studies have evaluated the effect of these modifications on the plant responses induced by stem-borers that act as ecosystem engineers. In this study, we evaluated the responses induced by the herbivory of the twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) on its host plant Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae), and its relationship with the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer. Our results demonstrated that O. albomarginata chamela branch removal induced the development of lateral branches increasing the resources needed for the development of future insect generations, of its own offspring and of many other insect species. Detached branches represent habitats with high content of nitrogen and phosphorous, which eventually can be incorporated into the ecosystem, increasing nutrient cycling efficiency. Consequently, branch removal and the subsequent plant tissue regeneration induced by O. albomarginata chamela represent key mechanisms underlying the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer, which enhances arthropod diversity in the ecosystem.

  6. Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer.

  7. Transgenic rice plants expressing cry1Ia5 gene are resistant to stem borer (Chilo agamemnon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A

    2010-01-01

    The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants.

  8. Behaviour Patterns of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams; Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni is a serious pest of pine trees, especially the wide-spread Pinus brutia. This infestation has a significant economic impact both in the loss of forest wood growth and in medical expenses for treating related human diseases. This paper presents a detailed study of the behaviour patterns of the moth stage in an attempt to identify best control methods. Several key observations are made towards the moth emergence timing and period of nocturnal activity. Specifically, 92% of the moths were found to be most active between midnight and 6:00 a.m. Effects of light traps vs. pheromone traps are analyzed and light traps were found to be 15 times more efficient. In addition, 84% of the captured moths were males and only 16% were females. Several attempts were made to lure females into traps but were mostly unsuccessful. Finally, moth emergence in relevance to various weather conditions was analyzed and a clear relationship was established where rain appeared to motivate moth emergence. This work has been done over the span of two consecutive years. A clear mode of action is deduced for the best methods of moth control.

  9. Host plant effect on the susceptibility of gypsy moth caterpillars to insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L is the most significant pest of broadleaf forests. The dynamics of gypsy moth population depends on several biotic and abiotic factors, but it is also highly dependent on the quality of consumed food. The gypsy moth control increasingly relies on the biological preparations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subspec. kurstaki (Btk and Lymantria dispar Nuclear Poliedrosis virus (NPV. Chemical preparations are still applied although more rarely, the pyrethroids which include also lambda-cyhalothrin This paper presents the study results of the effect of host plant on gypsy moth caterpillar (Lymantria dispar L susceptibility to lambda cihalotrine insecticide, by which the study oak leaves were contaminated. The study results show the lowest mortality of the caterpillars fed on contaminated leaves of Turkey oak (17.5%, then pedunculate oak (86.1%, and the highest mortality of caterpillars fed on sessile oak leaves (92%. The rate of the gypsy moth caterpillar development depends on the host plant Susceptibility of the gypsy moth caterpillars to the above preparation depends on the host plant The knowledge of the effect of host plant on insecticide efficiency in gypsy moth suppression would render insecticide utilisation optimal.

  10. 二化螟性信息素应用技术:笼罩诱捕器和筒形诱捕器%Application technology of sex pheromone on rice stem borer,Chilo suppressalis(Walker):cage-trap and tube-trap.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建伟; 盛承发; 夏友保; 李千和

    2001-01-01

    除目前在我国普遍使用的水盆诱捕器,本文还介绍了两种诱捕器——笼罩诱捕器和筒形诱捕器。3种诱捕器的诱蛾效果比较研究表明:(1) 笼罩诱捕器中使用铁纱所制的诱笼的诱蛾量较多,同时其锥体的锥角以60°左右为宜;(2) 筒形诱捕器的诱蛾量略高出笼罩诱捕器;(3) 3种诱捕器中,水盆诱捕器的诱蛾效果较好,筒形诱捕器次之,而笼罩诱捕器较差。%Three kinds of traps,water-trap,cage-trap and tube-trap,for catching the male moth of rice stem borer,Chilo suppressalis(Walker),were evaluated.Synthetic sex pheromone consisting of Z-11-hexadecenal,Z-13-octadecenal and Z-9-hexadecenal was used as the attractant.Trap types of each kind of traps were analyzed and catches of males were counted from 1998-1999 in Lujiang County,Anhui Province,China.The trap catches were significantly greater in water-trap than in tube trap or cage-trap.Better results were obtained in gauze type than other types of cage-trap,and in the type of 60° cone angles.All these types of traps are currently being used or will be applied for population monitoring and mass trapping of rice stem borer in China.

  11. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  12. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests.

  13. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  15. 甜玉米%Growing Good Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2007-01-01

    @@ James Bender, in his book How to Talk Well (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1994)relates the story of a farmer who grew awardwinning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it.

  16. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  17. Stand Factors and Risk Analysis of Harm Extent of Gypsy Moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Juan; Yan Guozeng; Guan Ling; Li Zhenyu; Feng Jihua

    2006-01-01

    Twelve stand factors affecting the harm extent of Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) were studied.Through stepwise regression analyses,three key factors were selected,such as crown density,soil infertility extent,and forestland area.The results showed that there exists a positive correlation between soil infertility extent and the harm extent of Gypsy moths and a significant negative correlation between the other two key factors and the harm extent of this insect.Using the three key factors,a multivariate linear regression model was established by which the authors made a risk analysis of the harm extent of Gypsy moths.

  18. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M

    2013-01-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than...... frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold vs. size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than smaller moths...

  19. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  20. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...... and A2 have almost equal thresholds in contrast to noctuids and geometrids. A3 responds at + 12 to + 16 dB relative to the A1 threshold. The threshold data from the A-cells give no indication of frequency discrimination in greater wax moths. Tethered greater wax moths respond to ultrasound with short...

  1. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  2. Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X; Sardana, R; Kaplan, H; Altosaar, I

    1998-03-17

    Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific delta-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97-100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants.

  3. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  4. Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

    2008-06-01

    A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously

  5. Effect of bunch sanitation on spatial distributions of abscised fruit and phycitine moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California date gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Park, Yong-Lak; Perring, Thomas M

    2007-12-01

    Phycitine moths are an economic impediment to California date, Phoenix dactylifera L., production. Summer populations build to damaging levels on abscised dates that get trapped in fruit bunches. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between abscised fruit and moth infestation, and to evaluate changes in the spatial distribution of abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit after a bunch-sanitation treatment. Over the 9 wk of this study, there was a 69.9% reduction in the number of moth-infested fruit after a single sanitation treatment. Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between abscised fruit and phycitine moth-infested fruit; 42 and 76.6% of the variation in the number of infested fruit was explained by the number of abscised fruit in noncleaned and cleaned plots, respectively. The pattern of reinfestation by moths over the 9 wk posttreatment period was analyzed with spatial analysis with distance indices. Significant spatial associations were found between abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit, supporting the regression analysis. The sanitation treatments caused significant gaps in both abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit. Over time, gap sizes became smaller, indicating a nonrandom pattern of reinfestation that likely was caused by the movement of moths from nontreated areas into treated areas. This study, the first spatial analysis conducted in dates, suggests that in-season bunch sanitation could be effective at reducing summer moth densities if applied on a large regional scale.

  6. Down regulation of a gene for cadherin, but not alkaline phosphatase, associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yang

    Full Text Available The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1 was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis.

  7. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  8. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  9. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  10. An overview on the most outstanding Italian endemic moth, Brahmaea (Acanthobrahmaea europaea (Lepidoptera: Brahmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mosconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of knowledge about the European Bramea, Brahmaea (Acanthobrahmaea europaea Hartig, 1963, is briefly summarized in relation to growing concern about the conservation status of the most outstanding Italian endemic moth species.

  11. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  12. Processionary Moths and Associated Urtication Risk: Global Change-Driven Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Andrea; Larsson, Stig; Roques, Alain

    2017-01-31

    Processionary moths carry urticating setae, which cause health problems in humans and other warm-blooded animals. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa has responded to global change (climate warming and increased global trade) by extending its distribution range. The subfamily Thaumetopoeinae consists of approximately 100 species. An important question is whether other processionary moth species will similarly respond to these specific dimensions of global change and thus introduce health hazards into new areas. We describe, for the first time, how setae are distributed on different life stages (adult, larva) of major groups within the subfamily. Using the available data, we conclude that there is little evidence that processionary moths as a group will behave like T. pityocampa and expand their distributional range. The health problems caused by setae strongly relate to population density, which may, or may not, be connected to global change.

  13. Forest Pest Management, Gypsy Moth Trap Catches on Federal Land, 1990-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are the results of the 1990-1997 gypsy moth pheromone trapping program on Federal lands inVirginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee,...

  14. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul Chaloux, National Program..., fences, vehicles, and houses during their search for food. Entire areas may be stripped of all...

  15. Angel Lichen Moth Abundance and Morphology Data, Grand Canyon, AZ, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth (Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology...

  16. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  17. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  18. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-05-27

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies.

  19. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  20. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  1. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  2. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  3. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  4. Differential effects of insecticides on mitochondrial membrane lfuidity and ATPase activity between the wolf spider and the rice stem borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-ping; CHANG Jing; FENG Tao; GAO Xi-wu

    2015-01-01

    Differential effects of methamidophos and three pyrethroids on ATPase activity and membrane lfuidity of mitochondria were investigated between the wolf spider (Pirata subpiraticus(Boes. et Str.)) and the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis (Walker)). Based on a comparison of LD50values, the toxicities of the tested insecticides were higher to the wolf spider than to the rice stem borer. Cyhalothrin at 1×10–4 mmol L–1 caused inhibition of the mitochondrial Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities, and it’s inhibitions on Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities were signiifcantly higher in the wolf spider (44 and 28%) than in the rice stem borer (19 and 11%). Methamidophos at 1×10–4 mmol L–1 decreased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity by 16 and 27% in the wolf spider and the rice stem borer, respectively, but no signiifcant effect on the speciifc activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was observed. The DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) lfuorescence polarization values of mitochondrial membranes were not signiifcantly affected by methamidophos in either species. However, cyhalothrin and alpha-cyperme-thrin induced the values of DPH polarization of mitochondrial membrane increasing with the concentration of cyhalothrin and alpha-cypermethrin from 20 to 100 µmol L–1 in the rice stem borer and the wolf spider. Effect of ethofenprox on lfuidity of the wolf spider and the rice stem borer was contrary. These results suggest that both inhibition of membrane ATPase and changes of membrane lfuidity could be appended to the action mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticides.

  5. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  6. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  7. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  8. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  10. Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, R E; Spence, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passa...

  11. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Moucheng; Chen Xiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties, supper-sweet corn (S), standard-sweet corn (M), common corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein, vitamin, total sugar showed as parabola. Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually. Total sugar, protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn. VE and Vc were very plentiful, and lysine was high. Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21 ,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  12. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  13. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  14. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  15. ALKALINE PULP OF CORN STALKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum

    2004-01-01

    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  16. Simulation Modeling to Interpret the Captures of Moths in Pheromone-Baited Traps Used for Surveillance of Invasive Species: the Gypsy Moth as a Model Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Josep; Cardé, Ring T

    2016-09-01

    When pheromone traps are used for detection of an invasive pest and then delimitation of its distribution, an unresolved issue is the interpretation of failure to capture any target insects. Is a population present but not detected, a so-called false negative? Using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as an exemplar, we modeled the probability of males being captured in traps deployed at densities typical for surveillance (1 per 2.6 km(2) or 1 per mi(2)) and delimitation (up to 49 per 2.6 km(2)). The simulations used a dynamic wind model generating a turbulent plume structure and varying wind direction, and a behavior model based on the documented maneuvers of gypsy moths during plume acquisition and along-plume navigation. Several strategies of plume acquisition using Correlated Random Walks were compared to ensure that the generated dispersions over three days were not either overly clumped or ranged many km. Virtual moths were released into virtual space with patterns mimicking prior releases of gypsy moth males in Massachusetts at varying distance from a baited trap. In general, capture rates of virtual and real moths at varying trap densities were similar. One application of this approach was to estimate through bootstrapping the probabilities of not detecting populations having densities ranging from 1 to 100 moths per 2.6 km(2) and using traps that varied from 25 to 100 % in their efficiencies of capture. Low-level populations (e.g., 20-30 per 2.6 km(2)) often were not detected with one trap per 2.6 km(2), especially when traps had low efficiencies.

  17. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindra Síchová

    Full Text Available Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute

  18. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the

  19. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  20. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  1. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  3. Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrón, A; Tarrío, R; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-04-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary selection criterion to avoid any unwanted negatively correlated response on this character. The aims of investigation were: (1) to monitor the effects of selection for resistance to pink stem borer on allele frequency at 70 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their impact on the genetic structure of EPS12 and (2) to identify loci at which allelic frequencies changed significantly due to directional selection. Genetic diversity was reduced during the selection process (as expected since random genetic drift as well as selection could reduce genetic variability), but not significantly so. Although the loss of genetic variation was generally consistent with that expected in a model in which random genetic drift acts alone on neutral alleles, the changes observed in the frequency of five alleles were significantly greater than expected. Further, the linear trend of the departure from the random genetic drift model was significant for some allelic versions of two SSR markers, umc1329 and phi076; directional selection was therefore acting on these loci. The significant effect of directional selection on those markers suggests the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tunnel length and/or for yield under artificial infestation with Sesamia nonagrioides on the long arm of chromosome 4.

  4. Management of stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe in maize using conventional pesticides in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswati Neupane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe is one of the most destructive pests of maize crop. Research experimentations were carried out on maize to control stem borer using conventional pesticides under field condition during summer season of two consecutive years from 2015 to 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan. All used pesticides had significant effect (P≤0.05 on percent damage and crop yield over control. In 2015, the lower percent damage (5.3% with higher crop yield (4.52 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 was observed in plot sprayed with spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water followed by plot treated with chloropyriphos 50% EC+cypermethrin 5%EC @1.5ml L-1 of water with percent damage of 6.60%, crop yield (4.23 t ha-1 and insect score of 1.60. Almost similar trend of insect incidence along with damage percentage and yield data were observed in 2016. The higher percent damage control (79.06% was observed at the plot sprayed after spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water with higher crop yield (4.58 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 followed by the plot treated with imidacloprid 17.8% @ 0.5 ml L-1 of water with percent damage control of 73.10 %, crop yield (3.38 t/ha and insect sore 1.50. The highest percent damage (20.63% was observed in the control plot with lower yield (0.95 t ha-1 and highest insect score (6.00. Over the years, spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water was effective bio-pesticide to control maize stem borer damage and also increase the yield.

  5. Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-09

    Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products.

  6. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  7. Ethanol from corn silage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlberg, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    The corn silage to ethanol process is described. The process feed is corn silage preserved with sulfuric acid. No anaerobic ensilement is necessary since H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ completely prevents microbial growth. The acidified corn silage is heated by steam injection as it is loaded into a batch reactor. The polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to xylose and glucose over a 6 to 8 hour period. Then the sugars are washed from the residual fibers over a 6 to 12 hour period with thin stillage or water. The hot, acidic syrup is then neutralized and cooled for fermentation. After fermentation the ethanol is distilled. The residual fibers containing the thin stillage, corn germ, cellulose, and lignin are unloaded from the reactor and dried with flue gases for animal feed.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  9. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  10. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  11. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Achhami, Buddhi Bahadur; Santa Bahadur BK; Bhandari, GhanaShyam

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and...

  12. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  13. Biochemical Mechanism of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2014-01-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole exhibits good efifcacy and plays an important role in controlling the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus. However, resistance to chlorantraniliprole has been observed recently in some ifeld populations. At present study, diamondback moths with resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistant ratio (RR) was 82.18) for biochemical assays were selected. The assays were performed to determine potential resistance mechanisms. The results showed that the selected resistant moths (GDLZ-R) and susceptible moth could be synergized by known metabolic inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) at different levels (1.68-5.50-fold and 2.20-2.89-fold, respectively), and DEM showed the maximum synergism in both strains. In enzymes assays, a high level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in the resistant moth, in contrast, moths that are susceptible to the insecticide had only 1/3 the GST activity of the resistant moths. The analysis of short-term exposure of chlorantraniliprole on biochemical response in the resistant strain also showed that GST activity was signiifcantly elevated after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of chlorantraniliprole (about 1/3 LC50, 12 mg L-1) 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results show that there is a strong correlation between the enzyme activity and resistance, and GST is likely the main detoxiifcation mechanism responsible for resistance to chlorantraniliprole in P. xylostella L., cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) and carboxy-lesterase (CarE) are involved in to some extent.

  14. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher.

  15. Modeling emerald ash borer dispersal using percolation theory: estimating the rate of range expansion in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms; Louis R. Iverson

    2008-01-01

    The dispersal of organisms is rarely random, although diffusion processes can be useful models for movement in approximately homogeneous environments. However, the environments through which all organisms disperse are far from uniform at all scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is obligate on ash (Fraxinus spp...

  16. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  17. Microsatellite population genetics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): comparisons between Asian and North American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson C. Keever; Christal Nieman; Larissa Ramsay; Carol E. Ritland; Leah S. Bauer; D. Barry Lyons; Jenny S. Cory

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae), is an invasive wood-boring beetle native to northeast Asia. This species was first detected in Michigan USA in 2002, and is a significant threat to native and ornamental ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) throughout North America. We...

  18. Erianthus: A sugarcane relative with potential as a source of resistance to the stem borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...

  19. Infestation by Coffee White Stem Borer, Xylotrechus quadripes, in Relation to Soil and Plant Nutrient Content and Associated Quality Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation by coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is becoming severe in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in North and South America. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the severity of infe

  20. Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

  1. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  2. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  3. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  4. Treatment of California stone fruit with methyl bromide or phosphine to eliminate peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to develop postharvest chamber fumigations that ensure complete mortality of peach twig borer (PTB) in California stone fruit exports; results from preliminary toxicological and phytotoxicological research are presented. Fumigations with 1500 ppm phosphine over a 24 h ex...

  5. A Survey: Potential Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Tolerant to Drought or Resistant to Stem Borers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac M. Wamatsembe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.

  6. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  7. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  8. Source water contributions and hydrologic responses to simulated emerald ash borer infestations in depressional black ash wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Van Grinsven; Joseph P. Shannon; Joshua C. Davis; Nicholas W. Bolton; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Randall K. Kolka; Thomas Grant Pypker

    2017-01-01

    Forested wetlands dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) are currently threatened by the rapid expansion of the exotic emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America, and very little is known about the hydrology and ecology of black ash wetlands. The ecohydrological response of...

  9. Evaluating the economic costs and benefits of slowing the spread of emerald ash borer in Ohio and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Bossenbroek; Audra Croskey; David Finnoff; Louis Iverson; Shana M. McDermott; Anantha Prasad; Charles Sims; Davis. Sydnor

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis; EAB) is poised to wipe out native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) in North America with expected catastrophic losses to ash tree forestry (MacFarlane and Meyer 2005). EAB was first discovered in Detroit in 2002. Most scientists hypothesize that it entered the United States through solid wood...

  10. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  11. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, to induced volatiles of Manchurian ash, Fraxinus mandshurica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Therese M. Poland; James R. Miller; Lukasz L. Stelinski; Gary G. Grant; Peter de Groot; Linda Buchan; Linda Mac Donald

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the volatile emissions of Manchurian ash seedlings, Fraxinus mandshurica, in response to feeding by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and to exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Feeding damage by adult A. planipennis and MeJA treatment increased volatile emissions compared...

  12. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  13. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  14. The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  15. Can ash communities and their dependent species be partially protected through biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002 and has been detected in 32 U.S. states and two Canadian pro...

  16. Verification of a useful character for separating the sexes of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Coleman; S.J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new threat to several native oak species in California (CA) (Coleman & Seybold 2008a, b). The beetle larvae feed in and damage the outer xylem, cambium, and phloem of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née (Fagaceae),...

  17. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  18. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: The potential for early stage recovery of North American ash trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...

  19. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  20. Planning for and implementing an emerald ash borer-induced forest restoration program in municipal woodlands in Oakville, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk

    2017-01-01

    Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...