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Sample records for corium

  1. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  2. Corium spreading issue; Le corium et son etalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Brayer, C.; Cranga, M.; Journeau, C.; Laffont, G.; Splinder, B.; Veteau, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DPT), 38 (France)

    1999-07-01

    Safety is one of the major issues for nuclear power plants; its improvement is a constant R and D axis for the CEA. In the event of a highly unlikely core melt-down accident in Light Water Reactors, the Safety Authorities of several EU countries have requested the industries and utilities to consider severe accidents with reactor pressure vessel failure for the design of the next generation of nuclear power plants. The objective is to preserve the integrity of the containment as the main barrier of fission product release to the environment. This can only be achieved if the core melt mixture (called corium, essentially composed of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Zr, Fe and fission products) is stabilized before it can penetrate the basement. Consequently, various core-catcher concepts are under investigation for future reactors in order to prevent basement erosion, and to stabilize and control the corium within the containment. In particular, in the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept, the corium is mixed with a special concrete, and the molten mixture spread over a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom; with subsequent cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading requires intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify the key phenomena, which govern the spreading. For some years now, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has been conducting a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental (with simulant and prototypic materials) and theoretical investigations, which are finally gathered into scenario and mechanistic computer codes. Within this framework, a large part is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. After a reminder of the general objectives and a description of the DRn approach and facilities, this paper presents the most important results. (authors)

  3. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.

  4. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  5. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO 2 , 16% ZrO 2 , and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m 2 and 3.7 MW/m 2 , respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  6. Corium Oxidation at Temperatures Above 2000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagrman, Donald L.; Rempe, Joy L.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic model, based on a quasi-equilibrium analysis of oxidation reactions, is proposed for predicting high-temperature corium oxidation. The analysis suggests that oxide forming on the surface of corium containing uranium, zirconium, and iron is similar to the oxides formed on zirconium and uranium as long as there is a small percentage of unoxidized zirconium or uranium in the metallic phase. This is because of the higher affinity of zirconium and uranium for oxygen. Hence, oxidation rates and heat production rates are similar to (U,Zr) compounds until nearly all the uranium and zirconium in the corium oxidizes. Oxidation rates after this point are predicted to be similar to those implied by the oxide thickness present when the forming oxide ceases to be protective, and heat generation rates should be similar to those implied by iron oxidation, i.e., ∼4% of the zirconium oxidation heating rate.The maximum atomic ratio of unoxidized iron to unoxidized liquid zirconium plus uranium for the formation of a solid protective oxide below 2800 K is estimated for a temperature, T (in Kelvin), as follows:(unoxidized iron)/(unoxidized zirconium + turanium) = (1/28){5.7/exp[-(147 061 + 12.08T log(T) - 61.03T - 0.000555T 2 /1.986T)]} 1/2 .As long as this limit is not exceeded, either zirconium or uranium metal oxidation rates and heating describe the corium oxidation rate. If this limit is exceeded, diffusion of steam to the corium surface will limit the oxidation rate, and linear time-dependent growth of a nonprotective, mostly FeO, layer will occur below the protective (Zr,U) O 2 scale. When this happens, the oxidation should be at the constant rate given by the thickness of the protective layer. Heat generation should be similar to that of iron oxidation

  7. Corium Oxidation at Temperatures Above 2000 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, Donald Lee; Rempe, Joy Lynn

    2001-02-01

    A mechanistic model, based on a quasi-equilibrium analysis of oxidation reactions, is proposed for predicting high-temperature corium oxidation. The analysis suggests that oxide forming on the surface of corium containing uranium, zirconium, and iron is similar to the oxides formed on zirconium and uranium as long as there is a small percentage of unoxidized zirconium or uranium in the metallic phase. This is because of the higher affinity of zirconium and uranium for oxygen. Hence, oxidation rates and heat production rates are similar to (U,Zr) compounds until nearly all the uranium and zirconium in the corium oxidizes. Oxidation rates after this point are predicted to be similar to those implied by the oxide thickness present when the forming oxide ceases to be protective, and heat generation rates should be similar to those implied by iron oxidation, i.e., ~4% of the zirconium oxidation heating rate. The maximum atomic ratio of unoxidized iron to unoxidized liquid zirconium plus uranium for the formation of a solid protective oxide below 2800 K is estimated for a temperature, T (in Kelvin), as follows: (unoxidized iron)/(unoxidized zirconium + turanium) = (1/28){5.7/exp[-(147 061 + 12.08T log(T) - 61.03T - 0.000555T2/1.986T)]}1/2. As long as this limit is not exceeded, either zirconium or uranium metal oxidation rates and heating describe the corium oxidation rate. If this limit is exceeded, diffusion of steam to the corium surface will limit the oxidation rate, and linear time-dependent growth of a nonprotective, mostly FeO, layer will occur below the protective (Zr,U) O2 scale. When this happens, the oxidation should be at the constant rate given by the thickness of the protective layer. Heat generation should be similar to that of iron oxidation.

  8. Internal corium catcher of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatolii S Vlasov; Vladimir N Mineev; Aleksandr S Sidorov; Yuri A Zeigarnik

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A corium catcher is one of the main devices of a nuclear reactor that provides corium melt and fission products retention within a containment during severe accidents. Several studies and design developments have shown that corium retention within a reactor vessel can be attained with a moderate capacity of the latter (up to 600 - 650 MW el.). With a higher reactor capacity external corium catchers are applied both at Russian (VVER-1000) and European (EPR) reactors. In the external catcher of a VVER-1000 reactor, most technological problems are solved due to using sacrificial material. They are as follows: (a) endo-thermal interaction of corium and sacrificial material reduces a level of the temperatures in the final melt pool; (b) solution in the melt of a great amount of the sacrificial material reduces the specific heat release density and the heat flux density at the boundaries of a melt; (c) due to changing of the oxide-component density an inverse stratification of the metallic and oxide components of the corium takes place, thus excluding heat-flux focusing in the zone of the metallic layer and making it possible to supply water on the free surface of the corium without a danger of incipience of the vapor explosion; (d) final oxidation of zirconium occurs without hydrogen generation. The above principles have been realized in the external catcher of the VVER- 1000 reactor at Tyanvan NPS that is presently under construction in China. Successfully solving of the problems concerning to the external catcher makes it possible to return on the new conceptual and technological basis to the idea of retention of the corium melt inside the vessel of a nuclear reactor of large capacity, that is, to provide the reactor vessel to play a role of an internal catcher. For this purpose, a reactor vessel is elongated by approximately two meters. In the lower part of the vessel, on elliptical bottom, pieces of sacrificial material are arranged

  9. Experimental studies of oxidic molten corium-vessel steel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Yu.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu.; Kulagin, I.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.; Martinov, V.V.; Gusarov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results of molten corium-steel specimen interaction with molten corium on the 'Rasplav-2' test facility are presented. In the experiments, cooled vessel steel specimens positioned on the molten pool bottom and uncooled ones lowered into the molten pool were tested. Interaction processes were studied for different corium compositions, melt superheating and in alternative (inert and air) overlying atmosphere. Hypotheses were put forward explaining the observed phenomena and interaction mechanisms. The studies presented in the paper were aimed at the detection of different corium-steel interaction mechanisms. Therefore certain identified phenomena are more typical of the ex-vessel localization conditions than of the in-vessel corium retention. Primarily, this can be referred to the phenomena of low-temperature molten corium-vessel steel interaction in oxidizing atmosphere

  10. Experimental studies of oxidic molten corium-vessel steel interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V. E-mail: niti-npc@sbor.net; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Yu.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu.; Kulagin, I.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.; Martinov, V.V.; Gusarov, V.V

    2001-12-01

    The experimental results of molten corium-steel specimen interaction with molten corium on the 'Rasplav-2' test facility are presented. In the experiments, cooled vessel steel specimens positioned on the molten pool bottom and uncooled ones lowered into the molten pool were tested. Interaction processes were studied for different corium compositions, melt superheating and in alternative (inert and air) overlying atmosphere. Hypotheses were put forward explaining the observed phenomena and interaction mechanisms. The studies presented in the paper were aimed at the detection of different corium-steel interaction mechanisms. Therefore certain identified phenomena are more typical of the ex-vessel localization conditions than of the in-vessel corium retention. Primarily, this can be referred to the phenomena of low-temperature molten corium-vessel steel interaction in oxidizing atmosphere.

  11. Analysis of the corium phases by X-ray diffraction; Analyses des phases du corium par diffraction des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillon, G

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the severe accidents R and D studies led by CEA, the better knowledge of the corium behaviour, corium coming from the melting of a nuclear reactor, are fundamental stakes in order to master this kind of accident. Among the available physical properties of the corium, the nature of the final crystalline compounds which have been made during the, cooling gives information about its solidification and its stabilisation. X-Rays Diffraction is the reference method used in order to characterize the corium coming from the different facilities of the European platform PLINIUS of CEA-Cadarache. This work presents the scientific approach that has been followed in order to obtain information both qualitative and quantitative on corium, using X-Rays Diffraction. For instance, a specific method for identifying U{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} solid solutions has been developed, and the validity of quantitative analysis of corium crystalline phases using the Rietveld method (with an internal standard), has been tested. This last method has also permitted semi-quantitative measurements of amorphous phases within corium. For these studies, analysis of prototypical corium has been conducted on samples coming from the experiences led on the different facilities of the PLINIUS platform. These analysis allowed for the first time to obtain quantitative data of the corium crystalline phases in order to validate thermodynamic databases and has been used to estimate the thereto-physical properties of the corium. New information on crystalline phases of corium has also been found, especially for the UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} pseudo binary system. (author)

  12. Success for the Vulcano's team. First real corium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnoy, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the joint CEA-DRN/EDF-DER project 'Vulcano' is the mastery of the corium spreading and cooling on a recovery device. The first real corium spreading test has been successfully performed at the CEA/Cadarache centre (France). This short paper describes the experimental setup and the first results of the experiment. (J.S.)

  13. Modeling of corium dispersion in DCH accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    1996-01-01

    A model that governs the dispersion process in the direct containment heating (DCH) reactor accident scenario is developed by a stepwise approach. In this model, the whole transient is subdivided into four phases with an isothermal assumption. These are the liquid and gas discharge, the liquid film flow in the cavity before gas blowdown, the liquid and gas flow in the cavity with droplet entrainment, and the liquid transport and re-entrainment in the subcompartment. In each step, the dominant driving mechanisms are identified to construct the governing equations. By combining all the steps together, the corium dispersion information is obtained in detail. The key parameters are predicted quantitatively. These include the fraction of liquid that flows out of the cavity before gas blowdown, the dispersion fraction and the mean droplet diameter in the cavity, the cavity pressure rise due to the liquid friction force, and the dispersion fractions in the containment via different paths. Compared with the data of the 1:10 scale experiments carried out at Purdue University, fairly good agreement is obtained. A stand-alone prediction of the corium dispersion under prototypic Zion reactor conditions is carried out by assuming an isothermal process without chemical reactions. (orig.)

  14. Corium melt researches at VESTA test facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Yeol Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available VESTA (Verification of Ex-vessel corium STAbilization and VESTA-S (-small test facilities were constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2010 to perform various corium melt experiments. Since then, several tests have been performed for the verification of an ex-vessel core catcher design for the EU-APR1400. Ablation tests of an impinging ZrO2 melt jet on a sacrificial material were performed to investigate the ablation characteristics. ZrO2 melt in an amount of 65–70 kg was discharged onto a sacrificial material through a well-designed nozzle, after which the ablation depths were measured. Interaction tests between the metallic melt and sacrificial material were performed to investigate the interaction kinetics of the sacrificial material. Two types of melt were used: one is a metallic corium melt with Fe 46%, U 31%, Zr 16%, and Cr 7% (maximum possible content of U and Zr for C-40, and the other is a stainless steel (SUS304 melt. Metallic melt in an amount of 1.5–2.0 kg was delivered onto the sacrificial material, and the ablation depths were measured. Penetration tube failure tests were performed for an APR1400 equipped with 61 in-core instrumentation penetration nozzles and extended tubes at the reactor lower vessel. ZrO2 melt was generated in a melting crucible and delivered down into an interaction crucible where the test specimen is installed. To evaluate the tube ejection mechanism, temperature distributions of the reactor bottom head and in-core instrumentation penetration were measured by a series of thermocouples embedded along the specimen. In addition, lower vessel failure tests for the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant are being performed. As a first step, the configuration of the molten core in the plant was investigated by a melting and solidification experiment. Approximately 5 kg of a mixture, whose composition in terms of weight is UO2 60%, Zr 10%, ZrO2 15%, SUS304 14%, and B4C 1%, was melted in a

  15. Viscosities of corium-concrete mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.M.; Ganzhorn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Severe accidents on nuclear reactors involve many situations such as pools of molten core material, melt spreading, melt/concrete interactions, etc. The word 'corium' designates mixtures of materials issued from the molten core at high temperature; these mixtures involve mainly: UO2, ZrO2, Zr and, in small amounts, Ni, Cr, Ag, In, Cd. These materials, when flowing out of the reactor vessel, may interact with the concrete of the reactor building thus introducing decomposition products of concrete into the original mixture. These decomposition products are mainly: SiO 2 , FeO, MgO, CaO and Al 2 O 3 in different amounts depending on the nature of the concrete being considered. Siliceous concrete is rich in SiO 2 , limestone concrete contains both SiO 2 and CaO. Liquidus temperatures of such mixtures are generally obove 2300 K whereas solidus temperatures are ∝1400 K. (orig.)

  16. Technical evaluation of corium cooling at the reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Chan, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae Hun; Lee, Jong In

    1998-01-01

    To terminate the progression of the severe accident and mitigate the accident consequences, corium cooling has been suggested as one of most important design features considered in the severe accident mitigation. Till now, some kinds of cooling methodologies have been identified and, specially, the corium cooling at the reactor cavity has been considered as one of the most promising cooling methodologies. Moreover, several design requirements related to the corium cooling at the reactor cavity have been also suggested and applied to the design of the next generation reactor. In this study, technical descriptions are briefly described for the important issues related to the corium cooling at the reactor cavity, i.e. cavity area, cavity flooding system, etc., and simple evaluations for those items have been performed considering present technical levels including the experiment and analytical works

  17. Oxidation effects during corium melt in-vessel retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almyashev, V.I.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Vitol, S.A. [Alexandrov Scientific-Research Institute of Technology (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V.V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bechta, S. [Royal Institute of Technology (KHT), Stockholm (Sweden); Barrachin, M.; Fichot, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), St Paul lez Durance (France); Bottomley, P.D., E-mail: paul.bottomley@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre, Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, M. [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI (France)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Corium–steel interaction tests were re-examined particularly for transient processes. • Oxidation of corium melt was sensitive to oxidant supply and surface characteristics. • Consequences for vessel steel corrosion rates in severe accidents were discussed. - Abstract: In the in-vessel corium retention studies conducted on the Rasplav-3 test facility within the ISTC METCOR-P project and OECD MASCA program, experiments were made to investigate transient processes taking place during the oxidation of prototypic molten corium. Qualitative and quantitative data have been produced on the sensitivity of melt oxidation rate to the type of oxidant, melt composition, molten pool surface characteristics. The oxidation rate is a governing factor for additional heat generation and hydrogen release; also for the time of secondary inversion of oxidic and metallic layers of corium molten pool.

  18. Thermodynamic study on the in-vessel corium - Application to the corium/concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor, the nuclear fuel can interact with the Zircaloy cladding, the neutronic absorber and the surrounding metallic structure forming a partially or completely molten mixture. The molten core can then interact with the reactor steel vessel forming a mixture called in-vessel corium. In the worst case, this mixture can pierce the vessel and pour onto the concrete underneath the reactor, leading the formation of the ex-vessel corium. Furthermore, depending on the considered scenario, the corium can be formed by a liquid phase or by two liquids, one metallic the other oxide. The objective of this thesis is the investigation of the thermodynamics of the prototypic in-vessel corium U-Pu-Zr- Fe-O. The approach used during the thesis is based on the CALPHAD method, which allows to obtain a thermodynamic model for this complex system starting from phase diagram and thermodynamic data. Heat treatments performed on the O-U-Zr system allowed to measure two tie-lines in the miscibility gap in the liquid phase at 2567 K. Furthermore, the liquidus temperatures of three Zr-enriched samples have been obtained by laser heating in collaboration with ITU. With the same laser heating technique, solidus temperatures have been obtained on the UO 2 -PuO 2 -ZrO 2 system. The influence of the reducing or oxidising on the melting behaviour of this system has been studied for the first time. The results show that the oxygen stoichiometry of these oxides strongly depends on the oxygen potential and on the metal composition of the samples. The miscibility gap in the liquid phase of the U-Zr-Fe-O system has been also observed. The whole set of experimental results with the literature data allowed to develop the thermodynamic model of the U-Pu-Zr-Fe-O system. Solidification path calculations have been performed for all the investigated samples to interpret the microstructures of the solidified samples. A good accordance has been obtained between

  19. Final synthesis of Sarnet (Phase 1) corium activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.; Steinbruck, M.; Repetto, G.; Duriez, Ch.; Koundy, V.; Ma, W.M.; Burger, M.; Spindler, B.

    2009-01-01

    Within the SARNET Severe Accident Research Network of excellence, the Corium topic covers all the behaviour of corium (mixture formed by the molten materials arising from a postulated nuclear reactor severe accident) from early phase of core degradation to in or ex-vessel corium recovery with the exception of corium interaction with water, direct containment heating and fission product release. The Corium topic regroups in three work packages the critical mass of competence to improve significantly the corium behaviour knowledge. The spirit of the SARNET networking is to share the knowledge, the facilities and the simulation tools for severe accidents, so to reach a better efficiency and to rationalize the R and D effort at European level. Extensive benchmarking has been launched in most of the areas of research. These benchmarks were mainly dedicated to the recalculation of analytical experiments, integral experiments or reactor applications. Eventually, all the knowledge will be accumulated in the ASTEC severe accident simulation code through physical model improvements and extension of validation database. This report summarizes the progress that has been achieved in the frame of the networking activities for the four and half years of the FP6 project. (authors)

  20. Steam explosion triggering phenomena: stainless steel and corium-E simulants studied with a floodable arc melting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.; Buxton, L.D.

    1978-05-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments on the thermal interaction of light water reactor core materials with water have been performed. Samples (10--35 g) of Type 304 stainless steel and Corium-E simulants were each flooded with approximately 1.5 litres of water to determine whether steam explosions would occur naturally. Many of the experiments also employed artificially induced pressure transients in an attempt to initiate steam explosions. Vigorous interactions were not observed when the triggering pulse was not applied, and for stainless steel the triggering pulse initiated only coarse fragmentation. Two-stage, pressure-producing interactions were triggered for an ''oxidic'' Corium-E simulant. An impulse-initiated gas release theory has been simulated to explain the initial sample fragmentation. Although the delayed second stage of the event is not fully understood, it does not appear to be readily explained with classical vapor explosion theory. Rather, some form of metastability of the melt seems to be involved

  1. Étude thermodynamique du corium en cuve - Application à l'interaction corium/béton

    OpenAIRE

    Quaini , Andrea

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor, the nuclear fuel can interact with the Zircaloy cladding, the neutronic absorber and the surrounding metallic structure forming a partially or completely molten mixture. The molten core can then interact with the reactor steel vessel forming a mixture called in-vessel corium. In the worst case, this mixture can pierce the vessel and pour onto the concrete underneath the reactor, leading the formation of the ex-vessel corium. Furthermore...

  2. A study on corium behaviour under external vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kang, Kyung Ho; Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Hee Dong

    2000-04-01

    This study presents the results of evaluation and analysis on the second phase of the RASPLAV project for three years between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2000. In the RASPLAV Phase II study, two large-scale experiments of RASPLAV-AW-200-3, 4 were conducted to estimate the heat flux distribution in the corium and thermal interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel. Several small-scale experiments such as TULPAN, TF, and STF were conducted to analyze thermal stratification and additive effect of core materials on corium behavior. The Salt experiments were conducted to estimate the crust and the mushy region formation, as well as natural convection heat transfer in the corium. Material properties of the corium and the salt were measured in the RASPLAV project. During the RASPLAV-AW-200-3 test, approximately 22 kg of the corium leaked from the test furnace, because Fe from the FeO, which was additive to reduce the melting temperature of fuel pellet, interacted with Tungsten protector. It is concluded from the AW-200-3 test results that the oxidized U-Zr-O is not separated. From the RASPLAV-AW-200-4 test results, the C-32 fuel with the miscibility gap and low content of carbon was not separated thermally. The carbon is known as a dominant factor in the thermal stratification of the corium from the small and medium scale test results such as TULPAN, TF, and STF. The fuel composition, test method and condition in the RASPLAV-AW-2003,4 were selected using the small and medium scale test results. It is confirmed from the Salt test that the analytical model of the CONV code predicts heat transfer with crust formation in the molten pool very well.

  3. A study on corium behaviour under external vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kang, Kyung Ho; Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Hee Dong

    2000-04-01

    This study presents the results of evaluation and analysis on the second phase of the RASPLAV project for three years between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2000. In the RASPLAV Phase II study, two large-scale experiments of RASPLAV-AW-200-3, 4 were conducted to estimate the heat flux distribution in the corium and thermal interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel. Several small-scale experiments such as TULPAN, TF, and STF were conducted to analyze thermal stratification and additive effect of core materials on corium behavior. The Salt experiments were conducted to estimate the crust and the mushy region formation, as well as natural convection heat transfer in the corium. Material properties of the corium and the salt were measured in the RASPLAV project. During the RASPLAV-AW-200-3 test, approximately 22 kg of the corium leaked from the test furnace, because Fe from the FeO, which was additive to reduce the melting temperature of fuel pellet, interacted with Tungsten protector. It is concluded from the AW-200-3 test results that the oxidized U-Zr-O is not separated. From the RASPLAV-AW-200-4 test results, the C-32 fuel with the miscibility gap and low content of carbon was not separated thermally. The carbon is known as a dominant factor in the thermal stratification of the corium from the small and medium scale test results such as TULPAN, TF, and STF. The fuel composition, test method and condition in the RASPLAV-AW-2003,4 were selected using the small and medium scale test results. It is confirmed from the Salt test that the analytical model of the CONV code predicts heat transfer with crust formation in the molten pool very well

  4. The VULCANO VE-U7 Corium spreading benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Christophe; Haquet, Jean-Francois [CEA Cadarache, Severe Accident Mastering experimental Laboratory (DEN/DTN/STRI/LMA), 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Spindler, Bertrand [CEA Grenoble, Physicochemistry and Multiphasic Thermalhydraulics Laboratory (DEN/DTN/SE2T/LPTM), 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Spengler, Claus [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Department for Thermohydraulics/Process Engineering, Schwertnergasse 1, D-50667 Koeln (Germany); Foit, Jerzy [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kern nd Energietechnik (IKET), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In a hypothetical nuclear reactor severe accident, corium spreading is one possible mitigation measure that has been selected for the EPR design. A post-test benchmark exercise has been organized on the VULCANO VE-U7 corium spreading experiment. In this test, a prototypic corium mixture representative of what could be expected at the opening of EPR reactor-pit gate has been spread on siliceous concrete and on a reference channel in inert refractory ceramic. The spreading progression was not much affected by the presence of concrete and sparging gases. The procedure used to estimate the corium physical properties from its composition and temperature provided a satisfactory data set. The CORFLOW, LAVA and THEMA codes provide satisfactory calculations of the spreading front evolution and of its final length. LAVA and THEMA estimations of the substrate temperatures, which are the initial conditions for longer term Molten Core Concrete Interaction or Corium Ceramic Interaction computations, are also close to the measured data, within the experimental uncertainties. (authors)

  5. The VULCANO VE-U7 Corium spreading benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Christophe; Haquet, Jean-Francois; Spindler, Bertrand; Spengler, Claus; Foit, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    In a hypothetical nuclear reactor severe accident, corium spreading is one possible mitigation measure that has been selected for the EPR design. A post-test benchmark exercise has been organized on the VULCANO VE-U7 corium spreading experiment. In this test, a prototypic corium mixture representative of what could be expected at the opening of EPR reactor-pit gate has been spread on siliceous concrete and on a reference channel in inert refractory ceramic. The spreading progression was not much affected by the presence of concrete and sparging gases. The procedure used to estimate the corium physical properties from its composition and temperature provided a satisfactory data set. The CORFLOW, LAVA and THEMA codes provide satisfactory calculations of the spreading front evolution and of its final length. LAVA and THEMA estimations of the substrate temperatures, which are the initial conditions for longer term Molten Core Concrete Interaction or Corium Ceramic Interaction computations, are also close to the measured data, within the experimental uncertainties. (authors)

  6. Corrosion of vessel steel during its interaction with molten corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Lopukh, D.B.; Gusarov, V.V.; Martinov, A.P.; Martinov, V.V.; Fieg, G.; Tromm, W.; Bottomley, D.; Tuomisto, H.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental examination of the cooled vessel steel corrosion during the interaction with molten corium is presented. The experiments have been conducted on 'Rasplav-2' test facility and followed up with physico-chemical and metallographic analyses of melt samples and corium-specimen ingots. The results discussed in the first part of the paper have revealed specific corrosion mechanisms for air and inert atmosphere above the melt. Models have been proposed based on this information and approximate curves constructed for the estimation of the corrosion rate or corrosion depth of vessel steel in conditions simulated by the experiments

  7. Corrosion of vessel steel during its interaction with molten corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Lopukh, D.B.; Gusarov, V.V.; Martinov, A.P.; Martinov, V.V.; Fieg, G.; Tromm, W.; Bottomley, D.; Tuomisto, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with corrosion of a cooled vessel steel structure interacting with molten corium in air and neutral (nitrogen) atmospheres during an in-vessel retention scenario. The data on corrosion kinetics at different temperatures on the heated steel surface, heat flux densities and oxygen potential in the system are presented. The post-test physico-chemical and metallographic analyses of melt samples and the corium-specimen ingot have clarified certain mechanisms of steel corrosion taking place during the in-vessel melt interaction

  8. Corrosion of vessel steel during its interaction with molten corium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: bechta@sbor.spb.su; Khabensky, V.B. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Vitol, S.A. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Krushinov, E.V. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Lopukh, D.B. [SPb Electrotechnical University (SpbGETU), Professor Popov str., b.5/3, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V.V. [Institute of Silicate Chemistry of Russian Academy of Science (ISC of RAS), Odoevsky str., b. 24/2, 199155 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Martinov, A.P. [SPb Electrotechnical University (SpbGETU), Professor Popov str., b.5/3, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Martinov, V.V. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Fieg, G. [Forshungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fur Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnik, Postfach 3640, D-78021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tromm, W. [Forshungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fur Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnik, Postfach 3640, D-78021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [Europaeische Kommission, General Direktion GFS, Institut fuer Transurane (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tuomisto, H. [Fortum Engineering Ltd. 00048 FORTUM, Rajatorpantie 8, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    An experimental examination of the cooled vessel steel corrosion during the interaction with molten corium is presented. The experiments have been conducted on 'Rasplav-2' test facility and followed up with physico-chemical and metallographic analyses of melt samples and corium-specimen ingots. The results discussed in the first part of the paper have revealed specific corrosion mechanisms for air and inert atmosphere above the melt. Models have been proposed based on this information and approximate curves constructed for the estimation of the corrosion rate or corrosion depth of vessel steel in conditions simulated by the experiments.

  9. A simplified geometrical model for transient corium propagation in core for LWR with heavy reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saas Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the simulation of the Severe Accidents (SA in Light Water Reactors (LWR, we are interested on the in-core corium pool propagation transient in order to evaluate the corium relocation in the vessel lower head. The goal is to characterize the corium and debris flows from the core to accurately evaluate the corium pool propagation transient in the lower head and so the associated risk of vessel failure. In the case of LWR with heavy reflector, to evaluate the corium relocation into the lower head, we have to study the risk associated with focusing effect and the possibility to stabilize laterally the corium in core with a flooded down-comer. It is necessary to characterize the core degradation and the stratification of the corium pool that is formed in core. We assume that the core degradation until the corium pool formation and the corium pool propagation could be modeled separately. In this document, we present a simplified geometrical model (0D model for the in-core corium propagation transient. A degraded core with a formed corium pool is used as an initial state. This state can be obtained from a simulation computed with an integral code. This model does not use a grid for the core as integral codes do. Geometrical shapes and 0D models are associated with the corium pool and the other components of the degraded core (debris, heavy reflector, core plate…. During the transient, these shapes evolve taking into account the thermal and stratification behavior of the corium pool and the melting of the core surrounding components. Some results corresponding to the corium pool propagation in core transients obtained with this model on a LWR with a heavy reflector are given and compared to grid approach of the integral codes MAAP4.

  10. Physics of coolability of top flooded molten corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Singh, R.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    During a postulated severe accident in a nuclear reactor in case of ex-vessel scenario the molten corium can be relocated in the containment cavity forming a melt pool. In order to arrest further progression of severe accident, complete quenching of the molten corium pool is necessary. Most common way to deal with ex-vessel scenario is to flood the melt pool with large quantity of water. However, the mechanism of coolability is much more complex involving multi-component, multiphase heat, mass and momentum transfer. In this paper, a mechanistic model has been presented for the corium coolability under top flooding conditions. The model has been validated with the experimental data of COMECO test facility available in literature. Simulations have been carried out using the model to explore the physics behind the corium coolability with MCCI under top flooding condition. Variations in the thermo-physical properties as a result of MCCI have been considered and its effect on coolability has been studied. (author)

  11. Success for the Vulcano`s team. First real corium flow; Succes pour l`equipe de Vulcano. Premiere coulee de corium reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnoy, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etude des Reacteurs

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the joint CEA-DRN/EDF-DER project `Vulcano` is the mastery of the corium spreading and cooling on a recovery device. The first real corium spreading test has been successfully performed at the CEA/Cadarache centre (France). This short paper describes the experimental setup and the first results of the experiment. (J.S.)

  12. Assessment of in-vessel corium retention in CPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xing; Zhang Shishun; Lin Jiming

    2011-01-01

    The In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR) strategy of Chinese 1000 MW class commercial pressurized water reactor (CPR1000) is assessed by Risk-Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). Four representative severe accident scenarios are selected for the IVR assessment in this paper. According to four representative severe accident scenarios consequence calculated by the deterministic code combined with engineering judgment, the input probability distribution of the assessment is determined. Success probability of IVR from the viewpoint of thermal failure is then predicted using MOPOL code. MOPOL is a code developed basing on the well known ROAAM frame and heat transfer model of corium. It is demonstrated that the success probability of IVR by Reactor Cavity Flooding in CPR1000 is potentially higher than 99%. Application of IVR strategy in CPR1000 is envisioned probable if a further more comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation conclusion is positive. (authors)

  13. Results of recent KROTOS FCI tests. Alumina vs. corium melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    Recent results from KROTOS fuel-coolant interaction experiments are discussed. Five tests with alumina were performed under highly subcooled conditions, all of these tests resulted in spontaneous steam explosions. Additionally, four tests were performed at low subcooling to confirm, on one hand, the suppression of spontaneous steam explosions under such conditions and, on the other hand, that such a system is still triggerable using an external initiator. The other test parameters in these alumina tests included the melt superheat and the initial pressure. All the tests in the investigated superheat range (150 K - 750 K) produced a steam explosion and no evidence of the explosion suppression by the elevated initial pressure (in the limited range of 0.1 - 0.375 MPa) was observed in the alumina tests. The corium test series include a test with 3 kg of melt under both subcooled and near saturated conditions at ambient pressure. Two additional tests were performed with subcooled water; one test was performed at an elevated pressure of 0.2 MPa with 2.4 kg of melt and another test with 5.1 kg of melt at ambient pressure. None of these tests with corium produced a propagating energetic steam explosion. However, propagating low energy (about twice the energy of the trigger pulse) events were observed. All corium tests produced significantly higher water level swells during the mixing phase than the corresponding alumina tests. Present experimental evidence suggests that the water depletion in the mixing zone suppresses energetic steam explosions with corium melts at ambient pressure and in the present pour geometry. Processes that could produce such a difference in void generation are discussed. (author)

  14. Experimental simulation of corium dispersion phenomena in direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    1996-01-01

    In a direct containment heating (DCH) accident scenario, the degree of corium dispersion is one of the most significant factors responsible for the reactor containment heating and pressurization. To study the mechanisms of the corium dispersion phenomenon, a DCH separate effect test facility of 1:10 linear scale for Zion PWR geometry is constructed. Experiments are carried out with air-water and air-woods metal simulating steam and molten core materials. The physical process of corium dispersion is studied in detail through various instruments, as well as with flow visualization at several locations. The accident transient begins with the liquid jet discharge at the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel. Once the jet impinges on the cavity bottom floor, it immediately spreads out and moves rapidly to the cavity exit as a film flow. Part of the discharged liquid flows out of the cavity before gas blowdown, and the rest is subjected to the entrainment process due to the high speed gas stream. The liquid film and droplet flows from the reactor cavity will then experience subcompartment trapping and re-entrainment. Consequently, the dispersed liquid droplets that follow the gas stream are transported into the containment atmosphere, resulting in containment heating and pressurization in the prototypic condition. Comprehensive measurements are obtained in this study, including the liquid jet velocity, liquid film thickness and velocity transients in the test cavity, gas velocity and velocity profile in the cavity, droplet size distribution and entrainment rate, and the fraction of dispersed liquid in the containment building. These data are of great importance for better understanding of the corium dispersion mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. An experimental study of steam explosions involving CORIUM melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millington, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental programme to investigate molten fuel coolant interactions involving 0.5 kg thermite-generated CORIUM melts and water has been carried out. System pressures and initial coolant subcoolings were chosen to enhance the probability of steam explosions. Yields and efficiencies of the interactions were found to be very close to those obtained from similar experiments using molten UO 2 generated from a Uranium/Molybdenum Trioxide thermite. (author)

  16. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Khabensky, V.B.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Y.B.; Pechenkov, A.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction of corium melt with water supplied on its surface. The tests were conducted in the 'Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Corium melt was generated by induction melting in the cold crucible. The following data were obtained: heat transfer at boiling water-melt surface interaction, gas and aerosol release, post-interaction solidified corium structure. The corium melt charge had the following composition, mass%: 60% UO 2+x -16% ZrO 2 -15% Fe 2 O 3 -6% Cr 2 O 3 -3% Ni 2 O 3 . The melt surface temperature ranged within 1920-1970 K. (orig.)

  17. Study of the rheological behaviour of corium/concrete mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramacciotti, M.

    1999-01-01

    In the hypothetical event of a severe accident in a Light Water Reactor, scenarios in which the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fails and the core melt mixture (called corium) relocates into the reactor cavity, cannot be excluded. The viscosity (in fact, corium rheological behaviour) plays a major role in many phenomena such as core melt down, discharge from reactor pressure vessel, interaction with structural materials (concrete,...) and spreading in a core-catcher. For these reasons, it is important to be able to predict the rheological behaviour of corium melts of different compositions (essentially based on UO 2 , ZrO 2 , Fe x O y and Fe for in-vessel scenarios, plus SiO 2 and CaO for ex-vessel scenarios) at temperatures above solidus temperature. In the case of corium-concrete mixtures, the increase of viscosity depends not only on the increase of particles in the melts but also on the increase of the residual liquid phase viscosity (due to the increase in silica contents). The Urban correlation is used to calculate the viscosity of the carrying liquid with silica. This model was tested and gave good agreements between measured and estimated viscosities of various basalts among which one contained 18 wt% of UO 2 . Then, in the solidification range, the analysis of published data showed that the viscosity cannot be described by a suspension viscosity model of non-interactive spherical particles; consequently we proposed an Arrhenius type law with a multiplying factor such as η r = exp(2.5 Cφ) and the C factor value varies between 4 and 8. This factor is more important in the case of low shear rates and low cooling rates. The analysis of the samples structure after quenching shows a dependence of this factor on the particle morphology. Finally, for a value of 6.1 of the C factor, we obtained the best agreement with experimental data for a corium spreading test at 2100 K on a horizontal surface. (author)

  18. Results and analysis of reactor-material experiments on ex-vessel corium quench and dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.M.; Sienicki, J.J.; Squarer, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of reactor material experiments and related analysis are described in which molten corium is injected into a mock-up of the reactor cavity region of a PWR. The experiments address exvessel interactions such as steam generation (for those cases in which water is present), water and corium dispersal from the cavity, hydrogen generation, direct atmosphere heating by dispersed corium, and debrids characterization. Test results indicate efficiencies of steam generation by corium quench ranging up to 65%. Corium sweepout of up to 62% of the injected material was found for those conditions in which steam generation flowrate was augmented by vessel blowdown. The dispersed corium caused very little direct heating of the atmosphere for the configuration employing a trap at the exit of the cavity-to-containment pathway. Corium sweepout phenomena were modeled for high-pressure blowdown conditions, and the results applied to the full-size reactor system predict essentially complete sweepout of corium from the reactor cavity. (orig.)

  19. Results and analysis of reactor-material experiments on ex-vessel corium quench and dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.M.; Sienicki, J.J.; Squarer, D.

    1984-01-01

    Results of reactor-material experiments and related analysis are described in which molten corium is injected into a mock-up of the reactor cavity region of a PWR. The experiments address ex-vessel interactions such as steam generation (for those cases in which water is present), water and corium dispersal from the cavity, hydrogen generation, direct atmosphere heating by dispersed corium, and debris characterization. Test results indicate efficiencies of steam generation by corium quench ranging up to 65%. Corium sweepout of up to 62% of the injected material was found for those conditions in which steam generation flowrate was augmented by vessel blowdown. The dispersed corium caused very little direct heating of the atmosphere for the configuration employing a trap at the exit of the cavity-to-containment pathway. Corium sweepout phenomena were modeled for high-pressure blowdown conditions, and the results applied to the full-size reactor system predict essentially complete sweepout of corium from the reactor cavity

  20. Comparison of different surface quantitative analysis methods. Application to corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, N.; Blin, D.; Perodeaud, Ph.; Dugne, O.; Gueneau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    In case of a severe hypothetical accident in a pressurized water reactor, the reactor assembly melts partially or completely. The material formed, called corium, flows out and spreads at the bottom of the reactor. To limit and control the consequences of such an accident, the specifications of the O-U-Zr basic system must be known accurately. To achieve this goal, the corium mix was melted by electron bombardment at very high temperature (3000 K) followed by quenching of the ingot in the Isabel 1 evaporator. Metallographic analyses were then required to validate the thermodynamic databases set by the Thermo-Calc software. The study consists in defining an overall surface quantitative analysis method that is fast and reliable, in order to determine the overall corium composition. The analyzed ingot originated in a [U+Fe+Y+UO 2 +ZrO 2 ) mix, with a total mass of 2253.7 grams. Several successive heating with average power were performed before a very brief plateau at very high temperature, so that the ingot was formed progressively and without any evaporation liable to modify its initial composition. The central zone of the ingot was then analyzed by qualitative and quantitative global surface methods, to yield the volume composition of the analyzed zone. Corium sample analysis happens to be very complex because of the variety and number of elements present, and also because of the presence of oxygen in a heavy element like the uranium based matrix. Three different global quantitative surface analysis methods were used: global EDS analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), with SEM, global WDS analysis (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) with EPMA, and coupling of image analysis with EDS or WDS point spectroscopic analyses. The difficulties encountered during the study arose from sample preparation (corium is very sensitive to oxidation), and the choice of acquisition parameters of the images and analyses. The corium sample studied consisted of two zones displaying

  1. Cold crucible technique for interaction test of molten corium with structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kwang Soon; An, Sang Mo; Min, Beong Tae; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2012-01-01

    During a severe accident, the molten corium might interact with several structures in a nuclear power plant such as core peripheral structures, lower plenum, lower head vessel, and external structures of a reactor vessel. The interaction of the molten corium with the structure depends on the molten corium composition, temperature, structural materials, and environmental conditions such as pressure and humidity. For example, the interaction of a metallic molten corium containing metal uranium (U) and zirconium (Zr) with the oxidized steel structure (Fe 2O3 ) is affected by not only thermal ablation but oxidation reduction reaction because the oxidation quotients of the U and Zr are higher than that of Fe. KAERI set up an experimental facility and technique using a cold crucible melting method to verify the interaction mechanism between the metallic molten corium and structural materials. This technique includes the generation of the metallic melt, melt delivery, measurement of the interaction process, and post analyses after the test

  2. Thermal hydraulic phenomena in corium pools: the BALI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of severe accident studies, the BALI experiment has been designed to create a data base about heat transfer distribution at corium pool boundaries for in-vessel or ex-vessel configurations. The mechanism investigated is natural convection at high internal Rayleigh number (10 15 to 10 17 ) in cavities with volumetric heating. After a description of the facility and a synthesis of results obtained for in-vessel configurations, the purpose of this paper is to present or extend local or average heat transfer correlations in the prototypic range of dimensionless parameters. (author)

  3. ASTEC application to in-vessel corium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabelli, D.; Ratel, G.; Pelisson, R.; Guillard, G.; Barnak, M.; Matejovic, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work done in the SARNET European Network of Excellence on Severe Accidents (6th Framework Programme of the European Commission) on the capability of the ASTEC code to simulate in-vessel corium retention (IVR). This code, jointly developed by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) and the German Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) for simulation of severe accidents, is now considered as the European reference simulation tool. First, the DIVA module of ASTEC code is briefly introduced. This module treats the core degradation and corium thermal behaviour, when relocated in the reactor lower head. Former ASTEC V1.2 version assumed a predefined stratified molten pool configuration with a metallic layer on the top of the volumetrically heated oxide pool. In order to reflect the results of the MASCA project, improved models that enable modelling of more general corium pool configurations were implemented by the CEA (France) into the DIVA module of the ASTEC V1.3 code. In parallel, the CEA was working on ASTEC modelling of the external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). The capability of the ASTEC CESAR circuit thermal-hydraulics to simulate the ERVC was tested. The conclusions were that the CESAR module is capable of simulating this system although some numerical and physical instabilities can occur. Developments were then made on the coupling between both DIVA and CESAR modules in close collaboration with IRSN. In specific conditions, code oscillations remain and an analysis was made to reduce the numerical part of these oscillations. A comparison of CESAR results of the SULTAN experiments (CEA) showed an agreement on the pressure differences. The ASTEC V1.2 code version was applied to IVR simulation for VVER-440/V213 reactors assuming defined corium mass, composition and decay heat. The external cooling of reactor wall was simulated by applying imposed coolant temperature and heat transfer

  4. Corium spreading: hydrodynamics, rheology and solidification of a high-temperature oxide melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.

    2006-06-01

    In the hypothesis of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the core could melt and form a high- temperature (2000-3000 K) mixture called corium. In the hypothesis of vessel rupture, this corium would spread in the reactor pit and adjacent rooms as occurred in Chernobyl or in a dedicated core-catcher s in the new European Pressurized reactor, EPR. This thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of corium spreading, especially with the prototypic corium material experiments performed in the VULCANO facility at CEA Cadarache. The first step in analyzing these tests consists in interpreting the material analyses, with the help of thermodynamic modelling of corium solidification. Knowing for each temperature the phase repartition and composition, physical properties can be estimated. Spreading termination is controlled by corium rheological properties in the solidification range, which leads to studying them in detail. The hydrodynamical, rheological and solidification aspects of corium spreading are taken into account in models and computer codes which have been validated against these tests and enable the assessment of the EPR spreading core-catcher concept. (author)

  5. Oxide-metal corium-concrete interaction test in the Vulcano facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Haquet, J.F.; Saretta, S.; Boccaccio, E.; Bonnet, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Corium is likely to melt through the vessel and interact with the reactor pit concrete. Corium is made of a UO 2 -rich oxidic part, in which most of the decay heat is dissipated, and of a metallic part, mainly molten steel. An experiment has been set up in the Vulcano facility in which oxidic and metallic mixtures are molten in separate furnaces and poured in a concrete cavity. Induction heating is provided to the pool upper part thanks to shielding coils, so that, in case of stratification, the lighter oxidic corium-concrete mixture receives most of the power. Pre-calculations with the TOLBIAC-ICB corium-concrete interaction code based on the phase segregation model have provided valuable information for the dimensioning of this test: a thick metallic layer (>10 kg or 4 cm) has been chosen in order to obtain significant cavity ablation profiles depending on the selected heat transfer and stratification models. Stratification of the two liquid phases is predicted to occur in less than 10 minutes. In September 2006, the experiment was performed in the Vulcano facility. The corium was made of about 15 kg of steel at 1700 C and 30 kg of oxides (70% UO 2 , 16 % ZrO 2 and 14% concrete load) above 2000 C. It was poured in a limestone-rich concrete. This concrete type was selected for the first test, since the ablation is isotropic except for the initial transient, during oxidic corium-concrete interaction tests. 32 kW of induction power have been provided to the pool during the 4-hour test. The destruction of in-concrete thermocouples indicates that ablation was first mainly radial then became isotropic. This is quite similar to the ablation progression observed during previous tests with oxidic corium interacting with this type of concrete. Important 'volcanic activity' has been observed at the corium pool surface, compared to the previous oxidic corium experiments at Vulcano. (authors)

  6. An effect of corium composition variations on occurrence of a steam explosion in the TROI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. W.; Park, I. K.; Hong, S. W.; Min, B. T.; Shin, Y. S.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    Recently series of steam explosion experiments have been performed in the TROI facility using corium melts of various compositions. The compositions (UO 2 : ZrO 2 ) of the corium were 0 : 100, 50 : 50, 70 : 30, 80 : 20 and 87 : 13 in weight percent and the mass of the corium was about 10kg. An experiment using 0 : 100 corium (pure zirconia) caused a steam explosion. An experiment using 50 : 50 corium did not cause a steam explosion while a steam spike occurred in an experiment using 70 : 30 corium which was the eutectic point of corium. A steam spike is considered to be the fact that a triggering of a steam explosion occurred but a propagation process does not occur so as to cause a weak interaction. However, the possibility of a steam explosion with this composition can not be ruled out since many steam explosions occurred in the previous experiments. In the two experiments using 80 : 20 corium, a steam spike occurred in one experiment but no steam explosion occurred in the other experiment. However, the triggerability of a steam explosion with this composition is not clear since few steam explosions occurred in the previous experiments. And no steam explosion occurred in an experiment using 87 : 13 corium of which urania content was the greatest among the experiments performed in the TROI facility. From this, the possibility of a steam explosion or a steam spike is appeared to be high in the non-mush zone. It is considered that an explosive interaction could easily occur with the eutectic composition. Since the solidification temperature around the eutectic point is low, the melt is likely to maintain its liquid state at the time of triggering so as to cause an explosive phenomenon

  7. Draft paper: On the analysis of diffusive mass transfer in ex-vessel corium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Kyrill N.

    2003-01-01

    In case of a severe accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP) involving the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) melt-through, confident solidification of ex-vessel corium is the imperative condition of its safe retention within the plant containment. The rate-determining process for solidification of ex-vessel coriums in the long-term is the chemical diffusion in the liquid phase at the solid-liquid interface. The process of chemical diffusion in the diffusive boundary layer can evolve taking on different rates, depending on the boundary conditions and the melt composition. Nonetheless, the chemical diffusion rates would entwine the self-diffusivities of corium constituents, which in turn would depend on the melt chemical composition. This work looks at some aspects of analytical and experimental determination of self-diffusivities of corium constituents. Following the corium-concrete interaction, an ex-vessel corium melt would contain several chemical components, including a fraction of silica. Accordingly, ex-vessel corium is considered in this paper as a silicate melts. In the realm of the geological and glass sciences, where silicate melts are most often discussed, the diffusive transport and viscous flow are conceived interrelated from a phenomenological point of view. Though the viscous and diffusive mass transfer mechanisms are not identical for different species even in the same melt, a combination of semi-empirical models can still provide an estimation of the diffusion thresholds in ex-vessel corium melts. Thus, the first part of this paper presents an analysis of the applicability of such empirical models for simple silicate melts based on the published data. This is followed by an estimation of diffusivities in melt compositions typical of ex-vessel coriums. Alternatively, although the general trend towards a coupled description of the viscous flow and diffusion for ex-vessel corium melts seems promising, it is limited to published data on self-diffusivities of

  8. Considerations concerning the strategy of corium retention in the reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Third-generation nuclear reactors are characterised by consideration during design of core meltdown accidents. More specifically, dedicated measures or devices must be implemented to avoid basemat melt-through in the reactor building. These devices must have a high level of confidence. The strategy of corium retention in the reactor vessel, if supported by appropriate research and development, makes it possible to achieve this objective. IRSN works alone or in partnerships to address all the issues associated with in-vessel corium retention. This document describes the in-vessel corium retention strategy and its limitations, along with the research programs conducted by IRSN in this area

  9. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction between corium melt and water supplied onto its surface. The tests were conducted on the Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Induction melting in a cold crucible was used to produce the melt. The following data have been obtained: heat transfer at water boiling on the melt surface, aerosol release, structure of the post-interaction solidified corium. The corium melt had the following composition, mass %: 60%UO 2 - 16%ZrO 2 - 15%Fe 2 O 3 - 6%Cr 2 O 3 -3%Ni 2 O 3 . The melt surface temperature was 1650-1700degC. (author)

  10. FCI experiments in the corium/water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Hohmann, H.; Magallon, D.

    1995-09-01

    The KROTOS fuel coolant interaction (FCI) tests aim at providing benchmark data to examine the effect of fuel/coolant initial conditions and mixing on explosion energetics. Experiments, fundamental in nature, are performed in well-controlled geometries and are complementary to the FARO large scale tests. Recently, a new test series was started using 3 kg of prototypical core material (80 w/o UO{sub 2}, 20 w/o ZrO{sub 2}) which was poured into a water column of {le} 1.25 m in height (95 mm and 200 mm in diameter) under 0.1 MPa ambient pressure. Four tests have been performed in the test section of 95 mm in diameter (ID) with different subcooling levels (10-80K) and with and without an external trigger. Additionally, one test has been performed with a test section of 200 mm in diameter (ID) and with an external trigger. No spontaneous or triggered energetic FCIs (steam explosions) have been observed in these corium tests. This is in sharp contrast with the steam explosions observed in the previously reported Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} test series which had the same initial conditions of ambient pressure and subcooling. The post-test analysis of the corium experiments indicated that strong vaporisation at the melt/water contact led to a partial expulsion of the melt from the test section into the pressure vessel. In order to avoid this and to obtain a good penetration and premixing os the corium melt, an additional test has been performed with a larger diameter test section. In all the UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} tests an efficient quenching process (0.7-1.2 MW/kg-melt) with total fuel fragmentation (mass mean diameter 1.4-2.5 mm) was observed. Results from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tests under the same initial conditions are also presented for further confirmation of the observed differences in behaviour between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melts.

  11. Corium phase equilibria based on MASCA, METCOR and CORPHAD results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V.V.; Almiashev, V.I.; Mezentseva, L.P. [Grebenshikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (ISCh RAS), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krushinov, E.V.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Kosarevsky, R.A. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire IRSN/DPAM, St Paul lez Durance (France); Bottomley, D. [EUROPAISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut fuer Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fichot, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire IRSN/DPAM, St Paul lez Durance (France); Fischer, M. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: Manfred.Fischer@areva.com

    2008-10-15

    Experimental data on component partitioning between suboxidized corium melt and steel in the in-vessel melt retention (IVR) conditions are compared. The data are produced within the OECD MASCA program and the ISTC CORPHAD project under close-to-isothermal conditions and in the ISTC METCOR project under thermal gradient conditions. Chemical equilibrium in the U-Zr-Fe(Cr,Ni,...)-O system is reached in all experiments. In MASCA tests the molten pool formed under inert atmosphere has two immiscible liquids, oxygen-enriched (oxidic) and oxygen-depleted (metallic), resulting of the miscibility gap of the mentioned system. Sub-system data of the U-Zr-Fe(Cr,Ni,...)-O phase diagram investigated within the ISTC CORPHAD project are interpreted in relation with the MASCA results. In METCOR tests the equilibrium is established between oxidic liquid and mushy metallic part of the system. Results of comparison are discussed and the implications for IVR noted.

  12. Elements of thought on corium containment strategy in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As accidents with core fusion are taken into account for the design of third-generation nuclear reactors, this brief document presents the corium containment strategy for a reactor vessel, its limitations, as well as research programs undertaken by the IRSN in this field. The report describes the controlled management of a severe accident, the major objective being to minimise releases in the environment, that which requires to maintain the reactor containment enclosure tightness. Practical actions are briefly indicated. Key points indicating the feasibility of a strategy of containment in vessel are discussed. The impact of reactor power on the robustness of an approach with containment in vessel is also discussed. An overview of technological evolutions and contributions of researches made by the IRSN is finally proposed

  13. Analysis of corium recovery concepts by the EUROCORE group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.-M.; Latrobe, A.; Sehgal, B.R.; Alsmeyer, H.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Turland, B.; Grange, J.-L.; Fischer, M.; Azarian, G.; Buerger, M.; Cirauqui, C.J.; Zurita, A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the EUROCORE (European Group for Analysis of Corium Recovery Concepts) Concerted Action is to obtain a clear view of the state-of-the-art for melt stabilisation as considered in accident management schemes and to better identify Research and Development (R and D) needs. Five different melt stabilisation concepts have been discussed: in-vessel retention with external cooling, core-concrete interaction with top cooling, ex-vessel spreading with top flooding, water injection by bottom flooding, and crucible concept with sacrificial material. For each concept, main unresolved problems are discussed in this paper and recommended R and D actions are outlined. The project started on 1 March 2000 and ended on 28 February 2002

  14. Control Carbon to Prevent corium Stratification In-Vessel Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A Ra; Hong, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sang Nyung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As a result, the thermal margin decreases, and the nuclear reactor vessel may be destroyed. To control Carbons, which is the major cause of stratification, Ruthenium and Hafnium are inserted inside the lower reactor head which initiates a chemical reaction with Carbon. SPARTAN program is used to confirm a reaction probability which is measured in bond energy and strength etc. To analyze the possibility of bonding with Carbon, the initial property of Ruthenium and Carbon are measured during the calculated absorbing process. After following that theory, the Spartan program is able to determine if it can insert the metal. After verifying the combination of Ruthenium and Carbon, the Spartan program analyzes the impact of the Carbon to prevent the corium stratification. It determines the possibility of the success with the introduction of the IVR concept. Ruthenium is suitable to Carbon bonding process to decrease affect to corium behavior which do not form stratification. The metal which can combine with Carbon should be satisfied with temperature as high as 2800 .deg. C. Therefore, the further research works are determined by using the Spartan program to calculate the Carbon and Ruthenium bonding energy, and to check other bonding results as follows. After check the results, review this theory to insert the Ruthenium in reactor vessel. APR1400 and OPR1000, Korea Hydro and Nuclear power plant core meltdown accident has been evaluated a high level in severe accident. When the reactor core is melted down, it is stratified into the metal layer and the ceramic layer. As the heat conductivity of metal layer is higher than that of the ceramic layer, heat concentration occurs in the upper part of the bottom hemisphere which comes into contact with the metal layer.

  15. Thermal behavior of molten corium during TMI-2 core relocation event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the TMI-2 accident, a pool of molten corium formed in the central region of the core and was contained by solidified crusts. Failure of the crust surrounding the molten material, at approximately 224 min, resulted in a relocation of an estimated 20-25 tons of molten corium through peripheral fuel assemblies in the east side of the vessel, as well as through the core barrel assembly (CBA) at the periphery of the core. This paper presents the results of an analyses carried out to investigate the thermal interactions of molten corium with the CBA structures during the relocation event. The principal objectives of the analyses are: (a) to assess the potential for relocation to take place through the CBA versus the flow of molten core material directly downward through the core via the fuel assemblies; and (b) to understand the distribution of prior molten corium observed during vessel defueling examinations. 5 refs., 1 fig

  16. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Khabensky, V.B. [Sci. Res. Technol. Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation); Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Y.B.; Pechenkov, A.Y. [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University (SPbEU), Prof. Popov st 5/3, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction of corium melt with water supplied on its surface. The tests were conducted in the 'Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Corium melt was generated by induction melting in the cold crucible. The following data were obtained: heat transfer at boiling water-melt surface interaction, gas and aerosol release, post-interaction solidified corium structure. The corium melt charge had the following composition, mass%: 60% UO{sub 2+x}-16% ZrO{sub 2}-15% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-6% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3% Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The melt surface temperature ranged within 1920-1970 K. (orig.)

  17. Quality improvements of thermodynamic data applied to corium interactions for severe accident modelling in SARNET2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjieva, Snejana; Barrachin, M.; Bechta, S.; Bezdička, Petr; Bottomley, D.; Brissoneau, L.; Cheynet, B.; Dugne, O.; Fischer, E.; Fischer, M.; Gusarov, V.; Journeau, C.; Khabensky, V.; Kiselová, M.; Manara, D.; Piluso, P.; Sheindlin, M.; Tyrpekl, V.; Wiss, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, SI (2014), s. 110-124 ISSN 0306-4549 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Corium * Severe accidents * Thermodynamic database Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2014

  18. Two-dimensional interaction of oxidic corium with concretes: The VULCANO VB test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Christophe [CEA, DEN, STRI/LMA, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: christophe.journeau@cea.fr; Piluso, Pascal; Haquet, Jean-Francois; Boccaccio, Eric; Saldo, Valerie; Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Malaval, Sophie; Carenini, Laure [CEA, DEN, STRI/LMA, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Brissonneau, Laurent [CEA, DEN, STPA/LPC, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2009-10-15

    Three two-dimensional Molten Core-Concrete Interaction tests have been conducted in the VULCANO facility with prototypic oxidic corium. The major finding is that for the two tests with silica-rich concrete, the ablation was anisotropic while it was isotropic for limestone-rich concrete. The cause of this behaviour is not yet well understood. Post Test Examinations have indicated that for the silica-rich concrete, the corium melt mixed specifically with mortar, while, for limestone-rich concretes, the analysed samples were in accordance with a corium-concrete mixing. The experimental results are described and compared to numerical codes. Separate Effect Tests with Artificial Concretes and prototypic corium are proposed to understand the phenomena governing the ablation geometry.

  19. Two-dimensional interaction of oxidic corium with concretes: The VULCANO VB test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Christophe; Piluso, Pascal; Haquet, Jean-Francois; Boccaccio, Eric; Saldo, Valerie; Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Malaval, Sophie; Carenini, Laure; Brissonneau, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Three two-dimensional Molten Core-Concrete Interaction tests have been conducted in the VULCANO facility with prototypic oxidic corium. The major finding is that for the two tests with silica-rich concrete, the ablation was anisotropic while it was isotropic for limestone-rich concrete. The cause of this behaviour is not yet well understood. Post Test Examinations have indicated that for the silica-rich concrete, the corium melt mixed specifically with mortar, while, for limestone-rich concretes, the analysed samples were in accordance with a corium-concrete mixing. The experimental results are described and compared to numerical codes. Separate Effect Tests with Artificial Concretes and prototypic corium are proposed to understand the phenomena governing the ablation geometry.

  20. Thermalhydraulic Phenomena in Corium Pools: Numerical Simulation with TOLBIAC and Experimental Validation with BALI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaz, L.; Bonnet, J.M.; Spindler, B.; Villermaux, C.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of severe accidents studies, the behavior of corium pools is simulated by the TOLBIAC code. After a short description of the model and peculiarities of the code, its capacities are illustrated with results of the simulation of the behavior of a corium pool in a core catcher made of concrete. The BALI experiments and first results are then presented, and finally BALI tests simulation with TOLBIAC. (authors)

  1. Interaction of concretes with oxide + metal corium. The VULCANO VBS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Christophe; Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Ferry, Lionel; Haquet, Jean-Francois; Piluso, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In the hypothetical case of a severe accident, the reactor core could melt and the formed mixture, called corium, could melt through the vessel and interact with the reactor pit concrete. Corium is made from a UO 2 -rich oxidic part, in which most of the decay heat is dissipated, and a metallic part, mainly molten steel. Up to now, due to experimental constraints, most of the experiments have been performed with solely oxidic prototypic corium, or where designed so that most of the simulated decay heat was dissipated in the metallic layer. An experimental program has been set up in the VULCANO facility in which oxidic and metallic mixtures are melted in separate furnaces and poured in a concrete cavity. Induction heating is provided to the pool upper part thanks to shielding coils, so that, in case of stratification, the lighter oxidic corium-concrete mixture receives most of the power. Three experiments have been conducted: one with a limestone-rich concrete and two with a silica-rich concrete. Metal stratification has been determined from modifications of the corium electrical properties in front of the inductor and is in good accordance with calculations. Concrete ablation has been monitored. A significant vertical ablation has been observed, even in case of silica-rich concretes, for which largely radial ablation has been observed in the case of pure oxidic corium melts. Post Test Examinations have shown unexpected repartitions of metal in the pool. (author)

  2. A simplified geometrical model for transient corium propagation in core for LWR with heavy reflector - 15271

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, L.; Le Tellier, R.; Bajard, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this document, we present a simplified geometrical model (0D model) for both the in-core corium propagation transient and the characterization of the mode of corium transfer from the core to the vessel. A degraded core with a formed corium pool is used as an initial state. This initial state can be obtained from a simulation computed with an integral code. This model does not use a grid for the core as integral codes do. Geometrical shapes and 0D models are associated with the corium pool and the other components of the degraded core (debris, heavy reflector, core plate...). During the transient, these shapes evolve taking into account the thermal and stratification behavior of the corium pool and the melting of the core surrounding components. Some results corresponding to the corium pool propagation in core transients obtained with this model on a LWR with a heavy reflector are given and compared to grid approach of the integral codes MAAP4

  3. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevacova, K. [CEA, DEN, STRI, LMA, Cadarache, 3108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Journeau, C., E-mail: christophe.journeau@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, STRI, LMA, Cadarache, 3108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Piluso, P. [CEA, DEN, STRI, LMA, Cadarache, 3108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V. [IAE, National Nuclear Centre, Material Structure Investigation Dept., Krasnoarmeiskaya, 10, Kurchatov City (Kazakhstan); Poirier, J. [CEMHTI, 1D, av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U{sub x}, Zr{sub y})O{sub 2-z} water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO{sub 2}, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} below 2000 deg. C but does not resist to a UO{sub 2}-Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture.

  4. Developing of two-dimensional model of the corium cooling and behavior with non-condensible gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Do Hyoung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of the non-condensible gas injection into the molten corium on the heat transfer and dynamic behavior within the melt when molten core-concrete interaction occurs during the hypothetical severe accident. Corium behavior with gas injection effect is two phase fluid pattern in which droplet has dispersed gas phase in continuous liquid phase of corium. To analyze this behavior, two dimensional governing equation using the governing equation, the computer program is accomplished using the finite difference method and SIMPLER algorithm. And benchmarking calculation is performed for the KfK experiment, which consider the gas injection effect. After this pre-calculation, an analyses is performed with typical corium under severe accidents. It is concluded that the heat transfer within corium increases as the metal components of the corium and gas injection velocity increase. 88 refs., 23 tabs., 35 figs. (author)

  5. A study on the modeling of molten corium-concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Yong

    1994-02-01

    The phenomenon known as molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI) has been recognized as important aspects of severe reactor accidents. The potential hazard of a MCCI is the threat to the integrity of the containment building due to the possibility of a basemat melt through, containment overpressurization by noncondensible gases, or oxidation of combustible gases. Over the past several years, a large experimental and analytical effort has been under taken in corium-concrete interaction phenomena by several organization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the previous analytical results and computer programs, and finally to establish a new stand alone model which can predict the corium-concrete interaction. A model to predict the behavior of molten corium-concrete interaction in the reactor cavity during vessel ruptured accidents is established. Gas film model, gas bubble model, slag model and periodic contact model are employed as a major heat transfer model between corium and concrete. Solidified debris crust is considered at the boundary of molten corium. Upon the experimental observations, no layer stratification is assumed due to the strong dispersion of the metallic melt in the oxidic phase. With the assumption of temperature profile within the corium pool and crust, the temperature distribution of concrete is found by explicit solution of heat conduction equation. The sideward heat transfer rate can be obtained by considering multiplication factor to the downward heat transfer rate. The multiplication factor is treated as a user input because of its large uncertainty. Comparisons are made with two large scale experiments, SURC-2 and BETA V3.3. There is a reasonable agreement in the corium temperature, erosion depth and gas generation between the experimental data and the predicted results with periodic contact model given the uncertainties in the input data or the measurement. The gas bubble model has the highest heat transfer coefficient, and the

  6. Fuel-coolant interaction visualization test for in-vessel corium retention external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Ho; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seong Wan [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A visualization test of the fuel-coolant interaction in the Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water (TROI) test facility was carried out. To experimentally simulate the In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR)- External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) conditions, prototypic corium was released directly into the coolant water without a free fall in a gas phase before making contact with the coolant. Corium (34.39 kg) consisting of uranium oxide and zirconium oxide with a weight ratio of 8:2 was superheated, and 22.54 kg of the 34.39 kg corium was passed through water contained in a transparent interaction vessel. An image of the corium jet behavior in the coolant was taken by a high-speed camera every millisecond. Thermocouple junctions installed in the vertical direction of the coolant were cut sequentially by the falling corium jet. It was clearly observed that the visualization image of the corium jet taken during the fuel-coolant interaction corresponded with the temperature variations in the direction of the falling melt. The corium penetrated through the coolant, and the jet leading edge velocity was 2.0 m/s. Debris smaller than 1 mm was 15% of the total weight of the debris collected after a fuel-coolant interaction test, and the mass median diameter was 2.9 mm.

  7. Lessons learnt from FARO/TERMOS corium melt quenching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Huhtiniemi, I.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    The influence of melt quantity, melt composition, water depth and initial pressure on quenching is assessed on the basis of seven tests performed in various conditions in the TERMOS vessel of the FARO facility at JRC-Ispra. Tests involved UO{sub 2}-based melt quantities in the range 18-176 kg at a temperature of approximately 3000 K poured into saturated water. The results suggest that erosion of the melt jet column is an efficient contributor to the amount of break-up, and thus quenching, for large pours of corium melt. The presence of Zr metal in the melt induced a much more efficient quenching than in a similar test with no Zr metal, attributed to the oxidation of the Zr. Significant amounts of H{sub 2} were produced also in tests with pure oxidic melts (e.g. about 300 g for 157 kg melt). In the tests at 5.0 and 2.0 MPa good mixing with significant melt break-up and quenching was obtained during the penetration in the water. At 0.5 MPa, good penetration of the melt into the water could still be achieved, but a jump in the vessel pressurisation occurred when the melt contacted the bottom and part (5 kg) of the debris was re-ejected from the water. (author)

  8. Fragmentation and quench behavior of corium melt streams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Wang, K.; Blomquist, C.A.; McUmber, L.M.; Schneider, J.P.

    1994-02-01

    The interaction of molten core materials with water has been investigated for the pour stream mixing mode. This interaction plays a crucial role during the later stages of in-vessel core melt progression inside a light water reactor such as during the TMI-2 accident. The key issues which arise during the molten core relocation include: (i) the thermal attack and possible damage to the RPV lower head from the impinging molten fuel stream and/or the debris bed, (ii) the molten fuel relocation pathways including the effects of redistribution due to core support structure and the reactor lower internals, (iii) the quench rate of the molten fuel through the water in the lower plenum, (iv) the steam generation and hydrogen generation during the interaction, (v) the transient pressurization of the primary system, and (vi) the possibility of a steam explosion. In order to understand these issues, a series of six experiments (designated CCM-1 through -6) was performed in which molten corium passed through a deep pool of water in a long, slender pour stream mode. Results discussed include the transient temperatures and pressures, the rate and magnitude of steam/hydrogen generation, and the posttest debris characteristics

  9. Thermal hydraulic study of a corium molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigny, S.; Grand, D.; Seiler, J.M.; Durin, M.

    1993-01-01

    The thermohydraulic behaviour of a mass of molten core is investigated, in the frame of PWR severe accidents studies. The corium may be located in the vessel lower head or in an external core-catcher. It is assumed to be present in the container instantaneously. Its motion is described by one velocity field. It may be homogeneous or made of two stratified fluids. The residual power is assumed to be constant and uniform in the UO 2 phase. The radiative losses and the external water-cooling are taken into account. The thermal resistance of a peripheral crust is considered. The influence of the crust on the pool geometry may be studied. The wall behaviour is analysed by a conduction calculation. The interest of a sacrificial layer is underlined, so as the necessity of a multicomponent multiphase model to study the behaviour of a core catcher. It is also concluded that some experiments are needed for code validation about volume heated natural convection and multiphase flows. (author). 14 figs., 3 refs

  10. Oxide-metal corium-concrete interaction test in the Vulcano facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Haquet, J.F.; Saretta, S.; Boccaccio, E.; Bonnet, J.M. [CEA Cadarache, Severe Accident Mastery experimental Lab. (DEN/DTN/STRI/LMA), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2007-07-01

    Corium is likely to melt through the vessel and interact with the reactor pit concrete. Corium is made of a UO{sub 2}-rich oxidic part, in which most of the decay heat is dissipated, and of a metallic part, mainly molten steel. An experiment has been set up in the Vulcano facility in which oxidic and metallic mixtures are molten in separate furnaces and poured in a concrete cavity. Induction heating is provided to the pool upper part thanks to shielding coils, so that, in case of stratification, the lighter oxidic corium-concrete mixture receives most of the power. Pre-calculations with the TOLBIAC-ICB corium-concrete interaction code based on the phase segregation model have provided valuable information for the dimensioning of this test: a thick metallic layer (>10 kg or 4 cm) has been chosen in order to obtain significant cavity ablation profiles depending on the selected heat transfer and stratification models. Stratification of the two liquid phases is predicted to occur in less than 10 minutes. In September 2006, the experiment was performed in the Vulcano facility. The corium was made of about 15 kg of steel at 1700 C and 30 kg of oxides (70% UO{sub 2}, 16 % ZrO{sub 2} and 14% concrete load) above 2000 C. It was poured in a limestone-rich concrete. This concrete type was selected for the first test, since the ablation is isotropic except for the initial transient, during oxidic corium-concrete interaction tests. 32 kW of induction power have been provided to the pool during the 4-hour test. The destruction of in-concrete thermocouples indicates that ablation was first mainly radial then became isotropic. This is quite similar to the ablation progression observed during previous tests with oxidic corium interacting with this type of concrete. Important 'volcanic activity' has been observed at the corium pool surface, compared to the previous oxidic corium experiments at Vulcano. (authors)

  11. Simulation of In-Vessel Corium Retention through External Reactor Vessel Cooling for SMART using SIMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin-Sung; Son, Donggun; Park, Rae-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Thermal load analysis from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel is necessary to evaluate the effect of the IVR-ERVC during a severe accident for SMART. A computational code called SIMPLE (Sever Invessel Melt Progression in Lower plenum Environment) has been developed for analyze transient behavior of molten corium in the lower plenum, interaction between corium and coolant, and heat-up and ablation of reactor vessel wall. In this study, heat load analysis of the reactor vessel for SMART has been conducted using the SIMPLE. Transient behavior of the molten corium in the lower plenum and IVR-ERVC for SMART has been simulated using SIMPLE. Heat flux from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel is concentrated in metallic layer by the focusing effect. As a result, metallic layer shows higher temperature than the oxidic layer. Also, vessel wall of metallic layer has been ablated by the high in-vessel temperature. Ex-vessel temperature of the metallic layer was maintained 390 K and vessel thickness was maintained 14 cm. It means that the reactor vessel integrity is maintained by the IVR-ERVC.

  12. Presentation of the Vulcano installation which uses a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for corium melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Pierre, J.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Roubaud, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the case of loss coolant accident, the reactor core could melt and turn into a mixture of uranium oxides, zirconium, iron and steel called corium. A large experimental program has been launched to study corium behaviour, to qualify solutions to stabilize it and to confine it in the reactor containment. The Vulcano installation has been designed to that purpose. It is made up of: i) a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace, ii) a testing surface covered with refractory materials, iii) an induction heating system in order to simulate the residual power of corium, iv) instrumentation devices such as video cameras, thermocouples, infra-red pyrometers and flowmeters, and v) a laboratory to perform chemical analysis of corium samples. The first experimental results show that a mixture of corium and concrete spreads better than expected. It seems that a low initial height of matter can produce a great distance flowing while having a chaotic behaviour. This characteristic suggests that the mixture acts as a Bingham type threshold fluid. (A.C.)

  13. Study of corium radial spreading between fuel rods in a PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, S.; Gatt, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of severe accident studies for PWR like Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), the reactor core essentially constituted of fuel rods begins to heat and then to melt. During the early degradation phase, a melt (essentially UO2 and ZrO2) that constitutes the corium flows first along the rods, and after a blockage formation, may radially propagate towards the core periphery. A simplified model has been elaborated to study the corium freezing phenomena during its crossflow between the fuel rods. The corium spreads on an horizontal support made, of either a corium crust, or a grid assembly. The model solves numerically the interface energy balance equation at the solid-liquid corium interface and the monodimensional heat balance equation in transient process with convective terms and heat source (residual power). ''Zukauskas'' correlations are used to calculate heat transfer coefficients. The model can be integrated in severe accident codes like ICARE II (IPSN) describing the in-vessel degradation scenarios. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs

  14. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V. [Research Institute of Technology, Sosnovy Bor (NITI) (RU)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction between corium melt and water supplied onto its surface. The tests were conducted on the Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Induction melting in a cold crucible was used to produce the melt. The following data have been obtained: heat transfer at water boiling on the melt surface, aerosol release, structure of the post-interaction solidified corium. The corium melt had the following composition, mass %: 60%UO{sub 2}- 16%ZrO{sub 2}- 15%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 6%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3%Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The melt surface temperature was 1650-1700degC. (author)

  15. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  16. Physico-Chemistry and Corium Properties for In-Vessel Retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, K.; Seiler, J.M.; Gueneau, C.; Dauvois, V.; Barbier, F.; Bellon, M.; Tourasse, M.; Ducros, G.; Cognet, G.; Sudreau, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on some important aspects of consequences of material behaviour and interactions on in-vessel retention capabilities. It discusses the behaviour of corium oxide mixtures at elevated temperatures (miscibility gap and density effects, separation due to density effects in the solid-liquid mixture according to the analysis of the Rasplav experiment results), and then the interaction between metallic layer and vessel wall (physical-chemical interaction of corium with the carbon steel vessel wall, migration of low melting point metallic elements in the solid vessel wall). It proposes a mode for the calculation of melt viscosity (liquid phase viscosity and viscosity in the solidification range), addresses the issue of barium release and residual power and of distribution of the residual power in an oxidic corium

  17. Transient stratification modelling of a corium pool in a LWR vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Saas, L.; Bajard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A kinetic stratification model is proposed for the simulation of the in-vessel corium behaviour during a LWR severe accident. • The different associated “modes” of vessel failure by thermal focusing effect are highlighted and discussed. • A sensitivity study for a 1650 MWe GenIII PWR is presented with this model in order to illustrate the associated R&D issues. - Abstract: In the context of light water reactor severe accidents analysis, this paper is focused on one key parameter of in-vessel corium phenomenology: the immiscible phases stratification and its impact on the heat flux distribution at the corium pool lateral boundary with the so-called focusing effect related to a “thin” top metal phase and the potential vessel failure at that point. More particularly, based on the limited knowledge of the stratification transient phenomenon derived from the MASCA-RCW experiment, a basic model is proposed that can be used for corium in lower head sensitivity analyses. It has been implemented in the PROCOR platform developed at CEA Cadarache. A short parametric study on a simple hypothetical transient is presented in order to highlight the different focusing effect “modes” that can be encountered based on this in-vessel corium pool model. An early mode may occur during the formation of the top metal layer while two other modes may appear later during the thinning of this top metal layer because of thermochemically induced mass transfers. Some associated relevant parameters (model or scenario-dependent) and modelling issues are mentioned and illustrated with some results of a Monte-Carlo based sensitivity calculation on the transient behaviour of the corium in the lower head of a 1650 MWe GenIII PWR. Within the limiting modelling hypotheses, the thermal modelling of the steel layer for small (centimetre) heights and the mass diffusivity (limited in this case to the uranium diffusivity in the oxidic layer) are main sensitive parameters

  18. VVER vessel steel corrosion at interaction with molten corium in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation)], E-mail: bechta@sbor.spb.su; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Sulatsky, A.A. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V.V.; Almiashev, V.I. [Institute of Silicate Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (ISCh RAS), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lopukh, D.B. [SPb State Electrotechnical University (SPbGETU), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottomley, D. [EUROPAISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut fuer Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, M. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA/DEN/DSNI, Saclay (France); Miassoedov, A.; Tromm, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Altstadt, E. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Fichot, F. [IRSN/DPAM/SEMCA, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kymalainen, O. [FORTUM Nuclear Services Ltd., Espoo (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    The long-term in-vessel corium retention (IVR) in the lower head bears a risk of the vessel wall deterioration caused by steel corrosion. The ISTC METCOR Project has studied physicochemical impact of prototypic coria having different compositions in air and steam and has generated valuable experimental data on vessel steel corrosion. It is found that the corrosion rate is sensitive to corium composition, but the composition of oxidizing above-melt atmosphere (air, steam) has practically no influence on it. A model of the corrosion process that integrates the experimental data, is proposed and used for development of correlations.

  19. VVER vessel steel corrosion at interaction with molten corium in oxidizing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Gusarov, V.V.; Almiashev, V.I.; Lopukh, D.B.; Bottomley, D.; Fischer, M.; Piluso, P.; Miassoedov, A.; Tromm, W.; Altstadt, E.; Fichot, F.; Kymalainen, O.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term in-vessel corium retention (IVR) in the lower head bears a risk of the vessel wall deterioration caused by steel corrosion. The ISTC METCOR Project has studied physicochemical impact of prototypic coria having different compositions in air and steam and has generated valuable experimental data on vessel steel corrosion. It is found that the corrosion rate is sensitive to corium composition, but the composition of oxidizing above-melt atmosphere (air, steam) has practically no influence on it. A model of the corrosion process that integrates the experimental data, is proposed and used for development of correlations.

  20. Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoval, A.V.; Kalvand, Ali.; Kazachkov, I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS) against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks' distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of other PPS's conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents

  1. Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Konoval

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks’ distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of oth-er PPS’s conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents.

  2. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been developed to calculate the expansion and fragmentation of a corium jet, due to the evolution of dissolved gas, during a postulated core meltdown accident. Parametric calculations have been performed for a PWR high pressure accident scenario. Jet breakup occurs within a few jet diameters from the RPV. The diameter of the fragmented jet at the level of the reactor cavity floor is predicted to be 40-130 times the discharge diameter. Particles generated by fragmentation of corium melt are predicted to be in the 30-150 μm size range

  3. Ex-vessel corium spreading: results from the VULCANO spreading tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Christophe E-mail: christophe.journeau@cea.fr; Boccaccio, Eric E-mail: eric.boccaccio@cea.fr; Brayer, Claude; Cognet, Gerard E-mail: gerard.cognet@cea.fr; Haquet, Jean-Francois E-mail: haquet@eloise.cad.cea.fr; Jegou, Claude E-mail: claude.jegou@cea.fr; Piluso, Pascal E-mail: pascal.piluso@cea.fr; Monerris, Jose E-mail: jose.monerris@cea.fr

    2003-07-01

    In the hypothetical case of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the reactor core could melt and form a mixture, called corium, of highly refractory oxides (UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}) and metallic or oxidized steel, that could eventually flow out of the vessel and mix with the basemat decomposition products (generally oxides such as SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ...). For some years, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has launched an R and D program which aimed at providing the tools for improving the mastering of severe accidents. Within this program, the VULCANO experimental facility is operated to perform experiments with prototypic corium (corium of realistic chemical composition including depleted UO{sub 2}). This is coupled with the use of specific high-temperature instrumentation requiring in situ cross calibration. This paper is devoted to the 'spreading experiments' performed in the VULCANO facility, in which the effects of flow and solidification are studied. Due to the complex behavior of corium in the solidification range, an interdisciplinary approach has been used combining thermodynamics of multicomponent mixtures, rheological models of silicic semisolid materials, heat transfer at high temperatures, free-surface flow of a fluid with temperature-dependant properties. Twelve high-temperature spreading tests have been performed and analyzed. The main experimental results are the good spreadability of corium-concrete mixtures having large solidification ranges even with viscous silicic melts, the change of microstructure due to cooling rates, the occurrence of a large thermal contact resistance at the corium-substrate interface, the presence of a steep viscosity gradient at the surface, the transient concrete ablation. Furthermore, the experiments showed the presence of the gaseous inclusions in the melt even without concrete substrate. This gas release is linked to the local oxygen content in the melt which is

  4. Corium spreading: hydrodynamics, rheology and solidification of a high-temperature oxide melt; L'etalement du corium: hydrodynamique, rheologie et solidification d'unbain d'oxydes a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch

    2006-06-15

    In the hypothesis of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the core could melt and form a high- temperature (2000-3000 K) mixture called corium. In the hypothesis of vessel rupture, this corium would spread in the reactor pit and adjacent rooms as occurred in Chernobyl or in a dedicated core-catcher s in the new European Pressurized reactor, EPR. This thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of corium spreading, especially with the prototypic corium material experiments performed in the VULCANO facility at CEA Cadarache. The first step in analyzing these tests consists in interpreting the material analyses, with the help of thermodynamic modelling of corium solidification. Knowing for each temperature the phase repartition and composition, physical properties can be estimated. Spreading termination is controlled by corium rheological properties in the solidification range, which leads to studying them in detail. The hydrodynamical, rheological and solidification aspects of corium spreading are taken into account in models and computer codes which have been validated against these tests and enable the assessment of the EPR spreading core-catcher concept. (author)

  5. Prototypic corium oxidation and hydrogen release during the Fuel-Coolant Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyrpekl, J.; Piluso, P.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Nižňanský, D.; Rehspringer, J.L.; Bezdička, Petr; Dugne, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, JAN (2015), s. 210-218 ISSN 0306-4549 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Corium * Fuel -Coolant Interaction * Hydrogen release * Material effect * Nuclear reactor severe accident Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2015

  6. Validation of ASTEC V2 models for the behaviour of corium in the vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carénini, L.; Fleurot, J.; Fichot, F.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the presentation of validation cases carried out for the models describing the corium behaviour in the “lower plenum” of the reactor vessel implemented in the V2.0 version of the ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany). In the ASTEC architecture, these models are grouped within the single ICARE module and they are all activated in typical accident scenarios. Therefore, it is important to check the validity of each individual model, as long as experiments are available for which a single physical process is involved. The results of ASTEC applications against the following experiments are presented: FARO (corium jet fragmentation), LIVE (heat transfer between a molten pool and the vessel), MASCA (separation and stratification of corium non miscible phases) and OLHF (mechanical failure of the vessel). Compared to the previous ASTEC V1.3 version, the validation matrix is extended. This work allows determining recommended values for some model parameters (e.g. debris particle size in the fragmentation model and criterion for debris bed liquefaction). Almost all the processes governing the corium behaviour, its thermal interaction with the vessel wall and the vessel failure are modelled in ASTEC and these models have been assessed individually with satisfactory results. The main uncertainties appear to be related to the calculation of transient evolutions

  7. Study of the rheological behaviour of corium/concrete mixtures; Etude du comportement rheologique de melanges issus de l'interaction corium/beton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramacciotti, M

    1999-09-24

    In the hypothetical event of a severe accident in a Light Water Reactor, scenarios in which the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fails and the core melt mixture (called corium) relocates into the reactor cavity, cannot be excluded. The viscosity (in fact, corium rheological behaviour) plays a major role in many phenomena such as core melt down, discharge from reactor pressure vessel, interaction with structural materials (concrete,...) and spreading in a core-catcher. For these reasons, it is important to be able to predict the rheological behaviour of corium melts of different compositions (essentially based on UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Fe{sub x}O{sub y} and Fe for in-vessel scenarios, plus SiO{sub 2} and CaO for ex-vessel scenarios) at temperatures above solidus temperature. In the case of corium-concrete mixtures, the increase of viscosity depends not only on the increase of particles in the melts but also on the increase of the residual liquid phase viscosity (due to the increase in silica contents). The Urban correlation is used to calculate the viscosity of the carrying liquid with silica. This model was tested and gave good agreements between measured and estimated viscosities of various basalts among which one contained 18 wt% of UO{sub 2}. Then, in the solidification range, the analysis of published data showed that the viscosity cannot be described by a suspension viscosity model of non-interactive spherical particles; consequently we proposed an Arrhenius type law with a multiplying factor such as {eta}{sub r} = exp(2.5 C{phi}) and the C factor value varies between 4 and 8. This factor is more important in the case of low shear rates and low cooling rates. The analysis of the samples structure after quenching shows a dependence of this factor on the particle morphology. Finally, for a value of 6.1 of the C factor, we obtained the best agreement with experimental data for a corium spreading test at 2100 K on a horizontal surface. (author)

  8. Experimental Study on the Molten Corium Interaction with Structure by Induction Heating Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Min, Beong Tae; Hong, Seong Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The corium compositions strongly depend on the accident scenarios, and thus the melt generation technique for various melt compositions is essential to investigate the corium-structural material interaction characteristics according to the accident scenarios. Since 1997, KAERI has several years of experiences with melt generation to investigate the material ablation characteristics and steam explosion phenomena. Based on the experiences of the TROI (Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water) facility for the steam explosion experiments, the VESTA (Verification of Ex-vessel corium STAbilization) test facility was designed and constructed in 2010 for the development of a core catcher under the APR+ project. At the same time, the VESTA-S (VESTA-Small) was established for small scale material ablation experiments. Some experimental results were reported for the interactions of metallic or oxidic melt with the structural materials such as special concrete or penetration weld. The objective of this paper is to provide the specific features of the VESTA and VESTA-S facilities including information on the melt generation technique adopted for the facilities. Some issues are also addressed in this paper for further facility improvement. In the present paper, the principles of induction heating adopted for the VESTA and VESTA-S facilities were summarized briefly and the system features for the melt-structural material interaction experiments were explained. As a major characteristic of the VESTA facility, up to 400 kg of corium melt is expected to be generated using the currently installed system. The jet impingement effect on the material ablation characteristics was demonstrated successfully in the VESTA facility. In the VESTA-S facility, the small scale material ablation experiments by long term melt interaction were performed properly by adopting the melt delivery method. However, for a more realistic severe accident simulation, we need to improve the melt temperature

  9. Investigation on influence of crust formation on VULCANO VE-U7 corium spreading with MPS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Yusan; Yamaji, Akifumi; Furuya, Masahiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Duan, Guangtao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The new crust formation model was developed for the MPS spreading analysis code. • The VULCANO VE-U7 corium spreading experiment was analyzed by the developed code. • The termination of the spreading was governed by the crust formation at the leading edge. - Abstract: In a severe accident of a light water reactor, the corium spreading behavior on a containment floor is important as it may threaten the containment vessel integrity. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is one of the Lagrangian particle methods for simulation of incompressible flow. In this study, the MPS method is further developed to simulate corium spreading involving not only flow, but also heat transfer, phase change and thermo-physical property change of corium. A new crust formation model was developed, in which, immobilization of crust was modeled by stopping the particle movement when its solid fraction is above the threshold and is in contact with the substrate or any other immobilized particles. The VULCANO VE-U7 corium spreading experiment was analyzed by the developed MPS spreading analysis code to investigate influences of different particle sizes, the corium viscosity changes, and the “immobilization solid fraction” of the crust formation model on the spreading and its termination. Viscosity change of the corium was influential to the overall progression of the spreading leading edge, whereas termination of the spreading was primarily determined by the immobilization of the leading edge (i.e., crust formation). The progression of the leading edge and termination of the spreading were well predicted, but the simulation overestimated the substrate temperature. Further investigations may be necessary for the future study to see if thermal resistance at the corium-substrate boundary has significant influence on the overall spreading behavior and its termination.

  10. KATS experiments to simulate corium spreading in the EPR core catcher concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppinger, B.; Fieg, G.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.

    2001-01-01

    In future Light Water Reactors special devices (core catchers) might be required to prevent containment failure by basement erosion after reactor pressure vessel melt-through during a core meltdown accident. Quick freezing of the molten core masses is desirable to reduce release of radioactivity. Several concepts of core catcher de-vices have been proposed based on the spreading of corium melt onto flat surfaces with subsequent cooling by flooding with water. Therefore a series of experiments to investigate high temperature melt spreading on flat surfaces has been carried out using alumina-iron thermite melts as a simulant. The oxidic thermite melt is conditioned by adding other oxides to simulate a realistic corium melt as close as possible. Spreading of oxidic and metallic melts have been performed in one- and two-dimensional geometry. Substrates were chemically inert ceramic layers, dry concrete and concrete with a shallow water layer on top. (authors)

  11. Corium Spreading Over Concrete: The Vulcano VE-U7 and VE-U8 Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Christophe; Boccaccio, Eric; Fouquart, Pascal; Jegou, Claude; Piluso, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed in the VULCANO facility in which prototypic corium has been spread over concrete. In the VE-U7 test, a mixture representative of what can be expected at the opening of EPR reactor-pit gate has been spread on siliceous concrete and on a reference channel in inert refractory ceramic. The spreading progression was not much affected by the presence of concrete and sparging gases. In the VE-U8 test, a UO 2 -ZrO 2 mixture, prototypic of in-vessel corium, has been spread over a lime-siliceous concrete. Although residual power was not simulated in this experiment, up to 2 cm of concrete have been eroded during the test. Results in terms of spreading behaviour, effects of gases, concrete erosion and thermal attack are presented and discussed. (authors)

  12. Numerical analysis of vapor explosion in the system 'corium-water'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, O.I.; Melikhov, V.I.; Sokolin, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal detonation taking into account the microinteraction processes model has been applied to study thermal detonation wave escalation and propagation in the corium-water mixture. Transient escalation stage and subsequent steady-state propagation stage of the thermal detonation have been calculated. The essential decrease of the escalation length in comparison with the previous results calculated without microinteraction concept has been obtained. (author)

  13. The modeling of core melting and in-vessel corium relocation in the APRIL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim. S.W.; Podowski, M.Z.; Lahey, R.T. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of severe accident phenomena in boiling water reactors (BWR). New models of core melting and in-vessel corium debris relocation are presented, developed for implementation in the APRIL computer code. The results of model testing and validations are given, including comparisons against available experimental data and parametric/sensitivity studies. Also, the application of these models, as parts of the APRIL code, is presented to simulate accident progression in a typical BWR reactor.

  14. Escalation and propagation of thermal detonation in the corium-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, O.I.; Melikhov, V.I.; Sokolin, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal detonation taking into account micro-interaction processes model has been applied to study thermal detonation wave escalation and propagation in the corium-water mixture. Transient escalation stage and subsequent steady-state propagation stage of the thermal detonation have been calculated. The essential decrease of the escalation length in comparison with the previous results calculated without micro-interaction concept has been obtained. (authors)

  15. Corium Configuration and Penetration Tube Failure for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sang Mo; Lee, Jae Bong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    For the LWRs (light water reactors), the penetration tubes at the reactor vessel lower head are regarded as the most vulnerable structures along with a global vessel failure during a severe accident because they can be seriously damaged by a corium melt or debris relocated into the lower plenum of the vessel. The research on the penetration tube failure is of higher importance in the BWRs, as it could lead to melt discharge into the containment and subsequent release of radioactive materials to the environment due to the containment failure. There are more than one hundred of penetration tubes in the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs (nuclear power plants), such as ICM-GTs (in-core monitoring guide tubes), CRGTs (control rod guide tubes) and drain tubes. The ICM-GTs include SRMs (source range monitors), IRMs (intermediate range monitors), LPRMs (local power range monitors) and TIPs (traversing in-core probes), which are much thinner than other tubes. The experimental researches to investigate the corium configuration and the penetration tube failure for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs were introduced and some meaningful results were summarized. It was shown that the corium ingot was separated into two layers, of which the upper layer was metal-rich while the lower one was oxide-rich. It seemed that B 4 C would contribute to reducing the density of the metallic melt. The two-layered configuration will provide useful information to understand the core melt progression and post-recovery actions for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. In addition, we performed a large scale penetration tube failure experiment for the SRM/IRM guide tube, and showed high possibilities of large amount of corium discharge out of the reactor vessel lower head, which followed by the tube melting in a very short time. We are planning to perform the penetration tube failure experiments for another dry tube of ICM-GT (LPRM guide tube), and later for the wet tube (CRGT)

  16. Corium Configuration and Penetration Tube Failure for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang Mo; Lee, Jae Bong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    For the LWRs (light water reactors), the penetration tubes at the reactor vessel lower head are regarded as the most vulnerable structures along with a global vessel failure during a severe accident because they can be seriously damaged by a corium melt or debris relocated into the lower plenum of the vessel. The research on the penetration tube failure is of higher importance in the BWRs, as it could lead to melt discharge into the containment and subsequent release of radioactive materials to the environment due to the containment failure. There are more than one hundred of penetration tubes in the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs (nuclear power plants), such as ICM-GTs (in-core monitoring guide tubes), CRGTs (control rod guide tubes) and drain tubes. The ICM-GTs include SRMs (source range monitors), IRMs (intermediate range monitors), LPRMs (local power range monitors) and TIPs (traversing in-core probes), which are much thinner than other tubes. The experimental researches to investigate the corium configuration and the penetration tube failure for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs were introduced and some meaningful results were summarized. It was shown that the corium ingot was separated into two layers, of which the upper layer was metal-rich while the lower one was oxide-rich. It seemed that B{sub 4}C would contribute to reducing the density of the metallic melt. The two-layered configuration will provide useful information to understand the core melt progression and post-recovery actions for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. In addition, we performed a large scale penetration tube failure experiment for the SRM/IRM guide tube, and showed high possibilities of large amount of corium discharge out of the reactor vessel lower head, which followed by the tube melting in a very short time. We are planning to perform the penetration tube failure experiments for another dry tube of ICM-GT (LPRM guide tube), and later for the wet tube (CRGT)

  17. Proposal of In-vessel corium retention concept for Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, J.; Toth, E.; Matejovic, P.

    2011-01-01

    The in-vessel corium retention (IVR) via external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) seems to be a promising severe accident management strategy not only for new generation of advanced PWRs, but also for VVER-440/V213 reactors, which were designed several years ago. The basic idea of in-vessel retention of corium is to prevent RPV failure by flooding the reactor cavity so that the reactor pressure vessel is submerged in water up to its support structures, and thus the decay heat can be transferred from the corium pool through the vessel wall and into the water surrounding the vessel. An IVR concept with simple ECVR loop based only on minor modifications of existing plant technology was proposed for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. 2 severe accident (LB and SB LOCA) without availability of HP and LP safety injection in power upgrade (108%) conditions were simulated using the ASTEC code. The analyses show that the proposed solution is effective in preserving RPV integrity in the case of severe accident. Possible uncertainties in code predictions are covered by the applied conservative assumptions

  18. Experimental Study of Interactions Between Sub-oxidized Corium and Reactor Vessel Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Granovsky, V.S.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Gusarov, V.V.; Almiashev, V.I.; Lopukh, D.B.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Fischer, M.; Piluso, P.; Altstadt, E.; Willschutz, H.G.; Fichoti, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the critical factors in the analysis of in-vessel melt retention is the vessel strength. It is, in particular, sensitive to the thickness of intact vessel wall, which, in its turn, depends on the thermal conditions and physicochemical interactions with corium. Physicochemical interaction of prototypic UO 2 -ZrO 2 -Zr corium melt and VVER vessel steel was examined during the 2. Phase of the ISTC METCOR Project. Rasplav-3 test facility was used for conducting four tests, in which the Zr oxidation degree and interaction front temperature were varied; in one of the tests, stainless steel was added to the melt. Direct experimental measurements and post-test analyses were used for determining corrosion kinetics and maximum corrosion depth (i.e. the physicochemical impact of corium on the cooled vessel steel specimens), as well as the steel temperature conditions during the interaction, and finally the structure and composition of crystallized ingots, including the interaction zone. The minimum temperature on the interaction front boundary, which determined its final position and maximum corrosion depth was ∼ 1090 deg. C. An empirical correlation for calculation of corrosion kinetics has been derived. (authors)

  19. Problem of corium melt coolability in passive protection systems against severe accidents in the containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kalvand

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper is devoted to the development of the mathematical model and analysis of the problem of corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems against severe accidents at the NPP, which is of high importance for substantiation of the nuclear power safety, for building and successful op-erating of passive protection systems. In the third-generation reactors passive protection systems against severe accidents at the NPP are mandatory, therefore this paper is of importance for the nuclear power safety. A few configurations for the cooling blocks’ distribution have been considered and an analysis of the blocks’ melting and corium’s cooling in the pool under reactor vessel have been done, which can serve more effective for further improvement of the safety current systems and for the development of new ones. The ways for solution of the problems and the methods for their successful elaboration were discussed. The developed mathematical models and the analysis performed in the paper might be helpful for the design of passive protection systems of the cori-um melt retention inside the containment after corium melt eruption from the broken reactor vessel.

  20. A comparative analysis of molten corium-concrete interaction models employed in MELCOR and MAAP codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Yong; Song, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. D.

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this report are to identify the modelling differences by review phenomenological models related to MCCI, and to investigate modelling uncertainty by performing sensitivity analysis, and finally to identify models to be improved in MELCOR. As the results, the most important uncertain parameter in the MCCI area is the debris stratification/mixing, and heat transfer between molten corium and overlying water pool. MAAP has a very simple and flexible corium-water heat transfer model, which seems to be needed in MELCOR for evaluation of real plants as long as large phenomenological uncertainty still exists. During the corium-concrete interaction, there is a temperature distribution inside basemat concrete. This would affect the amount or timing of gas generation. While MAAP calculates the temperature distribution through nodalization methodology, MELCOR calculates concrete response based on one-dimensional steady-state ablation, with no consideration given to conduction into the concrete or to decomposition in advanced of the ablation front. The code may be inaccurate for analysis of combustible gas generation during MCCI. Thus there is a necessity to improve the concrete decomposition model in MELCOR. (Author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 42 figs

  1. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-03-15

    Cooling methodologies for the molten corium resulted from the severe accident of the Nuclear Power Plant is suggested as one of most important items for the safety of the NPP. In this regard, considerable experimental and analytical works have been devoted. In the second phase of this project, current status of research about corium-concrete interaction and corium coolability which can occur on the reactor cavity has been surveyed, and the researches about lower head failure mechanism have also been surveyed. And, severe accident analysis for Ulchin 3 and 4 has been conducted, and collapse load of lower head has been analyzed through structural analysis considering various heat transfer conditions. The results of accident analysis can be used as a basic input for structural analysis which will be conducted in 3rd phase of this study.

  2. Behavior of concrete in contact with molten corium in the case of a hypothetical core melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Skokan, A.; Reimann, M.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature-dependent properties of basaltic and limestone concrete as needed for predicting Corium melt propagation in concrete (elongation behavior, specific heat and degradation enthalpy, thermal diffusivity, and conductivity) are determined experimentally together with the chemical and physical reactions occurring in heated concrete. The determined oxidation potential of -335 kJ/mole for molten Corium interacting with the concrete is in accordance with the observed H 2 generation due to the melt internal oxidation of zirconium, chromium, and iron. The liquefaction temperatures of the different concretes investigated are approx. 1300 to 1400 0 C. The relatively high degradation enthalpy of basaltic and limestone concrete is the reason for the barrier effect of concrete against propagating molten Corium

  3. Oxidation effect on steel corrosion and thermal loads during corium melt in-vessel retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Almjashev, V.I. [Alexandrov Scientific-Research Technology Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Bechta, S.V. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Gusarov, V.V. [SPb State Technology University (SPbGTU), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), St Paul lez Durance (France); Bottomley, P.D., E-mail: paul.bottomley@ec.europa.eu [EC-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, M. [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Piluso, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The METCOR facility simulates vessel steel corrosion in contact with corium. • Steel corrosion rates in UO{sub 2+x}–ZrO{sub 2}–FeO{sub y} coria accelerate above 1050 K. • However corrosion rates can also be limited by melt O{sub 2} supply. • The impact of this on in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy is discussed. - Abstract: During a severe accident with core meltdown, the in-vessel molten core retention is challenged by the vessel steel ablation due to thermal and physicochemical interaction of melt with steel. In accidents with oxidizing atmosphere above the melt surface, a low melting point UO{sub 2+x}–ZrO{sub 2}–FeO{sub y} corium pool can form. In this case ablation of the RPV steel interacting with the molten corium is a corrosion process. Experiments carried out within the International Scientific and Technology Center's (ISTC) METCOR Project have shown that the corrosion rate can vary and depends on both surface temperature of the RPV steel and oxygen potential of the melt. If the oxygen potential is low, the corrosion rate is controlled by the solid phase diffusion of Fe ions in the corrosion layer. At high oxygen potential and steel surface layer temperature of 1050 °C and higher, the corrosion rate intensifies because of corrosion layer liquefaction and liquid phase diffusion of Fe ions. The paper analyzes conditions under which corrosion intensification occurs and can impact on in-vessel melt retention (IVR)

  4. Assessment of models for steam release from concrete and implications for modeling corium behavior in reactor cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.; Carroll, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Models for concrete outgassing have been developed and incorporated into a developmental version of the CONTAIN code for the assessment of corium behavior in reactor cavities. The resultant code, referred to as CONTAIN/OR in order to distinguish it from the released version of CONTAIN, has the capability to model transient heat conduction and concrete outgassing in core-concrete interaction problems. This study focused on validation and assessment of the outgassing model through comparisons with other concrete response codes. In general, the model is not mechanistic; however, there are certain important processes and feedback effects that are treated rigorously. The CONTAIN outgassing model was compared against two mechanistic concrete response codes (USINT and SLAM). Gas release and temperature profile predictions for several concrete thicknesses and heating rates were performed with acceptable agreement seen in each case. The model was also applied to predict corium behavior in a reactor cavity for a hypothetical severe accident scenario. In this calculation, gases evolving from the concrete during nonablating periods fueled exothermic Zr chemical reactions in the corium. Higher corium temperatures and more concrete ablation were observed when compared with that seen when concrete outgassing was neglected. Even though this result depends somewhat upon the makeup of the corium sources and the concrete type in the cavity, it does show that concrete outgassing can be important in the modeling of corium behavior in reactor cavities. In particular, the need to expand the traditional role of CORCON from steady-state ablation to the consideration of more transient events is clearly evident as a result of this work. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  5. Thermophysical properties of liquid UO2, ZrO2 and corium by molecular dynamics and predictive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Kee; Shim, Ji Hoon; Kaviany Massoud

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of such accidents (fate of the melt), requires accurate corium thermophysical properties data up to 5000 K. In addition, the initial corium melt superheat melt, determined from such properties, are key in predicting the fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) and convection and retention of corium in accident scenarios, e.g., core-melt down corium discharge from reactor pressure vessels and spreading in external core-catcher. Due to the high temperatures, data on molten corium and its constituents are limited, so there are much data scatters and mostly extrapolations (even from solid state) have been used. Here we predict the thermophysical properties of molten UO 2 and ZrO 2 using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (properties of corium are predicted using the mixture theories and UO 2 and ZrO 2 properties). The thermophysical properties (density, compressibility, heat capacity, viscosity and surface tension) of liquid UO 2 and ZrO 2 are predicted using classical molecular dynamics simulations, up to 5000 K. For atomic interactions, the CRG and the Teter potential models are found most appropriate. The liquid behavior is verified with the random motion of the constituent atoms and the pair-distribution functions, starting with the solid phase and raising the temperature to realize liquid phase. The viscosity and thermal conductivity are calculated with the Green-Kubo autocorrelation decay formulae and compared with the predictive models of Andrade and Bridgman. For liquid UO 2 , the CRG model gives satisfactory MD predictions. For ZrO 2 , the density is reliably predicted with the CRG potential model, while the compressibility and viscosity are more accurately predicted by the Teter model

  6. Molten Corium-Concrete Interaction Behavior Analyses for Severe Accident Management in CANDU Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, D. H.; Song, Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    After the last few severe accidents, the importance of accident management in nuclear power plants has increased. Many countries, including the United States (US) and Canada, have focused on understanding severe accidents in order to identify ways to further improve the safety of nuclear plants. It has been recognized that severe accident analyses of nuclear power plants will be beneficial in understanding plant-specific vulnerabilities during severe accidents. The objectives of this paper are to describe the molten corium behavior to identify a plant response with various concrete specific components. Accident analyses techniques using ISSAC can be useful tools for MCCI behavior in severe accident mitigation

  7. Internal structure of an ex-vessel corium debris bed during severe accidents of LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the aspect of the coolability assessment the configuration of the debris bed, including internal and external characteristics, has significant importance as boundary conditions for simulations, however, relatively little investigation of the sedimentation process. For the development of a debris bed, recently there have been several studies that focused on thermal characteristics of corium particles. Yakush et al. performed simulation studies and showed that two phase natural convection affects the particle settling trajectory and changes the final arrival location of particles to result more flattened bed. Those simulation results have been supported by the experimental studies of Kim et al. using simulant particles and air bubble injection. For the internal structure of a debris bed, there have been several simulation and experimental studies, which investigated the effect of internal structure on debris bed coolability. Magallon has reported the particle size distribution at three elevations of the debris bed of FARO L-31 case, where the mean particle size was bigger for the lower elevation. However, there is a lack of detailed information on the characteristics of the debris bed, including the local structure and porosity. In this study, we investigated the internal structure of the debris bed using a mixture of stainless steel particles and air bubble injection. Local particle sedimentation quantity, particle size distribution change in radial direction and axial direction, and bed porosity was measured to investigate a relationship between the internal structure and the accident condition. An experimental investigation was carried out for the internal structure of ex-vessel corium debris bed in the flooded cavity during sever accident. Moderate corium discharge in high flooding level was assumed for full fragmentation of melt jet. The test particle mixture was prepared by following an empirical correlation, which reflects the particle size distribution of

  8. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to

  9. The modeling and analysis of in-vessel corium/structure interaction in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podowski, M.Z.; Kurul, N.; Kim, S.-W.; Baltyn, W.; Frid, W.

    1997-01-01

    A complete stand-alone state-of-the-art model has been developed of the interaction between corium debris in the lower plenum and the RPV walls and internal structures, including the vessel failure mechanisms. This new model has been formulated as a set of consistent computer modules which could be linked with other existing models and/or computer codes. The combined lower head and lower plenum modules were parametrically tested and applied to predict the consequences of a hypothetical station blackout in a Swedish BWR. (author)

  10. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to the

  11. Vulcano: a dedicated R and D program to master corium recuperation for future reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Cognet, G.

    1994-12-31

    In the field of Severe Accident studies for future Nuclear Power Plants, the CEA (Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique) has launched an important program operating with UO{sub 2} materials. General objectives cover the qualification of industrial core-catcher concepts as well as the improvement of the understanding of corium behaviour inside the pressure vessel. After a presentation of the general scope of the project, the paper focuses on the first experimental phase (VULCANO E-30) which deals with major questions of core-catcher concepts based on spreading and flooding principles. (authors). 3 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Vulcano: a dedicated R and D program to master corium recuperation for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Cognet, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the field of Severe Accident studies for future Nuclear Power Plants, the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has launched an important program operating with UO 2 materials. General objectives cover the qualification of industrial core-catcher concepts as well as the improvement of the understanding of corium behaviour inside the pressure vessel. After a presentation of the general scope of the project, the paper focuses on the first experimental phase (VULCANO E-30) which deals with major questions of core-catcher concepts based on spreading and flooding principles. (authors). 3 refs., 6 figs

  13. Internal structure of an ex-vessel corium debris bed during severe accidents of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun

    2015-01-01

    In the aspect of the coolability assessment the configuration of the debris bed, including internal and external characteristics, has significant importance as boundary conditions for simulations, however, relatively little investigation of the sedimentation process. For the development of a debris bed, recently there have been several studies that focused on thermal characteristics of corium particles. Yakush et al. performed simulation studies and showed that two phase natural convection affects the particle settling trajectory and changes the final arrival location of particles to result more flattened bed. Those simulation results have been supported by the experimental studies of Kim et al. using simulant particles and air bubble injection. For the internal structure of a debris bed, there have been several simulation and experimental studies, which investigated the effect of internal structure on debris bed coolability. Magallon has reported the particle size distribution at three elevations of the debris bed of FARO L-31 case, where the mean particle size was bigger for the lower elevation. However, there is a lack of detailed information on the characteristics of the debris bed, including the local structure and porosity. In this study, we investigated the internal structure of the debris bed using a mixture of stainless steel particles and air bubble injection. Local particle sedimentation quantity, particle size distribution change in radial direction and axial direction, and bed porosity was measured to investigate a relationship between the internal structure and the accident condition. An experimental investigation was carried out for the internal structure of ex-vessel corium debris bed in the flooded cavity during sever accident. Moderate corium discharge in high flooding level was assumed for full fragmentation of melt jet. The test particle mixture was prepared by following an empirical correlation, which reflects the particle size distribution of

  14. VULCANO: a large scale U O2 program to study corium behaviour and cooling for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Bouchter, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The CEA has launched the VULCANO project, a large experimental facility whose objectives are the understanding of corium behaviour from core melting up to vessel melt-through, and the qualification of core-catcher concepts. This paper deals with the strategy adopted to overcome the difficulties of such experiments (use of real materials such as U O 2 , controlled temperature and flowrate...); in particular, it describes the feasibility studies undertaken on corium production, and on sustained heating within the melt (micro-waves). Some indications are also given on scaling studies for experiments devoted to vessel integrity. 7 figs., 3 refs

  15. Numerical Analysis of Molten Corium Dispersion during Hypothetical High-Pressure Accidents in APR1400 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Jeong, Jae Sik

    2010-01-01

    During a hypothetical high-pressure accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP), molten corium can be ejected through a breach of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and dispersed by the following jet of a high pressure steam in the RPV. The dispersed corium is fragmented into smaller droplets in a reactor cavity of the NPP by the steam jet with very high velocity and is released into the upper compartment of the NPP by an overpressure in the cavity. The heat-carrying fragments of the corium transfer the thermal energy to the ambient air in the containment and react chemically with steam and generate hydrogen which may be burnt in the containment. The thermal loads from the ejected molten corium on the containment which is called direct containment heating (DCH) can threaten the integrity of the containment. New generation NPPs such as APR1400 and EPR have been designed in consideration of reducing the possibility of the containment failure from the DCH. In order for that, APR1400 has a convolute-type corium chamber connected to the reactor cavity. In the case of EPR, severe-accident dedicated depressurization valves are installed to preclude a high pressure melt ejection (HPME). DCH in a NPP containment is related to many physical phenomena such as multi-phase hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction. In the evaluation of the DCH load, the melt dispersion rates depending on the RPV pressure are the most important parameter. Mostly, DCH was evaluated by using lumped-analysis codes with some correlations obtained from experiments for the dispersion rates. The corium dispersion rates for many types of the NPP containments had been obtained by experiments in 90s. And some correlations from the experimental data were developed. As mentioned above, APR1400 has a corium chamber to reduce the corium dispersion rate. But there is no experimental data for the dispersion rate specific to the APR1400 cavity geometry. So its performance for capturing of the dispersed corium

  16. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides results from analytical and experimental investigations on the behavior of a gas supersaturated molten jet expelled from a pressurized vessel. Aero-hydrodynamic stability of liquid jets in gas, stream degassing of molten metals and gas bubble nucleation in molten metals are relevant problems which are addressed in this work. Models are developed for jet expansion, primary breakup of the jet and secondary fragmentation of melt droplets resulting from violent effervescence of dissolved gas. The jet expansion model is based on a general relation for bubble growth which includes both inertia-controlled and diffusion-controlled growth phases. The jet expansion model is able to predict the jet void fraction, jet radius as a function of axial distance from the pressure vessel, bubble size and bubble pressure. The number density of gas bubbles in the melt, which is a basic parameter in the model, was determined experimentally and is about 10 8 per m 3 of liquid. The primary breakup of the jet produces a spray of droplets, about 2-3 mm in diameter. Parametric calculations for a TMLB' reactor accident sequence show that the corium jet is disrupted within a few initial jet diameters from the reactor vessel and that the radius of corium spray at the level of the reactor cavity floor is in the range of 0.8 to 2.6 m. (orig./HP)

  17. Investigation of molten corium-concrete interaction phenomena and aerosol release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Thompson, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Fink, J.K.; Gunther, W.H.; Kilsdonk, D.J.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is sponsoring a program of laboratory investigations at Argonne National Laboratory to study the interaction between molten core materials and reactor concrete basemats during postulated severe reactor accidents, with particular emphasis on measurements of the magnitude and chemical species present in the aerosol releases. The approach in this program is to sustain internal heat generation in reactor-material corium using direct electrical heating and to develop test operating and diagnostics capabilities with a series of small- and intermediate-scale scoping tests followed by fully instrumented large-scale testing. Real reactor materials (UO 2 , ZrO 2 , oxides of stainless steel, plus metallics) are used, with small amounts of La 2 O 3 , BaO, and SrO added to simulate nonvolatile fission products. In intermediate-scale scoping tests completed to date, corium inventories of up to 29 kg have been heated with power inputs in excess of 1 kW/kg melt. The measured concrete ablation rates have ranged from 0.9 to 3.9 mm/minute. Aerosol samples have been examined using a scanning electron microscope and show submicron particles, 2-6 micrometer spheres, and agglomerates that range from a few micrometers to string 13 micrometers in length

  18. Evaluation of In-Vessel Corium Retention under a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Kang, Kyung-Ho; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Koo, Kil-Mo; Cho, Young-Ro; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-15

    The current study on In-Vessel corium Retention and its application activities to the actual nuclear power plant have been reviewed and discussed in this study. Severe accident sequence which determines an initial condition of the IVR has been evaluated and late phase melt progression, heat transfer on the outer reactor vessel, and in-vessel corium cooling mechanism have been estimated in detail. During the high pressure sequence of the reactor coolant system, a natural circulation flow of the hot steam leads to a failure of the pressurizer surge line before the reactor vessel failure, which leads to a rapid decrease of the reactor coolant system pressure. The results of RASPLAV/MASCA study by OECD/NEA have shown that a melt stratification has occurred in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. In particular, laver inversion has occurred, which is that a high density of the metal melt moves to the lower part of the oxidic melt layer. A method of heat transfer enhancement on the outer reactor vessel is an optimal design of the reactor vessel insulation for an increase of the natural circulation flow between the outer reactor vessel and the its insulation, and an increase of the critical Heat flux on the outer reactor vessel by using various method, such as Nono fluid, coated reactor vessel, and so on. An increase method of the in-vessel melt cooling is a development of the In-vessel core catcher and a decrease of focusing effect in the metal layer.

  19. Development and validation of corium oxidation model for the VAPEX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, V.N.; Melikhov, V.I.; Davydov, M.V.; Melikhov, O.I.; Borovkova, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In light water reactor core melt accidents, the molten fuel (corium) can be brought into contact with coolant water in the course of the melt relocation in-vessel and ex-vessel as well as in an accident mitigation action of water addition. Mechanical energy release from such an interaction is of interest in evaluating the structural integrity of the reactor vessel as well as of the containment. Usually, the source for the energy release is considered to be the rapid transfer of heat from the molten fuel to the water ('vapor explosion'). When the fuel contains a chemically reactive metal component, there could be an additional source for the energy release, which is the heat release and hydrogen production due to the metal-water chemical reaction. In Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center the computer code VAPEX (VAPor EXplosion) has been developed for analysis of the molten fuel coolant interaction. Multifield approach is used for modeling of dynamics of following phases: water, steam, melt jet, melt droplets, debris. The VAPEX code was successfully validated on FARO experimental data. Hydrogen generation was observed in FARO tests even though corium didn't contain metal component. The reason for hydrogen generation was not clear, so, simplified empirical model of hydrogen generation was implemented in the VAPEX code to take into account input of hydrogen into pressure increase. This paper describes new more detailed model of hydrogen generation due to the metal-water chemical reaction and results of its validation on ZREX experiments. (orig.)

  20. Interaction between molten corium UO2+x-ZrO2-FeOy and VVER vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S. V.; Granovsky, V. S.; Khabensky, V. B.; Krushinov, E. V.; Vitol, S. A.; Sulatsky, A. A.; Gusarov, V. V.; Almiashev, V. I.; Lopukh, D. B.; Bottomley, D.; Fischer, M.; Piluso, P.; Miassoedov, A.; Tromm, W.; Altstadt, E.; Fichot, F.; Kymalainen, O.

    2010-01-01

    In case of in-vessel corium retention during a severe accident in a light water reactor, weakening of the vessel wall and deterioration of the vessel steel properties can be caused both by the melting of the steel and by its physicochemical interaction with corium. The interaction behavior has been studied in medium-scale experiments with prototypic corium. The experiments yielded data for the steel corrosion rate during interaction with UO 2+x -ZrO 2 -FeO y melt in air and steam at different steel surface temperatures and heat fluxes from the corium to the steel. It has been observed that the corrosion rates in air and steam atmosphere are almost the same. Further, if the temperature at the interface increases beyond a certain level, corrosion intensifies. This is explained by the formation of liquid phases in the interaction Zone. The available experimental data have been used to develop a correlation for the corrosion rate as a function of temperature and heat flux. (authors)

  1. A study on corium melt pool behavior under external vessel cooling : investigation of the first phase research results in the OECD RASPLAV project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Yoo, Kun Joong

    1998-04-01

    The scope and contents of the OECD RASPLAV program are to investigate natural convection heat transfer in the corium, chemical and mechanical interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel, crust formation of the corium, and thermal behaviour of the corium by experiments and model development during external vessel cooling to prevent reactor vessel failure in severe accidents of nuclear power plant. This study includes evaluation and analysis of the RASPLAV V phase I results for three years between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1997. These results supply technical basis for our experimental program on severe accident research. Two large-scale experiments of RASPLAV-AW-between the corium and the reactor vessel. Several small-scale experiments were conducted to analyze thermal stratification in the corium. The salt experiments were conducted to estimate the crust and the mushy region formation, and natural convection heat transfer in the corium. In the analytical studies, pre and post analysis of the RASPLAV-AW-200 experiments and evaluation of the salt test results have been performed using CONV 2 and 3D computer codes, which were developed during RASPLAV program phase I. Low density corium was separated from the high density corium during the RASPLAV-AW-200 tests and the TULPAN test, which was a new finding in the RASPLAV project phase I. From the salts test, heat flux distribution in the side wall heating case is similar to the direct internal heat generation case, and the crust formation is a little effect on heat transfer rate. The results of CONV 2 and 3 D were very well with with the experimental results. The results of RASLAV project phase I, such as furnace design and the techniques on fuel melting, are very helpful to our severe accident experimental program. (author). 57 refs., 13 tabs., 52 figs.

  2. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, B., E-mail: benedicte.michel@irsn.fr

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium.

  3. Analysis on the Multiplication Factor with the Change of Corium Mass and Void Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Park, Chang Je; Song, Jin Ho; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The neutron absorbing materials and fuel rods would be separately arranged and relocated, since the control materials in metallic structures have lower melting points than that of the oxide fuel (UO{sub 2}) rod materials. In addition, core reflood for a BWR is normally accomplished by supplying unborated water unlikely for a PWR. Therefore, a potential for a recriticality event to occur may exist, if unborated coolant injection is initiated with this configuration in the reactor core. The re-criticality in this system, however, brings into question what the uranium mass is required to achieve a critical level. Furthermore, the additional decay heat from molten fuel (corium) will produce an increase of void and eventually results in under-moderation of neutrons. The prior verification of these consequential physical variations in criticality eigenvalue (effective multiplication factor, k{sub eff}) should be greatly contributed to control and termination of re-criticality. Therefore, this study addresses what uranium mass of corium could achieve re-criticality of an accident core, and how effect the coolant void fraction has on eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) and its reactivity. To analyze the critical mass and the effect on criticality upon changing coolant density, k{sub eff} values were calculated using the MCNPX 2.5.0 code, and the reactivity change was also investigated. As a result, a large change in corium mass leads to a little change in k{sub eff} value, nevertheless, only about 60 kg of uranium is necessary to achieve a critical level. Thus, the amounts to reach a re-criticality are not fairly large, considering the actual uranium quantities loaded in the reactor core. Based on the condition with k{sub eff} greater than unity, the absolute values of k{sub eff} decrease rate and the coolant density coefficient were gradually increased due to the steady increments of coolant void (i.e., decrease in coolant density). In addition, the k{sub eff} value approaches the

  4. In-calandria retention of corium in Indian PHWR - experimental simulations with decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima has compelled the nuclear community to relook at the safety of existing nuclear power plants (NPP) against natural origin events of beyond design basis and prolonged station black out (SBO). A major lesson learned is to assess the capability of the safety systems to cool the reactor core and spent fuel storage facilities in the event of a prolonged station black out (SBO). Similar safety review is planned for the Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) considering a prolonged SBO. The Indian PHWR is a heavy water-moderated and cooled, natural uranium-fuelled reactor in which the horizontal fuel channels are submerged in a pool of heavy water moderator located inside the calandria vessel. The calandria vessel is surrounded by a calandria vault having large volume of light water. Concerns are raised that in the event of an unmitigated SBO, it may result into a low probable severe accident leading to core melt down. The core melt may further fail the calandria vessel in case the melt is not quenched. If the calandria vessel fails, the corium shall interact with the cold calandria vault water and concrete resulting in generation of large amount of non-condensable gases and steam which will lead to over pressurization of containment and may cause its failure. Therefore, in-calandria corium retention via external cooling using vault water can be considered as an important accident management program in PHWR. In this strategy, the core melt retains inside the calandria vessel by continually removing the stored heat and decay heat through outer surface of the vessel by cooling water and maintaining the integrity of the vessel. The present study focuses on experimental investigation in a scaled facility of an Indian PHWR to investigate the coolability of molten corium with simulated decay heat by using the calandria vault water. Molten borosilicate glass was used as the simulant due to its comparable heat transfer characteristics

  5. Differences between silica and limestone concretes that may affect their interaction with corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Haquet, J. F.; Piluso, P.; Bonnet, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent Molten Core Concrete Interaction tests performed at Argonne National Laboratory and at CEA Cadarache have shown that, whereas the ablation of limestone-rich concretes is almost isotropic, the ablation of silica-rich concretes is much faster towards the sides than towards the bottom of the cavity. The following differences exists between limestone-rich and silica-rich concretes: limestone concretes liberate about twice as much gas, at a given ablation rate than siliceous concretes (more than 50% more at constant heat flux) and this can affect pool hydraulics and crust stability: limestone concrete has a higher liquidus temperature than siliceous concrete and molten limestone concrete has a larger diffusion coefficient and can more easily dissolve a corium crust than siliceous melt; limestone aggregates are destroyed by de-carbonation at around 1000 K while silica aggregates melt only above 2000 K, so that floating silica aggregates can form cold spots increasing corium solidification near the interface; de-carbonation of limestone leads to a significant shrinkage of concrete melt volume compared to the cold solid that hampers the mechanical stability of overlying crusts; the chemical composition of molten mortar (sand + cement) and concrete (sand + gravel + cement) is close for limestone-rich concretes while it is different for siliceous concretes, so that the melt composition may vary significantly in case of non-simultaneous melting of the siliceous concrete constituents; molten silicates have a large viscosity, so that transport properties are different for the two types of concretes. The small range of plant concrete compositions that have been considered for MCCI experiments has not yet been found sufficient to determine which of the above-mentioned differences is paramount to explain the observed difference in ablation patterns. Separate Effect Tests using specially-designed 'artificial concretes' and prototypic corium would provide the necessary

  6. Influence of corium oxidation on fission product release from molten pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V., E-mail: bechta@sbor.spb.s [Alexandrov Scientific-Research Institute of Technology (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Khabensky, V.B.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Sulatsky, A.A. [Alexandrov Scientific-Research Institute of Technology (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V.V.; Almyashev, V.I. [Grebenschikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISC RAS), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ducros, G.; Journeau, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Bottomley, D. [Joint Research Centre Institut fuer Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Clement, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), St. Paul lez Durance (France); Herranz, L. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Guentay, S. [PSI, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland); Trambauer, K. [GRS, Muenchen (Germany); Auvinen, A. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bezlepkin, V.V. [SPbAEP, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    Qualitative and quantitative determination of the release of low-volatile fission products and core materials from molten oxidic corium was investigated in the EVAN project under the auspices of ISTC. The experiments carried out in a cold crucible with induction heating and RASPLAV test facility are described. The results are discussed in terms of reactor application; in particular, pool configuration, melt oxidation kinetics, critical influence of melt surface temperature and oxidation index on the fission product release rate, aerosol particle composition and size distribution. The relevance of measured high release of Sr from the molten pool for the reactor application is highlighted. Comparisons of the experimental data with those from the COLIMA CA-U3 test and the VERCORS tests, as well as with predictions from IVTANTHERMO and GEMINI/NUCLEA codes are made. Recommendations for further investigations are proposed following the major observations and discussions.

  7. An interpretation of the observations performed on rasplav AW200-1 corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, K.; Seiler, J.M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de Grenoble, 38

    1997-01-01

    The RASPLAV test AW-200-1, performed in the Kurchatov Institute in 1996, showed unexpected results: elevated measured temperatures and stratification of the C-22 corium. Thermalhydraulic and thermodynamic calculations allowed us to give some explanation of the phenomenon which took place in the device: due to the large range between the solidus and the liquidus temperature of the initial mixture, and due to the density difference between the liquid and the solid phase in this temperature domain separation of these two phases had happened during the melting of the mixture (we have no explanation why this separation occurred). GEMINI2 calculations of the solidification paths are consistent with metallographic analyses which were carried out in these two separated layers after solidification. (author)

  8. Influence of corium oxidation on fission product release from molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Release of low-volatile fission products and core materials from molten oxidic corium was investigated in the EVAN project under the auspices of ISTC. The experiments carried out in cold crucible with induction heating and RASPLAV test facility are described. The results are discussed in terms of reactor application; in particular, pool configuration, melt oxidation kinetics, critical influence of melt surface temperature and oxidation index on the fission product release rate and aerosol particle composition. The relevance of measured high release of Sr from the molten pool for the reactor application is highlighted. Comparisons of the experimental data with those from the COLIMA CA-U3 test and the VERCORS tests, as well as with predictions from IVTANTHERMO and GEMINI/NUCLEA are set. (author)

  9. Assessment of In-vessel corium retention for VVER-440/V213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejovic, P.; Barnak, M.; Bachraty, M.; Berky, R.

    2011-01-01

    In-vessel corium retention (IVR) via external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) has been recognised as a feasible and promising severe accident management strategy for VVER-440/V213 reactors. In general, the avoiding of boiling crisis on outer (cooled) RPV (reactor pressure vessel) surface is sufficient condition for preserving the RPV integrity. The crucial point of the proposed IVR concept for VVER-440/V213 is the narrow gap between elliptical lower head and thermal and biological shield. In the cold conditions the width of this gap is only about 2 cm and would be even lower in hot IVR conditions, when the reactor wall is subjected to large thermal gradients due to temperature difference between the hot inner surface (loaded by corium) and cold outer surface (which is cooled by water in flooded cavity). Sufficient gap should remain free for coolant flow for the success of the proposed IVR concept. Thus, realistic estimation of thermal load and corresponding deformations of reactor wall and their impact on gap width are of primarily importance. Two different approaches were used for the estimation of the thermal load: a conservative approach and a transient approach, both were computed with the ASTEC code. The structural analysis of RPV subjected to IVR load was performed using the finite element method (FEM) code ANSYS release 10.0. From the results obtained it follows, that even when the RPV is subjected to limiting loading conditions during severe accident, there should be sufficient gap width (∼ 1 cm) between RPV wall and thermal/biological shield for the coolant flow in natural circulation regime alongside the outer surface of the RPV wall

  10. Molten corium concrete interaction: investigation of heat transfer in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amizic, Milan

    2014-01-01

    In the context of severe accident research for the second and the third generation of nuclear power plants, there are still open issues concerning some aspects of the concrete cavity ablation during the molten corium - concrete interaction (MCCI). The determination of heat transfer along the interfacial region between the molten corium pool and the ablating basemat concrete is crucial for the assessment of concrete ablation progression and eventually the basemat melt through. For the purpose of experimental investigation of thermal hydraulics inside a liquid pool agitated by gas bubbles, the CLARA project has been launched. The CLARA experiments are performed using simulant materials and they reveal the influence of superficial gas velocity, liquid viscosity and pool geometry on the heat transfer coefficient between the internally heated liquid pool and vertical and horizontal pool walls maintained at uniform temperature. The first test campaign has been conducted with the small pool configuration (50 cm * 25 cm * 25 cm). The tests have been performed with liquids covering a wide range of dynamic viscosity from approximately 1 mPa s to 10000 mPa s and the superficial gas velocity is varied up to 8 cm/s. This thesis comprises a brief description of MCCI phenomenology, literature reviews on the existing heat transfer correlations for two phase flow and the void fraction, a description of CLARA setup, experimental results and their interpretation. The experimental results are compared with existing models and some new models for the assessment of heat transfer coefficient in two-phase flow. (author) [fr

  11. Thermo-physical properties of corium: development of an assessed data base for severe accident applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhov, V.F.; Galimov, R.G.; Ozrin, V.D. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yu Zitserman, V.; Kobzev, G.I.; Fokin, L.R. [Institute of high temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN/STRI), Lab. d' essais pour la Maitrise des Accidents graves, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chalaye, H. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    In a hypothetical case of a core melt-down scenarios a very high temperature would be reached (up to 3000 K). In this case, the materials of the core and structural materials (fuel, cladding, metallic alloys, concrete, etc.) could melt to form complex and aggressive mixtures called corium. Modelling of severe accident phenomena, code development and assessments of nuclear safety require a reliable knowledge of the thermophysical properties of corium at wide temperature range (below solidus temperature, between solidus and liquidus temperature and above the liquidus temperature). Common Russian-French project ISTC 3078, has been devoted to the development, assessment and recommendation for the establishment of a reliable thermophysical data base for severe accident applications. The project consists of two tasks related to properties of pure metallic (U, Zr, Fe, Cr, Ni) and oxide (UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, NiO, ZrO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO, SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}) components, and mixtures relevant to severe accident conditions. Three categories of data (on UPAK classification) were considered: experimental data, critically evaluated data, and predicted data. The data of the first category is a result of specific experiment, data of the second category is a result of the analysis of data consistency and co-processing (expert and statistical) obtained in several experiments, data of the third category are based on model estimates, using correlations between different physical properties. The process of assessing, review and development of recommendation is described in the paper and illustrated by examples on thermophysical properties. (authors)

  12. FARO tests corium-melt cooling in water pool: Roles of melt superheat and sintering in sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gisuk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States); Kaviany, Massoud [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Byoungcheol; Lee, Mooneon; Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Nasersharifi, Yahya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The numerical approach for FARO experimental data is suggested. • The cooling mechanism of ex-vessel corium is suggested. • The predicted minimum pool depth for no cake formation is suggested. - Abstract: The FARO tests have aimed at understanding an important severe accident mitigation action in a light water reactor when the accident progresses from the reactor pressure vessel boundary. These tests have aimed to measure the coolability of a molten core material (corium) gravity dispersed as jet into a water pool, quantifying the loose particle diameter distribution and fraction converted to cake under range of initial melt superheat and pool temperature and depth. Under complete hydrodynamic breakup of corium and consequent sedimentation in the pool, the initially superheated corium can result in debris bed consisting of discrete solid particles (loose debris) and/or a solid cake at the bottom of the pool. The success of the debris bed coolability requires cooling of the cake, and this is controlled by the large internal resistance. We postulate that the corium cake forms when there is a remelting part in the sediment. We show that even though a solid shell forms around the melt particles transiting in the water pool due to film-boiling heat transfer, the superheated melt allows remelting of the large particles in the sediment (depending on the water temperature and the transit time) using the COOLAP (Coolability Analysis with Parametric fuel-cooant interaction models) code. With this remelting and its liquid-phase sintering of the non-remelted particles, we predict the fraction of the melt particles converting to a cake through liquid sintering. Our predictions are in good agreement with the existing results of the FARO experiments. We address only those experiments with pool depths sufficient/exceeding the length required for complete breakup of the molten jet. Our analysis of the fate of molten corium aimed at devising the effective

  13. Analysis of B4C influences on thermodynamic properties and phase separation of molten corium with ionic liquid U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanori; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Saito, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Boron carbide influences on thermodynamic properties and phase separation of molten corium such as liquidus temperature were estimated with our U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs thermodynamic database. The liquidus temperature of the oxide for the typical corium was estimated to increase by a hundred degrees with B 4 C addition when the corium included up to 10 wt% Fe. On the other hand, the liquidus temperature was hardly changed when the corium included 50 wt% Fe. The interaction temperature between the steel and the corium with B 4 C was estimated at 1130 K. We define the interaction temperature as the lowest temperature where the solid Fe and the liquid phase of a corium are in equilibrium, at which interactions such as microstructure change of the vessel were observed in test studies. Although it is 180 K lower than that without B 4 C, the estimated temperature is still over 200 K higher than the criterion temperature where the vessel loses its structural strength, which has been used in the feasibility evaluation of the in-vessel retention. Other thermodynamic influences of B 4 C were also estimated as not having a negative impact on the in-vessel retention. (author)

  14. Modelling of multicomponent diffusion in a two-phase oxide-metal corium pool by a diffuse interface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardon, Clement

    2016-01-01

    This Ph.D. topic is focused on the modelling of stratification kinetics for an oxide-metal corium pool (U-O-Zr-steel system) in terms of multicomponent and multiphase diffusion. This work is part of a larger research effort for the development of a detailed corium pool modelling based on a CFD approach for thermal hydraulics. The overall goal is to improve the understanding of the involved phenomena and obtain closure laws for integral macroscopic models. The phase-field method coupled with an energy functional using the CALPHAD method appears to be relevant for this purpose. In a first part, we have developed a diffuse interface model in order to describe the diffusion process in the U-O system. This model has been coupled with a CALPHAD thermodynamic database and its parameterization has been developed with, in particular, an up-scaling procedure related to the interface thickness. Then, within the framework of a modelling for the U-O-Zr ternary system, we have proposed a generalization of the diffuse interface model through an assumption of local equilibrium for redox mechanisms. A particular attention was paid to the model analysis by 1D numerical simulations with a special focus on the steady state composition profiles. Finally we have applied this model to the U-O-Zr-Fe system. For that purpose, we have considered a configuration close to small-scale experimental tests of oxide-metal corium pool stratification. (author) [fr

  15. Analysis of heat transfer mechanism on in-vessel corium coolability in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Joon; Jeong, Ji Whan; Kim, Sang Baik; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Whan

    1998-04-01

    When the molten core material relocates to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel, the cooling process of corium and the related heat transfer mechanism have been analyzed. The critical heat flux in gap (CHFG) test is being performed as a part of simulation of naturally arrested thermal attack in (SONATA-IV) project and the state of art on CHF has been reviewed. A series of complex heat transfer mechanism of molten pool formation, natural convection in the molten pool, solidification and remelting of the corium, conduction in the solidified crust, and boiling heat transfer to surroundings can be occurred in the lower plenum. Many studies are needed to investigate the complex heat transfer mechanism in the lower plenum, because these phenomena have not been clearly understand until now. The SONATA-IV/CHFG experiments are being carried out to develop CHF correlation in a hemispherical gap, which is the upper limit of heat transfer. There is no experimental or analytical CHF correlation applicable to a hemispherical gap. So lots of analytical and experimental correlations developed using the similar experimental condition were gathered and compared with each other. According to the experimental work that was carried out with pool boiling condition, CHF in a parallel gap was reduced by 1/30 compared with the value measured without gap. A basic form of a CHF correlation has been developed to correlate measurements that will be made in the SONATA-IV/CHFG experiments. That correlation is based on the fact that the CHF in a hemispherical gap is enhanced by CCFL and a Kutateladze type CCFL correlation develops CCFL date will in geometry like this. The experimental facility consists of a heater, a pressure vessel, a heat exchanger and lots of sensors. The heater capacity is 40 kw and the maximum heat flux at the surface is 100 kw/m 2 . The experiments will be carried out in the range of 1 to 10 atm and the gap size of 0.5, 1, 2 mm. The CHF will be detected using 66 type

  16. Design feasibility study on corium stabilization in bottom end-fitting for AHWR under accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Onkar; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Chatterjee, B.; Singh, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being designed in a robust way to cater both Design and Beyond Design Basis Accidents to meet all the safety functions. All the functions are met by passive means with special emphasis on 'residual heat removal' which is catered by passive natural circulation mode. In context to Design Basis Accidents, several features are designed to handle worst kind of scenario like Station Black Out. For Design Extension Conditions (DEC), the means of passive natural circulation is adopted as a design means to meet the DEC-A conditions like cooling of moderator by natural circulation means with GDWP inventory. Under the DEC-B condition where large scale of fuel melting is envisaged, a core catcher is designed with active/passive cooling modes to take care of the residual heat of the core. All the mentioned features utilizes the natural mode of heat transfer to meet one of the safety function i.e. 'residual heat removal'. The analysis shows that the tube sheet as well as lattice tube temperatures remain low and are able to take out the heat from corium through sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The ES cooling is sufficient to maintain the cooling water in subcooled condition. The integrity of tube sheet and lattice tube is maintained

  17. Experimental study of the fragmentation and quench behavior of corium melts in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.K.; Blomquist, C.A.; Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.M.; Schneider, J.P.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of molten core materials with water has been investigated for the pour stream mixing mode. This interaction plays a crucial role during the later stages of in-vessel core melt progression inside a light water reactor such as during the TMI-2 accident. The key issues which arise during the molten core relocation include: (1) the thermal attack and possible damage to the RPV lower head from the impinging molten fuel stream and/or the debris bed, (2) the molten fuel relocation pathways including the effects of redistribution due to core support structure and the reactor lower internals, (3) the quench rate of the molten fuel through the water in the lower plasma, (4) the steam generation and hydrogen generation during the interaction, (5) the transient pressurization of the primary system, and (6) the possibility of a steam explosion. In order to understand these issues, a series of six experiments (designated CCM-1 through -6) was performed in which molten corium passed through a deep pool of water in a long, slender pour stream mode. Results discussed include the transient temperatures and pressures, the rate and magnitude of steam/hydrogen generation, and the posttest debris characteristics. 9 refs., 29 figs

  18. Analysis of a thermite experiment to study low pressure corium dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, D.

    2001-08-01

    The report describes the recalculation of a thermite experiment in a reduced scale which simulates the discharge of molten core materials out of the pressure vessel of a light water reactor into the open compartments and the dome of the containment. The experiment was performed in the framework of a multinational effort at the Sandia National Laboratory, U.S.A. It is being followed by the DISCO program at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. A computational fluid dynamics code was supplemented with specific models to recalculate the Sandia experiment in order to identify problem areas which need to be addressed in the future. Therefore, a first attempt was undertaken to extrapolate to reactor conditions. This was done in two steps to separate geometric from material scaling relationships. The study shows that important experimental results can be extrapolated according to general scaling laws but that there are sensitivities, especially when replacing thermite by corium. The results show a considerable scatter and a dependence on geometric resolution and dynamics of energy transfer between participating components. (orig.) [de

  19. Coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of corium-loaded lower head of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, J.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2016-01-01

    A severe accident in the pressurised water reactor may lead to the relocation of core materials to the lower head of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The core debris at the bottom of RPV forms a melt pool of corium due to decay heat. The understanding of behaviour of pressure vessel, characterised by failure mode and time to failure, in this scenario is one of the important steps in predicting the accident progression. The most predominant failure mode is multi-axial creep deformation of the vessel with a non-uniform temperature field. Towards this, a numerical analysis methodology is developed for the prediction of pressure vessel deformation during the severe accidents. The methodology involves 2-D finite element modelling under multi-physics environment, which account the creep phenomena using Norton-Bailey creep law with a typical damage model of RPV material. The validation of the methodology is carried out using the results from OLHF experiment carried out in Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), USA, within the framework of an OECD. (author)

  20. An analysis of molten-corium-induced failure of drain pipes in BWR Mark 2 containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1991-01-01

    This study has focused on mechanistic simulation and analysis of potential failure modes for inpedestal drywell drain pipes in the Limerick boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark 2 containment. Physical phenomena related to surface tension breakdown, heatup, melting, ablation, crust formation and failure, and core material relocation into drain pipes with simultaneous melting of pipe walls were modeled and analyzed. The results of analysis have been used to assess the possibility of drain pipe failure and the resultant loss of pressure-suppression capability. Estimates have been made for the timing and amount of molten corium released to the wetwell. The study has revealed that significantly different melt progression sequences can result depending upon the failure characteristics of the frozen metallic crust which forms over the drain cover during the initial stages of debris pour. Another important result is that it can take several days for the molten fuel to ablate the frozen metallic debris layer -- if the frozen layer has cooled below 1100 K before fuel attack. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Thermal Load Analysis of Multilayered Corium in the Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel during Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Seok Won; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Tae Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In-Vessel Retention (IVR) is one of the severe accident management strategies to terminate or mitigate the severe accident which is also called 'core-melt accident'. The reactor vessel would be cooled by flooding the cavity with water. The molten core mixture is divided into two or three layers due to the density difference. Light metal layer which contains Fe and Zr is on the oxide layer which is consist of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}. Heavy metal layer which contains U, Fe and Zr is located under the oxide layer. In oxide layer, the crust which is solidified material is formed along the boundary. The assessment of IVR for nuclear power plant has been conducted with lumped parameter method by Theofanous, Rempe and Esmaili. In this paper, the numerical analysis was performed and verified with the Esmaili's work to analyze thermal load of multilayered corium in pressurized reactor vessel and also to examine the condition of in-vessel corium characteristic before the vessel failure that lead to ex-vessel severe accident progression for example, ex-vessel debris bed cooling. The in-vessel coolability analysis for several scenarios is conducted for the plant which has higher power than AP1000. Two sensitivity analyses are conducted, the first is emissivity of light metal layer and the second is the heat transfer coefficient correlations of oxide layer. The effect of three layered system also investigated. In this paper, the numerical analysis was performed and verified with Esmaili's model to analyze thermal load of multilayered corium in pressurized reactor vessel. For two layered system, thermal load was analyzed according to the severe accident scenarios, emissivity of the light metal layer and heat transfer correlations of the.

  2. Thermophysical properties of liquid UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and corium by molecular dynamics and predictive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Kee; Shim, Ji Hoon [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kaviany Massoud [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The analysis of such accidents (fate of the melt), requires accurate corium thermophysical properties data up to 5000 K. In addition, the initial corium melt superheat melt, determined from such properties, are key in predicting the fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) and convection and retention of corium in accident scenarios, e.g., core-melt down corium discharge from reactor pressure vessels and spreading in external core-catcher. Due to the high temperatures, data on molten corium and its constituents are limited, so there are much data scatters and mostly extrapolations (even from solid state) have been used. Here we predict the thermophysical properties of molten UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (properties of corium are predicted using the mixture theories and UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} properties). The thermophysical properties (density, compressibility, heat capacity, viscosity and surface tension) of liquid UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are predicted using classical molecular dynamics simulations, up to 5000 K. For atomic interactions, the CRG and the Teter potential models are found most appropriate. The liquid behavior is verified with the random motion of the constituent atoms and the pair-distribution functions, starting with the solid phase and raising the temperature to realize liquid phase. The viscosity and thermal conductivity are calculated with the Green-Kubo autocorrelation decay formulae and compared with the predictive models of Andrade and Bridgman. For liquid UO{sub 2}, the CRG model gives satisfactory MD predictions. For ZrO{sub 2}, the density is reliably predicted with the CRG potential model, while the compressibility and viscosity are more accurately predicted by the Teter model.

  3. Experimental investigation of 150-KG-scale corium melt jet quenching in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper compares and discusses the results of two large scale FARO quenching tests known as L-11 and L-14, which involved, respectively, 151 kg of W% 76.7 UO{sub 2} + 19.2 ZrO{sub 2} + 4.1 Zr and 125 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melts poured into 600-kg, 2-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. The results are further compared with those of two previous tests performed using a pure oxidic melt, respectively 18 and 44 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melt quenched in 1-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. In all the tests, significant breakup and quenching took place during the melt fall through the water. No steam explosion occurred. In the tests performed with a pure oxide UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt, part of the corium (from 1/6 to 1/3) did not breakup and reached the bottom plate still molten whatever the water depth was. Test L-11 data suggest that full oxidation and complete breakup of the melt occurred during the melt fall through the water. A proportion of 64% of the total energy content of the melt was released to the water during this phase ({approximately}1.5 s), against 44% for L-14. The maximum temperature increase of the bottom plate was 330 K (L-14). The mean particle size of the debris ranged between 2.5 and 4.8mm.

  4. Validation of ASTEC v2.0 corium jet fragmentation model using FARO experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Pla, P.; Sangiorgi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model validation base extended to six FARO experiments. • Focus on the calculation of the fragmented particle diameter. • Capability and limits of the ASTEC fragmentation model. • Sensitivity analysis of model outputs. - Abstract: ASTEC is an integral code for the prediction of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants. As such, it needs to cover all physical processes that could occur during accident progression, yet keeping its models simple enough for the ensemble to stay manageable and produce results within an acceptable time. The present paper is concerned with the validation of the Corium jet fragmentation model of ASTEC v2.0 rev3 by means of a selection of six experiments carried out within the FARO facility. The different conditions applied within these six experiments help to analyse the model behaviour in different situations and to expose model limits. In addition to comparing model outputs with experimental measurements, sensitivity analyses are applied to investigate the model. Results of the paper are (i) validation runs, accompanied by an identification of situations where the implemented fragmentation model does not match the experiments well, and discussion of results; (ii) its special attention to the models calculating the diameter of fragmented particles, the identification of a fault in one model implemented, and the discussion of simplification and ad hoc modification to improve the model fit; and, (iii) an investigation of the sensitivity of predictions towards inputs and parameters. In this way, the paper offers a thorough investigation of the merit and limitation of the fragmentation model used in ASTEC

  5. Experimental investigation on molten pool representing corium composition at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang Mo, E-mail: sangmoan@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yueong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yueong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yueong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry & Nuclear Nonproliferation, University of Science & Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, HwanYeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yueong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Naitoh, Masanori [The Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2 Nishi-shimbashi, 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0003 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    A configuration of molten core in the Fukushima Daiichi NPP (nuclear power plant) was investigated by a melting and solidification experiment. About 5 kg of a mixture, whose composition in terms of weight is UO{sub 2} (60%), Zr + ZrO{sub 2} (25%), stainless steel (14%), B{sub 4}C (1%), was melted in a cold crucible using an induction heating technique. It was shown that the solidified melt consists of upper crust and lower solidified ingot. The solidified ingot was separated into two layers. A physical and chemical analysis was performed for the samples taken from the solidified melt to investigate the morphology and chemical characteristics. It was found that the solidified ingot consists of a metal-rich layer on the top and an oxide-rich layer at the bottom. In addition, the oxide layer at the bottom has composition close to the initial charge composition and surrounded by a thin crust layer. It turned out that B{sub 4}C was more concentrated in the upper metal-rich layer. These findings provide important insights for understanding the core melt progression and taking proper post-accident recovery actions for the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. - Highlights: • A configuration of molten core in the Fukushima Daiich NPP unit 1 is investigated. • Corium ingot consists of metallic layer on the top and oxidic layer at the bottom. • Boron carbide was more concentrated in the upper metallic layer. • Two layered configuration would contribute to the post-accident recovery actions.

  6. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report.

  7. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  8. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  9. A Heat Transfer Model for a Stratified Corium-Metal Pool in the Lower Plenum of a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary design report describes a model for heat transfer in a corium-metal stratified pool. It was decided to make use of the existing COUPLE model. Currently available correlations for natural convection heat transfer in a pool with and without internal heat generation were obtained. The appropriate correlations will be incorporated in the existing COUPLE model. Heat conduction and solidification modeling will be done with existing algorithms in the COUPLE. Assessment of the new model will be done by simple energy conservation problems

  10. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin; Park, Jae Hong

    2001-03-01

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report

  11. State-of-the-Art Report on Molten Corium Concrete Interaction and Ex-Vessel Molten Core Coolability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Cranga, Michel; Vola, Didier; Marchetto, Cathy; Kissane, Martin; ); Robledo, Fernando; Farmer, Mitchel T.; Spengler, Claus; Basu, Sudhamay; Atkhen, Kresna; Fargette, Andre; Fisher, Manfred; Foit, Jerzi; Hotta, Akitoshi; Morita, Akinobu; Journeau, Christophe; Moiseenko, Evgeny; Polidoro, Franco; Zhou, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Activities carried out over the last three decades in relation to core-concrete interactions and melt coolability, as well as related containment failure modes, have significantly increased the level of understanding in this area. In a severe accident with little or no cooling of the reactor core, the residual decay heat in the fuel can cause the core materials to melt. One of the challenges in such cases is to determine the consequences of molten core materials causing a failure of the reactor pressure vessel. Molten corium will interact, for example, with structural concrete below the vessel. The reaction between corium and concrete, commonly referred to as MCCI (molten core concrete interaction), can be extensive and can release combustible gases. The cooling behaviour of ex-vessel melts through sprays or flooding is also complex. This report summarises the current state of the art on MCCI and melt coolability, and thus should be useful to specialists seeking to predict the consequences of severe accidents, to model developers for severe-accident computer codes and to designers of mitigation measures

  12. Status of the corquench model for calculation of ex-vessel corium coolability by an overlying water layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W.

    2000-01-01

    The results of melt attack and coolability experiment (MACE) tests have identified several heat transfer mechanisms which could potentially lead to long term corium coolability. Based on physical observations from these tests, an integrated model of corium quenching (CORQUENCH) behavior is being developed. Aside from modeling of the primary physical processes observed in the tests, considerable effort has also been devoted to modeling of test occurrences which deviate from the behavior expected at reactor scale. In this manner, extrapolation of the models validated against the test data to the reactor case can be done with increased confidence. The integrated model currently addresses early bulk cooling and incipient crust formation heat transfer phases, as well as a follow-on water ingression phase which leads to development of a sustained quench front progressing downwards through the debris. In terms of experiment distortions, the model is also able to mechanistically calculate crust anchoring to the test section sidewalls, as well as the subsequent melt/crust separation phase which arises due to concrete densification upon melting. In this paper, the status of the model development and validation activities are described. In addition, representative calculations for PWR plant conditions are provided in order to illustrate the potential benefits of overlying water on mitigation of the accident sequence. (orig.)

  13. Two-Phase Flow Effect on the Ex-Vessel Corium Debris Bed Formation in Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Hyun Sun; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian V.

    2014-01-01

    In Korean IVR-ERVC(In-Vessel Retention of molten corium through External Reactor Vessel Cooling) strategy, if the situation degenerates into insufficient external vessel cooling, the molten core mixture can directly erupt into the flooded cavity pool from the weakest point of the vessel. Then, FCI (molten Fuel Coolant Interaction) will fragment the corium jet into small particulates settling down to make porous debris bed on the cavity basemat. To secure the containment integrity against the MCCI (Molten Core - Concrete Interaction), cooling of the heat generating porous corium debris bed is essential and it depends on the characteristics of the bed itself. For the characteristics of corium debris bed, many previous experimental studies with simulant melts reported the heap-like shape mostly. There were also following experiments to develop the correlation for the heap-like shaped debris bed. However, recent studies started to consider the effect of the decay heat and reported some noticeable results with the two-phase flow effect on the debris bed formation. The Kyushu University and JAEA group reported the experimental studies on the 'self-leveling' effect which is the flattening effect of the particulate bed by the inside gas generation. The DECOSIM simulation study of RIT (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden) with Russian researchers showed the 'large cavity pool convection' effect, which is driven by the up-rising gas bubble flow from the pre-settled debris bed, on the particle settling trajectories and ultimately final bed shape. The objective of this study is verification of the two-phase flow effect on the ex-vessel corium debris bed formation in the severe accident. From the analysis on the test movie and resultant particle beds, the two-phase flow effect on the debris bed formation, which has been reported in the previous studies, was verified and the additional findings were also suggested. For the first, in quiescent pool the

  14. Synthetic analyses of the LAVA experimental results on in-vessel corium retention through gap cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Young Ro; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Sun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    2001-03-01

    LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) has been performed to gather proof of gap formation between the debris and lower head vessel and to evaluate the effect of the gap formation on in-vessel cooling. Through the total of 12 tests, the analyses on the melt relocation process, gap formation and the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the vessel were performed. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel were affected by the formation of the fragmented particles and melt pool during the melt relocation process depending on mass and composition of melt and subcooling and depth of water. During the melt relocation process 10.0 to 20.0 % of the melt mass was fragmented and also 15.5 to 47.5 % of the thermal energy of the melt was transferred to water. The experimental results address the non-adherence of the debris to the lower head vessel and the consequent gap formation between the debris and the lower head vessel in case there was an internal pressure load across the vessel abreast with the thermal load induced by the thermite melt. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel during the cooldown period were mainly affected by the heat removal characteristics through this gap, which were determined by the possibilities of the water ingression into the gap depending on the melt composition of the corium simulant. The enhanced cooling capacity through the gap was distinguished in the Al 2 O 3 melt tests. It could be inferred from the analyses on the heat removal capacity through the gap that the lower head vessel could effectively cooldown via heat removal in the gap governed by counter current flow limits(CCFL) even if 2mm thick gap should form in the 30 kg Al 2 O 3 melt tests, which was also confirmed through the variations of the conduction heat flux in the vessel and rapid cool down of the vessel outer surface in the Al 2 O 3 melt tests. In the case of large melt mass of 70 kg Al 2 O 3 melt, however, the infinite possibility of heat removal through the

  15. Interaction between molten corium UO{sub 2+x}-ZrO{sub 2}-FeO{sub y} and VVER vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S. V.; Granovsky, V. S.; Khabensky, V. B.; Krushinov, E. V.; Vitol, S. A.; Sulatsky, A. A. [Alexandrov Sci Res Technol Inst, Sosnovyi Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V. V.; Almiashev, V. I. [Russian Acad Sci, Inst Silicate Chem, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lopukh, D. B. [SPb State Electrotech Univ LETI SPbGETU, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottomley, D. [Joint Res Ctr, Inst Transurane, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, M. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DSNI, Saclay (France); Miassoedov, A.; Tromm, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Altstadt, E. [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fichot, F. [CEA Cadarache, SEMCA, DPAM, IRSN, St Paul Les Durance (France); Kymalainen, O. [FORTUM Nucl Serv Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    In case of in-vessel corium retention during a severe accident in a light water reactor, weakening of the vessel wall and deterioration of the vessel steel properties can be caused both by the melting of the steel and by its physicochemical interaction with corium. The interaction behavior has been studied in medium-scale experiments with prototypic corium. The experiments yielded data for the steel corrosion rate during interaction with UO{sub 2+x}-ZrO{sub 2}-FeO{sub y} melt in air and steam at different steel surface temperatures and heat fluxes from the corium to the steel. It has been observed that the corrosion rates in air and steam atmosphere are almost the same. Further, if the temperature at the interface increases beyond a certain level, corrosion intensifies. This is explained by the formation of liquid phases in the interaction Zone. The available experimental data have been used to develop a correlation for the corrosion rate as a function of temperature and heat flux. (authors)

  16. Modeling of spreading of the melted corium jet inside the pool of emergency heat removal during severe accidents at NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kazachkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Important nuclear power safety problem in touch with modeling of melted corium jet spreading inside the coolant pool is considered in the paper. It appears by development of the passive protection systems against se-vere accidents. The non-linear mathematical developed model is presented for the jet under reactor vessel pool for one of the perspective passive protection systems and the results of its analysis and studies are given. The performed analysis and the results of the numerical simulation done on the base of the model have allowed estab-lishing the interesting behaviors of the system, which may be useful for the scientists, as well as the engineers-constructors of the passive protection systems against severe accidents.

  17. Prediction of corium debris characteristics in lower plenum of a nordic BWR in different accident scenarios using MELCOR code - 15367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, V.A.; Galushin, S.; Raub, S.; Goronovski, A.; Villanueva, W.; Koeoep, K; Grishchenko, D.; Kudinov, P.

    2015-01-01

    Severe accident management strategy in Nordic boiling water reactors (BWRs) relies on ex-vessel core debris coolability. The mode of corium melt release from the vessel determines conditions for ex-vessel accident progression and threats to containment integrity, e.g., formation of a non-coolable debris bed and possibility of energetic steam explosion. In-vessel core degradation and relocation is an important stage which determines characteristics of corium debris in the vessel lower plenum, such as mass, composition, thermal properties, timing of relocation, and decay heat. These properties affect debris reheating and remelting, melt interactions with the vessel structures, and possibly vessel failure and melt ejection mode. Core degradation and relocation is contingent upon the accident scenario parameters such as recovery time and capacity of safety systems. The goal of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the impact of the accident scenarios and timing of the events on core relocation phenomena and resulting properties of the debris bed in the vessel lower plenum of Nordic BWRs. In this study, severe accidents in a Nordic BWR reference plant are initiated by a station black out event, which is the main contributor to core damage frequency of the reactor. The work focuses on identifying ranges of debris bed characteristics in the lower plenum as functions of the accident scenario with different recovery timing and capacity of safety systems. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR coupled with GA-IDPSA is used in this work. GA-IDPSA is a Genetic Algorithm-based Integrated Deterministic Probabilistic Safety Analysis tool, which has been developed to search uncertain input parameter space. The search is guided by different target functions. Scenario grouping and clustering approach is applied in order to estimate the ranges of debris characteristics and identify scenario regions of core relocation that can lead to significantly different debris bed

  18. Analysis of materials in connection with corium melt retention in WWER reactor vessels. Final report for the period 15 October 1995 - 14 October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, A.D.

    1997-02-01

    Analysis of the state of severe accident codes being developed in Russia describing processes of corium - reactor pressure vessel interaction during severe accidents showed that at present there is no reliable validated and verified code. This study considered some of the most advanced severe accident codes which include models of heat generating liquid convections and RPV tolerance capacity however the possibility of physico-chemical interactions is not being considered. The final report demonstrates one of the examples for the settlement modelling of processes of reactor core debris cooling and corium pool mirror cooling with the use of the KOSTER 2 Code developed at IPPE. It was shown that cooling by water spray within some definite region of drop dimensions (0.5 / 4 mm in diameter) could provide the opportunity of the WWER type RPV integrity preservation under the accepted conditions. Due to some uncertainties in calculation modules obtained results are recommended to be treated as preliminary. (author). 26 refs, figs, tabs

  19. The Plinius/Colima CA-U3 test on fission-product aerosol release over a VVER-type corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Correggio, P.; Godin-Jacqmin, L.

    2007-01-01

    In a hypothetical case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440, a complex corium pool could be formed and fission products could be released. In order to study aerosols release in terms of mechanisms, kinetics, nature or quantity, and to better precise the source term of VVER-440, a series of experiments have been performed in the Colima facility and the test Colima CA-U3 has been successfully performed thanks to technological modifications to melt a prototypical corium at 2760 C degrees. Specific instrumentation has allowed us to follow the evolution of the corium melt and the release, transport and deposition of the fission products. The main conclusions are: -) there is a large release of Cr, Te, Sr, Pr and Rh (>95%w), -) there is a significant release of Fe (50%w), -) there is a small release of Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Nd and Y (<90%w), -) there is a very small release of U in proportion (<5%w) but it is one of the major released species in mass, and -) there is no release of Zr. The Colima experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels except for Ba, Fe and U releases. (A.C.)

  20. Analysis of top flooding during molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI) with the code MEDICIS using a simplified approach for the combined effect of crust formation and boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide adequate models in the code MEDICIS for the molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI) phase in a severe accident. Here, the multidimensional distribution of heat fluxes from the molten pool of corium to the sidewall and bottom wall concrete structures in the reactor pit and to the top surface is a persistent subject of international research activities on MCCI. In recent experi-ments with internally heated oxide melts it was observed that the erosion progress may be anisotropic - with an apparent preference of the sidewall compared to the bottom wall - or isotropic, in dependence of the type of concrete with which the cori-um interacts. The lumped parameter code MEDICIS, which is part of the severe accident codes ASTEC and COCOSYS - developed and used at IRSN/GRS respectively GRS for the latter one -, is dedicated to simulate the phenomenology during MCCI. In this work a simplified modelling in MEDICIS is tested to account for the observed ablation behaviour during MCCI, with focus on the heat transfer to the top surface under flooded conditions. This approach is assessed by calculations for selected MCCI experiments involving the top flooding of the melt. (orig.)

  1. Stepwise integral scaling method for severe accident analysis and its application to corium dispersion in direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Zhang, G.; No, H. C.; Eltwila, F.

    1994-01-01

    Accident sequences which lead to severe core damage and to possible radioactive fission products into the environment have a very low probability. However, the interest in this area increased significantly due to the occurrence of the small break loss-of-coolant accident at TMI-2 which led to partial core damage, and of the Chernobyl accident in the former USSR which led to extensive core disassembly and significant release of fission products over several countries. In particular, the latter accident raised the international concern over the potential consequences of severe accidents in nuclear reactor systems. One of the significant shortcomings in the analyses of severe accidents is the lack of well-established and reliable scaling criteria for various multiphase flow phenomena. However, the scaling criteria are essential to the severe accident, because the full scale tests are basically impossible to perform. They are required for (1) designing scaled down or simulation experiments, (2) evaluating data and extrapolating the data to prototypic conditions, and (3) developing correctly scaled physical models and correlations. In view of this, a new scaling method is developed for the analysis of severe accidents. Its approach is quite different from the conventional methods. In order to demonstrate its applicability, this new stepwise integral scaling method has been applied to the analysis of the corium dispersion problem in the direct containment heating. ((orig.))

  2. The Plinius/Colima CA-U3 test on fission-product aerosol release over a VVER-type corium pool; L'essai Plinius/Colima CA-U3 sur le relachement des aerosols de produits de fission au-dessus d'un bain de corium de type VVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Correggio, P.; Godin-Jacqmin, L

    2007-07-01

    In a hypothetical case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440, a complex corium pool could be formed and fission products could be released. In order to study aerosols release in terms of mechanisms, kinetics, nature or quantity, and to better precise the source term of VVER-440, a series of experiments have been performed in the Colima facility and the test Colima CA-U3 has been successfully performed thanks to technological modifications to melt a prototypical corium at 2760 C degrees. Specific instrumentation has allowed us to follow the evolution of the corium melt and the release, transport and deposition of the fission products. The main conclusions are: -) there is a large release of Cr, Te, Sr, Pr and Rh (>95%w), -) there is a significant release of Fe (50%w), -) there is a small release of Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Nd and Y (<90%w), -) there is a very small release of U in proportion (<5%w) but it is one of the major released species in mass, and -) there is no release of Zr. The Colima experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels except for Ba, Fe and U releases. (A.C.)

  3. Effect of UV-B and high visual radiation on photosynthesis in freshwater (nostoc spongiaeforme) and marine (Phormidium corium) cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Rupali; Sharma, Prabhat Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Human activity is causing depletion of ozone in stratosphere, resulting in increased UV-B radiation and global warming. However, impact of these climatic changes on the aquatic organism (especially marine) is not fully understood. Here, we have studied the effect of excess UV-B and visible radiation on photosynthetic pigments, fatty acids content, lipid peroxidation, nitrogen content, nitrogen reductase activity and membrane proteins, induction of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in freshwater (Nostoc spongiaeform) and marine (Phormidium corium) cyanobacteria. UV-B treatment resulted in an increase in photosynthetic pigments in Nostoc and decrease in Phormidium, but high light treatment caused photobleaching of most of the pigments in both the species. Unsaturation level of fatty acids of both total and glycolipids remained unchanged in both the cyanobacteria, as a result of UV-B and high light treatments. Saturated fatty acids of total and glycolipids declined slightly in Nostoc by both the treatments. but remained unchanged in Phormidium. No changes in the unsaturated lipid content in our study probably suggested adaptation of the organism to the treatments. However, both treatments resulted in peroxidation of membrane lipids, indicating oxidative damage to lipids without any change in the level of unsaturation of fatty acid in the cell membrane. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in membrane protein profile due to the treatments. Cyanobacteria were able to synthesize MAAs in response to the UV-B treatment. Both treatments also increased the activities of SOD and APX. In conclusion, the study demonstrated induction of antioxidants such as SOD and APX under visible light treatment and screening pigment (MAAs) under UV-B treatment, which might protect the cyanobacteria from oxidative damage caused by high light and UV-B radiation.

  4. Premixing of corium into water during a Fuel-Coolant Interaction. The models used in the 3 field version of the MC3D code and two examples of validation on Billeau and FARO experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Duplat, F.; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA/Grenoble, DRN/DTP, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the <> application of the multiphasic 3D computer code MC3D. This application is devoted to the premixing phase of a Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) when large amounts of molten corium flow into water and interact with it. A description of the new features of the model is given (a more complete description of the full model is given in annex). Calculations of Billeau experiments (cold or hot spheres dropped into water) and of a FARO test (<> corium dropped into 5 MPa saturated water) are presented. (author)

  5. Improvements in modelling (by ESCADRE mod1.0) radiative heat losses through gas and aerosols generated by molten corium-concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aerosols generated during the molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) influence the reactor cavity thermal hydraulics: the cloud of aerosols, located inside the reactor cavity, restrains the upward-directed heat exchange consequently the cool-down of the high-temperature molten corium for a considerable period of time. IPSN is developing a computer code system for source predictions in severe accident scenarios. This code system is named ESCADRE. WECHSL/CALTHER is internal module dealing with MCCI (it is also a stand-alone code): it models the heat transfers involving the superior volume of the cavity. When modelling the upward-directed power distribution by WECHSL/CALTHER, a faster concrete basemat penetration takes place due to the low heat losses of the closed MCCI cavity enclosure. The model, here presented, is going to be validated with data from the AEROSTAT experiment. This experiment, planned at CEA Cadarache, will evaluate the influence of aerosols on the global power distribution in the reactor cavity. Radiative heat losses are important especially for cavity configurations such as those of new plant designs (equipped with a core-catcher) where the upward power losses are promoted by the corium spreading in a flat cavity

  6. Importance of the in and ex-vessel corium coolability in case of severe accident for the French PWRs. Some views from L2 PSA and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Caroli, C.; Meignen, R.; Rahni, N.; Laurent, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the case of a severe accident on a NPP leading to core degradation after a default in the core cooling as during the accident of Three Mile Island (TMI2), the most efficient way to stop the accident progression would be the in-vessel water injection if a specific mean is available. The TMI2 accident has shown that the accident can be stopped and that the corium, even if highly degraded, can be cooled, but no one can generalize the TMI2 accident termination to all situations. The present paper aims at presenting the situation for the French operated PWRs and is mainly based on the IRSN experience in level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (L2 PSA) development for this type of reactor. It tries to highlight the benefit that could be obtained from a better understanding of the corium cooling phenomenology, including both possible positive and negative effects. Three main negative effects of in-vessel flooding have to be taken into account in a L2 PSA for a PWR: an increase of the hydrogen production rate, a risk of in-vessel pressure increase and the development of conditions for steam explosion. L2 PSAs in France have now reached a certain maturity allowing raising some more precise issues, but for the issues presented in this paper, some progress from the research-development and the simulation tools (mainly the ASTEC integral code) are still necessary to support decision-making

  7. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasiulevicius, Audrius

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and

  8. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasiulevicius, Audrius

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and

  9. Presentation of the Vulcano installation which uses a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for corium melting; Utilisation d`un four tournant a arc plasma transfere pour fondre et couler des melanges d`oxydes autour de 2000 C. Presentation du film Vulcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Pierre, J.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1998-06-01

    In the case of loss coolant accident, the reactor core could melt and turn into a mixture of uranium oxides, zirconium, iron and steel called corium. A large experimental program has been launched to study corium behaviour, to qualify solutions to stabilize it and to confine it in the reactor containment. The Vulcano installation has been designed to that purpose. It is made up of: i) a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace, ii) a testing surface covered with refractory materials, iii) an induction heating system in order to simulate the residual power of corium, iv) instrumentation devices such as video cameras, thermocouples, infra-red pyrometers and flowmeters, and v) a laboratory to perform chemical analysis of corium samples. The first experimental results show that a mixture of corium and concrete spreads better than expected. It seems that a low initial height of matter can produce a great distance flowing while having a chaotic behaviour. This characteristic suggests that the mixture acts as a Bingham type threshold fluid. (A.C.) 5 refs.

  10. High temperature chemical reactivity in the system (U, Zr,Fe, O). A contribution to the study of zirconia as a ``core catcher``; Reactivite chimique a haute temperature dans le systeme (U, Zr, Fe, O) contribution a l`etude de la zircone comme recuperateur de ``corium``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurizi, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France); [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees

    1996-12-11

    Within the framework of the improvement of nuclear reactor safety, a device to recover corium is proposed to be installed under the reactor vessel to limit the consequences of a core melting. According to our bibliographic study, stabilised zirconia seems to be the best refractory material to play this role and to support the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal requirements imposed to the corium catcher. The nature of the chemical interactions between zirconia and iron of high temperature were established and experimental data on the (U, Fe, Zr, O) quaternary system which stands for the corium were determined. First of all, the Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometric method was used to establish the liquidus position for a (U, Zr, O) alloy representative of the corium (U/Zr = 1,5) at 2000 deg C. The oxygen solubility limit in a (U, Zr, O) liquid alloy is about 7 atomic %. In oxidising conditions, the reaction between zirconia and iron leads to the formation of a stabilised zirconia-iron oxide solid solution. Up to 10 atomic % of iron can be incorporated in the structure, leading to the stabilisation of cubic zirconia and a modification of lattice constants. The valence and localisation of those iron measured as a function of time and temperature from 1500 to 2400 deg C, after high frequency inductive heating, both on laboratory materials are commercial bricks. The reaction rate is governed by an activation energy of about 80 kJ/mol. Our results demonstrate that stabilised zirconia is able to efficiently absorb oxidised iron. (author). 169 refs.

  11. Cooling and spreading of corium during its fall into water in a pressurised water nuclear plant severe accident: description of mechanical and thermal interactions in a three phase flow during spreading of cold or heated spheres in a liquid pool; Refroidissement et dispersion du corium lors de sa chute dans l'eau pendant un accident severe de reacteur nucleaire a eau pressurisee: description des interactions mecaniques et thermiques en ecoulement triphasique lors de la dispersion de spheres solides froides ou chaudes dans un bain liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplat, F

    1998-10-26

    In the frame of nuclear safety studies about corium and water interactions, we address spreading and cooling stage of corium fragments in a liquid pool. Considering the complexity of encountered flow regimes and mechanical and thermal interactions coupling, modelling validation is based on a thermal-hydraulic computer code (MC3D). A bibliographical study shows that classical modelling of three phase flow is based on constitutive laws already established in the case of two phase flow. The present study states a complete analysis of BILLEAU experiments and defines a characterisation method for a sphere cloud. Some complementary QUEOS experiments are also described. Mechanical interaction terms such as added mass, lift and turbulent dispersion have been presented in the frame of a three phase flow and their influence has been tested in numerical simulations of BILLEAU tests. The effect of film vapour overheat, as well as particle diameter evolution have been studied. Moreover a radiative heat transfer modelling developed in Karlsruhe research centre (FZK) has been analysed and completed. Numerical simulations achieved for this study show that mechanical and thermal behaviour of the system are actually coupled. Taking into account lift and turbulent dispersion terms as well as heat transfer modifications all wed better results. This study also presents some considerations about flow regimes identification as a preliminary for studies about numerical diffusion that was already estimated in the present state of the computer code MC3D. (author)

  12. Physical and numerical modelling of corium spreading with solidification in safety studies of pressurized water reactors; Modelisation physique et numerique de l`etalement d`un fluide avec solidification dans le cadre des etudes de surete pour les reacteurs eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle Patrick [Service d`Etude et de Modelisation en Thermohydrolique, CEA/DRN/DTP/SMTH, Grenoble (France)]|[Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)

    1997-12-12

    In the frame of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactor, it is important to understand and to model phenomena of corium spreading with solidification. The first part of the study describes experiments with simulating materials as well as simple models of the literature. We deduce a model where the equations of conservation are averaged over the volume. This model gives interesting results for continuous spreading but it is not convenient for discontinuous phenomena. A more precise model is then necessary. In the second part of this study, we present a complete model from which the basic idea is to average the conservation equations over the fluid height, supposing the characteristic fluid thickness is small in comparison with the characteristic spreading length. This model describes the thermalhydraulic aspects of the spreading as well as the mechanical behaviour of the upper crust. The liquid phases are supposed to be stratified and have a Newtonian fluid behaviour. The dynamical crust model takes into account a non-linear behaviour law. This law depends on the deformation tensor whereas the liquid behaviour low, depends on the rate of deformation tensor, so it is necessary to link this two notions by supplementary equations. The operation of averaging the equations gives terms at the interfaces which must be determined by constitutive laws. We deduce laws by fixing the velocity and temperature profile in the fluid height. The previous system of equations is discretized by finite volumes and semi-implicit methods. The discretized models are included in the specific code THEMA. The results of the model show good agreement with available experimental results. (author) 9 refs., 45 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. KAPOOL experiments to simulate molten corium - sacrificial concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppinger, B.; Fieg, G.; Tromm, W.

    2001-01-01

    In future Light Water Reactors special devices (core catchers) might be required to prevent containment failure by basement erosion after reactor pressure vessel melt-through during a core meltdown accident. In the planned European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) the core melt is retained in the reactor cavity for ∼ 1 h to pick up late melts after the failure of the reactor pressure vessel. The reactor cavity is protected by a layer of sacrificial concrete and closed by a melt gate at the bottom towards the spreading compartment. After erosion of the sacrificial concrete and melt-through of the gate the core melt should be distributed homogeneously into the spreading compartment. There the melt is cooled by flooding with water. The knowledge of the sacrificial concrete erosion phase in the reactor cavity is essential for the severe accident assessment. Several KAPOOL experiments have been performed to investigate the erosion of two possible compositions of sacrificial concretes using alumina-iron thermite melts as a simulant for the core melt. Erosion rates as a function of the melt temperature and the inhomogeneity of the melt front are presented in this paper. (authors)

  14. Stress analysis and scaling studies of corium crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z.; Engelstad, R.L.; Lovell, E.G.; Corradini, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of a severe accident in a LWR, water may be input to cool the molten mixture of fuel and concrete. A number of structural models are developed and used to predict whether a crust will be formed and remain stable between the melt and water. Bending stresses and membrane stresses due to pressure loadings and the temperature differential are considered in the analyses to investigate the stability of the crust as a function of the time, thickness and span. The results from parametric studies show the conditions under which a crust could develop, and how such structural models could be used to determine scaling effects and provide correlations to prototypic accident situations. (orig.)

  15. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  16. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail: camila@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.niceno@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety

    2013-07-01

    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  17. Analyses of corium spreading in Mark I containment geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Chu, C.C.; Farmer, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of melt spreading in the Mark I system has been carried out using the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code together with supporting analyses. Application of MELTSPREAD-1 confirms the calculation of shell survival in a wet containment for the most probable melt release conditions from NUREG/CR-5423. According to MELTSPREAD-1, a dry containment also may not be threatened by melt spreading. This reflects the heat losses undergone by the melt in the process of spreading to the shell conservatively neglected in NUREG/CR-5423. However, there exist parameter ranges outside the most probable set where shell failure may be calculated. Accounting for the breakup and quenching of melt relocating through a deep layer of subcooled water also conservatively neglected in NUREG/CR-5423 can reduce the set of parameter variations for which containment failure is calculated in the wet case

  18. Interaction between the radiative flux emitted by a corium melt and aerosols from corium/concrete interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabiego, M.; Cognet, G. [CEA-DRN/DER/SERA - CE Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Henderson, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we present a one-dimensional numerical model that deals with radiative transfer in a medium where aerosols are present. This model is written with the aim of performing radiative transfer calculations in the framework of severe Pressurized Water Reactor accidents, especially during the last stage of such an accident Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) when aerosols are very numerous. We explain the theoretical basis of our model, writing the general radiative transfer equation, knowing that aerosol droplets participate in radiation transport. We then simplify this equation for a one-dimensional medium and we propose to solve it using the spherical harmonics approximation. This gives us the radiative intensity and we can then deduce the radiative flux. Aerosol optical properties (extinction and scattering coefficients) are also required in such a calculation. They are determined using Rayleigh or Mie theory, depending, depending on the aerosol size. In order to provide an example of results one can expect from such a calculation, we applied our model to a test problem with given aerosol size and concentration distributions. Our example does not model any experiment explicitly but the physical conditions used are very close to the L4 test from the Advanced Containment Experiment (ACE) program.

  19. Contribution to the thermodynamic description of the corium - The U-Zr-O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaini, A.; Guéneau, C.; Gossé, S.; Dupin, N.; Sundman, B.; Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Kurata, M.; Hodaj, F.

    2018-04-01

    In order to understand the stratification process that may occur in the late phase of the fuel degradation during a severe accident in a PWR, the thermodynamic knowledge of the U-Zr-O system is crucial. The presence of a miscibility gap in the U-Zr-O liquid phase may lead to a stratified configuration, which will impact the accidental scenario management. The aim of this work was to obtain new experimental data in the U-Zr-O liquid miscibility gap. New tie-line data were provided at 2567 ± 25 K. The related thermodynamic models were reassessed using present data and literature values. The reassessed model will be implemented in the TAF-ID international database. The composition and density of phases potentially formed during stratification will be predicted by coupling current thermodynamic model with thermal-hydraulics codes.

  20. Reactor Vessel External Cooling for Corium Retention SULTAN Experimental Program and Modelling with CATHARE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouge, S.; Dor, I.; Geffraye, G.

    1999-01-01

    In case of severe accident, a molten pool may form at the bottom of the lower head, and some pessimistic scenarios estimate that heat fluxes up to 1.5 MW/m 2 should be transferred through the vessel wall. An efficient, though completely passive, removal of heat flux during a long time is necessary to prevent total wall ablation, and a possible solution is to flood the cavity with water and establish boiling in natural convection. High heat exchanges are expected, especially if the system design (deflector along the vessel, riser...) emphasize water natural circulation, but are unfortunately limited by the critical heat flux phenomena (CHF). CHF data are very scarce in the adequate range of hydraulic and geometric parameters and are clearly dependent of the system effect in natural convection. The system effect can both modify flow velocity and two phase flow regimes, counter-current phenomena and flow static or dynamic instabilities. The SULTAN experimental program purpose was of two kinds, increasing CHF data for realistic situations, and improving the modeling of large 3D two phase flow circuits in natural convection. The CATHARE thermal-hydraulic code is used for interpreting the data and for extrapolation to real geometry. As a first step, a one-dimensional model is used. It is shown that some closure laws have to be improved. Reasonable predictions may be obtained but, for some test conditions, multi-dimensional effects such as recirculation appear to be dominant. Therefore the 3-dimensional module of CATHARE is also used to investigate these effects. This model well predicts qualitatively the existence and the development of a 2-phase layer along the heated wall as well as the existence of a recirculation zone. But modelling problems still require further development as part of a long term program for a better prediction of multi-dimensional two-phase flows

  1. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1988-04-01

    Discharge of the molten core debris from a pressurized reactor vessel has been recognized as an important accident scenario for pressurized water reactors. Recent high-pressure melt streaming experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, designed to study cavity and containment events related to melt ejection, have resulted in two important observations: (1) Expansion and breakup of the ejected molten jet. (2) Significant aerosol generation during the ejection process. The expansion and breakup of the jet in the experiments are attributed to rapid evolution of the pressurizing gas (nitrogen or hydrogen) dissolved in the melt. It has been concluded that aerosol particles may be formed by condensation of melt vapor and mechanical breakup of the melt and generation. It was also shown that the above stated phenomena are likely to occur in reactor accidents. This report provides results from analytical and experimental investigations on the behavior of a gas supersaturated molten jet expelled from a pressurized vessel. Aero-hydrodynamic stability of liquid jets in gas, stream degassing of molten metals, and gas bubble nucleation in molten metals are relevant problems that are addressed in this work

  2. Experimental investigations on the compatibility of a SNR-type corium with graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Friedrich, H.J.; Heuvel, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Tests on the compatibility between UO 2 -pellets, UO 2 /stainless steel mixtures (70 w/o UO 2 , 30 w/o SS) and graphite were carried out at 1600, 2000, and 2400 0 C. The test duration was 0.5 h. UO 2 -pellets are only completely converted to carbides at 2400 0 C, when liquid U-carbide phases occur. In the presence of SS the liquefaction temperature was lowered to 2000 0 C. The conversion rates in the case of UO 2 -liquefaction as indicated by the corresponding CO-generation are high. The interactions are completed within a quarter of an hour. Apart from the release of O in the form of CO, the pick-up of C and the evaporation losses at the highest temperatures no significant changes in the chemical composition could be found. Post melting analyses by microsections, microprobe and X-ray investigations detected UFeC 2 -phases and carbides from the M 7 C 3 -type together with austenite. A thermodynamic evaluation revealed that the C-activity of the melts after UO 2 -liquefaction is nearly 1

  3. Radiation heat transfer in a pressurized water reactor lower head filled with molten corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šadek, Siniša; Grgić, Davor; Debrecin, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop radiation heat exchange model for a reactor pressure vessel lower head. ► Model is used during a late in-vessel phase of severe accidents. ► View factors are calculated automatically for a time-dependent enclosure. ► Model is included in the RELAP5/SCDAPSIM computer code. ► Inclusion of heat radiation causes faster heat-up rate of RPV lower head structures. - Abstract: Following a core melt, molten material may slump to the lower head of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In that case, some structures like lower parts of fuel elements and a core support plate would remain intact. Since the melt is at high temperature and there are no obstacles between the melt and the supporting plate, the plate is exposed to an intense radiation heating. The radiation heat exchange model of the lower head was developed and applied to a finite element code COUPLE which is a part of the detailed mechanistic code RELAP5/SCDAPSIM. The radiation enclosure consisted of three surfaces: the upper surface of the relocated material, the inner surface of the RPV wall above the relocated material and the lower surface of the core support plate. View factors were calculated for the enclosure geometry that is changing in time because of intermittent accumulation of molten material. The enclosure surfaces were covered by mesh of polygonal areas and view factors were calculated, for each pair of the element areas, by solving the definite integrals using the algorithms for adaptive integrations by means of Gaussian quadrature. Algebraic equations for radiosity and irradiation vectors were solved by LU decomposition and the radiation model was explicitly coupled with the heat conduction model. The results show that there is a possibility of the core support plate failure after being heated up due to radiation heat exchange with the melt.

  4. Development of gap measurement technique in-vessel corium retention using ultrasonic pulse echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sang Baik; Sim, Cheul Muu

    1999-03-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of Sonata-IV program. In this technical report, quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method are presented. This report aims at development of an appropriate ultrasonics test method, by analyzing the problems from the external environmental reason and the internal characteristic reason. The signal analyzing methods to improve the S/N ratio in these problems are divided into the time variant synthesized signal analyzing method and the time invariant synthesized signal analyzing method. In this report, the possibility of the application of these two methods to the gap signal and the noise is considered. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel. The quantitative gap measurement using the off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method was available for a little of the scanned region. But furtherly using DSP technique and imaging technique, the better results will be obtained. Some of the measured signals are presented as 2-dimensional spherical mapping method using distance and amplitude. Other signals difficult in quantitative measurement are saved for a new signal processing method. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  5. Ex-vessel corium coolability sensitivity study with the CORQUENCH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Kevin; Corradini, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An unresolved safety issue for light water reactor beyond design basis accidents is the coolability and stabilization of ex-vessel core melt debris by top flooding. Several experimental programs, including the OECD MACE, MCCI-1, and the current MCCI-2 program, have investigated core-concrete interactions and debris cooling of ex-vessel core melts. As part of the OECD programs, the CORQUENCH computer model was developed based on phenomena identified from the experiments. Predictions by CORQUENCH have previously been compared against experiments and have also been extrapolated to reactor scale. The current study applied statistical techniques to investigate the importance of initial system parameters and cooling phenomena in CORQUENCH 3.01 on the accident progression of ex-vessel core melts. The purpose of this sensitivity study is to identify parameters that are of major importance, any code peculiarities over the range of inputs, and where modeling improvements may produce the most gain in prediction accuracy. The sensitivity studies were carried out over a range of input conditions, in 1-D and 2-D geometries, and for two concrete compositions. In terms of initial system parameters, the melt height had the most importance on concrete ablation and melt coolability. With respect to cooling phenomena, the amount of melt entrainment through the crust had the most importance on concrete ablation and melt coolability. (author)

  6. In-vessel retention after relocation of corium into the lower plenum. Summary of the current project results. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altstadt, E.; Willschuetz, H.G.

    2003-03-01

    Considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario for a light water reactor (LWR) a possible failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its failure time has to be investigated for a determination of the loadings on the containment. Numerous experiments have been performed accompanied with material properties evaluation, theoretical, and numerical work /REM 1993/, /THF 1997/, /CHU 1999/. For pre- and post-test calculations of Lower Head Failure experiments like OLHF or FOREVER it is necessary to model creep and plasticity processes. At the same time it is necessary to have suitable models which provide at least the temperature field in the vessel wall. At the FZR a Finite Element Model is developed simulating the thermal processes and the mechanical response of the loaded structure. In this report the conducted work is shortly described and illustrated by examples. The creep process is modeled using a numerical approach which avoids the use of a single creep law employing constants derived from the data for a limited stress and temperature range. Instead of this a numerical creep data base (CDB) is developed where the creep strain rate is evaluated in dependence on the current total strain, temperature and equivalent stress. An important task for this approach is the generation and validation of the CDB. Additionally the implementation of all relevant temperature dependent material properties has been performed. For an evaluation of the failure times a damage model according to an approach of Lemaitre is applied. The validation of the numerical model is performed by the simulation of and comparison with experiments. This is done in 3 levels: starting with the simulation of single uniaxial creep tests, which is considered as a 1D-problem. In the next level so called ''tube-failure-experiments'' are modeled: the RUPTHER-14 and the ''MPA-Meppen''-experiment. These experiments are considered as 2D-problems. Finally the numerical model is applied to scaled 3D-experiments, where the lower head of a PWR is represented in its hemispherical shape, like in the FOREVER-experiments. In cooperation with the experimentators at the KTH in Stockholm pre- and post-test calculations of these unique experiments have been performed. The results are qualitatively and quantitatively quite satisfactory. An interesting question to be solved in this frame is the comparability of the French 16MND5 and the German 20MnMoNi5-5 RPV-steels, which are chemically nearly identical. Since these 2 steels show a similar behavior, it should be allowed on a limited scale to transfer experimental and numerical data from one to the other. (orig.)

  7. Simulation of Natural Convection in the Oxide Layer of Three-Layer Corium Pool in an IVR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper describes the three-layer phenomena and preliminary plan to simulate the oxide layer experimentally. We will perform the mass transfer experiments using a copper sulfate-sulfuric acid (CuSO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electroplating system based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. By performing the mass transfer experiments, we can achieve the high buoyancy condition with small facilities. The test facility is semicircular whose bottom is chopped, simulating the oxide pool above the heavy metal layer in a three-layer configuration. We will measure the heat flux at the top plate, side wall and bottom plate, and compare these results with those for a two-layer pool. In a three-layer configuration, the upper light metal layer becomes thinner, increasing the focusing effect. Thus, it is important to evaluate the heat flux from the oxide pool to the upper metallic layer. However, there is few heat transfer studies for a three-layer configuration. This paper is to discuss and to make a plan for the heat transfer experiments of oxide pool in a three- layer system. We will perform the mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. The test results will be analyzed phenomenologically and compared with two-layer results.

  8. Report of Task Group on Ex-Vessel Thermal-Hydraulics Corium/concrete interactions and combustible gas distribution in large dry containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The Task Group on Ex-Vessel Thermal-Hydraulics was established by the PWG 2 to address the physical processes that occur in the ex-vessel phase of severe accidents, to study their impact on containment loading and failure, and to assess the available calculation methods. This effort is part of an overall CSNI effort to come to an international understanding of the issues involved. The Task Group decided to focus its initial efforts on the Large Dry Containment used extensively to contain the consequences of postulated (design basis) accidents in Light Water Reactors (LWR). Although such containments have not been designed with explicit consideration of severe accidents, recent assessments indicate a substantial inherent capability for these accidents. The Task Group has examined the loads likely to challenge the integrity of the containment, and considered the calculation of the containment's response. This report is the outcome of this effort

  9. The ultrasonic wave pattern analysis and the frequency diversity signal processing in multi-layered gap measurement for in-vessel corium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, K. M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower head vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of SONATA-IV program. In this paper, the quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method by frequency diversity signal processing are presented. However, the gap measurement signal using an ordinary ultrasonic test would be lack of reliability due to the structural complexity of the specimen. The structural complexity may result from the external reason from the shape and the internal reason from the material characteristics. This paper aims at the development of an appropriate ultrasonic test method, by analyzing the problems from the internal characteristic reason. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel

  10. Modelling of in-vessel retention after relocation of corium into the lower plenum - Evaluation of the temperature field and of the viscoplastic deformation of the vessel wall. Reactor safety research, project No.:150 1254 - Final report; Beitrag zur Modellierung der Schmelzerueckhaltung im RDB nach Verlagerung von Corium in das untere Plenum - Berechnung des Temperaturfeldes und der viskoplastischen Verformung der Behaelterwand. Reaktorsicherheitsforschung, Vorhaben-Nr.: 150 1254 - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstadt, E.; Willschuetz, H.G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario for a light water reactor (LWR) a possible failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its failure time has to be investigated for a determination of the loadings on the containment. Several experiments have been performed accompanied with material properties evaluation, theoretical, and numerical work. At the Institute Of Safety Research of the FZR a finite element model has been developed simulating the thermal processes and the viscoplastic behaviour of the vessel wall. An advanced model for creep and material damage has been established and has been validated using experimental data. The thermal hydraulic and the mechanical calculations are sequentially and recursively coupled. The model is capable of evaluating fracture time and fracture position of a vessel with an internally heated melt pool. The model was applied to pre- and post test calculations for the FOREVER test series representing the RPV of a PWR in the scale of 1:10. These experiments were performed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. The results of the calculations can be summarised as follows: The creeping process is caused by the simultaneous presence of high temperature (>600 C) and pressure (>1 MPa). The hot focus region is the most endangered zone exhibiting the highest creep strain rates. The exact level of temperature and pressure has an influence on the vessel failure time but not on the failure position. The failure time can be predicted with an uncertainty of 20 to 25%. This uncertainty is caused by the large scatter and the high temperature sensitivity of the viscoplastic properties of the RPV steel. Contrary to the hot focus region, the lower centre of the vessel head exhibits a higher strength because of the lower temperatures in this zone. The lower part moves down without significant deformation. Therefore it can be assumed, that the vessel failure can be retarded or prevented by supporting this range. The development of a gap between melt crust and vessel wall could not be proofed. First calculations for a PWR geometry were performed to work out differences and commonalities between prototypic scenarios and scaled experiments. The results of the FOREVER-experiments cannot be transferred offhand to PWR geometry. The geometrical, mechanical and thermal relations cannot be scaled in the same way. Because of the significantly higher temperature level, a partial ablation of the vessel wall has to be to expected in the PWR scenario, which is not the case in the FOREVER tests. (orig.)

  11. The jet impingement phase of molten core-concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Scoping calculations have been carried out demonstrating that a significant and abrupt reduction in the corium temperature may be realized when molten corium drains as a jet from a localized breach in the RPV lower head to impinge upon the concrete basemat. The temperature decrease may range from a value of ∼170 K (∼140 K) for limestone (basaltic) aggregate concrete to a value approaching the initial corium superheat depending upon whether the forced convection impingement heat flux is assumed to be controlled by either thermal conduction across a slag film layer or the temperature boundary condition represented by a corium crust. The magnitude of the temperature reduction remains significant as the initial corium temperature, impinging corium mass, and initial localized breach size are varied over their range of potential values

  12. Contribution of prototypic material tests on the Plinius platform to the study of nuclear reactor severe accident; Contribution des essais en materiaux prototypiques sur la plate-forme Plinius a l'etude des accidents graves de reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch

    2008-01-15

    The PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache is dedicated to the experimental study of nuclear reactor severe accidents thanks to experiments between 2000 and 3500 K with prototypic corium. Corium is the mixture that would be formed by an hypothetical core melting and its mixing with structural materials. Prototypical corium has the same chemical composition as the corium corresponding to a given accident scenario but has a different isotopic composition (use of depleted uranium,...). Research programs and test series have been performed to study corium thermophysical properties, fission product behaviour, corium spreading, solidification and interaction with concrete as well as its coolability. It was the frame of research training of many students and was realized within national, European and international collaborations. (author)

  13. Contribution of prototypic material tests on the Plinius platform to the study of nuclear reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache is dedicated to the experimental study of nuclear reactor severe accidents thanks to experiments between 2000 and 3500 K with prototypic corium. Corium is the mixture that would be formed by an hypothetical core melting and its mixing with structural materials. Prototypical corium has the same chemical composition as the corium corresponding to a given accident scenario but has a different isotopic composition (use of depleted uranium,...). Research programs and test series have been performed to study corium thermophysical properties, fission product behaviour, corium spreading, solidification and interaction with concrete as well as its coolability. It was the frame of research training of many students and was realized within national, European and international collaborations. (author)

  14. A status of the art report for OECD RASPLAV program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Ki Man; Kim, Sang Baik; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Hee Dong; Suh, Kun Yeol

    1996-06-01

    The objective of current study is to summarize the work of OECD RASPLAV technical reports, which include investigation of natural convection in the corium, chemical interaction between corium and reactor vessel, solidification of corium crust during severe accident such as TMI-2 accident in the United States and Chernobyl accident in the USSR. The experimental data and technique will be used when designing a large scale experimental facility for the second phase of the project. 7 tabs., 11 figs., 14 refs. (Author)

  15. Transplantation of artificial gelatin-co-bletillastriata gelatin/ Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the growth of the composite corium (constructed with fibroblast cells and gelatinco- Bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia miltiorrhiza materials) on rats. Methods: The composite artificial corium was constructed by culturing fibroblast cells in gelatin-co- Bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia miltiorrhiza materials.

  16. Transplantation of artificial gelatin-co-bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2016; 15 (4): 735-741 ... Methods: The composite artificial corium was constructed by culturing fibroblast cells in gelatin-co- ... Conclusion: The composite artificial corium has some clinical prospects for use in the treatment of ... burns, and treatment of large areas of skin.

  17. Utilização de hidrocortisona em eqüinos submetidos a isquemia e reperfusão no jejuno e suas conseqüências sobre o cório laminar Hydrocortisone in horses submitted to jejunal isquemia and reperfusion and its effects in the laminar corium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.M. Rio Tinto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da administração de succinato sódico de hidrocortisona (SSH no desenvolvimento de lesões no cório laminar de eqüinos. Doze animais foram submetidos à laparotomia sob anestesia geral e à isquemia total em dois segmentos do jejuno, enquanto três foram usados como controle. Após uma hora de isquemia, seis animais receberam 4,0mg/kg de SSH por via intravenosa (grupo T e seis receberam placebo (grupo NT. Após duas horas de isquemia foi restabelecido o fluxo de sangue local e, decorridas duas horas de reperfusão, foi realizada a laparorrafia e permitiu-se a recuperação anestésica. Após 12 horas do início da reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados e deles colhidas amostras de tecido laminar para avaliação histomorfológica. As alterações avaliadas ao microscópio óptico foram quantificadas por escores que variaram de 0 a 3. Os escores para lesão no tecido laminar foram semelhantes nos animais dos grupos T (0,41 e NT (0,54, permitindo concluir que a hidrocortisona não acentuou as lesões produzidas no tecido laminar após a isquemia e reperfusão no jejuno.To evaluate whether hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS aggravates lesions in the laminar tissue secondary to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR, two segments of the jejunum were isolated in 12 halothane-anesthetized horses, and total ischemia was induced on them. Three other horses were used as controls. One hour after the onset of the ischemia, HSS (4.0mg/kg was administered intravenously to six animals (T group and saline to the others (NT group. After two hours of ischemia and two hours of reperfusion the abdomen was closed and the horses were allowed to recover from anesthesia. After 12 hours of reperfusion the horses were euthanatized and biopsy specimens were taken from the laminar tissue and the lesions were evaluated and scored. No significant differences between T (0.41 and NT (0.54 groups for laminar lesion scores were observed. The results indicate that HSS did not produce harmful effects in the laminar tissue, suggesting that the occurrence of undesirable effects in the digit are not a limiting factor for using this drug to treat equine patients with acute abdomen.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.; Bass, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    The ACL activities covered IFR fuel reprocessing, corium-concrete interactions, environmental samples, wastes, WIPP support, Advanced Photon Source, H-Tc superconductors, EBWR vessel, soils, illegal drug detection, quality control, etc.

  19. High temperature measurements in severe accident experiments on the PLINIUS Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, V.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Fouquart, P.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Parga, C.

    2013-06-01

    Severe accident experiments are conducted on the PLINIUS platform in Cadarache, using prototypic corium. During these experiments, it is essential to measure the temperature to know the thermo-physical state of the corium in static and dynamic conditions or to monitor the concrete ablation phenomenology. Temperature in the corium can reach about 2000 to 3000 K. Such aggressive conditions restrict the type of diagnostics that can be employed to do high temperature measurements during the experiments. We employ both non-intrusive (pyrometers) and intrusive (K-type and C-type thermocouples) diagnostics. In this paper, we present the different high temperature measurements techniques and the results that can be obtained in severe accident experiments as corium heating tests and molten core concrete interaction experiments. (authors)

  20. Heatup of the TMI-2 lower head during core relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.K.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis has been carried out to assess the potential of a melting attack upon the reactor vessel lower head and incore instrument nozzle penetration weldments during the TMI core relocation event at 224 minutes. Calculations were performed to determine the potential for molten corium to undergo breakup into droplets which freeze and form a debris bed versus impinging upon the lower head as one or more coherent streams. The effects of thermal-hydraulic interactions between corium streams and water inside the lower plenum, the effects of the core support assembly structure upon the corium, and the consequences of corium relocation by way of the core former region were examined. 19 refs., 24 figs

  1. Thermodynamic analysis for molten stratification test MASCA with ionic liquid U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanori; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The molten corium stratification tested in the OECD MASCA project was analyzed with our thermo-dynamic database and the database was verified to be effective for the stratification analysis. The MASCA test shows that the molten corium can be stratified with the metal layer under the oxide when sub-oxidized corium including iron was retained in the lower head of the reactor vessel. This stratification is caused by the increased density of the metal layer attributed to a transfer of uranium metal that was reduced from uranium oxide by zirconium. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with the database, which was developed for the corium U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs system using the ionic two-sublattice model for liquid, show quantitative agreements with the MASCA test, such as the composition of each layer, fission product (FP) partitioning between the layers and B 4 C effect on the stratification. (author)

  2. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.; Bass, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    The ACL activities covered IFR fuel reprocessing, corium-concrete interactions, environmental samples, wastes, WIPP support, Advanced Photon Source, H-Tc superconductors, EBWR vessel, soils, illegal drug detection, quality control, etc

  3. Introduction to the modified TROI test facility for fuel coolant interaction under a submerged reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong-Wan; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The molten Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can threaten the integrity of the reactor cavity under a severe accident. A steam explosion can be occurred by the rapid energy transfer in the high-temperature corium melt jet penetrating into water, which makes the dynamic load applying to the surrounding structure. Before a steam explosion, the corium melt jet breaks into small-sized particles, and the steam is generated continuously by the film boiling on the hot surface of the melt contacting with water. The premixing phase consisting of the corium melt, water, and steam can determine the intensity of the steam explosion. Unfortunately, the previous experimental studies on the FCI phenomena have carried out under a free fall of the corium melt jet in a gas phase before interacting with water. The previous TROI (Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water) test facility, that is a well-known test facility for the FCI phenomena in the world, has observed a steam explosion under a free fall of a corium melt jet in a gas phase before contacting a coolant since 2000, which is changing to simulate the FCI phenomena under a submerged reactor vessel. This study introduces the modified TROI test facility as shown in Fig. 1 and the considerations for the experiment with success. The previous TROI test facility, that has observed the molten Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) with a free fall of the prototypic corium melt in a gas phase before contacting a coolant, was modified to simulate the FCI phenomena under a submerged reactor vessel for the assessment of the In-Vessel Retention (IVR) concept, i.e., without a free-fall distance of the corium melt before contacting water. The superheated prototypic corium melt created by the cold crucible melting method moves on a releasing valve newly installed just above the water level in the interaction vessel. The corium melt will stay on a releasing valve in less than 0.2 seconds to reduce heat loss for preventing the solidification, and

  4. Fission Product Release from Molten Pool: ceramic melt tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Yu.B.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu. [AO ' NP Sintez' , St. Petersburg (RU)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the volatilisation of UO{sub 2{+-}}{sub x}, SrO, BaO, CeO{sub 2} from corium melts. Corium melts were generated by high frequency induction melting in a cold crucible. The surface temperature of the melts was in the range from 1753 to 3023 K. Some results of the tests are discussed and a comparison with published data is made. (author)

  5. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L.

    2001-01-01

    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  6. Incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in lipids of normal and psoriatic human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestow, B.; Metz, D.; Kunze, D.; Meffert, H.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 C-linoleic acid incorporation in lipids of surviving epidermis and corium of normal and psoriatic human skin was investigated. Changes of lipid metabolism were found in both epidermis and corium. Particularly the turnover of phospholipids was increased in the uninvolved psoriatic epidermis in relation to the involved psoriatic epidermis or to healthy controls. Possible reasons of these phenomena and the significance of structural lipids in psoriasis are discussed. (author)

  7. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)

    2001-07-01

    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  8. State of the Art Report for the In-Vessel Late Core Melt Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Dong; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Park, Rae Joon

    2009-04-01

    The formation of corium pool in the reactor vessel lower head and its behavior is still an important issue. This issue is closely related to understanding of the core melting, its course, critical phases and timing during severe accidents and the influence of these processes on the accident progression, especially the evaluation of in-vessel retention by external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) as a severe accident management strategy. The previous researches focused on the quisi-steady state behavior of molten corium pool in the lower head and related in-vessel retention problem. However, questions of the feasibility of the in-vessel retention concept for high power density reactor and uncertainties due to layering effect require further studies. These researches are rather essential to consider the whole evolution of the accident including formation and growth of the molten pool and the characteristic of corium arrival in the lower head and molten pool behavior after the core debris remelting. The general objective of the LIVE program performed at FzK is to study the corium pool formation and behavior with emphasis on the transient behavior through the large scale 3-D experiments. In this report, description of LIVE experimental facility and results of performance test are briefly summarized and the process to select the simulant is depicted. Also, the results of LIVE L1 and L2 tests and analytical models are included. These experimental results are very useful to development and verification of the model of molten corium pool behavior

  9. A study on ex-vessel steam explosion for a flooded reactor cavity of reactor scale - 15216

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.; Yoon, E.; Kim, Y.; Cho, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A steam explosion can occur when a molten corium is mixed with a coolant, more volatile liquid. In severe accidents, corium can come into contact with coolant either when it flows to the bottom of the reactor vessel and encounters the reactor coolant, or when it breaches the reactor vessel and flows into the reactor containment. A steam explosion could then threaten the containment structures, such as the reactor vessel or the concrete walls/penetrations of the containment building. This study is to understand the shortcomings of the existing analysis code (TEXAS-V) and to estimate the steam explosion loads on reactor scale and assess the effect of variables, then we compared results and physical phenomena. Sensitivity study of major parameters for initial condition is performed. Variables related to melt corium such as corium temperature, falling velocity and diameter of melt are more important to the ex-vessel steam explosion load and the steam explosion loads are proportional to these variables related to melt corium. Coolant temperature on reactor cavity has a specific area to increase the steam explosion loads. These results will be used to evaluate the steam explosion loads using ROAAM (Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology) and to develop the evaluation methodology of ex-vessel steam explosion. (authors)

  10. GAREC analyses in Support of In-Vessel Retention Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarian, G.; Gandrille, P.; Dumontet, A.; Grange; Barbier, F; Bellon, M.; Bordier, G.; Boulanger, F.; Cognet, G.; Gatt, J.M.; Humbert, J.M.; Laporte, T.; Lepareux, M.; Richard, P.; Robert, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Szabo, I.; Tourasse, M.; Valin, F.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the analyses of the in-vessel retention capability which the GAREC group has performed for present and future French PWR designs. They present the reactor characteristics which are considered, describe the physical situations which are analysed and the relocation processes initiated by a corium flow, discuss the jet impacts, the debris formation and behaviour in the vessel lower head in a dry situation with absence of cooling, in wet situations in absence of external cooling, in wet situation with external cooling, in dry situation with external cooling. In this last case, they discuss the power dissipated in the corium, the molten salt behaviour, the heat flux distribution from the pool, the residual wall thickness, the heat flux distribution from the metal layer, the thermal-hydraulic aspects of water injection in the pool, the effects of crust instabilities, the external cooling, and the vessel mechanical behaviour. Then, they address the vapour explosion which may occur: mechanical loads leading to vessel failure in the cases of an eroded or non-eroded vessel, corium masses participating to the interaction (corium jets to the lower head, reflooding of corium pools with water). They finally briefly discuss the possible design improvements for in-vessel retention

  11. Heat transfer between relocated materials and the RPV lower head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kohriyama, T. [INSS, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Questions about the coolability of a continuous mass of relocated corium were raised during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Post-accident examinations indicate that nearly half of the material that relocated to the vessel lower head during the TMI-2 accident formed a cohesive or ''continuous'' layer. TMI-2 VIP results and other evidence suggest that conduction through this continuous layer of solidified corium materials was assisted by other cooling mechanisms. Because increased knowledge about in-vessel coolability of corium materials may assist reactor designers in demonstrating that their concepts are passively safe, there is international interest in this topic. However, data are needed to identify what cooling mechanism(s) occurred and to develop a validated model for predicting this cooling. Corium cooling models significantly impact predictions for subsequent accident progression, such as the estimated time and mode of vessel failure. Hence, improved cooling models will provide a much needed, missing component of severe accident analyses. This paper provides a critical review of research investigating the coolability of corium relocating to a water-filled lower head. Where possible, existing models and data for predicting cooling are quantitatively compared; and governing relationships are identified. Key phenomena that should be incorporated into models for predicting this heat transfer are discussed, and deficiencies in current models and available data for predicting cooling are noted. Recommendations for improving these models and for obtaining data to validate these models are also provided. (author)

  12. Heat transfer between relocated materials and the RPV lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Kohriyama, T.

    2001-01-01

    Questions about the coolability of a continuous mass of relocated corium were raised during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Post-accident examinations indicate that nearly half of the material that relocated to the vessel lower head during the TMI-2 accident formed a cohesive or ''continuous'' layer. TMI-2 VIP results and other evidence suggest that conduction through this continuous layer of solidified corium materials was assisted by other cooling mechanisms. Because increased knowledge about in-vessel coolability of corium materials may assist reactor designers in demonstrating that their concepts are passively safe, there is international interest in this topic. However, data are needed to identify what cooling mechanism(s) occurred and to develop a validated model for predicting this cooling. Corium cooling models significantly impact predictions for subsequent accident progression, such as the estimated time and mode of vessel failure. Hence, improved cooling models will provide a much needed, missing component of severe accident analyses. This paper provides a critical review of research investigating the coolability of corium relocating to a water-filled lower head. Where possible, existing models and data for predicting cooling are quantitatively compared; and governing relationships are identified. Key phenomena that should be incorporated into models for predicting this heat transfer are discussed, and deficiencies in current models and available data for predicting cooling are noted. Recommendations for improving these models and for obtaining data to validate these models are also provided. (author)

  13. Contribution of the study of a nuclear reactor accident: residual power aspects and thermodynamic of U-UO_2 and UO_2-ZrO_2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baichi, Mehdi

    2001-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of early delocalization and fission product releases during the formation of corium coming from a nuclear reactor accident. The first part deals with an analysis of corium cooling. The contribution to the power of each corium element has been calculated with time. The main elements are represented but the addition of Pu, Mo and Nb has been proposed. The last release experimental data taken into account result in a loss of residual power of 25% exclusive of corium between the emergency stop and ten days. The second part deals with the early delocalization observed during Vercors experiments. A critical selection on the U-UO_2 and UO_2-ZrO_2 systems has been carried out. In order to complete the small and inconsistent data, thermodynamic activity measurements have been performed by mass spectrometry. The UO_2 activity on UO_2-ZrO_2 presents a positive deviation from ideality at 2200 K and approximates ideality at 2400 K. All the data have been used for optimizing the systems with Thermo-Calc. This work has allowed to calculate the ternary systems and to define the required approach to analyze the metallic phase and corium oxides densities. (author) [fr

  14. The VULCANO ex-vessel programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Pierre, J.; Journeau, C.; Cranga, M.; Sudreau, F.; Ramacciotti, M. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    2000-05-01

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, several concepts suppose corium spreading before cooling. In particular, the EPR (European pressurized reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the spreading. In France, for some years now, the nuclear reactor division of the atomic energy commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. Within this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted in collaboration with European partners, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. Since 1997, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various melt compositions. After a brief description of the general objectives and the facility, this paper will present the most important spreading results. (orig.)

  15. The VULCANO ex-vessel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Pierre, J.; Journeau, C.; Cranga, M.; Sudreau, F.; Ramacciotti, M.

    2000-01-01

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, several concepts suppose corium spreading before cooling. In particular, the EPR (European pressurized reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the spreading. In France, for some years now, the nuclear reactor division of the atomic energy commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. Within this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted in collaboration with European partners, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. Since 1997, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various melt compositions. After a brief description of the general objectives and the facility, this paper will present the most important spreading results. (orig.)

  16. Constitution and reaction behavior of LWR materials at core melting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Skokan, A.; Janzer, H.; Schlickeise, G.; Riemueller, K.; Stroemann, H.; Nold, E.; Schaefer, A.

    1979-01-01

    Crucible melting experiments were performed with mixtures of preoxidized corium and basaltic or limestone concrete in order to investigate the oxidation behavior of the fission products, esp. Mo and Ru, at elevated oxygen partial pressures by H 2 O and CO 2 released from concrete. - The solidification behavior of the metallic and oxide fractions of corium (A+R) and corium (E+R) in the course of the interaction with basaltic or limestone concrete was investigated by crucible experiments. -Thermoanalytical investigations were performed with concrete of different types ranging from pure basaltic to pure limestone aggregates in order to test the possibility of reactions between CaO and SiO 2 during the heating up period. (orig./RW) [de

  17. Development of computer-controlled ultrasonic image processing system for severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Tai; Kim, Jong Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Sim, Chul Moo

    2000-07-01

    In order to verify in-vessel corium cooling mechanism, LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiment is being performed as a first stage proof of principle test. The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at developing a computer controlled image signal processing system which is able to improve visualization and to measure the gap distribution with 3-dimensional planar image using a time domain signal analysis method as a part of the ultrasonic pulse echo methods and a computerized position control system. An image signal processing system is developed by independently developing an ultrasonic image signal processing technique and a PC controlled position control system and then combining both systems

  18. Liquid entrainment through orifices by sparging gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.M.; Malara, M.; Amblard, M.; Seiler, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Corium Coolability by water flood during an MCCI (Molten Corium Concrete Interaction) is still an open problem. Several physical mechanisms have been identified which may reduce significantly and finally stop the ablation of concrete. Among these mechanisms, corium ejection by sparging gas into the overlying water may represent an important contribution. This mechanism was at the origin of a large and coolable debris bed and volcano formation in the MACE M3B test. This mechanism has also been observed in simulant material tests performed at UCSB and at FZK. The objective of the work, which is described in the present paper, is to model this mechanism and to quantify the liquid entrainment rate by sparging gas. (author)

  19. Improvement of the European thermodynamic database NUCLEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissoneau, L.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache, DEN, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France); Bakardjieva, S. [Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Inorgan Chem, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Barrachin, M. [Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, St Paul Les Durance (France); Bechta, S. [NITI, Aleksandrov Res Inst Technol, Sosnovyi Bor (Russian Federation); Bottomley, D. [Commiss European Communities, Joint Res Ctr, Inst Transuranium Elements, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cheynet, B.; Fischer, E. [Thermodata, F-38400 St Martin Dheres (France); Kiselova, M. [Nucl Res Inst UJV, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic); Mezentseva, L. [Russian Acad Sci, Inst Silicate Chem, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Modelling of corium behaviour during a severe accident requires knowledge of the phases present at equilibrium for a given corium composition, temperature and pressure. The thermodynamic database NUCLEA in combination with a Gibbs Energy minimizer is the European reference tool to achieve this goal. This database has been improved thanks to the analysis of bibliographical data and to EU-funded experiments performed within the SARNET network, PLINIUS as well as the ISTC CORPHAD and EVAN projects. To assess the uncertainty range associated with Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses, a round-robin exercise has been launched in which a UO{sub 2}-containing corium-concrete interaction sample from VULCANO has been analyzed by three European laboratories with satisfactorily small differences. (authors)

  20. Numerical Analysis on Heat Flux Distribution through the Steel Liner of the Ex-vessel Core Catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Hong; Choi, Choeng Ryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Jo; Lee, Kyu Bok [KEPCO, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Do Hyun [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to prevent material failure of steel container of the core catcher system due to high temperatures, heat flux through the steel liner wall must be kept below the critical heat flux (CHF), and vapor dry-out of the cooling channel must be avoided. In this study, CFD methodology has been developed to simulate the heat flux distribution in the core catcher system, involving following physical phenomena: natural convection in the corium pool, boiling heat transfer and solidification/melting of the corium. A CFD methodology has been developed to simulate the thermal/hydraulic phenomena in the core catcher system, and a numerical analysis has been carried out to estimate the heat flux through the steel liner of the core catcher. High heat flux values are formed at the free surface of the corium pool. However, the heat flux through the steel liner is maintained below the critical heat flux.

  1. Simulation of severe accidents in COTELS experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Yu.S.; Zhdanov, V.S.; Kolodeshnikov, A.A.; Kadyrov, Kh. G.; Turkebaev, T.E.; Tsaj, K.V.; Suslov, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    At present, the issue of atomic reactor operation safety is of a great attention. It is evident that the accident accompanied with a core materials melting is an improbable event. To fully assess a hazard of a reactor use and enhance its safety, it is necessary to predict a possible accident progress and specify possible consequences of severe accidents and eliminating measures. In COTELS experiments, aimed at investigation of interaction of corium with concrete and water, the corium s imulator m elt is discharged on the concrete. The concrete erosion parameters, composition and rate of aerosol and gas escaping are recorded. The solidified melt and concrete fragments structure is studied after the testing, using the X-ray diffractometer DRON-3. This paper gives consideration to possible mechanisms of formation of uranium-containing and other phases of products of interaction of the corium melt with concrete and water

  2. Development of computer-controlled ultrasonic image processing system for severe accidents research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Tai; Kim, Jong Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Sim, Chul Moo

    2000-07-01

    In order to verify in-vessel corium cooling mechanism, LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiment is being performed as a first stage proof of principle test. The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at developing a computer controlled image signal processing system which is able to improve visualization and to measure the gap distribution with 3-dimensional planar image using a time domain signal analysis method as a part of the ultrasonic pulse echo methods and a computerized position control system. An image signal processing system is developed by independently developing an ultrasonic image signal processing technique and a PC controlled position control system and then combining both systems.

  3. Conributions of the VULCANO experimental programme to ther understaing of MCCI phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Christophe; Piluso, Pascal; Correggio, Patricia; Ferry, Lionel; Fritz, Gerald; Haquet, Jean Francois; Monerris, Jose; Ruggieri, Jean Michel; Sanchez- Brusset, Mathieu; Parga, Clemente [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, STRI/LMA, lez Durance (France)

    2012-04-15

    Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) is a complex process characterized by concrete ablation and volatile generation; Thermal and solutal convection in a bubble-agitated melt; Physico-chemical evolution of the corium pool with a wide solidification range (of the order of 1000 K). Twelve experiments have been carried out in the VULCANO facility with prototypic corium and sustained heating. The dry oxidic corium tests have contributed to show that silica-rich concrete experience an anisotropic ablation. This unexpected ablation pattern is quite reproducible and can be recalculated, provided an empirical anisotropy factor is assumed. Dry tests with oxide and metal liquid phases have also yielded unexpected results: a larger than expected steel oxidation and unexpected topology of the metallic phase (at the bottom of the cavity and also on the vertical concrete walls). Finally, VULCANO has proved its interest for the study of mitigation solutions such as the COMET bottom flooding core catcher.

  4. Conributions of the VULCANO experimental programme to ther understaing of MCCI phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Christophe; Piluso, Pascal; Correggio, Patricia; Ferry, Lionel; Fritz, Gerald; Haquet, Jean Francois; Monerris, Jose; Ruggieri, Jean Michel; Sanchez- Brusset, Mathieu; Parga, Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) is a complex process characterized by concrete ablation and volatile generation; Thermal and solutal convection in a bubble-agitated melt; Physico-chemical evolution of the corium pool with a wide solidification range (of the order of 1000 K). Twelve experiments have been carried out in the VULCANO facility with prototypic corium and sustained heating. The dry oxidic corium tests have contributed to show that silica-rich concrete experience an anisotropic ablation. This unexpected ablation pattern is quite reproducible and can be recalculated, provided an empirical anisotropy factor is assumed. Dry tests with oxide and metal liquid phases have also yielded unexpected results: a larger than expected steel oxidation and unexpected topology of the metallic phase (at the bottom of the cavity and also on the vertical concrete walls). Finally, VULCANO has proved its interest for the study of mitigation solutions such as the COMET bottom flooding core catcher.

  5. Experimental programs and facilities for ASTRID development related to the Severe Accident Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Suteau, C.; Trotignon, L.; Willermoz, G.; Ducros, G.; Courouau, J.L.; Ruggieri, J.M.; Serre, F.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program has been launched in order to gain new data in support of the severe accident studies related to the ASTRID demonstrator. The main new issues with respect to the historic experimental database are mainly related to new design options: heterogeneous core with thick pins; new materials; new severe accident mitigation systems such as - corium discharge channels; - core-catcher with sacrificial materials; - some issues remaining open as Fuel Coolant Interaction. Experiments are needed both in-pile and out of pile: - Depending on the objectives, the out of pile experiments can be conducted - with simulant; - with prototypic corium; - or with irradiated fuel. A new large scale corium facility, FOURNAISE, must be built to fulfill this program. Already, experimental R&D started in existing facilities, such as VITI or CORRONA

  6. The LEONAR code: a new tool for PSA Level 2 analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourniaire, B; Spindler, B.; Ratel, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Iooss, B.; Marques, M.; Gaudier, F.; Greffier, G.

    2011-01-01

    The LEONAR code, complementary to integral codes such as MAAP or ASTEC, is a new severe accident simulation tool which can calculate easily 1000 late phase reactor situations within a few hours and provide a statistical evaluation of the situations. LEONAR can be used for the analysis of the impact on the failure probabilities of specific Severe Accident Management measures (for instance: water injection) or design modifications (for instance: pressure vessel flooding or dedicated reactor pit flooding), or to focus the research effort on key phenomena. The starting conditions for LEONAR are a set of core melting situations that are separately calculated from a core degradation code (such as MAAP, which is used by EDF). LEONAR describes the core melt evolution after flooding in the core, the corium relocation in the lower head (under dry and wet conditions), the evolution of corium in the lower head including the effect of flooding, the vessel failure, corium relocation in the reactor cavity, interaction between corium and basemat concrete, possible corium spreading in the neighbour rooms, on the containment floor. Scenario events as well as specific physical model parameters are characterised by a probability density distribution. The probabilistic evaluation is performed by URANIE that is coupled to the physical calculations. The calculation results are treated in a statistical way in order to provide easily usable information. This tool can be used to identify the main parameters that influence corium coolability for severe accident late phases. It is aimed to replace efficiently PIRT exercises. An important impact of such a tool is that it can be used to make a demonstration that the probability of basemat failure can be significantly reduced by coupling a number of separate severe accident management measures or design modifications despite each separate measure is not sufficient by itself to avoid the failure. (authors)

  7. Reaction- and melting behaviour of LWR-core components UO2, Zircaloy and steel during the meltdown period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1976-07-01

    The reaction behaviour of the UO 2 , Zircaloy-4 and austenitic steel core components was investigated as a function of temperature (till melting temperatures) under inert and oxidizing conditions. Component concentrations varied between that of Corium-A (65 wt.% UO 2 , 18% Zry, 17% steel) and that of Corium-E (35 wt.% UO 2 , 10% Zry, 55% steel). In addition, Zircaloy and stainless steel were used with different degrees of oxidation. The paper describes systematically the phases that arise during heating and melting. The integral composition of the melts and the qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of the phases present in solidified corium are given. In some cases melting points have been determined. The reaction and melting behaviour of the corium specimens strongly depends on the concentration and on the degree of oxidation of the core components. First liquid phases are formed at the Zry-steel interface at about 1,350 0 C. The maximum temperatures of about 2,500 0 C for the complete melting of the corium-specimens are well below the UO 2 melting point. Depending on the steel content and/or degree of oxidation of Zry and steel, a homogeneous metallic or oxide melt or two immiscible melts - one oxide and the other metallic - are obtained. During the melting experiments performed under inert gas conditions the chemical composition of the molten specimens generally change by evaporation losses of single elements, especially of uranium, zirconium and oxygen. The total weight losses go up to 30%; under oxidizing conditions they are substantially smaller due to the occurrence of different phases. In air or water vapor, the occurrence of the phases and the melting behaviour of the core components are strongly influenced by the oxidation rate and the oxygen supply to the surface of the melt. In the case of the hypothetical core melting accident, a heterogeneous melt (oxide and metallic) is probable after the meltdown period. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Description of premixing with the MC3D code including molten jet behavior modeling. Comparison with FARO experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA-G, DRN/DTP/SMTH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1998-01-01

    The premixing phase of a molten fuel-coolant interaction is studied by the way of mechanistic multidimensional calculation. Beside water and steam, corium droplet flow and continuous corium jet flow are calculated independent. The 4-field MC3D code and a detailed hot jet fragmentation model are presented. MC3D calculations are compared to the FARO L14 experiment results and are found to give satisfactory results; heat transfer and jet fragmentation models are still to be improved to predict better final debris size values. (author)

  9. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments

  10. RELOS.MOD2: a code system for the determination of instationary fission product releases from molten pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Unger, H.; Funke, F.

    1999-01-01

    For the assessment of molten corium pool source terms, a mechanistic model has been developed to describe the transport of fission products from liquid corium pool surfaces into a colder gas atmosphere. Modelling is based on an approach for diffusive and convective transport processes coupled with thermochemical equilibrium considerations enabling detailed speciation analyses of the fission products released. Both have been implemented into the code system RELOS.MOD2. RELOS.MOD2 sensitivity calculations on possible effects of anticipated uncertainties in the thermo-chemical data on the fission product release predictions are presented. (author)

  11. CFD approach to modeling of core-concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Anna E Aksenova; Valerii A Pervichko

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A large attention is given to research behavior of concrete structures at high mechanical and thermal loadings, which those suffer at the severe accidents on Nuclear Power Plants with core melting and falling of the molten corium mass into reactor shaft. There are enough programs for analysis of heat and mass transfer processes at interaction of the molten corium with concrete. Most known among them CORCON and WECHSL, which were developed more than twenty years ago, allow considering a quasi-stationary phase decomposition of concrete and the some transition regimes. In opposing to the mentioned codes a new more generalized mathematical model and software are developed for modeling of a wide range of the heat and mass transfer processes under study of the molten core-concrete interaction. The developed mathematical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with variable properties with taking into account of a density jump under melting of concrete together with a heat transfer equation. The offered numerical technique is based on modern algorithms with small scheme diffusion, whose discrete approximations are constructed with use of finite-volume methods and the fully staggered grids. The developed software corresponds to modern level of development of computers and takes into account all phenomenology, used by mentioned codes, and allows to simulate the such phenomena and processes as: multidimensional heat transfer in concrete for modeling of transients for an intermediate thermal flux to concrete; direct erosion of concrete at a quasi-stationary regime of interaction with molten fuel masses; heat and mass transfer in corium and convective intermixing in a melt of corium with taking into account of its stratification on two layers of the metal and oxide components and heat transfer by radiation in a cavity of the reactor shaft; change physical properties of corium at concrete decomposition and release in corium of its

  12. Accident analyses on TMLB' and LOCA for KNGR using MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Choi, Y.; Ahn, K.I

    2000-11-01

    Plant specific phenomenological analyses for the Korean Next Generation Reactor, using MELCOR program, are described in this report. The most important two accident sequences, a station blackout and a loss of coolant scenario, are selected. Complete coverage of corium behavior both in-vessel and ex-vessel, and the corresponding containment responses, are analyzed. The in-vessel progression includes the thermal hydraulics in the primary system, core heat up, hydrogen generation, and melt progression up to the reactor vessel breach. The ex-vessel progression describes molten corium - concrete interaction phenomena and the pressure behavior in the containment atmosphere.

  13. Severe accident experiments on PLINIUS platform. Results of first experiments on COLIMA facility related to VVER-440. Presentation of planned VULCANO and KROTOS tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piluso, P.; Boccaccio, E.; Bonnet, J.-M.; Journeau, C.; Fouquart, P.; Magallon, D.; Ivanov, I.; Mladenov, I.; Kalchev, S.; Grudev, P.; Alsmeyer, H.; Fluhrer, B.; Leskovar, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the hypothetical case of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the reactor core could melt and form a mixture of nuclear fuel (UO 2 + Fission Products), metallic or oxidized cladding + steel, called c orium , of highly refractory oxides (UO 2 , ZrO 2 ) and metallic or oxidized steel, that could eventually flow out of the vessel and mix with the substrate decomposition products (generally oxides such as SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Fe 2 O 3 ). The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has launched a R and D programme aimed at providing the tools for improving the mastering of severe accidents. It encompasses the development of models and codes, performance of experiments in simulant and prototypic materials and the analysis of international experiments. The experiments with prototypic corium (i.e. material containing depleted UO 2 ) are performed in the PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache. It comprises the VULCANO facility for 50-100 kg tests (corium-material interactions, corium solidification etc.), the COLIMA facility for smaller scale (∼1 kg) experiments, the VITI facility for corium properties measurement and the KROTOS facility for corium-water interaction (a few kg). In the framework of the 5 th European Framework Programme, free trans-national access to these facilities has been offered to EU and Associated States researchers. For the first PLINIUS access, COLIMA experiments have been conducted with a Bulgarian Team (TU/SOFIA, BAS/INRNE and NPP/KOZLODUY). This series of tests was devoted to experimental studies on fission products release and corium behaviour in the late phase in a hypothetic case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440. The COLIMA experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels (VERCORS, PHEBUS) with small differences for some fission products and show new results for the remaining corium. For the second visit, scientific users from FZK in Germany were selected to validate the COMET core

  14. Heat transfer in reactor cavity during core-concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.

    1989-08-01

    In the unlikely event of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the core may melt through the vessel and slump into the concrete reactor cavity. The hot mixture of the core material called corium interacts thermally with the concrete basemat. The WECHSL code, developed at K.f.K. Karlsruhe in Germany is used at the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (I.P.S.N.) of CEA to compute this molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). Some uncertainties remain in the partition of heat from the corium between the basemat and the upper surrounding structures in the cavity where the thermal conditions are not computer. The CALTHER code, under development to perform a more mechanistic evaluation of the upward heat flux has been linked to WECHSL-MOD2 code. This new version enables the modelling of the feedback effects from the conditions in the cavity to the MCCI and the computation of the fraction of upward flux directly added to the cavity atmosphere. The present status is given in the paper. Preliminary calculations of the reactor case for silicate and limestone common sand (L.C.S.) concretes are presented. Significant effects are found on concrete erosion, gases release and temperature of the upper part of corium, particularly for L.C.S. concrete

  15. Containment loading during severe core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Evrard, J.M.; Cenerino, C.; Berthion, Y.; Carvallo, G.

    1984-11-01

    The objective of the article is to study the influence of the state of the reactor cavity (dry or flooded) and of the corium coolability on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment in the case of an accident sequence involving core melting and subsequent containment basemat erosion, in a 900 MWe PWR unit. Calculations are performed by using the JERICHO thermal hydraulics code

  16. A comparative analysis of reactor lower head debris cooling models employed in the existing severe accident analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.I.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1998-08-01

    MELCOR and MAAP4 are the representative severe accident analysis codes which have been developed for the integral analysis of the phenomenological reactor lower head corium cooling behavior. Main objectives of the present study is to identify merits and disadvantages of each relevant model through the comparative analysis of the lower plenum corium cooling models employed in these two codes. The final results will be utilized for the development of LILAC phenomenological models and for the continuous improvement of the existing MELCOR reactor lower head models, which are currently being performed at the KAERI. For these purposes, first, nine reference models are selected featuring the lower head corium behavior based on the existing experimental evidences and related models. Then main features of the selected models have been critically analyzed, and finally merits and disadvantages of each corresponding model have been summarized in the view point of realistic corium behavior and reasonable modeling. Being on these evidences, summarized and presented the potential improvements for developing more advanced models. The present study has been focused on the qualitative comparison of each model and so more detailed quantitative analysis is strongly required to obtain the final conclusions for their merits and disadvantages. In addition, in order to compensate the limitations of the current model, required further studies relating closely the detailed mechanistic models with the molten material movement and heat transfer based on phase-change in the porous medium, to the existing simple models. (author). 36 refs

  17. The Raman fingerprint of plutonium dioxide: Some example applications for the detection of PuO2 in host matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manara, D; Naji, M.; Mastromarino, S.; Elorrieta, J. M.; Magnani, Nicola; Martel, L.; Colle, J-Y

    2018-01-01

    Some example applications are presented, in which the peculiar Raman fingerprint of PuO2 can be used for the detection of crystalline Pu4+ with cubic symmetry in an oxide environment in various host materials, like mixed oxide fuels, inert matrices and corium sub-systems.

  18. First evaluations of ex-vessel fuel-coolant interaction with MC3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignen, R.; Dupas, J.; Chaumont, B.

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of severe accident nuclear safety studies, we evaluate for French PWR's the potential of Steam Explosion in the reactor pit, consecutively to a vessel failure and to the mixing of the corium with the water that might be present. The evaluations are made with MC3D. This thermalhydraulic multiphasic code has firstly been qualified and its main parameters chosen so that a sufficient validation is obtained with regards to reactor situations. The safety study for ex-vessel situations is a step-by-step procedure that leads to a progressive process of hypotheses relaxations. We find that it is important to adequately model the corium ejection from the RPV. The rapid transition of the flow at the breach towards 2-phase dispersed flow leads to an important mixing of corium and water. The vessel pressurization is a very important parameter and strong pressure cases lead to a fine fragmentation and thus a high voiding. The small pressure cases are more dangerous for two reasons: the corium is dispersed in larger drops, and some important interactions (in the premixing sense) are reported

  19. Improvement of the European thermodynamic database NUCLEA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjieva, Snejana; Barrachin, M.; Bechta, S.; Bottomley, D.; Brissoneau, L.; Cheynet, B.; Fischer, E.; Journeau, C.; Kiselová, M.; Mezentseva, L.; Piluso, P.; Wiss, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2010), s. 84-96 ISSN 0149-1970 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : corium * Severe Accidents * thermodynamic databese Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2010

  20. In-Vessel Retention via External Reactor Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrata, Andrea [CTU in Prague, Faculty of nuclear sciences and physical engineering, V Holesovickach 2 180 00, Prague 8 (Czech republic)

    2008-07-01

    In-vessel (corium) retention (IVR) via external reactor pressure vessel (RPV) cooling is considered to be an effective severe accident management strategy for corium localisation and stabilisation. The main idea of IVR strategy consists in flooding the reactor cavity and transferring the decay heat through the wall of RPV to the recirculating water and than to the atmosphere of the containment of nuclear power plant. The aim of this strategy is to localise and to stabilise the corium inside the RPV. Not using this procedure could destroy the integrity of RPV and might cause the interaction of the corium with the concrete at the bed of the reactor cavity. Several experimental facilities and computer codes (MVITA, ASTEC module DIVA and CFD codes) were applied to simulate the IVR strategy for concrete reactor designs. The necessary technical modifications concerning the implementation of IVR concept were applied at the Loviisa NPP (VVER-440/V213). This strategy is also an important part of the advanced reactor designs AP600 and AP1000. (authors)

  1. Three-dimensional numerical study on the mechanism of anisotropic MCCI by improved MPS method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin, E-mail: lixin@fuji.waseda.jp; Yamaji, Akifumi

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • 3-D simulation of a MCCI test was presented with improved moving particle method. • The influence of thermally stable silica aggregates on MCCI has been investigated. • The mechanisms for isotropic/anisotropic ablation have been clarified mechanistically. - Abstract: In two-dimensional (2-D) molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) experiments with prototypic corium and siliceous concrete, the more pronounced lateral concrete erosion behavior than that in the axial direction, namely anisotropic ablation, has been a research interest. However, the knowledge of the mechanism on this anisotropic ablation behavior, which is important for severe accident analysis and management, is still limited. In this paper, 3-D simulation of 2-D MCCI experiment VULCANO VB-U7 has been carried out with improved Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method. Heat conduction, phase change, and corium viscosity models have been developed and incorporated into MPS code MPS-SW-MAIN-Ver.2.0 for current study. The influence of thermally stable silica aggregates has been investigated by setting up different simulation cases for analysis. The simulation results suggested reasonable models and assumptions to be considered in order to achieve best estimation of MCCI with prototypic oxidic corium and siliceous concrete. The simulation results also indicated that silica aggregates can contribute to anisotropic ablation. The mechanisms for anisotropic ablation pattern in siliceous concrete as well as isotropic ablation pattern in limestone-rich concrete have been clarified from a mechanistic perspective.

  2. Impact of Zr metal and coking reactions on the ex-vessel source term predictions of CORCON/VANESA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a core meltdown accident in a LWR, molten core materials (corium) could leave the reactor vessel and interact with concrete. In this paper, the impact of the zirconium content of the corium pool and the coking reaction on the release of fission products are quantified using CORCON/Mod2 and VANESA computer codes. Detailed calculations show that the total aerosol generation is proportional to the zirconium content of the corium pool. Among the twelve fission product groups treated by the VANESA code, CsI, Cs 2 O and Nb 2 O 5 are completely released over the course of the core/concrete interaction, while an insignificant quantity of Mo, Ru and ZrO 2 are predicted to be released. The release of BaO, SrO and Ce 2 O increase, while the releases of Te and La 2 O 3 are relatively unaffected by the Zr content of the corium pool. The impact of the coking reaction on the radionuclide release and aerosol production was found to be insignificant

  3. Threshold for sweepout from pedestal region of Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of highly unlikely severe accident sequences in boiling water reactors includes those sequences in which molten corium is postulated to meltthrough the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head and enter the pedestal region beneath the vessel. If localized melt-through of the reactor vessel occurs at elevated primary system pressure, the ejection of molten corium from the vessel will be followed by a blowdown of steam and hydrogen. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the pedestal into other parts of the containment. The extent of the gas blowdown-driven sweepout process depends upon a number of factors including the primary system pressure at melt through, breach flow area, overall blowdown timescale, and the specific pedestal/containment geometry. A model is presented to predict whether or not the conditions of gas flow from the failed RPV are sufficient to cause sweepout of corium and/or water from the pedestal. The model is shown to predict the onset of sweepout in scale model, simulant material experiments and is applied to the investigation of sweepout in the full-size reactor system

  4. Results of fission product release from intermediate-scale MCCI [molten core-concrete interaction] tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Thompson, D.H.; Fink, J.K.; Gunther, W.H.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    A program of reactor-material molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) tests and related analyses are under way at Argonne National Laboratory under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The particular objective of these tests is to provide data pertaining to the release of nonvolatile fission products such as La, Ba, and Sr, plus other aerosol materials, from the coupled thermal-hydraulic and chemical processes of the MCCI. The first stages of the program involving small and intermediate-scale tests have been completed. Three small-scale tests (/approximately/5 kg corium) and nine intermediate-scale tests (/approximately/30 kg corium) were performed between September 1985 and September 1987. Real reactor materials were used in these tests. Sustained internal heat generation at nominally 1 kW per kg of melt was provided by direct electrical heating of the corium mixture. MCCI tests were performed with both fully and partially oxidized corium mixtures that contained a variety of nonradioactive materials such as La 2 O 3 , BaO, and SrO to represent fission products. Both limestone/common sand and basaltic concrete basemats were used. The system was instrumented for characterization of the thermal hydraulic, chemical, gas release, and aerosol release processes

  5. Evaluation of upward heat flux in ex-vessel molten core heat transfer using MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to share experiences of MELCOR application to resolve the molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) issue in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In the evaluation of concrete erosion, the heat transfer modeling from the molten corium internal to the corium pool surface is very important and uncertain. MELCOR employs Kutateladze or Greene's bubble-enhanced heat transfer model for the internal heat transfer. The phenomenological uncertainty is so large that the model provides several model parameters in addition to the phenomenological model for user flexibility. However, the model parameters do not work on Kutateladze correlation at the top of the molten layer. From our experience, a code modification is suggested to match the upward heat flux with the experimental results. In this analysis, minor modification was carried out to calculate heat flux from the top molten layer to corium surface, and efforts were made to find out the best value of the model parameter based on upward heat flux of MACE test M1B. Discussion also includes its application to KNGR. (author)

  6. [Utilization of a transferred arc-plasma rotating furnace to melt and found oxide mixtures at around 2000 degrees C (presentation of the film VULCANO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognet, G; Laffont, G; Jegou, C; Pierre, J; Journeau, C; Sudreau, F; Roubaud, A

    1999-03-01

    Unless security measures are taken, a hypothetical accident resulting from the loss of the cooling circuit in a pressurized water nuclear reactor could cause the heart of the reactor to melt forming a bath, called the corium, mainly composed of uranium, zirconium and iron oxides as well as the structural steel. This type of situation would be similar to the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In order to limit the consequences of such an accident, the Atomic Energy Commission has implemented a large study program [1] to improve our understanding of corium behavior and determine solutions to stabilize it and avoid its propagation outside the unit. The VULCANO installation was designed in order to perform the trials using real materials which are indispensable to study all the phenomena involved. A film on the VULCANO trials was presented at the Henri Moissan commemorative session organized by the French National Academy of Pharmacy. The rotating furnace used to melt and found the mixture simulating the corium is a direct descendant of the pioneer work by Henri Moissan. An electrical arc is directed at the center of the load to melt which is maintained against the walls by centrifugal force. After six high-temperature trials performed with compositions without uranium oxide, the first trial with real corium showed that the magma spread rather well, a result which is quite favorable for cooling.

  7. New sacrificial material for ex-vessel core catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlev, Andrei A., E-mail: komlev@kth.se [Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, Nuclear Power Safety Division, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Almjashev, Vyacheslav I., E-mail: vac@mail.ru [A.P. Aleksandrov Research Institute of Technology, NITI, DSAR, Sosnovy Bor, 188540 (Russian Federation); Bechta, Sevostian V., E-mail: bechta@safety.sci.kth.se [Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Khabensky, Vladimir B., E-mail: vladimirkhabensky@gmail.com [A.P. Aleksandrov Research Institute of Technology, NITI, DSAR, Sosnovy Bor, 188540 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, Vladimir S., E-mail: gran@niti.ru [A.P. Aleksandrov Research Institute of Technology, NITI, DSAR, Sosnovy Bor, 188540 (Russian Federation); Gusarov, Victor V., E-mail: victor.v.gusarov@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A new functional (sacrificial) material has been developed in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SrO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO system based on strontium hexaferrite ceramic in concrete matrix. The method of producing SM has been advanced technologically; this technological effectiveness allows the SM to be used in ex-vessel core catchers with corium spreading as well as in crucible-type core catchers. Critical properties regarding the efficiency of SM in ex-vessel core catchers, such as porosity, pycnometric density, apparent density, solidus and liquidus temperatures, and water content have been measured. Suitable fractions of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and high alumina cement (HAC) were found in the SM based on thermodynamic analysis of the SM/corium interaction. The use of sacrificial steel as an additional heat adsorption component in the core catcher allowed us to increase the mass fraction range of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} in the SM from 0.3−0.5 to 0.3–0.85. The activation temperature of the SM/corium interaction has been shown to correspond to the liquidus temperature of the local composition at the SM/corium interface. The calculated value of this temperature was 1716 °C. Analysis of phase transformations in the SrO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} system revealed advantages of the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}–based sacrificial material compared with the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-contained material owing to the time proximity of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} decomposition and corium interaction activation. - Highlights: • A sacrificial material (SM) was developed for ex-vessel core catcher. • Suitable proportions in the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}·CaO–Fe system were determined. • Hydrogen release limitation was shown for ex-vessel corium retention with the SM. • Calculated temperature of the active initiation of corium/SM interaction is 1716 °C. • Functional properties of the SM were measured.

  8. Material properties influence on steam explosion efficiency. Prototypic versus simulant melts, eutectic versus non-eutectic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.; Mavko, B.

    2006-01-01

    A steam explosion may occur during a severe nuclear reactor accident if the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. Details of processes taking place prior and during the steam explosion have been experimentally studied for a number of years with adjunct efforts in modelling these processes to address the scaling of these experiments. Steam explosion experiments have shown that there are important differences of behaviour between simulant and prototypical melts, and that also at prototypical melts the fuel coolant interactions depend on the composition of the corium. In experiments with prototypic materials no spontaneous steam explosions occurred (except with an eutectic composition), whereas with simulant materials the steam explosions were triggered spontaneously. The energy conversion ratio of steam explosions with prototypic melts is at least one order of magnitude lower than the energy conversion ratio of steam explosions with simulant melts. Although the different behaviour of prototypic and simulant melts has been known for a number of years, there is no reliable explanation for these differences. Consequently it is not possible to reliably estimate whether corium would behave so non-explosive also in reactor conditions, where the mass of poured melt is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than in experimental conditions. An even more fascinating material effect was observed recently at corium experiments with eutectic and non-eutectic compositions. It turned out that eutectic corium always exploded spontaneously, whereas non-eutectic corium never exploded spontaneously. In the paper, a possible explanation of both material effects (prototypic/simulant melts, eutectic/non-eutectic corium) on the steam explosion is provided. A model for the calculation of the

  9. Experimental study of heat transfer in the slotted channels at CTF facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.; Kobzar, L.; Nickulshin, V.; Strizhov, V.

    1999-01-01

    During core melt accident significant amount of core may relocate in the reactor pressure vessel lower head. During its cooling it may form cracks inside the corium and gap between corium and reactor vessel. Gap also may appear due to deformation of the lower head if its temperature exceed creep limit. Slotted channels ensure ingress of the cooling water into the corium, and exit of the generated steam. Study of the cool-down mechanism of the solid core debris in the lower head of the reactor vessel through gap and cracks is the objective of experimental work on the CTF facility. Thermal hydraulics in the heated channels closed from the bottom and flooded with the saturated water from the top of the channel, is characterized by the counterflow of the steam and water, attended by such specific phenomena as the dry out when boiling, flooding and overturning of the coming down flow of water at the certain flow rates of the steam going up, partial dry out of the channel, and reflooding from the top of the heated channel with the saturated water. The above phenomena may reveal independently or in different combinations depending on geometric parameters of the channel, heat release, and coolant parameters. Interchange of these processes with a certain cyclic sequence is possible. Experimental study was performed at the CTF (Coolability Test Facility) facility, which is a part of the thermohydraulic KC test facility in the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute'. Presented results are obtained at the CTF-1 test section which represents a vertical flat channel modeling a single crack in the solidified corium or the gap between the corium and reactor vessel

  10. Experiments on determination and limitation of fission and activation product release during core meltdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H; Krause, W; Wild, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Perinic, D; Kammerer, B; Knauss, H; Mack, A; Stuka, B [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Reaktorbetrieb und Technik; Osborne, M F

    1976-06-01

    In melting experiments with Corium samples of 500 g under air, temperatures of about 2,300/sup 0/C could be reached whereas 500 g samples of Ni could be heated in argon up to only 1,400/sup 0/C. Obviously, the exothermic oxidation reaction of the zircaloy and steel is the reason for that considerable rise of the Corium temperature in air. Using smaller Ni samples (30 g) the maximum HF-power being coupled to the melt material has been determined by measuring the time of constant temperature at the melting point with the generator at full power. The thermal power effectively transmitted to the specimen was only 1.2 KW. Thus, for melting kg-amounts of Corium, a higher generator power is needed as well as a more effective HF-coupling. The rented generator now in use will be replaced, therefore, by a device with a nominal power of 120 KW, and the power transmission to the induction coil will be improved. The first series of release experiments with 30-60 g of Corium will not be affected by these changes. Melting experiments with various steel components (Fe, Cr, Ni) in an argon atmosphere and with Corium under air did not show any selective influence of the vapors on the intensities of the wavelengths used for the temperature measurement. The behavior of a spherical glass vessel above the crucible was quite satisfactory. After melting tests with temperatures of more than 2,700/sup 0/C it was not broken nor did it show any appearance of softening.

  11. Status report on severe accident material property measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; McUmber, L.; Spencer, B.W.; Aeschlimann, R.W.

    1997-06-01

    Measurements of selected material properties of molten reactor core material (corium) were made. The corium used was a mixture of UO 2 , ZrO 2 and Zr, with oxygen content being a parameter to reflect different stages of zirconium oxidation. The mixtures used were representative of typical in-vessel melt sequences. For most measurements, the UO 2 /ZrO 2 mass ratio was 1.51, representative of VVER/440 melt compositions and melt compositions of most US BWRs. Measurements were made of the solidus/liquidus temperatures of corium compositions using a Differential Thermal Analysis technique. Observation of the solubility of unoxidized Zr in the oxide phase was made by metallographic analysis of solidus/liquidus melt samples. The results of laminar flow corium spreading tests in one dimension were used to estimate the viscosity of corium compositions. Measured solidus and liquidus temperatures for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% were compared with those obtained form a phase diagram provided by Kurchatov Institute. It was found that experimental measurements agreed well with the phase diagram values at 70% oxidation, but the measured solidus temperatures were higher than those on the phase diagram and the measured liquidus temperatures were lower than those on the phase diagram at 30 and 50% oxidation. From a microstructure examination it was determined that there was no global segregation into distinct metal and oxide phases during the cooldown of a sample in which there was initially 70% Zr oxidation. Therefore it is concluded that Zr metal is soluble in the oxide phase under molten conditions. Viscosity estimates were made for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% by fitting the results of spreading tests to Huppert's equation. It was found that, at a temperature of 2500 C, the viscosity varied by three orders of magnitude over this range of compositions. 10 refs., 39 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Overview of the projects sponsored within th EU-R and D framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, A.; Goethem, G. van; Bermejo, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Assuming that preventive measures to avoid reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure under core degradation scenarios have failed, the stabilisation of the core melts after its release from the RPV is a key issue. Adequate cooling of the ex-vessel corium and the control of its interactions with the coolant and structures are the main challenges to mitigate and stabilise the situation preserving the containment integrity. In this regard, the on-going Fourth Euratom Framework Programme (4 th EFP) contributes with experimental and theoretical research activities aimed at responding to the main challenges mentioned, by satisfying three objectives: - To improve the understanding of the basic physics related to ex-vessel corium behaviour from the phenomenological and technological viewpoints, as well as to provide a methodology for investigating it and setting up joint multi-partner projects to be co-sponsored and co-ordinated by the EC; - to quantify and reduce the uncertainties associated with the risk issues by conducting experimental and numerical investigations and eventually to achieve a European consensus on the phenomenology and on accident mitigation strategies; - to provide a technological response to the risk issues by developing engineered safety systems (e.g. core-catchers) and severe accident management strategies (e.g. guidelines), and to discuss such a technological response with the end users of these technologies, i.e. designers and licensers. To fulfil these objectives, the 4 th EFP co-sponsors a total of five projects within the cluster 'Ex-Vessel Corium Behaviour and Coolability' of the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme. The research undertaken addresses the main different aspects such as the determination of the composition and thermodynamic data of the melt; experiments on spreading behaviour on various types of surfaces, as well as on corium coolability by flooding or water injection; investigation of corium stratification, crust and heat transfer

  13. Experimental study on in-vessel debris coolability during severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. B.; Park, R. J.; Kim, H. D.

    2002-05-01

    A research program, called SONATA-IV(Simulation of Naturally Arrested Thermal Attack In-Vessel), has been performed to verify the gap cooling mechanism of corium in the lower plenum, and to develop management and mitigation strategies under severe accident conditions. For the proof-of-principles experiment, the LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiments have been performed to gather proof of gap formation and to evaluate the gap effect on in-vessel cooling, using Al 2 O 3 /Fe (or Al 2 O 3 only) thermite melt as corium simulant. And also the CHFG(Critical Heat Flux in Gap) experiments have been performed to measure the critical power and to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in the hemispherical narrow gap. In addition to the experiments, LILAC code was developed to analyze and predict the thermo-hydraulic phenomena of the corium relocated in the reactor lower plenum. It could be found from the LAVA and CHFG experimental results that continuous gap ranged from 1 to 5 mm was formed and that maximum heat removal capacity through a gap is a key factor in determining the potentials of the integrity of the vessel. After all the possibility of IVR(In-Vessel corium Retention) through gap cooling highly depends on the melt relocated into the lower plenum and the gap size. So, feasibility experiments have been performed for the assessment of improved IVR concepts using an internal engineered gap device and a dual strategy of In/Ex-vessel cooling using the LAVA facility. It is preliminarily concluded that these cooling measures lead to an enhanced cooling of the corium in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. The additional studies will be performed to verify the quantitative heat removal capacity for these cooling measures in the 2nd phase of mid- and long term project period

  14. Development of MPS Method for Analyzing Melt Spreading Behavior and MCCI in Severe Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Akifumi; Li, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Spreading of molten core (corium) on reactor containment vessel floor and molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) are important phenomena in the late phase of a severe accident for assessment of the containment integrity and managing the severe accident. The severe accident research at Waseda University has been advancing to show that simulations with moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method (one of the particle methods) can greatly improve the analytical capability and mechanical understanding of the melt behavior in severe accidents. MPS models have been developed and verified regarding calculations of radiation and thermal field, solid-liquid phase transition, buoyancy, and temperature dependency of viscosity to simulate phenomena, such as spreading of corium, ablation of concrete by the corium, crust formation and cooling of the corium by top flooding. Validations have been conducted against experiments such as FARO L26S, ECOKATS-V1, Theofanous, and SPREAD for spreading, SURC-2, SURC-4, SWISS-1, and SWISS-2 for MCCI. These validations cover melt spreading behaviors and MCCI by mixture of molten oxides (including prototypic UO2-ZrO2), metals, and water. Generally, the analytical results show good agreement with the experiment with respect to the leading edge of spreading melt and ablation front history of concrete. The MPS results indicate that crust formation may play important roles in melt spreading and MCCI. There is a need to develop a code for two dimensional MCCI experiment simulation with MPS method as future study, which will be able to simulate anisotropic ablation of concrete.

  15. The VULCANO spreading programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Pierre, J.; Ramacciotti, M. [CEA (Atomic Energy Commission), DRN/DER - Bat. 212, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, some of them suppose corium spreading before cooling, in particular the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the stopping of spreading. In France, for some years, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. In this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted within an European frame, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. In 1997 and 1998, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various composition of melts. Although all the observed phenomena, in particular the differences between simulant and real material melts have not been yet totally explained, these tests have already provided a lot of information about: The behaviour of complex mixtures including refractory oxides, silica, iron oxides and in one case iron metal; Spreading progression, which was never stopped in any of these tests by a crust formation at the front; The structure of spread melts (porosity, crusts,...); Physico-chemical interaction between melt and the refractory substratum which was composed of zirconia bricks. (authors)

  16. The VULCANO spreading programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Pierre, J.; Ramacciotti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, some of them suppose corium spreading before cooling, in particular the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the stopping of spreading. In France, for some years, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. In this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted within an European frame, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. In 1997 and 1998, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various composition of melts. Although all the observed phenomena, in particular the differences between simulant and real material melts have not been yet totally explained, these tests have already provided a lot of information about: The behaviour of complex mixtures including refractory oxides, silica, iron oxides and in one case iron metal; Spreading progression, which was never stopped in any of these tests by a crust formation at the front; The structure of spread melts (porosity, crusts,...); Physico-chemical interaction between melt and the refractory substratum which was composed of zirconia bricks. (authors)

  17. Droplet solidification and the potential for steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Fauske, H.K.; Luangdilok, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that under certain circumstances a mixture of coarse-hot (molten) drops in water formed from pouring a hot melt into water explodes. This so-called 'steam explosion' is generally believed to involve steam-bubble-collapse-induced fine fragmentation of the melt drops and concomitant water vaporization on a timescale that is short compared with the steam pressure relief time. Motivated by the idea put forth by Okkonen and Sehgal that rapid solidification would render UO 2 -containing (Corium) melt drops stiff and resistant to the steam-bubble-collapse-induced fragmentation required to support an explosion, here we combine solidification theory with an available theory of the stability of thin, submerged crusts subject to acceleration to predict the 'cutoff time' beyond which melt-drop fragmentation is suppressed by crust cover rigidity. Illustration calculations show that the cutoff time for Corium melt drops in water is a fraction of a second and probably shorter than the time it takes to form the explosion-prerequisite-coarse-premixture configuration of melt drops in water, while the opposite is true for the molten aluminum oxide/water system for which the window of opportunity for an explosion is predicted to be several seconds. These theoretical findings are consistent with early experiments that revealed molten uranium oxide or Corium pours into water to be non-explosive and that produced steam explosions upon pouring molten aluminum oxide into water. Also in this paper, the recent TROI Corium/water interaction experiments are examined and it is concluded that they do not contravene the earlier experimental observations that the pouring of prototypical Corium mixtures into water does not result in steam explosions with destructive potential. (author)

  18. OECM MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-2 final data report, Rev. 0 February 12, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium (∼φ30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the second water ingression test, designated SSWICS-2. The test investigated the quench behavior of a 15 cm deep, fully

  19. OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 final data report, Rev. 1 February 10, 2003.; Report, Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure; and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium (∼φ30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The test investigated the quench behavior of a 15 cm deep, fully

  20. Experimental investigation of interface conditions between oxidic melt and ablating concrete during MCCI by means of simulating material experiments: the Artemis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veteau, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DTN/SE2T/LPTM, 17 rue des Martyrs 38 - Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the frame work of R and D on Severe Accidents in PWR plants, an estimation by codes of time of basemat melt-through by Corium is required. For this, the heat flux distribution along the cavity wall must be properly modelled. Hence the knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient as well as the temperature at the interface between the melt and the solid become key issues. Phase diagram of the melt and composition governs the interface temperature which controls, at least partly, the thickness of the Corium crust formed on the molten concrete. Crust behaviour (time evolution of thickness, mechanical interaction with gas) implies a release mode of molten concrete in Corium which in turn alters the melt composition. Clearly, the molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) phenomenon is the result of a strong coupling between physico-chemistry and thermohydraulics. The main goal of the first test series of the Artemis program is to make a link between the interface temperature and the physico-chemistry of the melt (phase diagram) through tests conducted with simulating materials and to provide an insight on the existence, the behaviour and the composition of the crust. This test series considers 1D MCCI using a non eutectic LiCl-BaCl{sub 2} mixture poured at 1000 deg. C in a cylindrical test section (internal diameter 0.3 m) to interact with the 0.35 m deep basemat made of the same salt mixture at the eutectic composition. This 'concrete' was especially manufactured with sintered granulates to allow gas flow from the bottom (argon), then simulating gas released by concrete in the reactor case. Constant power is applied in the pool with an helical coil and 1D MCCI is ensured by counterbalancing heat losses by controlled heating at the lateral walls and at the top of the test section. Concrete ablation is followed from the output of 45 0.5 mm diameter thermocouples. An instrumented rod periodically investigates the temperature

  1. Experimental investigation of interface conditions between oxidic melt and ablating concrete during MCCI by means of simulating material experiments: the Artemis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the frame work of R and D on Severe Accidents in PWR plants, an estimation by codes of time of basemat melt-through by Corium is required. For this, the heat flux distribution along the cavity wall must be properly modelled. Hence the knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient as well as the temperature at the interface between the melt and the solid become key issues. Phase diagram of the melt and composition governs the interface temperature which controls, at least partly, the thickness of the Corium crust formed on the molten concrete. Crust behaviour (time evolution of thickness, mechanical interaction with gas) implies a release mode of molten concrete in Corium which in turn alters the melt composition. Clearly, the molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) phenomenon is the result of a strong coupling between physico-chemistry and thermohydraulics. The main goal of the first test series of the Artemis program is to make a link between the interface temperature and the physico-chemistry of the melt (phase diagram) through tests conducted with simulating materials and to provide an insight on the existence, the behaviour and the composition of the crust. This test series considers 1D MCCI using a non eutectic LiCl-BaCl 2 mixture poured at 1000 deg. C in a cylindrical test section (internal diameter 0.3 m) to interact with the 0.35 m deep basemat made of the same salt mixture at the eutectic composition. This 'concrete' was especially manufactured with sintered granulates to allow gas flow from the bottom (argon), then simulating gas released by concrete in the reactor case. Constant power is applied in the pool with an helical coil and 1D MCCI is ensured by counterbalancing heat losses by controlled heating at the lateral walls and at the top of the test section. Concrete ablation is followed from the output of 45 0.5 mm diameter thermocouples. An instrumented rod periodically investigates the temperature and the position

  2. A phenomenological analysis of melt progression in the lower head of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M., E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tourniaire, B. [EDF/Septen, Lyon (France)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • We propose a phenomenological description of melt progression into the lower head. • We examine changes in heat loads on the vessel. • Heat loads are more severe than emphasized by the bounding situation assumption. • Both primary circuit and ex-vessel reflooding are necessary for in-vessel retention. • Vessel failure conditions are examined. - Abstract: The analysis of in-vessel corium cooling (IVC) and retention (IVR) involves the description of very complex and transient physical phenomena. To get round this difficulty, “bounding” situations are often emphasized for the demonstration of corium coolability, by vessel flooding and/or by reactor pit flooding. This approach however comes up against its own limitations. More realistic melt progression scenarios are required to provide plausible corium configurations and vessel failure conditions. Work to develop more realistic melt progression scenarios has been done at CEA, in collaboration with EDF. Development has concentrated on the French 1300 MWe PWR, considering both dry scenarios and the possibility of flooding of the RPC (reactor primary circuit) and/or the reactor pit. The models used for this approach have been derived from the analysis of the TMI2 accident and take benefit from the lessons derived from several programs related to pool thermal hydraulics (BALI, COPO, ACOPO, etc.), material interactions (RASPLAV, MASCA), critical heat flux (CHF) on the external surface of the vessel (KAIST, SULTAN, ULPU), etc. Important conclusions of this work are as follows: (a)After the start of corium melting and onset of melt formation in the core at low pressure (∼1 to 5 bars), it seems questionable that RPV (reactor pressure vessel) reflooding alone would be sufficient to achieve corium retention in the vessel; (b)If the vessel is not cooled externally, it may fail due to local heat-up before the whole core fuel inventory is relocated in the lower head; (c)Even if the vessel is

  3. Some aspects of the research and development programmes on the behaviour of containments during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.

    1989-01-01

    The R and D programmes relating to the behaviour of containments during severe accidents cover several domains: .leaktightness of the containment: this programme concerns the mechanical resistance of the concretes and the cracking criteria, on the one hand, and the leak rate through the porosities or cracks, on the other; . gaseous releases inside the containment. In addition to the releases of steam and fission products from the primary circuit, the gaseous H 2 0 and C0 2 releases from the concrete must also be studied: firstly during the corium-concrete interaction, and secondly during the heating of the internal surface of the containment which can be raised to a high temperature on contact with the atmosphere, for example during hydrogen combustion; . the release of fission products during the corium-concrete interactions; . the behaviour of the fission products inside the containment, particularly as regards iodine

  4. The risk of accident in nuclear power plants - Quotes and questions. National debate on energy transition. Taking the risk of nuclear accident into account. Note to the 'scenarios' subgroup of the group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the production of electricity from nuclear energy and of its risks, the author discusses the issue of nuclear safety by distinguishing the different points of view, by describing the different levels between a severe and a major accident, and by recalling the statements made by the ASN and the IRSN on this issue. He describes the various reasons and consequences of accidents: types of accidents which could result in a core fusion, the containment failure as the major accident. He discusses the questions and comments about major issues like: strength of reactor vessels, hydrogen explosion, water vapour explosion, corium crossing the concrete sill plate, corium recovery, MOX as an aggravating situation for safety. In the last part, the author discusses the global assessment of a risk of a nuclear accident: probabilities and occurrences, significant accidents on PWRs, premonitory analysis, demonstration of nuclear safety

  5. The matter of probability controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihowicz, W.; Sobczyk, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this work beside description of split power, power of radioactivity disintegration and afterpower and its ability to extinguish, the genera condition of melting nuclear reactor core and its detailed versions were described. This paper also include the description of consequences melting nuclear reactor core both in case of stationary and mobile (ship) reactor and underline substantial differences. Next, fulfilled with succeed, control under melting of stationary nuclear reactor core was characterized.The middle part describe author's idea of controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor core. It is based on: - the suggestion of prevention pressure's untightness in safety tank of nuclear ship reactor by '' corium '' - and the suggestion of preventing walls of this tank from melting by '' corium ''. In the end the technological and construction barriers of the prevention from melting nuclear ship reactor and draw conclusions was presented. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic data bases and calculation code adapted to the modelling of molten core concrete interaction (M.C.C.I.) phenomena, developed jointly by Thermodata and the ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerino, G.

    1992-01-01

    An oxide data base containing the main five oxides Al 2 O 3 , CaO, SiO 2 , UO 2 and ZrO 2 of a corium obtained if the reactor core melts through the vessel and slumps into the concrete reactor cavity is developed using the GEMINI2 code. This oxide quinary system study takes into account physical realistic thermodynamical modeling of all the possible equilibrium species of the system. Two applications are presented: the determination of liquidus and solidus temperatures of some selected mixtures of the quinary system (core: UO 2 -ZrO 2 and concrete: Al 2 O 3 -CaO-SiO 2 ), a better modeling of the fission products release by vaporization from the corium. (A.B.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Murray, R D; Ward, W R

    1992-10-01

    In dairy cattle, histopathology of the outer hind claws with overgrown sole revealed arteriosclerosis of blood vessels at the ulcer site in the sole. The laminae did not show any hyperplasia of the epidermis and thrombi were not seen in the blood vessels. Partial or complete disappearance of onychogenic substance was observed in the sole as well as in the wall epidermis. In beef animals, typical changes suggestive of chronic laminitis were seen: these included hyperplasia of the epidermis of the laminae, thrombus formation, arteriosclerosis in the corium of the sole, the abaxial wall and the coronary corium. Morphometric analysis quantified measurements of hooves of normal, beef and dairy cattle. It may be concluded that the changes associated with overgrowth of the sole in dairy cattle are localized to the sole without involvement of the laminae and that the term laminitis is not appropriate in the condition seen in dairy cattle.

  8. Overview of LWR severe accident research activities at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, Alexei; Albrecht, Giancarlo; Foit, Jerzy-Jan; Jordan, Thomas; Steinbrück, Martin; Stuckert, Juri; Tromm, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The research activities in the light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents domain at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are concentrated on the in- and ex-vessel core melt behavior. The overall objective is to investigate the core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity and to the containment, corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and hydrogen behaviour in reactor systems. The results of the experiments contribute to a better understanding of the core melt sequences and thus improve safety of existing and, in the long-term, of future reactors by severe accident mitigation measures and by safety installations where required. This overview paper describes the experimental facilities used at KIT for severe accident research and gives an overview of the main directions and objectives of the R&D work. (author)

  9. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young Ro and others

    2000-07-01

    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C

  10. Assessment of capability for modeling the core degradation in 2D geometry with ASTEC V2 integral code for VVER type of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ASTEC code is progressively becoming the reference European severe accident integral code through in particular the intensification of research activities carried out since 2004. The purpose of this analysis is to assess ASTEC code modelling of main phenomena arising during hypothetical severe accidents and particularly in-vessel degradation in 2D geometry. The investigation covers both early and late phase of degradation of reactor core as well as determination of corium which will enter the reactor cavity. The initial event is station back-out. In order to receive severe accident condition, failure of all active component of emergency core cooling system is apply. The analysis is focus on ICARE module of ASTEC code and particularly on so call MAGMA model. The aim of study is to determine the capability of the integral code to simulate core degradation and to determine the corium composition entering the reactor cavity. (author)

  11. Simplified methods applied to the complete thermal and mechanical behaviour of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.

    1996-01-01

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, we can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behaviour in the vessel. These simplified methods are low cost alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come. (authors)

  12. Simplified methods to the complete thermal and mechanical behavior of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Schneiter, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones or from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, the authors can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behavior in the thickness of the vessel. These simplified methods are a cost effective alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come

  13. RARE CASE OF SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS IN A CHILD AGED 4 MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Postnikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a clinical and morphologic description of a rare case of systemic sclerosis along with the beginning of the diseases during the infancy. In the clinical picture, the researchers identified occurrences of the systemic vasculitis: abundant cyanotic and red spotty rash with atrophy in the middle, thick edemas of legs and ankles, necrosis of the nail bone of the left little finger, banti's syndrome. In the histological picture, most characteristic peculiarities were: 3 stages of systemic sclerosis process development — inflammation, hardening and atrophy; disorganization of collagenous corium fibers; nidi of calcification along the borderline of corium and hypoderm; multiple ulcers of small and large intestines, perforation of one of which caused peritonitis and fatal outcome of the patient.Key words: infants, vasculitis, systemic sclerosis.

  14. Numerical predictions of natural convection in a uniformly heated pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Cho, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the event of a core meltdown accident, one of the accident progression paths is fuel relocation to the lower reactor plenum. In the heavy-water new production reactor (NPR-HWR) design, the reactor cavity is flooded with water. In such a design, decay heat removal to the water in the reactor cavity and thence to the containment may be adequate to keep the reactor vessel temperature below failure limits. If this is the case, the accident progression can be arrested by retaining a coolable corium configuration in the lower reactor plenum. The strategy of reactor cavity flooding to prevent reactor vessel failure from molten corium relocation to the reactor vessel lower head has also been considered for commercial pressurized water reactors

  15. MCCI study for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor under hypothetical accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vishnu; Mukhopadhyay, Deb; Chatterjee, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    In case of severe core damage accident in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), large amount of molten corium is expected to come out into the calandria vault due to failure of calandria vessel. Molten corium at high temperature is sufficient to decompose and ablate concrete. Such attack could fail CV by basement penetration. Since containment is ultimate barrier for activity release. The Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) of the resulting pool of debris with the concrete has been identified as an important part of the accident sequence. MCCI Analysis has been carried out for PHWR for a hypothetical accident condition where total core material is considered to be relocated in calandria vault. Concrete ablation rate in vertical and radial direction is evaluated for rectangular geometry using MEDICIS module of ASTEC Code. Amount of gases released during MCCI is also evaluated. (author)

  16. An overview of the severe accident research activities within the LACOMERA platform at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, A.; Alsmeyer, H.; Meyer, L.; Steinbrueck, M.; Tromm, W.

    2006-01-01

    The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, is a 4 year action within the 5th Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities can be used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarises the main results obtained in the following experiments performed up to now. QUENCH-L1: Impact of air ingression on core degradation. The test provides unique data for the investigation of air ingress phenomenology in conditions as representative of a spent fuel pool accident as possible; QUENCH-L2: Boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L1: Thermal hydraulic behaviour of the corium melt dispersion neglecting the chemical effects such as hydrogen generation and combustion. COMET-L1: Long-term 2D concrete ablation in a siliceous concrete cavity at intermediate decay heat power level with a top flooding phase after a phase of dry concrete erosion. COMET-L2: Investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase. (author)

  17. Research and development strategy on the behavior of containments during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, C.

    1990-06-01

    In case of an hypothetical severe accident leading to core melting, the last barrier preventing radionucleide release in the environnment is the containment of the main reactor building. The French research and development programmes aimed at understanding the containment behavior during severe accidents relate to several domains; some of them are: - assessment of hydrogen behavior - corium behavior and coolability - ultimate resistance of the containments and leaktightness - caracterization of filtered venting procedure. All these aspects are covered by code calculations and experimental developments

  18. Premixing and steam explosion phenomena in the tests with stratified melt-coolant configuration and binary oxidic melt simulant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Konovalenko, Alexander, E-mail: kono@kth.se; Karbojian, Aram, E-mail: karbojan@kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration is studied experimentally. • Different binary oxidic melt simulant materials were used. • Five spontaneous steam explosions were observed. • Instability of melt-coolant interface and formation of premixing layer was observed. • Explosion strength is influenced by melt superheat and water subcooling. - Abstract: Steam explosion phenomena in stratified melt-coolant configuration are considered in this paper. Liquid corium layer covered by water on top can be formed in severe accident scenarios with (i) vessel failure and release of corium melt into a relatively shallow water pool; (ii) with top flooding of corium melt layer. In previous assessments of potential energetics in stratified melt-coolant configuration, it was assumed that melt and coolant are separated by a stable vapor film and there is no premixing prior to the shock wave propagation. This assumption was instrumental for concluding that the amount of energy that can be released in such configuration is not of safety importance. However, several recent experiments carried out in Pouring and Under-water Liquid Melt Spreading (PULiMS) facility with up to 78 kg of binary oxidic corium simulants mixtures have resulted in spontaneous explosions with relatively high conversion ratios (order of one percent). The instability of the melt-coolant interface, melt splashes and formation of premixing layer were observed in the tests. In this work, we present results of experiments carried out more recently in steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration (SES) facility in order to shed some light on the premixing phenomena and assess the influence of the test conditions on the steam explosion energetics.

  19. Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Flow in the Cooling Channel of the PECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R. J; Ha, K. S; Rhee, B. W; Kim, H. Y [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Decay heat and sensible heat of the relocated and spread corium are removed by the natural circulation flow at the bottom and side wall of the core catcher and the top water cooling of the corium. The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. As shown in Fig. 1, the engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting in the PECS. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is necessary that the coolant be sufficiently circulated along the inclined cooling channel to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. For this reason, a verification experiment on the cooling capability of the EU-APR1400 core catcher has been performed in the CE (Cooling Experiment)-PECS facility at KAERI. Preliminary simulations of two-phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS were performed to predict two-phase flow characteristics and to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel. In this study, simulations of two-phase natural circulation in a real core catcher of the PECS have been performed to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code.

  20. Finite element analysis of thermal stresses of the reactor vessel in a severe light water reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovkov, A.I.; Semenov, A.S.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal stress and damage analysis of the light water reactor (LWR) vessel is considered in a severe accident conditions. The high temperature corium accumulates on the vessel bottom and necessary condition of its holding is intensive cooling of vessel. External flooding with outside cooling of the LWR vessel is one of the accident management strategies being proposed to ensure the integrity of the vessel after a severe accident. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. Finite element analysis of thermal stresses of the reactor vessel in a severe light water reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovkov, A.I.; Semenov, A.S. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V. [Research Inst. of Technology, Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The thermal stress and damage analysis of the light water reactor (LWR) vessel is considered in a severe accident conditions. The high temperature corium accumulates on the vessel bottom and necessary condition of its holding is intensive cooling of vessel. External flooding with outside cooling of the LWR vessel is one of the accident management strategies being proposed to ensure the integrity of the vessel after a severe accident. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  2. High temperature chemical reactivity in the system (U, Zr,Fe, O). A contribution to the study of zirconia as a ''core catcher''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurizi, A.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the improvement of nuclear reactor safety, a device to recover corium is proposed to be installed under the reactor vessel to limit the consequences of a core melting. According to our bibliographic study, stabilised zirconia seems to be the best refractory material to play this role and to support the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal requirements imposed to the corium catcher. The nature of the chemical interactions between zirconia and iron of high temperature were established and experimental data on the (U, Fe, Zr, O) quaternary system which stands for the corium were determined. First of all, the Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometric method was used to establish the liquidus position for a (U, Zr, O) alloy representative of the corium (U/Zr = 1,5) at 2000 deg C. The oxygen solubility limit in a (U, Zr, O) liquid alloy is about 7 atomic %. In oxidising conditions, the reaction between zirconia and iron leads to the formation of a stabilised zirconia-iron oxide solid solution. Up to 10 atomic % of iron can be incorporated in the structure, leading to the stabilisation of cubic zirconia and a modification of lattice constants. The valence and localisation of those iron measured as a function of time and temperature from 1500 to 2400 deg C, after high frequency inductive heating, both on laboratory materials are commercial bricks. The reaction rate is governed by an activation energy of about 80 kJ/mol. Our results demonstrate that stabilised zirconia is able to efficiently absorb oxidised iron. (author)

  3. Technical concepts of further improvement of nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochor, R.

    1983-01-01

    The following technical concepts are described which secure the integrity of the containment in case of an accident whose scale exceeds the so-called design basis accident: siting nuclear power plants underground which raises construction costs by 20 - 25%; completing the containment with equipment preventing the outflow of molten corium; completing the containment with emergency pressure space for discharging overpressure - this emergency space is filled with gravel which will trap approximately 50% of fission waste. (Ha)

  4. Innovative methods for inorganic sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1992-04-01

    Procedures and guidelines are given for the dissolution of a variety of selected materials using fusion, microwave, and Parr bomb techniques. These materials include germanium glass, corium-concrete mixtures, and zeolites. Emphasis is placed on sample-preparation approaches that produce a single master solution suitable for complete multielement characterization of the sample. In addition, data are presented on the soil microwave digestion method approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Advantages and disadvantages of each sample-preparation technique are summarized.

  5. Review of the ISTC innovative nuclear programs (information review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocheny, L. V. [ISTC - International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The information will be included in the review, with special attention on details of corresponding experimental programs: Novel reactor concepts, fit with GIF and INPRO: Supercritical Pressure Water aspects, Heavy metals (Lead, Lead-Bismuth) technology, HTGR critical modeling, engineering. Molten salts. Reactor data benchmarking, Accelerator Driven Systems (experimental modelling), Nuclear data measurements, Severe accident study (corium modelling, QUENCH, Chernobyl), Experimental Analysis of Hydraulically Induced Vibrations in Compact Curling Tube Steam Generators. (authors)

  6. Fuel-Coolant Interaction Experiments in the TROI Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. T.; Hong, S. W.; Hong, S. H.; Park, I. K.; Kim, H. Y.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. D

    2006-03-15

    A steam explosion has long been a concern in case of severe accidents in a nuclear reactor, since it might threaten the integrity of the containment. Although many studies have been performed on a steam explosion, there are still some remaining unsolved issues such as the explosivity of the real core material (corium) and the estimation of the energy conversion ratio. At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the TROI steam explosion experiments were performed, in order to investigate the explosivity of corium. The TROI experiments were carried out to provide the experimental data for a proper estimation of a structural loading resulting from a steam explosion. These experiments were performed with prototypic materials such as ZrO{sub 2} melt and a mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} melt (corium). Total 46 tests were conducted in the TROI test series from year 2000 to the end of year 2004. The main test parameters were the variations on the composition of the melt, geometry of the interaction vessel, sub-cooling, ambient pressure, and amount of melt. Additionally the effects of an external trigger and argon environment were investigated. The main findings are that the composition, geometry, and inert gas had dominant effects on energetic steam explosions. In addition, the strength of the steam explosion was not that much strong compared to that of alumina, such as KROTOS-44. Even though efforts were made to maximize the strength of a steam explosion by increasing the amount of melt mass in water (increasing water depth), and fuel fraction (using a narrow test section), it did not work. The test results suggest that the melt of pure zirconia or eutectic corium in a wide test section leads to energetic spontaneous or triggered steam explosions, while the melt of other compositions does not.

  7. Modelling of heat transfer between molten core and concrete with account of phase changes in the melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, S.M.; Zemlianoukhin, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of the process of heat transfer between molten corium and concrete in the case of severe accident in a PWR is performed. It is shown that Bradley's model may be improved for the case of an oxidic melt. A new model is developed and incorporated in the WECHSL-Mod2 Code. Post-test calculations of melt-concrete interaction experiments are carried out. The comparison and analysis of the experimental results and calculations are presented. (9 figures) (Author)

  8. Fast high-energy X-ray imaging for Severe Accidents experiments on the future PLINIUS-2 platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The future PLINIUS-2 platform of CEA Cadarache will be dedicated to the study of corium interactions in severe nuclear accidents, and will host innovative large-scale experiments. The Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache is in charge of real-time high-energy X-ray imaging set-ups, for the study of the corium-water and corium-sodium interaction, and of the corium stratification process. Imaging such large and high-density objects requires a 15 MeV linear electron accelerator coupled to a tungsten target creating a high-energy Bremsstrahlung X-ray flux, with corresponding dose rate about 100 Gy/min at 1 m. The signal is detected by phosphor screens coupled to high-framerate scientific CMOS cameras. The imaging set-up is established using an experimentally-validated home-made simulation software (MODHERATO. The code computes quantitative radiographic signals from the description of the source, object geometry and composition, detector, and geometrical configuration (magnification factor, etc.. It accounts for several noise sources (photonic and electronic noises, swank and readout noise, and for image blur due to the source spot-size and to the detector unsharpness. In a view to PLINIUS-2, the simulation has been improved to account for the scattered flux, which is expected to be significant. The paper presents the scattered flux calculation using the MCNP transport code, and its integration into the MODHERATO simulation. Then the validation of the improved simulation is presented, through confrontation to real measurement images taken on a small-scale equivalent set-up on the PLINIUS platform. Excellent agreement is achieved. This improved simulation is therefore being used to design the PLINIUS-2 imaging set-ups (source, detectors, cameras, etc..

  9. Fast high-energy X-ray imaging for Severe Accidents experiments on the future PLINIUS-2 platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, L.; Estre, N.; Tisseur, D.; Payan, E.; Eck, D.; Bouyer, V.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Journeau, C.; Tellier, R. Le; Pluyette, E.

    2018-01-01

    The future PLINIUS-2 platform of CEA Cadarache will be dedicated to the study of corium interactions in severe nuclear accidents, and will host innovative large-scale experiments. The Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache is in charge of real-time high-energy X-ray imaging set-ups, for the study of the corium-water and corium-sodium interaction, and of the corium stratification process. Imaging such large and high-density objects requires a 15 MeV linear electron accelerator coupled to a tungsten target creating a high-energy Bremsstrahlung X-ray flux, with corresponding dose rate about 100 Gy/min at 1 m. The signal is detected by phosphor screens coupled to high-framerate scientific CMOS cameras. The imaging set-up is established using an experimentally-validated home-made simulation software (MODHERATO). The code computes quantitative radiographic signals from the description of the source, object geometry and composition, detector, and geometrical configuration (magnification factor, etc.). It accounts for several noise sources (photonic and electronic noises, swank and readout noise), and for image blur due to the source spot-size and to the detector unsharpness. In a view to PLINIUS-2, the simulation has been improved to account for the scattered flux, which is expected to be significant. The paper presents the scattered flux calculation using the MCNP transport code, and its integration into the MODHERATO simulation. Then the validation of the improved simulation is presented, through confrontation to real measurement images taken on a small-scale equivalent set-up on the PLINIUS platform. Excellent agreement is achieved. This improved simulation is therefore being used to design the PLINIUS-2 imaging set-ups (source, detectors, cameras, etc.).

  10. Innovative methods for inorganic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1992-04-01

    Procedures and guidelines are given for the dissolution of a variety of selected materials using fusion, microwave, and Parr bomb techniques. These materials include germanium glass, corium-concrete mixtures, and zeolites. Emphasis is placed on sample-preparation approaches that produce a single master solution suitable for complete multielement characterization of the sample. In addition, data are presented on the soil microwave digestion method approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Advantages and disadvantages of each sample-preparation technique are summarized

  11. Results of MACE tests M0 and M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Farmer, M.T.; Armstrong, D.R.; Kilsdonk, D.J.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Fischer, M.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program underway at Argonne National Laboratory under ACE/EPRI sponsorship. The program addresses the efficacy of water to terminate an accident situation if melt progression were to result in a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) in the reactor containment. Large-scale experiments are being conducted in parallel with related modeling efforts, involving the addition of water to an MCI already underway. The experiments utilize UO 2 /ZrO 2 /Zr corium mixtures, direct electrical heating for simulation of decay heating, and various types of concrete basemats. Currently the tests involve 430 kg corium mass, 25 cm depth, in a 50 cm square test section. Test MO was a successful scoping test, but the first full size test, Ml, failed to achieve melt-water contact owing to existence of a preexisting bridge crust of corium charge. A heat flux of 3.5 MW/m 2 was measured in MO which removed energy from the corium pool equivalent to its entire heat of solidification prior to abatement by formation of an interfacial crust. The crust subsequently limited heat extraction to 600 kW/m 2 and less. Both tests MO and Ml revealed physical evidence of large pool swelling events which resulted in extrusion (and ejection) of melt into water above the crust, significantly increasing the overall quench and reducing the remaining melt in contact with the concrete. Furthermore, test Ml provided evidence of occasional ''burst mode'' ablation events and one additional important benefit of overlying water -- aerosol capture

  12. Simulation of core melt spreading with lava: theoretical background and status of validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelein, H.-J.; Breest, A.; Spengler, C.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the GRS R and D achievements and perspectives of its approach to simulate ex-vessel core melt spreading. The basic idea followed by GRS is the analogy of core melt spreading to volcanic lava flows. A fact first proposed by Robson (1967) and now widely accepted is that lava rheologically behaves as a Bingham fluid, which is characterized by yield stress and plastic viscosity. Recent experimental investigations by Epstein (1996) reveal that corium-concrete mixtures may be described as Bingham fluids. The GRS code LAVA is based on a successful lava flow model, but is adapted to prototypic corium and corium-simulation spreading. Furthermore some detailed physical models such as a thermal crust model on the free melt surface and a model for heat conduction into the substratum are added. Heat losses of the bulk, which is represented by one mean temperature, are now determined by radiation and by temperature profiles in the upper crust and in the substratum. In order to reduce the weak mesh dependence of the original algorithm, a random space method of cellular automata is integrated, which removes the mesh bias without increasing calculation time. LAVA is successfully validated against a lot of experiments using different materials spread. The validation process has shown that LAVA is a robust and fast running code to simulate corium-type spreading. LAVA provides all integral information of practical interest (spreading length, height of the melt after stabilization) and seems to be an appropriate tool for handling large core melt masses within a plant application. (orig.)

  13. Review of IVR-ERVC and using flooding concept for application to high power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min ho; Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Accident scope will be limited in the RPV. For example, in case of Fukushima, they have difficulties for cleanup the accident and even catching the location of the melt-through corium. Therefore, IVR-ERVC is the right strategy for mitigation of the severe accident. However, in case of high power reactors, there is a Critical Heat Flux (CHF) problem in its application to high power reactor. If CHF occurred, boiling regime changes from effective nucleate boiling to ineffective film boiling, so temperature of the RPV goes up and finally the RPV fails. To solve the CHF problem, here have been a lot of works for IVR-ERVC. In the point of in-vessel heat transfer, Theofanous suggested risk oriented accident analysis methodology which is a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approach. A lot of experiments have been done using simulants of corium in various experimental apparatus. Their simulants were usually water due to simulate large Rayleigh number and natural circulation of corium. IVR-ERVC concept has been researched for a long time. For in-vessel heat transfer, simulants or real corium was used to get a heat flux distribution to the outer wall. And based on those results, ex-vessel cooling has been researched in various geometry to get cooling limit as CHF. Material flooding is suggested as improvement of ERVC in APR 1400 to secure safety margin for CHF. Regardless of Prandtl number of the flooding material, the focusing effect of heat flux was mitigated; the maximum heat flux was reduced less than half of the maximum heat flux in bare condition

  14. A study on the correlations development for film boiling heat transfer on spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung

    1998-01-01

    Film boiling is the heat transfer mechanism that can occurs when large temperature differences exist between a cold liquid and hot material. In the nuclear reactor safety analysis, film boiling has become an important issue in recent years. During severe accident, hot molten corium fall into relatively cool water, and fragment into spheres or sphere-like particles. If the steam explosion is triggered, the thermal energy of corium is converted into the mechanical energy that can threaten the integrity of reactor vessel or reactor cavity. One of the important concerns in the heat transfer analysis during pre-mixing stage is the film boiling heat transfer between the corium and water/steam two-phase flow. Until now, considerable works on film boiling have been performed. However, there is no available correlation adequate for severe accident analysis. In this study, film boiling heat transfer correlations have been developed, and their applicable ranges have been enlarged and their prediction accuracy has been enhanced

  15. A Study on the Coupled FEM-Analysis for Reactor Vessel Lower Head of APR1400 under the Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyonam; Namgung, Ihn [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    For the stabilization of the RPV the in-vessel retention strategy with external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) is adopted in APR1400. Under this severe accident condition, a good understanding of the mechanical behavior of the reactor vessel lower head (RVLH) is necessary both for verification of structural integrity and for improving the design applying appropriate accident mitigation strategies. The purpose of this study is to develop the analysis method of the RVLH with thermo-mechanical analysis using FEM tool (ANSYS v.15) in case of core-melting severe accident condition, and then analyze the RVLH of APR1400 including creep behavior. The plastic strain can be the major cause of lower head failure on the reactor vessel, and the creep cannot be not negligible factor of the failure under the severe accident condition. In the study, we applied constant convection coefficient at assumed temperature on the outside wall of RPV and substitute creep data of SA-508. In addition, it was found that the steel ablation at the interface between corium and vessel steel is not only a thermal phenomenon in the METCOR experiments. Corrosion processes and the formation of eutectics lead to the erosion of the vessel steel at temperatures that are significantly lower than the melting temperature of steel. It called thermo-chemical attack of the corium (corrosion). Reduced wall thickness because of the thermo-chemical effect by corium increase the equivalent plastic strain, and decrease the minimum time to reach 20% creep strain.

  16. Melt jet fragmentation and oxidation in the lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, G.

    2001-01-01

    During the late phases of a PWR Severe Accident, the core materials discharge into the lower plenum in which water is still present. In that case, we are then concerned by the possible occurrence of a Steam Explosion which may endanger the vessel structure and by the following cooling of the melt debris. So, we have two possible ways of vessel rupture: a mechanical one following an energetic Steam Explosion and a thermal one due to insufficient debris cooling. Both types of problems are linked with the degree of fragmentation of the core material during its penetration into the water of the lower plenum. One of the most likely mode of discharge consists in corium streams or jets. The fragmentation will build a corium-water mixture (the pre-mixing sequence) which, under certain circumstances, may undergo a fine fragmentation sequence leading to an energetic Steam Explosion (the explosion sequence). Whatever the occurrence of a Steam Explosion, the resulting debris will accumulate at the bottom of the Reactor Vessel and the cooling of such a ''debris bed'' is known to be highly dependant of the granulometry and build up of the debris bed which are linked with the previous sequence of corium fragmentation and dispersion. In CEA, the MC3D Code has been developed to deal with all these phenomena. (author)

  17. Thermal science under extreme conditions. Proceedings of the annual congress of the French Society of Thermal science - SFT 2012, 29 May-1 June, Bordeaux-Talence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrhi, Philippe; Perrin, Bernard; Journeau, Christophe; MOST, Jean-Michel; Nicolai, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This publication proposes the contributions made during plenary sessions, and those made on various themes (Multi-physical couplings combustion; Contacts and interfaces; Natural, hybrid and forced convection, Energy and the environment; High temperatures and high flows; Metrology and identification; Micro- and nano-thermal science; Radiation; Control of systems and thermal process; System thermal science; Life thermal science; Transfer in multi-phase media; Transfer in porous media). Among the plenary session conferences some authors more particularly addressed the following issues: Thermal science at the heart of thermonuclear fusion (presentation of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement); Thermal science of severe accidents of nuclear reactors (study of the thermal science of corium-water interaction which could result in a thermal detonation, study of corium baths at the vessel bottom or in interaction with the vessel well concrete, proposition of technological solutions for corium recovery); Fusion by inertial confinement and associated energy exchanges (case of inertial confinement by power lasers, presentation of needed conditions to obtain an energetic gain, of different energy and heat transfers under extreme conditions)

  18. A study of the external cooling capability for the prevention of reactor vessel failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S H; Baek, W P; Moon, S K; Yang, S H; Kim, S H [Korea Advanced Institute of Science Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    This study (a 3-year program) aims to perform a comprehensive assessment of the feasibility of external vessel flooding with respect to advanced pressurized water reactor plants to be built in Korea. During the first year, review of the relevant phenomena and preliminary assessment of the concept have been performed. Also performed is a review of heat transfer correlations for the computer program that will be developed for assessment of the cooling capability of external vessel flooding. Important phenomena that determine the cooling capability of external vessel flooding are (a) the initial transient before formation of molten corium pool, (b) natural convection of in-vessel molten corium pool, (c) radiative heat exchange between the molten corium pool and the upper vessel structures, (d) thermal hydraulics outside the vessel, (e) structural integrity consideration, and (f) long-term phenomena. The adoption of the concept should be decided by considering several factors such as (a) vessel submergence procedure, (b) cooling requirements, (c) vessel design features, (d) steam production, (e) instrumentation needs, and (f) an overall accident management strategy. The external vessel cooling concept looks to be promising. However, further study is required for a reliable decision making. Several correlations are available for the prediction of cooling capability of the present concept. However, it is difficult to define a sufficiently reliable set of correlations; sensitivity studies would be required in assessing the cooling capability with the computer program.

  19. Analysis of the KROTOS KFC test by coupling X-Ray image analysis and MC3D calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brayer, C.; Charton, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Fouquart, P.; Bullado, Y.; Compagnon, F.; Correggio, P.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Piluso, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA Cadarache, DEN, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Les-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    During a hypothetical severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the hot molten materials (corium) issuing from the degraded reactor core may generate a steam explosion if they come in contact with water and may damage the structures and threaten the reactor integrity. The SERENA program is an international OECD project that aims at helping the understanding of this phenomenon also called Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) by providing data. CEA takes part in this program by performing tests in its KROTOS facility where steam explosions using prototypic corium can be triggered. Data about the different phases in the premixing are extracted from the KROTOS X-Ray radioscopy images by using KIWI software (KROTOS Image analysis of Water-corium Interaction) currently developed by CEA. The MC3D code, developed by IRSN, is a thermal-hydraulic multiphase code mainly dedicated to FCI studies. It is composed of two applications: premixing and explosion. An overall FCI calculation with MC3D requires a premixing calculation followed by an explosion calculation. The present paper proposes an alternative approach in which all the features of the premixing are extracted from the X-Ray pictures using the KIWI software and transferred to an MC3D dataset for a direct simulation of the explosion. The main hypothesis are discussed as well as the first explosion results obtained with MC3D for the KROTOS KFC test. These results are rather encouraging and are analyzed on the basis of comparisons with the experimental data. (authors)

  20. A Study on Pyrochemical Process for Treating Fuel Debris from the Fukushima-Daiichi Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamura, Y.; Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T.; Kitawaki, S.; Nakayoshi, A.; Kofuji, H.

    2015-01-01

    After the severe accident at Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power plants, CRIEPI and JAEA started a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of the corium that mainly consists of UO 2 -ZrO 2 solid solution. In this study, reduction behaviours of zirconium oxide compounds were investigated in LiCl-Li 2 O salt bath at 923 K. It was experimentally verified that uranium in the simulated corium could be reduced to the metallic form and a part of zirconium was converted to Li 2 ZrO 3 . At higher Li 2 O concentrations in LiCl, Li 2 ZrO 3 was converted to Li 6 Zr 2 O 7 and Li 8 ZrO 6 . In the subsequent electrorefining, Li 2 ZrO 3 reacts with UCl 3 dissolved in the electrolyte salt to give UO 2 precipitate. Therefore, how to remove the Li 2 ZrO 3 from the reduction product is a key point for the pyrochemical treatment of the corium. (authors)

  1. On the prediction of the reactor vessel integrity under severe accident loadings (RPVSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, R. E-mail: maeule@irs.fzk.de; Devos, J.; Caroli, C.; Solomos, G.; Ennis, P.J.; Kalkhof, D

    2001-11-01

    In order to allow more reliable predictions on the lower head response under core melt-down conditions, the temperature distribution has been analysed including the natural convection in the corium pool. Furthermore, the mechanical models and the failure criteria have been improved based on the RUPTHER and FASTHER experiments where typical temperature gradients are simulated. Lower head local melting as well as corium crust development has been addressed in the CORVIS experiments studying the contact between an alumina/iron thermite and a thick steel plate. The upper head loading by corium impact due to a postulated in-vessel steam explosion has been investigated by the BERDA experiments. Similarity rules were considered such that the results can be directly converted to reactor conditions. Based on these investigations admissible steam explosion energy releases are determined which the upper head can carry. If these limits are not exceeded the reactor containment cannot be endangered by broken head fragments. To provide the necessary basic data, mechanical material tests have been performed.

  2. Heat removal capability of core-catcher with inclined cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tahara, M.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Morooka, S.

    2009-01-01

    A core-catcher is one of the mitigation systems that provide functions of molten corium cooling and stabilization during a severe accident. Toshiba has been developing a compact core-catcher to be placed at the lower drywell floor in the containment vessel for the next generation BWR as well as near term ABWR. This paper presents the evaluation of heat removal capability of the core-catcher with inclined cooling channels, our verification status and plan. The heat removal capability of the core-catcher is analyzed by using the newly developed two-phase flow analysis code which incorporates drift flux parameters for inclined channels and the CHF correlation obtained from SULTAN tests. Effects of geometrical parameters such as the inclination and the gap size of the cooling channel on the heat removal capability are also evaluated. These results show that the core-catcher has sufficient capability to cool the molten corium during a severe accident. Based on the analysis, it has been shown that the core-catcher has an efficient capability of heat removal to cool the molten corium. (author)

  3. Sensory nerve endings in the penis in green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovský, L; Sommerová, J

    1977-01-01

    The authors examined the sensory innervation of the skin in the penis in green monkey in four adult individuals both in the light and in the elctron microscope. They found 3 kings of nerve endings. The free nerve endings were the most frequently occurring kind of nerve endings in the superficial layers of the corium--altogether 6,444 in number. The second kind of sensory nerve endings is represented by the glomerular endings out of which 96 per cent were found in the papillae. The typical Meissner's endings were observed in the light microscopy only rarely. Deeper in the corium the authors also found single simple sensory corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Studying the ultrastructure the authors found in the papillae of the corium 4 types of glomerular endings: quite simple glomerular endings with irregularly arranged Schwann cells, larger and more complicated glomerular endings having a thicker capsule, endings with lamellar system around the terminals and typical Meissner's endings. In the epidermis the authors observed naked axons which passed in the spaces among the epidermal cells. They contained an accumulation of mitochondria. In the basal cell layer of the epidermis there was a small amount of Langerhans cells.

  4. Analysis of the KROTOS KFC test by coupling X-Ray image analysis and MC3D calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brayer, C.; Charton, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Fouquart, P.; Bullado, Y.; Compagnon, F.; Correggio, P.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Piluso, P.

    2012-01-01

    During a hypothetical severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the hot molten materials (corium) issuing from the degraded reactor core may generate a steam explosion if they come in contact with water and may damage the structures and threaten the reactor integrity. The SERENA program is an international OECD project that aims at helping the understanding of this phenomenon also called Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) by providing data. CEA takes part in this program by performing tests in its KROTOS facility where steam explosions using prototypic corium can be triggered. Data about the different phases in the premixing are extracted from the KROTOS X-Ray radioscopy images by using KIWI software (KROTOS Image analysis of Water-corium Interaction) currently developed by CEA. The MC3D code, developed by IRSN, is a thermal-hydraulic multiphase code mainly dedicated to FCI studies. It is composed of two applications: premixing and explosion. An overall FCI calculation with MC3D requires a premixing calculation followed by an explosion calculation. The present paper proposes an alternative approach in which all the features of the premixing are extracted from the X-Ray pictures using the KIWI software and transferred to an MC3D dataset for a direct simulation of the explosion. The main hypothesis are discussed as well as the first explosion results obtained with MC3D for the KROTOS KFC test. These results are rather encouraging and are analyzed on the basis of comparisons with the experimental data. (authors)

  5. OECD MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-3 test data report: thermal Hydraulic results, Rev. 0 February 19, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium (∼φ30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the third water ingression test, designated SSWICS-3. This test investigated the quenching behavior of a fully oxidized PWR

  6. Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-6 test data report: thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure? (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium (∼ φ 30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength is being addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus measures the fracture strength of the crust while it is either at room temperature or above, the latter state being achieved with a heating element placed below the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the sixth water ingression test, designated SSWICS-6. This test investigated

  7. Basic Boiling Experiments with An Inclined Narrow Gap Associated With In-Vessel Retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazu, Kuninobu; Watanabe, Fukashi; Iwaki, Chikako; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto; Hamazaki, Ryoichi; SATO, Ken-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a severe accident with relocation of the molten corium into the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the successful in-vessel corium retention (IVR) can prevent the progress to ex-vessel events with uncertainties and avoid the containment failure. One of the key phenomena governing the possibility of IVR would be the gap formation and cooling between a corium crust and the RPV wall, and for the achievement of IVR, it would be necessary to supply cooling water to RPV as early as possible. The BWR features relative to IVR behavior are a deep and massive water pool in the lower plenum, and many of control rod drive guide tubes (CRDGT) installed in the lower head of RPV, in which water is injected continuously except in the case of station blackout scenario. The present paper describes the basic boiling experiment conducted in order to investigate the boiling characteristics in an inclined narrow gap simulating a part of the lower head curvature. The boiling experiments were composed of visualization tests and heat transfer tests. In the visualization tests, two types of inclined gap were constructed using the parallel plate and the V-shaped parallel plate with heating from the top plate, and the boiling flow pattern was observed with various gap width and heat flux. These observation results showed that water was easily supplied from the gap bottom of parallel plate even in a very narrow gap with smaller width than 1 mm, and water could flow continuously in the narrow gap by the geometric and thermal imbalance from the experiment results using the V-shaped parallel plate. In the heat transfer tests, the critical heat flux (CHF) data in an inclined narrow channel formed by the parallel plates were measured in terms of the parameters of gap width, heated length and inclined angle of a channel, and the effect of inclination was incorporated into the existing CHF correlation for a narrow gap. The CHF correlation modified for an inclined narrow gap

  8. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the RASPLAV Project was to provide data on the behaviour of molten core materials on the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions, and to assess the possible physicochemical interactions between molten corium and the vessel wall. Data were also obtained to confirm heat transfer modelling for a large convective corium pool within the lower head. The project consisted of the following components: - To provide data from large-scale integral experiments on the behaviour and interactions of prototypic core-melt materials within the lower head; - To perform small-scale corium experiments to measure the thermophysical properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc.) required for performing and interpreting the integral (large-scale) tests; - To determine the uncertainties introduced by using non-prototypic conditions and materials by means of the small-scale corium experiments; - To carry out the molten-salt experiments with the following objectives: - To study heat transfer processes in the melt; - To justify the choice of procedures for large-scale experiments, such as the heating method; To develop an understanding of relevant phenomena, such as crust formation, and non-eutectic materials behaviour; - To develop computer tools and models for analysis of results from the large-scale integral tests and the supporting small-scale experiments. During the first phase of the RASPLAV Project (1994-97) the large-scale experiments demonstrated clearly that behaviour of corium melts differed from that of simulant materials. Under certain conditions, the corium would separate into two layers that were enriched in zirconium or in uranium. The second phase of the RASPLAV Project started in July 1997 and concentrated on exploring the physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a convective molten pool. The effect of different corium compositions, the potential for and the effects of material stratification and the influence of

  9. CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.; Behbahani, A.; Hache, G.; Nakamura, H.; Raj Sehgal, B.; Strizhov, V.; Trambauer, K.; Tuomisto, H.; Vitanza, C.

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the RASPLAV Project was to provide data on the behaviour of molten core materials on the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions, and to assess the possible physicochemical interactions between molten corium and the vessel wall. Data were also obtained to confirm heat transfer modelling for a large convective corium pool within the lower head. The project consisted of the following components: - To provide data from large-scale integral experiments on the behaviour and interactions of prototypic core-melt materials within the lower head; - To perform small-scale corium experiments to measure the thermo-physical properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc.) required for performing and interpreting the integral (large-scale) tests; - To determine the uncertainties introduced by using non-prototypic conditions and materials by means of the small-scale corium experiments; - To carry out the molten-salt experiments with the following objectives: - To study heat transfer processes in the melt; - To justify the choice of procedures for large-scale experiments, such as the heating method; To develop an understanding of relevant phenomena, such as crust formation, and non-eutectic materials behaviour; - To develop computer tools and models for analysis of results from the large-scale integral tests and the supporting small-scale experiments. During the first phase of the RASPLAV Project (1994-97) the large-scale experiments demonstrated clearly that behaviour of corium melts differed from that of simulant materials. Under certain conditions, the corium would separate into two layers that were enriched in zirconium or in uranium. The second phase of the RASPLAV Project started in July 1997 and concentrated on exploring the physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a convective molten pool. The effect of different corium compositions, the potential for and the effects of material stratification and the influence of

  10. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-15

    The objective of the RASPLAV Project was to provide data on the behaviour of molten core materials on the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions, and to assess the possible physicochemical interactions between molten corium and the vessel wall. Data were also obtained to confirm heat transfer modelling for a large convective corium pool within the lower head. The project consisted of the following components: - To provide data from large-scale integral experiments on the behaviour and interactions of prototypic core-melt materials within the lower head; - To perform small-scale corium experiments to measure the thermophysical properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc.) required for performing and interpreting the integral (large-scale) tests; - To determine the uncertainties introduced by using non-prototypic conditions and materials by means of the small-scale corium experiments; - To carry out the molten-salt experiments with the following objectives: - To study heat transfer processes in the melt; - To justify the choice of procedures for large-scale experiments, such as the heating method; To develop an understanding of relevant phenomena, such as crust formation, and non-eutectic materials behaviour; - To develop computer tools and models for analysis of results from the large-scale integral tests and the supporting small-scale experiments. During the first phase of the RASPLAV Project (1994-97) the large-scale experiments demonstrated clearly that behaviour of corium melts differed from that of simulant materials. Under certain conditions, the corium would separate into two layers that were enriched in zirconium or in uranium. The second phase of the RASPLAV Project started in July 1997 and concentrated on exploring the physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a convective molten pool. The effect of different corium compositions, the potential for and the effects of material stratification and the influence of

  11. R and D relative to the serious accidents in the PWR type reactors: assessment and perspectives; R and D relative aux accidents graves dans les reacteurs a eau pressurisee: bilan et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentaib, A.; Bonneville, H.; Caroli, H.; Chaumont, B.; Clement, B.; Cranga, M.; Koundy, V.; Laurent, B.; Micaelli, J.C.; Meignen, R.; Pichereau, F.; Plassart, D.; Van-Dorsselaere, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Ducros, G.; Journeau, Ch.; Magallon, D. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Durin, M.; Studer, E. [CEA Saclay 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Ranval, W. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the current state of the research relative to the grave accidents realized in France and abroad. It aims at giving the most exhaustive possible and objective vision of this original field of research. He allows to contribute to the identification and to the hierarchical organization of the needs of R and D, this hierarchical organization in front of, naturally, to be completed by a strong lighting on needs in terms of safety analyses associated with the different risks and the physical phenomena, in particular with the support of probability evaluations of safety level 2, whose the level of sharpness must be sufficient not to hide, by construction, physical phenomena of which the limited knowledge leads to important uncertainties. Let us note that neither the safety analyses, nor the E.P.S. 2 are presented in this document. This report presents the physical phenomena which can arise during a grave accident, in the reactor vessel and in the reactor containment, their chain and the means allowing to ease the effects. The corresponding scenarios are presented to the chapter 2. The chapter 3 is dedicated to the progress of the accident in the reactor vessel; the degradation of the core in reactor vessel (3.1), the behavior of the corium in bottom of reactor vessel (3.2) the break of the reactor vessel (3.3) and the fusion in pressure (3.4) are thus handled there. The chapter 4 concerns the phenomena which can lead to a premature failure of the containment, namely the direct heating of gases of the containment (4.1), the hydrogen risk (4.2) and the vapor explosion (4.3). The phenomenon which can lead to a delayed failure from the containment, namely the interaction corium-concrete, is approached on the chapter 5. The chapter 6 is dedicated to the problems connected to the keeping back and to the corium cooling in reactor vessel and out of reactor vessel, namely the keeping back in reactor vessel by re-flooding of the primary circuit or by re

  12. In-vessel core melt retention by RPV external cooling for high power PWR. MAAP 4 analysis on a LBLOCA scenario without SI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, C.; Gandrille, P.

    1999-01-01

    In-, ex-vessel reflooding or both simultaneously can be envisaged as Accident Management Measures to stop a Severe Accident (SA) in vessel. This paper addresses the possibility of in-vessel core melt retention by RPV external flooding for a high power PWR (4250 MWth). The reactor vessel is assumed to have no lower head penetration and thermal insulation is neglected. The effects of external cooling of high power density debris, where the margin for such a strategy is low, are investigated with the MAAP4 code. MAAP4 code is used to verify the system capability to flood the reactor pit and to predict simultaneously the corium relocation into the lower head with the thermal and mechanical response of the RPV in transient conditions. The corium pool cooling and holding in the RPV lower head is analysed. Attention is paid to the internal heat exchanges between corium components. This paper focuses particularly the heat transfer between oxidic and metallic phases as well as between the molten metallic phase and the RPV wall of utmost importance for challenging the RPV integrity in vicinity of the metallic phase. The metal segregation has a decisive influence upon the attack of the vessel wall due to a very strong peaking of the lateral flux ('focusing effect'). Thus, the dynamics of the formation of the metallic layer characterized by a growing inventory of steel, both from a partial vessel ablation and the degradation of internals steel structures by the radiative heat flux from the debris, is displayed. The analysed sequence is a surge line rupture near the hot leg (LBLOCA) leading to the fastest accident progression

  13. Experimental data on heat flux distribution from a volumetrically heated pool with frozen boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, Maria; Kymaelaeinen, Olli; Tuomisto, Harri

    1999-01-01

    The COPO II experiments are confirmatory experiments and a continuation project to the earlier COPO I experiments. As in COPO 1, a molten corium pool on the lower head of a RPV is simulated by a two - dimensional slice of it in linear scale 1:2. The corium is simulated by water-zinc sulfate solution with volumetric Joule heating. The heat flux distribution on the boundaries and the temperature distribution in the pool are measured. The major new feature in COPO II is the cooling arrangement which is based on circulation of liquid nitrogen on the outside of the pool boundaries. The use of liquid nitrogen leads to formation of ice on the inside of boundaries. Two geometrically different versions of the COPO II facility have been constructed: one with a tori-spherical bottom shape, simulating the RPV of a VVER-440 reactor as COPO I, and another one with semicircular bottom simulating a western PWR such as AP600. The modified Rayleigh number in the COPO II experiments corresponds to the one in a prototypic corium pool (∼ 10 15 ). This paper reports results from the COPO II-Lo and COPO II-AP experiments with homogenous pool. Results indicate that the upward heat fluxes are in agreement with the results of the COPO I experiments. Also, as expected, the time averaged upward heat flux profile was relatively flat. On the other hand, the heat fluxes at the side and bottom boundaries of the pool were slightly higher in COPO II-Lo than in COPO I. In COPO II-AP, the average heat transfer coefficients to the curved boundary were higher than predicted by Jahn's and Mayinger's correlation, but slightly lower than in BALI experiments. (authors)

  14. Applications of ASTEC integral code on a generic CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.radu@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului 1, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [Power Engineering Department, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Short overview of the models included in the ASTEC MCCI module. • MEDICIS/CPA coupled calculations for a generic CANDU6 reactor. • Two cases taking into account different pool/concrete interface models. - Abstract: In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the corium consisting of the molten reactor core and internal structures may flow onto the concrete floor of containment building. This would cause an interaction between the molten corium and the concrete (MCCI), in which the heat transfer from the hot melt to the concrete would cause the decomposition and the ablation of the concrete. The potential hazard of this interaction is the loss of integrity of the containment building and the release of fission products into the environment due to the possibility of a concrete foundation melt-through or containment over-pressurization by the gases produced from the decomposition of the concrete or by the inflammation of combustible gases. In the safety assessment of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the consequences of such a phenomenon. The paper presents an example of application of the ASTECv2 code to a generic CANDU6 reactor. This concerns the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the containment during molten core–concrete interaction in the reactor vault. The calculations were carried out with the help of the MEDICIS MCCI module and the CPA containment module of ASTEC code coupled through a specific prediction–correction method, which consists in describing the heat exchanges with the vault walls and partially absorbent gases. Moreover, the heat conduction inside the vault walls is described. Two cases are presented in this paper taking into account two different heat transfer models at the pool/concrete interface and siliceous concrete. The corium pool configuration corresponds to a homogeneous configuration with a detailed description of the upper crust.

  15. CFD-calculations to a core catcher benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willschuetz, H.G.

    1999-04-01

    There are numerous experiments for the exploration of the corium spreading behaviour, but comparable data have not been available up to now in the field of the long term behaviour of a corium expanded in a core catcher. The difficulty consists in the experimental simulation of the decay heat that can be neglected for the short-run course of events like relocation and spreading, which must, however, be considered during investigation of the long time behaviour. Therefore the German GRS, defined together with Battelle Ingenieurtechnik a benchmark problem in order to determine particular problems and differences of CFD codes simulating an expanded corium and from this, requirements for a reasonable measurement of experiments, that will be performed later. First the finite-volume-codes Comet 1.023, CFX 4.2 and CFX-TASCflow were used. To be able to make comparisons to a finite-element-code, now calculations are performed at the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf with the code ANSYS/FLOTRAN. For the benchmark calculations of stage 1 a pure and liquid melt with internal heat sources was assumed uniformly distributed over the area of the planned core catcher of a EPR plant. Using the Standard-k-ε-turbulence model and assuming an initial state of a motionless superheated melt several large convection rolls will establish within the melt pool. The temperatures at the surface do not sink to a solidification level due to the enhanced convection heat transfer. The temperature gradients at the surface are relatively flat while there are steep gradients at the ground where the no slip condition is applied. But even at the ground no solidification temperatures are observed. Although the problem in the ANSYS-calculations is handled two-dimensional and not three-dimensional like in the finite-volume-codes, there are no fundamental deviations to the results of the other codes. (orig.)

  16. Study of diluting and absorber materials to control the reactivity during a postulated core meltdown accident in generation IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plevacova, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    In order to limit the consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident in Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors, absorber materials in or near the core, such as boron carbide B 4 C, and diluting materials in the core catcher will be used to prevent recriticality within the mixture of molten oxide fuel and molten structures called corium. The aim of the PhD thesis was to select materials of both types and to understand their behaviour during their interaction with corium, from chemical and thermodynamic points of view. Concerning B 4 C, thermodynamic calculations and experiments agree with the formation of two immiscible phases at high temperature in the B 4 C - UO 2 system: one oxide and one boride. This separation of phases can reduce the efficiency of the neutrons absorption inside the molten fuel contained in the oxide phase. Moreover, volatilization of a part of the boron element can occur. According to these results, the necessary quantity of B 4 C to be introduced should be reconsidered for postulated severe accident sequence. Other solution could be the use of Eu 2 O 3 or HfO 2 as absorber material. These oxides form a solid solution with the oxide fuel. Concerning the diluting materials, mixed oxides Al 2 O 3 - HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - Eu 2 O 3 were preselected. These systems being completely unknown to date at high temperature in association with UO 2 , first points on the corresponding ternary phase diagrams were researched. Contrary to Al 2 O 3 - Eu 2 O 3 - UO 2 system, the Al 2 O 3 - HfO 2 - UO 2 mixture presents only one eutectic and thus only one solidification path which makes easier forecasting the behaviour of corium in the core catcher. (author)

  17. Study of diluting and absorber materials to control reactivity during a postulated core melt down accident in Generation IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plevacova, K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to limit the consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident in Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors, absorber materials in or near the core, such as boron carbide B 4 C, and diluting materials in the core catcher will be used to prevent recriticality within the mixture of molten oxide fuel and molten structures called corium. The aim of the PhD thesis was to select materials of both types and to understand their behaviour during their interaction with corium, from chemical and thermodynamic point of view. Concerning B 4 C, thermodynamic calculations and experiments agree with the formation of two immiscible phases at high temperature in the B 4 C - UO 2 system: one oxide and one boride. This separation of phases can reduce the efficiency of the neutrons absorption inside the molten fuel contained in the oxide phase. Moreover, a volatilization of a part of the boron element can occur. According to these results, the necessary quantity of B 4 C to be introduced should be reconsidered for postulated severe accident sequence. Other solution could be the use of Eu 2 O 3 or HfO 2 as absorber material. These oxides form a solid solution with the oxide fuel. Concerning the diluting materials, mixed oxides Al 2 O 3 - HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - Eu 2 O 3 were preselected. These systems being completely unknown to date at high temperature in association with UO 2 , first points on the corresponding ternary phase diagrams were researched. Contrary to Al 2 O 3 - Eu 2 O 3 - UO 2 system, the Al 2 O 3 - HfO 2 - UO 2 mixture presents only one eutectic and thus only one solidification path which makes easier forecasting the behaviour of corium in the core catcher. (author) [fr

  18. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part II: Interpretation of the experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ducher, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gavillet, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); De Bremaecker, A. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel bundle and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 mm and 900 mm) of the test section previously reported are interpreted in the present paper. Solid state interactions between fuel and cladding have been compared with the characteristics of interaction identified in the previous separate-effect tests. Corium resulting from the interaction between fuel and cladding was formed. The uranium concentration in the corium is compared to analytical tests and a scenario for the corium formation is proposed. The analysis showed that, despite the rather low fuel burn up, the conditions of temperature and oxygen potential reached during the starvation phase are able to give an early very significant release fraction of caesium. A significant part (but not all) of the molybdenum was segregated at grain boundaries and trapped in metallic inclusions from which they were totally removed in the final part of the experiment. During the steam starvation phase, the conditions of oxygen potential were favourable for the formation of simple Ba and BaO chemical forms but the temperature was too low to provoke their volatility. This is one important difference with out-of-pile experiments such as VERCORS for which only a combination of high temperature and low oxygen potential induced a significant barium release. Finally another significant difference with analytical out-of-pile experiments comes from the formation of foamy zones due to the fission gas presence in FPT2-type experiments which give an additional possibility for the formation of stable fission product compounds.

  19. An Experimental Investigation on APR1400 Penetration Weld Failure by Metallic Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2014-01-01

    The penetrations are considered as the most vulnerable parts with respect to the reactor vessel failure when a core melt severe accident occurs and the corium reaches the lower head. Penetration tube failure modes can be divided into two categories; tube ejection out of the vessel lower head and rupture of the penetration tube outside the vessel. Tube ejection begins with degrading the penetration tube weld strength to zero as the weld is exposed to temperatures as high as the weld melting temperature, which is called weld failure, and then overcoming any binding force in the hole in the vessel wall that results from differential thermal expansion of the tube and vessel wall. Tube rupture assumes that the debris bed has melted the instrument tube inside the reactor and melt migrates down into the tube to a location outside the vessel wall where a pressure rupture can occur, thus breaching the pressure boundary. In the present paper, we have a focus on the tube ejection failure mode, specifically on the APR1400 weld failure by direct contact with a metallic melt. The objective is to investigate experimentally the ablation kinetics of an APR1400 penetration weld during the interactions with a metallic melt and to suggest the modification of the existing weld failure model. This paper involves the interaction experiments of two different metallic melts (metallic corium and stainless steel melts) with a weld specimen, and rough estimation of weld failure time. The interaction experiments between the metallic melts and an APR1400 penetration weld were performed to investigate the ablation kinetics of the penetration weld. Metallic corium and stainless steel melts were generated using an induction heating technique and interacted with a penetration weld specimen. The ablation rate of the weld specimen showed a range from 0.109 to 0..244 mm/s and thus the APR1400 penetration weld was estimated to be failed at hundreds of times after the interaction with the melt

  20. OECD MCCI project Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 test data report: thermal hydraulic results. Rev. 0 September 20, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.J.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Basu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium (∼φ30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the

  1. Severe Accident Mitigation by using Core Catcher applicable for Korea standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hae Kyun; Kim, Sang Nyung

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have been designed and operated in order to prevent severe accident because of their risk that contains tremendous radioactive materials that are potentially hazardous. Moreover, the government requested the nuclear industry to implement a severe accident management strategy for existing reactors to mitigate the risk of potential severe accidents. However, Korea standard nuclear power plant(APR-1400 and OPR-1000) are much more vulnerable for severe accident management than that of developed countries. Due to the design feature of reactor cavity in Korea standard nuclear power plant, inequable and serious Molten Core-Concrete Interaction(MCCI) may cause considerable safety problem to the reactor containment liner. At worst, it brings the release of radioactive materials to the environment. This accident applies to the fourth level of defense in depth(IAEA 1996), 'severe accident'. This study proposes and designs the 'slope' to secure reactor containment liner integrity when the corium spreads out from the destroyed reactor vessel to the reactor cavity due to the core melting accident. For this, make the initial corium distribution evenly exploit the 'slope' on the basis of the study of Ex-vessel corium behavior to prevent inequable and serious MCCI, in order to mitigate severe accident. The viscosity has a dominant position in the calculation. According to the result, the spread out distance on the slope is 10.7146841m, considering the rough surface of the concrete(slope) and margin of reactor cavity end(under 11m). Easy to design, production and economic feasibility are the advantage of the designed slope in this study. However, the slope design may unsuitable when the sequences of the accidents did not satisfy the assumptions as mentioned. Despite of those disadvantages, the slope will show a great performance to mitigate the severe accident. As mentioned in assumption, the corium releasing time property was conservatively calculated

  2. Pressure Load Analysis during Severe Accidents for the Evaluation of Late Containment Failure in OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The MAAP code is a system level computer code capable of performing integral analyses of potential severe accident progressions in nuclear power plants, whose main purpose is to support a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment or severe accident management strategy developments. The code employs lots of user-options for supporting a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The present application is mainly focused on determining an estimate of the containment building pressure load caused by severe accident sequences. Key modeling parameters and phenomenological models employed for the present uncertainty analysis are closely related to in-vessel hydrogen generation, gas combustion in the containment, corium distribution in the containment after a reactor vessel failure, corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and molten-corium interaction with concrete. The phenomenology of severe accidents is extremely complex. In this paper, a sampling-based phenomenological uncertainty analysis was performed to statistically quantify uncertainties associated with the pressure load of a containment building for a late containment failure evaluation, based on the key modeling parameters employed in the MAAP code and random samples for those parameters. Phenomenological issues surrounding the late containment failure mode are highly complex. Included are the pressurization owing to steam generation in the cavity, molten corium-concrete interaction, late hydrogen burn in the containment, and the secondary heat removal availability. The methodology and calculation results can be applied for the optimum assessment of a late containment failure model. The accident sequences considered were a loss of coolant accidents and loss of offsite accidents expected in the OPR-1000 plant. As a result, uncertainties addressed in the pressure load of the containment building were quantified as a function of time. A realistic evaluation of the mean and variance estimates provides a more complete

  3. Release of fission and activation products during LWR core meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Matschoss, V.; Wild, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are described by which activity release fractions and aerosol characteristics were investigated for various core melting conditions. Samples of corium and fissium were heated by induction to temperatures of 2800 0 C under air, argon and steam. Release values are presented for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Se, Zr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, J, Cs and U. The deposition behaviour of the released products was found to depend strongly on the volatility and on the gas flow rate. Preliminary results of additional measurements indicate that the size distribution of the aerosol particles is trimodal. (author)

  4. Severe Accident Mitigation by using Core Catcher applicable for Korea standard nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Kyun; Kim, Sang Nyung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plants have been designed and operated in order to prevent severe accident because of their risk that contains tremendous radioactive materials that are potentially hazardous. Moreover, the government requested the nuclear industry to implement a severe accident management strategy for existing reactors to mitigate the risk of potential severe accidents. However, Korea standard nuclear power plant(APR-1400 and OPR-1000) are much more vulnerable for severe accident management than that of developed countries. Due to the design feature of reactor cavity in Korea standard nuclear power plant, inequable and serious Molten Core-Concrete Interaction(MCCI) may cause considerable safety problem to the reactor containment liner. At worst, it brings the release of radioactive materials to the environment. This accident applies to the fourth level of defense in depth(IAEA 1996), 'severe accident'. This study proposes and designs the 'slope' to secure reactor containment liner integrity when the corium spreads out from the destroyed reactor vessel to the reactor cavity due to the core melting accident. For this, make the initial corium distribution evenly exploit the 'slope' on the basis of the study of Ex-vessel corium behavior to prevent inequable and serious MCCI, in order to mitigate severe accident. The viscosity has a dominant position in the calculation. According to the result, the spread out distance on the slope is 10.7146841m, considering the rough surface of the concrete(slope) and margin of reactor cavity end(under 11m). Easy to design, production and economic feasibility are the advantage of the designed slope in this study. However, the slope design may unsuitable when the sequences of the accidents did not satisfy the assumptions as mentioned. Despite of those disadvantages, the slope will show a great performance to mitigate the severe accident. As mentioned in assumption, the corium releasing time property was

  5. Evaluation of Ablation rate by the change of Sacrificial Material for PECS in EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Keun Sung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    EU-APR, modified and improved from its original design of APR1400, has been developed to comply with European Utility Requirements (EUR) and nuclear design requirements of the European countries. In EU-APR, Severe Accident Mitigation Systems are dedicated to providing an independent defense line from that of Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) and Diverse Safety Feature (DSF). They consist of Emergency Reactor Depressurization System (ERDS), Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System (PECS), Severe Accident Containment Spray System (SACSS), Hydrogen Mitigation System (HMS) and Containment Filtered Vent System (CFVS). The PECS, so called core catcher, was introduced to prevent the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) after Reactor Vessel (RV) failure. The PECS has experienced a lot of changes from its original design. Recently, the most significant change was that as a SM, limestone concrete is installed on PECS's body wall instead of previous sacrificial material rich in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The main reason of this design change is to overcome the issue that the sacrificial material is ablated rather too fast when reacting with corium that contains a large fraction of Zr metal. Other changes in the geometry of PECS's wall and downcomer design are considered as minor ones. In this paper, the comparison of ablation rates between previous SM and limestone concrete is carried out using MAAP5 code with respective MCCI model according to the material. In this paper, major improvements of MAAP5 model for PECS in EU-APR are presented and the evaluation of ablation rate for the previous SM model and the new LC model is carried out by means of ablation depths with LBLOCA sequence. Two models have respective unique ablation process. The ablation of LC model proceeds at a constant rate regardless of water while the ablation of SM model proceeds at a faster rate before the arrival of cooling water for corium and SM mixture. The change of sacrificial material

  6. Recent progress in the LACOMERA Project (Large-Scale Experiments on Core Degradation, Melt Retention and Coolability) at the Forschungszentrum Karslruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, A.; Alsmeyer, H.; Eppinger, B.; Meyer, L.; Steinbrueck, M.

    2004-01-01

    The LACOMERA Project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) is a 3 year action within the 5 th Framework Programme of the EU. The overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO-H, and COMET which can be used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. As a result of two calls for proposals, seven organisations from four countries are expected to profit from the LACOMERA Project participating in preparation, conduct and analysis of the following experiments: QUENCH-L1: Air ingression impact on core degradation. The test has provided unique data for the investigation of air ingress phenomenology in conditions as representative as possible of the reactor case regarding the source term. QUENCH-L2: Boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test will be of a generic interest for all reactor types, providing a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. LIVE-L1: Simulation of melt relocation into the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) lower head for VVER conditions. The experiment will provide important information on the melt pool behaviour during the stages of air circulation at the outer RPV surface with a subsequent flooding of the lower head. LIVE-L2: Transient corium spreading and its impact on the heat fluxes to the RPV wall and on the final shape of the melt in the RPV lower head. The test will address the questions of melt stabilisation and the effects of crust formation near the RPV wall for a nonsymmetrical melt pool shape. COMET-L1: Long-term 2D concrete ablation in siliceous concrete cavity at intermediate decay heat power level with

  7. Simulation of the thermalhydraulic behavior of a molten core within a structure, with the three dimensions three components TOLBIAC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, B.; Moreau, G.M.; Pigny S. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France)

    1995-09-01

    The TOLBIAC code is devoted to the simulation of the behavior of a molten core within a structure (pressure vessel of core catcher), taking into account the relative position of the core components, the wall ablation and the crust formation. The code is briefly described: 3D model, physical properties and constitutive laws. wall ablation and crust model. Two results are presented: the simulation of the COPO experiment (natural convection with water in a 1/2 scale elliptic pressure vessel), and the simulation of the behavior of a corium in a PWR pressure vessel, with ablation and crust formation.

  8. Detonation and fragmentation modeling for the description of large scale vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, M.; Carachalios, C.; Unger, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal detonation modeling of large-scale vapor explosions is shown to be indispensable for realistic safety evaluations. A steady-state as well as transient detonation model have been developed including detailed descriptions of the dynamics as well as the fragmentation processes inside a detonation wave. Strong restrictions for large-scale vapor explosions are obtained from this modeling and they indicate that the reactor pressure vessel would even withstand explosions with unrealistically high masses of corium involved. The modeling is supported by comparisons with a detonation experiment and - concerning its key part - hydronamic fragmentation experiments. (orig.) [de

  9. OECD/NEA SERENA Project for a Resolution of Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Min, B. T.; Park, I. K.; Ha, K. S.; Hong, S. H.; Song, J. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, H. D.

    2008-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has conducted the TROI (Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water) program for a study on a fuel coolant interaction (FCI) since 2001. More than 50 experiments using several prototypic materials have been carried out so far. SERENA phase 2 project which has been conducting since 1st Oct. 2007 is aimed a the resolution of the uncertainties on the void fraction and the melt composition effect by performing a limited number of well-designed tests with advanced instrumentations to clarify the nature of a prototypic material with mild steam explosion characteristics and to provide innovative experimental data for a computer code validation

  10. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Sole Ulcers and White Line Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, J K; van Amstel, Sarel R

    2017-07-01

    Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness. Successful treatment requires an orthopedic foot block to the healthy claw and corrective trimming of the lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of calving and puerperium on clinical and histopathologic changes associated with laminitis and sole ulceration in a group of first-calving cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R

    1990-08-01

    The left hind and front claws of 43 heifers having recently calved were studied for signs of laminitis and sole ulceration. The left hind and front claws of 8 non-pregnant heifers served as controls. Thirty claws were selected for histologic examination. No influence of parturition and puerperium was found on signs of laminitis in both clinical and histologic investigations. A remarkable histologic finding was the occurrence of numerous vascular buds in the solar corium. It is suggested that the vascular buds may give rise to the glomus-like vascular clusters, which are commonly found in older cattle.

  12. The Raman fingerprint of plutonium dioxide: Some example applications for the detection of PuO2 in host matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, D.; Naji, M.; Mastromarino, S.; Elorrieta, J. M.; Magnani, N.; Martel, L.; Colle, J.-Y.

    2018-02-01

    Some example applications are presented, in which the peculiar Raman fingerprint of PuO2 can be used for the detection of crystalline Pu4+ with cubic symmetry in an oxide environment in various host materials, like mixed oxide fuels, inert matrices and corium sub-systems. The PuO2 Raman fingerprint was previously observed to consist of one main T2g vibrational mode at 478 cm-1 and two crystal electric field transition lines at 2130 cm-1 and 2610 cm-1. This particular use of Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in nuclear waste management, safety and safeguard.

  13. Early and late radiation response of human skin following chronic exposure of the hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, U.; Arndt, D.; Thormann, T.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical examinations on 45 radiation workers with chronical low-level exposures to their hands revealed that accumulated doses in the range of 15 to 30 Sv (1500 to 3000 rem) may already produce macroscopically unconspicuous early alterations of the vessel system within the corium as well as epidermal hyperplasia. Therefore, the annual permissible dose equivalent of 0.75 Sv (75 rem) recommended by ICRP for the skin of the extremities appears unjustifiably high and should be reduced to 0.30 Sv (30 rem), the limit valid for the remaining areas of skin. (author)

  14. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  15. RUPTHER - an original experimental approach for creep failure study of RPV steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainte Catherine, C.; Mongabure, Ph.; Cotoni, V.; Nicolas, L.; Devos, J.

    1998-01-01

    Rupter (Rupture Under Thermal Conditions) experiment is designed in order to get validated models for the degradation of RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) bottom head in case of a severe accident with corium flow. A simple experimental testing device has been designed in order to perform realistic thermo-mechanical loading on a cylinder. It is externally heated in its central part by induction (max. 1300 deg C) giving an axial thermal gradient. The cylinder is then mechanically loaded by internal pressure (max. 100 bars) until failure occurrence. (authors)

  16. Material effects on multiphase phenomena in late phases of severe accidents of nuclear reactors; Effets des materiaux sur les phenomenes multiphasiques se produisant lors des phases avancees d'accident grave de reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M.; Froment, K

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews and presents work carried out in the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) on the subject of nuclear severe accidents, i.e. those which are accompanied by melting of the nuclear core material. The emphasis is on the (crucial) thermodynamic and material behaviour of corium melts in the solidus-liquidus temperature interval, which is linked to the thermal hydraulic description. A global model approach is proposed. The work is presented in the context of the overall international effort in the area. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of Ablation rate by the change of Sacrificial Material for PECS in EU-APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Keun Sung

    2015-01-01

    EU-APR, modified and improved from its original design of APR1400, has been developed to comply with European Utility Requirements (EUR) and nuclear design requirements of the European countries. In EU-APR, Severe Accident Mitigation Systems are dedicated to providing an independent defense line from that of Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) and Diverse Safety Feature (DSF). They consist of Emergency Reactor Depressurization System (ERDS), Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System (PECS), Severe Accident Containment Spray System (SACSS), Hydrogen Mitigation System (HMS) and Containment Filtered Vent System (CFVS). The PECS, so called core catcher, was introduced to prevent the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) after Reactor Vessel (RV) failure. The PECS has experienced a lot of changes from its original design. Recently, the most significant change was that as a SM, limestone concrete is installed on PECS's body wall instead of previous sacrificial material rich in Fe 2 O 3 . The main reason of this design change is to overcome the issue that the sacrificial material is ablated rather too fast when reacting with corium that contains a large fraction of Zr metal. Other changes in the geometry of PECS's wall and downcomer design are considered as minor ones. In this paper, the comparison of ablation rates between previous SM and limestone concrete is carried out using MAAP5 code with respective MCCI model according to the material. In this paper, major improvements of MAAP5 model for PECS in EU-APR are presented and the evaluation of ablation rate for the previous SM model and the new LC model is carried out by means of ablation depths with LBLOCA sequence. Two models have respective unique ablation process. The ablation of LC model proceeds at a constant rate regardless of water while the ablation of SM model proceeds at a faster rate before the arrival of cooling water for corium and SM mixture. The change of sacrificial material also

  18. New generation nuclear power units of PWR type integral reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitenkov, F.M.; Kurachen Kov, A.V.; Malamud, V.A.; Panov, Yu.K.; Runov, B.I.; Flerov, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Design bases of new generation nuclear power units (nuclear power plants - NPP, nuclear co-generation plants - NCP, nuclear distract heating plants - NDHP), using integral type PWPS, developed in OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod and trends of design decisions optimization are considered in this report. The problems of diagnostics, servicing and repair of the integral reactor components in course of operation are discussed. The results of safety analysis, including the problems of several accident localization with postulated core melting and keeping corium in the reactor vessel and guard vessel are presented. Information on experimental substantiation of the suggested plant design decisions is presented. (author)

  19. A single sphere film boiling model for trigger ability and explosion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Hwan; Hong, Seong Ho; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The main causes for the controversy about the corium explosiveness are the hydrogen effect, large voided mixture, material property, poor triggering event (wrong position, weak triggering, wrong time), and low superheat due to a high melting temperature. It has been suggested that a steam explosion of the corium/water system must be suppressed due to the physical properties of corium such as high temperature, high density, multicomponent oxide melt, and low thermal conductivity. It was also claimed that the magnitude of the effect on the FCI results of corium/water systems is on the order of higher density, higher temperature, and non eutectic composition. This concept of a material effect is supported to some degree by parametric experimental results. However, the parametric results between the steam explosion pressure and the material compositions do not directly provide an understanding of the mechanism for the material difference affecting a steam explosion process, even though the sensitivity results can reveal the trends of some parameters affecting the FCI results. This concept of a material effect is supported to some degree by parametric experimental results. The parametric tests themselves also provide us with information on the effect of each initial parameter on a steam explosion. However, sensitivity studies between the steam explosion pressure and the initial value of a parameter do not directly provide an understanding of the steam explosion process. Handling the explosion res sure and initial condition without a mixing could not contribute to a code development process. We need a certain parameter for representing mixing, but we cannot measure it during the FCI tests. The particle size distribution collected after the FCI tests can be a good indicator for explaining a mixing process. In this paper, TROI tests were analyzed in view of a particle size response for various types of fuel coolant explosions. The heat losses and remnants were calculated

  20. Small scale studies of production of fissium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, O.; Rydberg, J.

    1983-02-01

    A small scale study concerning the production and analysis of fission product aerosols formed at various temperatures as a function of the chemical composition of the fissium/corium mixture at the source is presented. CsOH, CsJ and Te are the main aerosol components to be expected. The thermodynamic characterization of occuring Te-iodides and other phases is of great importance for reactor core meltdown chemistry and for the evaluation of the aerosol transport tests. Elemental iodine seems not to be released in significant amounts in reducing atmosphere. Analysis data concerning elements, phases, themral analysis and gases are presented. (G.B.)

  1. CFD to modeling molten core behavior simultaneously with chemical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Anna E Aksenova; Valerii A Pervichko

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper deals with the basic features of a computing procedure, which can be used for modeling of destruction and melting of a core with subsequent corium retaining into the reactor vessel. The destruction and melting of core mean the account of the following phenomena: a melting, draining (moving of the melt through a porous layer of core debris), freezing with release of an energy, change of geometry, formation of the molten pool, whose convective intermixing and distribution influence on a mechanism of borders destruction. It is necessary to take into account that during of heating molten pool and development in it of convective fluxes a stratification of a multi-component melt on two layers of metal light and of oxide heavy components is observed. These layers are in interaction, they can exchange by the separate components as result of diffusion or oxidizing reactions. It can have an effect considerably on compositions, on a specific weight, and on properties of molten interacting phases, and on a structure of the molten stratified pool. In turn, the retaining of the formed molten masses in reactor vessel requires the solution of a matched heat exchange problem, namely, of a natural convection in a heat generating fluid in partially or completely molten corium and of heat exchange problem with taking into account of a melting of the reactor vessel. In addition, it is necessary to take into account phase segregation, caused by influence of local and of global natural convective flows and thermal lag of heated up boundaries. The mathematical model for simulation of the specified phenomena is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with variable properties together with the heat transfer equation. For modeling of a corium moving through a porous layer of core debris, the special computing algorithm to take into account density jump on interface between a melt and a porous layer of core debris is designed. The model was

  2. LWR and HTGR coolant dynamics: the containment of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Gherson, P.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Hu, K.; Iyer, K.; Viskanta, R.; Lommers, L.

    1983-07-01

    This is the final report of a project containing three major tasks. Task I deals with the fundamental aspects of energetic fuel/coolant interactions (steam explosions) as they pertain to LWR core melt accidents. Task II deals with the applied aspects of LWR core melt accident sequences and mechanisms important to containment response, and includes consideration of energetic fuel/coolant interaction events, as well as non-explosive ones, corium material disposition and eventual coolability, and containment pressurization phenomena. Finally, Task III is concerned with HTGR loss of forced circulation accidents. This report is organized into three major parts corresponding to these three tasks respectively

  3. MEDICIS(ASTEC-V2) sensitivity calculations for investigation of the crust formation in VB-U5 and VB-U6 VULCANO tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, A.; Grudev, P.; Gencheva, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results from sensitivity calculations made with MEDICIS(ASTECv2) for investigation of the crust formation during the Molten Corium-Concrete Interaction(MCCI) in VB-U5 and VB-U6 VULCANO tests. All calculations are made with MEDICIS computer code. The main goal of these analyses is to assess how the assumptions for crust formation or not formation influence over the concrete ablation. Three calculations have been done for each one of the experiments with different crust thickness and lock of crust formation at the bottom, side and upper surface. (authors)

  4. Development of settling tube method to measure the particle size distribution for the steam explosion accident in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Ahan, Kyung Mo; Ahan, Hyung Guyn; Kim, Man Woong

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of steam explosion due to energetic and prompt interaction between the molten corium and the water in the nuclear power plant has been widely concerned to quantify its magnitude and to find the way to mitigate the phenomena. Due to the complication and rapid nature of the phenomena, experimental works still need more accurate measurement methods. Especially, the real time observation of the corium-water interaction, instability, steam generation, powdering corium debris needs advanced Tomography methods. As Song et al. pointed based on their experimental observation, the explosive phenomena highly depend on the production of the fine size debris of the molten corium. Instability and local generation of shock waves may be the major causes of the production of the fine debris, which increase the interaction surface area dramatically and the reaction time maybe depend on the penetration time proportional to square root of the particle size. The resultant debris from the explosive reaction can be the most solid fact in the experiment, their size distribution and amount need to be figured by the theoretical model. Pressure and Temperature change can be treated by the global mass and energy balance. Also, the fast propagation of the pressure information through the medium may be reasonably predicted. But to make to more solid understanding the steam explosion phenomena, the transport equation for debris interfacial area concentration need to be developed which should consider the various time scale form the rapid shock attacking, intermediate scale of instability, slow buoyancy rising. Therefore, the measurement of the size distribution of the fine debris is of importance. However, it is not easy process to classify the particle size and measure their surface area. The present work is mainly focused to develop a convenient way to measure the particle size and its distribution. We employ the force balance between the gravity force and Drag force acting on

  5. Simulation of TROI steam explosion behaviour using the COMETA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun Kumar Nayak; Hyun Sun Park; Bal Raj Sehgal; Alessandro Annunziato

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, the core can melt and the molten corium while interacting with water may cause an energetic fuel coolant interaction which is known as steam explosion. Such phenomena can occur inside the reactor vessel during flooding of a degraded core or when molten corium falls into the lower head filled with water. Similar phenomena may occur outside the reactor vessel when molten corium is ejected into a flooded reactor cavity or into the flooded containment after the vessel failure. The interaction of molten corium with water is one of the most complex thermal hydraulic and chemical phenomena. Recently in the TROI test series carried out at KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute) in Korea, steam explosions were observed. In those tests, the UO 2 /ZrO 2 compositions were close to that of prototypic case. In this paper, we have numerically simulated the melt coolant interaction of TROI tests using the computer code, COMETA (Core MElt Thermalhydraulic Analysis) developed by JRC (Joint Research Center), at Ispra in Italy. The COMETA code was primarily developed to analyse, with sufficient detail, both the thermal-hydraulics and the fuel fragmentation phenomena during the melt quenching tests as conducted in the FARO facility. The code solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for the fluid using a conventional two-fluid model. Fuel fragmentation model considers the molten jet, its break up in drops and accumulation as fused-debris on the bottom. An explicit coupling between the thermal hydraulics and fuel fragmentation for the energy transfer is considered. The code has been extensively validated in the past for melt quenching in a series of experiments in the FARO facility. In this work, we first simulated the pre-mix and triggering phases of the TROI-13 tests for which the test data were available. The melt jet trajectory, void fraction and pressure profile were

  6. Ex-Vessel Core Melt Modeling Comparison between MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH and MELCOR 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farmer, Mitchell [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Francis, Matthew W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    System-level code analyses by both United States and international researchers predict major core melting, bottom head failure, and corium-concrete interaction for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1). Although system codes such as MELCOR and MAAP are capable of capturing a wide range of accident phenomena, they currently do not contain detailed models for evaluating some ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes containing more detailed modeling are available for melt spreading such as MELTSPREAD as well as long-term molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) and debris coolability such as CORQUENCH. In a preceding study, Enhanced Ex-Vessel Analysis for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1: Melt Spreading and Core-Concrete Interaction Analyses with MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH, the MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH codes predicted the 1F1 core melt readily cooled in contrast to predictions by MELCOR. The user community has taken notice and is in the process of updating their systems codes; specifically MAAP and MELCOR, to improve and reduce conservatism in their ex-vessel core melt models. This report investigates why the MELCOR v2.1 code, compared to the MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH 3.03 codes, yield differing predictions of ex-vessel melt progression. To accomplish this, the differences in the treatment of the ex-vessel melt with respect to melt spreading and long-term coolability are examined. The differences in modeling approaches are summarized, and a comparison of example code predictions is provided.

  7. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.van-dorsselaere@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Chatelard, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas MedioAmbientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Journeau, C. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Paris (France); Klein-Hessling, W. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Kljenak, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miassoedov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Paci, S. [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Zeyen, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC/IET), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented.

  8. Development of LILAC-meltpool for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of core melt relocated in a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    2002-03-01

    LILAC-meltpool has been developed to study thermo-hydraulic behavior of molten pool and thermal behavior of vessel wall during severe accident. To validate LILAC-meltpool code several two and three dimensional thermo-hydraulic problems were selected and solved. The benchmark problems have experimental results or verified numerical results. Through the validation it was found that LILAC-meltpool reproduces very accurate numerical results. Two-layered semicircular pool was solved to study thermal and hydraulic characteristics of pool stratification. The LAVA experiment using alumina/ferrite molten pool was calculated and compared with computed results. Cooling of alumina/ferrite two-layered pool was affected by stratification. In the numerical results temperature of vessel inner was highest at a location below the interface. Crust was developed from upper surface and lower outer surface, but in the area near the interface corium simulant existed as molten state for long time. LAVA-4 experiment was studied using gap-cooling model in LILAC-meltpool code. Temperature increase of LAVA vessel after alumina melt relocation was strongly dependent on gap formation mechanism. Calculated cooling rates of the vessel were very similar to experimental results. For LAVA experiments which do not have heat generation coolant penetrates easily into a gap and it is found that gap-cooling is very effective for cooling of vessel, but it is thought that coolant penetration could be limited near upper part of gap because of decay heat and high temperature of corium crust

  9. Assessment of thema code against spreading experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, B.; Veteau, J.M.; Cecco, L. de; Montanelli, P.; Pineau, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame work of severe accident research, the spreading code THEMA, developed at CEA/DRN, aims at predicting the spreading extent of molten core after a vessel melt-through. The code solves fluid balance equations integrated over the fluid depth for oxidic and/or metallic phases under the shallow water assumption, using a finite difference scheme. Solidification is taken into account through crust formation on the substrate and at contact with the surroundings, as well as increase of fluid viscosity with solid fraction in the melt. A separate energy equation is solved for the solid substrate, including possible ablation. The assessment of THEMA code against the spreading experiments performed in the framework of the corium spreading and coolability project of the European Union is presented. These experiments use either simulating materials at medium (RIT), or at high temperature (KATS), or corium (VULCANO, FARO), conducted at different mass flow rates and with large or low solidification interval. THEMA appears to be able to simulate the whole set of the experiments investigated. Comparison between experimental and computed spreading lengths and substrate temperatures are quite satisfactory. The results show a rather large sensitivity at mass flow rate and inlet temperature, indicating that, generally, efforts should be made to improve the accuracy of the measurements of such parameters in the experiments. (orig.)

  10. Modeling of melt retention in EU-APR1400 ex-vessel core catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, V. S.; Sulatsky, A. A.; Khabensky, V. B.; Sulatskaya, M. B. [Alexandrov Research Inst. of Technology NITI, Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V. V.; Almyashev, V. I.; Komlev, A. A. [Saint Petersburg State Technological Univ. SPbSTU, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bechta, S. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Y. S. [KHNP, 1312 Gil 70, Yuseongdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, R. J.; Kim, H. Y.; Song, J. H. [KAERI, 989 Gil 111, Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    A core catcher is adopted in the EU-APR1400 reactor design for management and mitigation of severe accidents with reactor core melting. The core catcher concept incorporates a number of engineering solutions used in the catcher designs of European EPR and Russian WER-1000 reactors, such as thin-layer corium spreading for better cooling, retention of the melt in a water-cooled steel vessel, and use of sacrificial material (SM) to control the melt properties. SM is one of the key elements of the catcher design and its performance is critical for melt retention efficiency. This SM consists of oxide components, but the core catcher also includes sacrificial steel which reacts with the metal melt of the molten corium to reduce its temperature. The paper describes the required properties of SM. The melt retention capability of the core catcher can be confirmed by modeling the heat fluxes to the catcher vessel to show that it will not fail. The fulfillment of this requirement is demonstrated on the example of LBLOCA severe accident. Thermal and physicochemical interactions between the oxide and metal melts, interactions of the melts with SM, sacrificial steel and vessel, core catcher external cooling by water and release of non-condensable gases are modeled. (authors)

  11. An experimental study on coolability through the external reactor vessel cooling according to RPV insulation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Sang Baik

    2004-01-01

    LAVA-ERVC experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of insulation design features on the water accessibility and coolability in case of the external reactor vessel cooling. Alumina iron thermite melt was used as corium stimulant. And the hemispherical test vessel is linearly scaled-down of RPV lower plenum. 4 tests have been performed varying the melt composition and the configuration of the insulation system. Due to the limited steam venting capacity through the insulation, steam binding occurred inside the annulus in the LAVA- ERVC-1, 2 tests which were performed for simulating the KSNP insulation design. This steam binding brought about incident heat up of the vessel outer surface at the upper part in the LAVA-ERVC-1, 2 tests. On the contrary, in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests which were performed for simulating the APR1400 insulation design, the temperatures of the vessel outer surface maintained near saturation temperature. Sufficient water ingression and steam venting through the insulation lead to effective cooldown of the vessel characterized by nucleate boiling in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests. From the LAVA-ERVC experimental results, it could be preliminarily concluded that if pertinent modification of the insulation design focused on the improvement of water ingression and steam venting should be preceded the possibility of in-vessel corium retention through the external vessel cooling could be considerably increased.

  12. Status of the assessment of the spreading code Thema against the Corine experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, B.; Veteau, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of severe accident research on PWR, the Thema code aims at predicting the spreading extent of Corium in given conditions of pouring rate, initial Corium composition and temperature and considers phenomena as complex as top, bottom freezing and melting of the substrate. This paper makes the current status of the assessment of the code against the Corine experimental program which considers separate effect tests working out non freezing and low melting point simulating materials to validate some essential models present in spreading codes. Isothermal tests using water-glycerol mixtures are first considered to investigate the validity of the friction law and the extent of surface tension effects at the front. Non isothermal spreading with bottom freezing is then considered. Comparison of results of the code with known solutions of different problems related to solidification of a moving warm liquid, thermal chock and conduction in the bottom plate appears to be a very useful tool to verify the relevance of the models and to adjust numerical parameters. Finally, first spreading calculations with bottom freezing are compared with Corine experiments using the eutectic Bismuth-Tin alloy as working material. (author)

  13. Stepwise integral scaling method and its application to severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Zhang, G.

    1993-10-01

    Severe accidents in light water reactors are characterized by an occurrence of multiphase flow with complicated phase changes, chemical reaction and various bifurcation phenomena. Because of the inherent difficulties associated with full-scale testing, scaled down and simulation experiments are essential part of the severe accident analyses. However, one of the most significant shortcomings in the area is the lack of well-established and reliable scaling method and scaling criteria. In view of this, the stepwise integral scaling method is developed for severe accident analyses. This new scaling method is quite different from the conventional approach. However, its focus on dominant transport mechanisms and use of the integral response of the system make this method relatively simple to apply to very complicated multi-phase flow problems. In order to demonstrate its applicability and usefulness, three case studies have been made. The phenomena considered are (1) corium dispersion in DCH, (2) corium spreading in BWR MARK-I containment, and (3) incore boil-off and heating process. The results of these studies clearly indicate the effectiveness of their stepwise integral scaling method. Such a simple and systematic scaling method has not been previously available to severe accident analyses

  14. Integrated analysis of core debris interactions and their effects on containment integrity using the CONTAIN computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.E.; Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Tills, J.L.; Valdez, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The CONTAIN computer code includes a versatile system of phenomenological models for analyzing the physical, chemical and radiological conditions inside the containment building during severe reactor accidents. Important contributors to these conditions are the interactions which may occur between released corium and cavity concrete. The phenomena associated with interactions between ejected corium debris and the containment atmosphere (Direct Containment Heating or DCH) also pose a potential threat to containment integrity. In this paper, we describe recent enhancements of the CONTAIN code which allow an integrated analysis of these effects in the presence of other mitigating or aggravating physical processes. In particular, the recent inclusion of the CORCON and VANESA models is described and a calculation example presented. With this capability CONTAIN can model core-concrete interactions occurring simultaneously in multiple compartments and can couple the aerosols thereby generated to the mechanistic description of all atmospheric aerosol components. Also discussed are some recent results of modeling the phenomena involved in Direct Containment Heating. (orig.)

  15. Bovine laminitis: clinical aspects, pathology and pathogenesis with reference to acute equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Németh, F; Gruys, E

    1991-07-01

    This review deals with the features of clinical and subclinical laminitis in cattle. Prominent clinical signs of acute laminitis are a tender gait and arched back. The sole horn reveals red and yellowish discolourations within five days. In subacute and chronic cases clinical signs are less severe. In chronic laminitis the shape of the claws is altered. Laminitis is frequently followed by sole ulceration and white zone lesions. Blood tests showed no significant changes for laminitic animals. Arteriographic studies of claws affected by laminitis indicated that blood vessels had narrowed lumens. Gross pathology revealed congestion of the corium and rotation of the distal phalanx. Histopathologic studies indicate that laminitis is associated with changes of the vasculature. Peripartum management and nutrition are important factors in its aetiology. It is hypothesised that laminitis is evoked by disturbed digital circulation. In the pathogenesis of acute laminitis three factors are considered important: the occurrence of thrombosis, haemodynamic aspects of the corium, and endotoxins which trigger these pathologic events.

  16. Synthesis of the IRSN report on severe accidents and level 2 probabilistic safety studies within the frame of the safety re-examination associated with the third decennial inspection of 1300 MW reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze studies related to severe accidents and performed within the framework of the third decennial safety re-examination of the French 1300 We nuclear reactors. It also reports the main conclusions of a detailed analysis of level-2 probabilistic safety studies performed according to another procedure. The report first addresses the 'severe accident' system of reference. It presents the general approach and the safety objectives, discusses the management of a site with a unit in severe accident (this encompasses the management of neighbouring units, the conditions of intervention in terms of habitability of the control room and of manoeuvrability of the venting-filtration system), discusses the expected equipment performance (concerned equipment, safety requirements for equipment needed in case of severe accident, loadings). A second part addresses and comments the results of level 2 probabilistic studies. The report then addresses the water management in the vessel sink with two main objectives (to keep corium in the vessel while promoting its cooling, to cool corium fallen in the vessel sink). The next part addresses modifications planned by EDF in terms of instrumentation associated with a severe accident situation, of improvement of confinement and reduction of risks of important and early releases, of enclosure depressurization in case of unavailability of the enclosure sprinkling system, and of strategy of opening the venting-filtration device in case of total loss of electricity supplies

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Load to the Lower Head Vessel Using the ASTEC Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Raejoon; Ahn, Kwangil

    2013-01-01

    The thermal load from the corium to the lower head vessel in the APR (Advanced Power reactor) 1400 during a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) without a safety injection (SI) has been evaluated using the ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code) computer code, which has been developed as a part of the EU (European Union)-SARNET (Severe Accident Research NET work) program. The ASTEC results predict that the reactor vessel did not fail by using an ERVC, in spite of the large melting of the reactor vessel wall in a two-layer formation case of the SBLOCA in the APR1400. The outer surface conditions of the temperature and heat transfer coefficient are not effective on the vessel geometry change, which are preliminary results. A more detailed analysis of the main parameter effects on the corium behavior in the lower plenum is necessary to evaluate the IVR-ERVC in the APR1400, in particular, for a three-layer formation of the TLFW. Comparisons of the present results with others are necessary to verify and apply them to the actual IVR-ERVC evaluation in the APR1400

  18. Validation of Code ASTEC with LIVE-L1 Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrata, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The severe accidents with core melting are considered at the design stage of project at Generation 3+ of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Moreover, there is an effort to apply the severe accident management to the operated NPP. The one of main goals of severe accidents mitigation is corium localization and stabilization. The two strategies that fulfil this requirement are: the in-vessel retention (e.g. AP-600, AP- 1000) and the ex-vessel retention (e.g. EPR). To study the scenario of in-vessel retention, a large experimental program and the integrated codes have been developed. The LIVE-L1 experimental facility studied the formation of melt pools and the melt accumulation in the lower head using different cooling conditions. Nowadays, a new European computer code ASTEC is being developed jointly in France and Germany. One of the important steps in ASTEC development in the area of in-vessel retention of corium is its validation with LIVE-L1 experimental results. Details of the experiment are reported. Results of the ASTEC (module DIVA) application to the analysis of the test are presented. (author)

  19. An experimental study on quenching of a radially stratified heated porous bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Arun K.; Sehgal, Bal Raj; Stepanyan, Armen V.

    2006-01-01

    The quenching characteristics of a volumetrically-heated particulate bed composed of radially stratified sand layers were investigated experimentally in the POMECO facility. The sand bed simulates the corium particulate debris bed which is formed when the molten corium released from the vessel fragments in water and deposits on the cavity floor during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). The electrically-heated bed was quenched by water from a water column established over top of it, and later also with water coming from its bottom, which was circulating from the water overlayer through downcomers. A series of experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of the size of downcomers, and their locations in the bed, on the quenching characteristics of the radially stratified debris beds. The downcomers were found to significantly increase the bed quenching rate. To simulate the non-condensable gases generated during the MCCI, air and argon were injected from the bottom of the bed at different flow rates. The effects of gas flow rate and its properties on the quenching behaviour were observed. The results indicate that the non-condensable gas flows reduce the quenching rate significantly. The gas properties also affect the quenching characteristics

  20. Characterisation of Ceramic-Coated 316LN Stainless Steel Exposed to High-Temperature Thermite Melt and Molten Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Vetrivendan, E.; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Hemanth Rao, E.; Murthy, S. S.; Lydia, G.; Nashine, B. K.; Mallika, C.; Selvaraj, P.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, stainless steel grade 316LN is the material of construction widely used for core catcher of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Design philosophy for core catcher demands its capability to withstand corium loading from whole core melt accidents. Towards this, two ceramic coatings were investigated for its application as a layer of sacrificial material on the top of core catcher to enhance its capability. Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier layer of alumina and partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ) with an intermediate bond coat of NiCrAlY are selected as candidate material and deposited over 316LN SS substrates and were tested for their suitability as thermal barrier layer for core catcher. Coated specimens were exposed to high-temperature thermite melt to simulate impingement of molten corium. Sodium compatibility of alumina and PSZ coatings were also investigated by exposing samples to molten sodium at 400 °C for 500 h. The surface morphology of high-temperature thermite melt-exposed samples and sodium-exposed samples was examined using scanning electron microscope. Phase identification of the exposed samples was carried out by x-ray diffraction technique. Observation from sodium exposure tests indicated that alumina coating offers better protection compared to PSZ coating. However, PSZ coating provided better protection against high-temperature melt exposure, as confirmed during thermite melt exposure test.

  1. A study on the correlations development for film boiling heat transfer on spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Film boiling is the heat transfer mechanism that can occurs when large temperature differences exist between a cold liquid and hot material. In the nuclear reactor safety analysis, film boiling has become an important issue in recent years. During severe accident, hot molten corium fall into relatively cool water, and fragment into spheres or sphere-like particles. If the steam explosion is triggered, the thermal energy of corlium is converted into the mechanical energy that can threaten the integrity of reactor vessel or reactor cavity. One of the important concerns in the heat transfer analysis during pre-mixing stage is the film boiling heat transfer between the corium and water/steam two-phase flow. Until now, considerable works on film boiling have been performed. However, there is no available correlation adequate for severe accident analysis. In this study, film boiling heat transfer correlations have been developed, and their applicable ranges have been enlarged and their prediction accuracy has been enhanced. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Application of a two-cell adiabatic model for direct containment heating to the ABB C-E system 80+ ALWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.E.; Sherry, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    During certain severe reactor accidents, such as those initiated by a station blackout or small-break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) degradation of the reactor core can take place while the reactor coolant system remains pressurized. If unmitigated, core materials will melt and relocate to the lower regions of the reactor pressure vessel and ultimately melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head. Once the RPV is breached, core debris will be ejected from the RPV and entrained from the reactor cavity by the high velocity gases blowing down from the reactor vessel. During the entrainment process, metallic constituents of the ejected material, principally zirconium and steel, exothermically react with oxygen and steam to generate chemical energy and (in the case of reactions with steam) hydrogen. Concomitant with the high pressure melt ejection (HPME) process, there is the potential for hydrogen combustion and vaporization of available water. The sensible heat loss to the containment atmosphere and the associated processes are typically referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). If large quantities of energy from the corium and corium-steam reactions are transferred directly to the containment atmosphere, the containment may pressurize to a point where failure is possible. Since the containment threat is coincident with vessel breach, relatively high containment radiation releases would be expected from this type of containment failure

  3. Simulation of Two-Phase Natural Circulation Loop for Core Cather Cooling Using Air Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S. T.; Huang, S. F.; Song, K. W.; Rhee, B. W.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A closed loop natural circulation system employs thermally induced density gradients in single phase or two-phase liquid form to induce circulation of the working fluid thereby obviating the need for any mechanical moving parts such as pumps and pump controls. This increases the reliability and safety of the cooling system and reduces installation, operation and maintenance costs. That is the reason natural circulation cooling has been considered in advanced reactor core cooling and in engineered safety systems. Natural circulation cooling has been proposed to remove reactor decay heat by external vessel cooling for in-vessel core retention during sever accident scenario. Recently in APR1400 reactor core catcher design natural circulation cooling is proposed to stabilize and cool the corium ejected from the reactor vessel following core melt and breach of reactor vessel. The natural circulation flow is similar to external vessel cooling where water flows through an inclined narrow gap below hot surface and is heated to produce boiling. The two-phase natural circulation enables cooling of the corium pool collected on core catcher. Due to importance of this problem this paper focuses simulation of the two-phase natural circulation through inclined gap using air-water system. Scaling criteria for air-water loop are derived that enable simulation of the flow regimes and natural circulation flow rates in such systems using air-water system

  4. Special instrumentation developed for FARO and KROTOS FCI experiments: High temperature ultrasonic sensor and dynamic level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Jorzik, E.; Anselmi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Development and application of special instrumentation for FARO and KROTOS fuel-coolant interaction experiments at JRC-Ispra are described. A temperature sensor based on ultrasonic techniques is described with the discussion on the improvements in sensor fabrication technique and design. The sensor can be used to measure temperatures in the range from 1800 deg C to 3100 deg C with an accuracy of ± 50 deg C. The design allows local temperature measurements in multiple zones along the sensor element. This sensor has been used successfully in a number of FARO experiments where temperature distributions in molten corium pools have been measured. It will be also used in the future Phebus FP tests. Furthermore, a water level meter sensor based on the time domain reflectometry technique is described. This high speed sensor allows monitoring of liquid level under very demanding ambient conditions, as e.g. 5MPa, 550 K in FARO. This sensor has been successfully applied in a number of FARO and KROTOS tests where the water level rise caused by a molten corium and Al 2 O 3 pours have been measured. (author)

  5. Calculations with ANSYS/FLOTRAN to a core catcher benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willschuetz, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    There are numerous experiments for the exploration of the corium spreading behaviour, but comparable data have not been available up to now in the field of the long-term behaviour of a corium expanded in a core catcher. For the calculations a pure liquid oxidic melt with a homogeneous internal heat source was assumed. The melt was distributed uniformly over the spreading area of the EPR core catcher. All codes applied the well known k-ε-turbulence-model to simulate the turbulent flow regime of this melt configuration. While the FVM-code calculations were performed with three dimensional models using a simple symmetry, the problem was modelled two-dimensionally with ANSYS due to limited CPU performance. In addition, the 2D results of ANSYS should allow a comparison for the planned second stage of the calculations. In this second stage, the behaviour of a segregated metal oxide melt should be examined. However, first estimates and pre-calculations showed that a 3D simulation of the problem is not possible with any of the codes due to lacking computer performance. (orig.)

  6. Comparison between the Findings from the TROI Experiments and the Sensitivity Studies by Using the TEXAS-V Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I. K.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. W.; Min, B. T.; Hong, S. H.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. D.

    2006-01-01

    Since a steam explosion may breach the integrity of a reactor vessel and containment, it is one of the most important severe accident issues. So, a lot of experimental and analytical researches on steam explosions have been performed. Although many findings from the steam explosion researches have been obtained, there still exist unsolved issues such as the explosivity of the real core material(corium) and the conversion ratio from the thermal energy to the mechanical energy. TROI experiments were carried out to provide the experimental data for these issues. The TROI experiments were performed with a prototypic material such as ZrO 2 melt and a mixture of ZrO 2 and UO 2 melt (corium). Several steam explosion codes including TEXAS-V had been developed by considering the findings in the past steam explosion experiments. However, some unique findings on steam explosions have been obtained from a series of TROI experiments. These findings should be considered in the application to a reactor safety analysis by using a computational code. In this paper, several findings from TROI experiments are discussed and the sensitivity studies on the TROI experimental parameters were conducted by using TEXAS-V code and TROI-13 test. The comparison between the TROI experimental findings and the results of the sensitivity study might allow us to know which parameter is important and which model is uncertain for steam explosions

  7. Physical and numerical modelling of natural convection in a fluid layer of small aspect ratio, in the frame of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villermaux, Clotilde

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of PWR reactor accidents studies, the possibility of cooling the corium by the vessel flooding, is analysed. A particular attention is given to the liquid materials of the upper part of this pool. The confinement and the physical properties of this melt pool, may threat the vessel integrity by a heat flux concentration on the vessel lateral wall. A bibliographic study on the thermal transfers in natural convection, enhances the influence of the thermal extreme conditions and the layer geometry on the flow structure and the heat distribution. The lower part of the corium is constituted of an oxides layer. A stability study shows its perenniality: the metallic layer can be slipped of the oxides pool. The results analysis of the experimental program, BALI-metal, is completed by a direct numerical simulation with the TRIOU code. A model of the flow structure allows the find in bulk the experimental results. Finally a numerical simulation of the experimental tests is realized with the thermo-hydraulic code TOLBIAC. (A.L.B.)

  8. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P.; Auvinen, A.; Beraha, D.; Chatelard, P.; Herranz, L.E.; Journeau, C.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Kljenak, I.; Miassoedov, A.; Paci, S.; Zeyen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented

  9. Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case.

  10. Improved Design of PECS to reduce Flow Instability for EU-APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Lee, Keunsung

    2014-01-01

    For EU-APR1400, PECS (Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System), so-called core catcher, was adopted to keep the integrity of basemat in containment by preventing MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interaction) through retaining core debris and cooling corium outside the reactor vessel. In this paper, the improved design of PECS is presented to increase coolability by reducing flow instability in the region of cooling channel. In this paper, flow instability analysis was carried out using CFD code to find out the most improved design of PECS, which is to increase coolability by reducing bubble entrainment in the region of cooling channel. The reduction of bubble entrainment in the downcomer facilitates higher mass flow rates in the downcomer. Among presented four designed for the downcomer of PECS, the superstep design shows the highest mass flow rate and the lowest gas holdup in the downcomer as well as in the cooling channel. Compared with the existing design, the elimination of the horizontal part and the addition of an extra space above the vertical entrance to the downcomer seem to help the separation of the vapor

  11. Analytical evaluation of two-phase natural circulation flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for homogeneous two-phase flow is numerically solved for the core melting conditions of the APR1400 reactor. The solution is compared with existing experiments which measured natural circulation flow through the annular gap slice model. Two kinds of parameters are considered for this analytical method. One is the thermal-hydraulic conditions such as thermal power of corium, pressure and inlet subcooling. The others are those for the thermal insulation system design for the purpose of providing natural circulation flow path outside the reactor vessel: inlet flow area, annular gap clearance and system resistance. A computer program NCIRC is developed for the numerical solution of the implicit flow velocity equation.

  12. Assessment of the MARS Code Using the Two-Phase Natural Circulation Experiments at a Core Catcher Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A core catcher has been developed to maintain the integrity of nuclear reactor containment from molten corium during a severe accident. It uses a two-phase natural circulation for cooling molten corium. Flow in a typical core catcher is unique because (i it has an inclined cooling channel with downwards-facing heating surface, of which flow processes are not fully exploited, (ii it is usually exposed to a low-pressure condition, where phase change causes dramatic changes in the flow, and (iii the effects of a multidimensional flow are very large in the upper part of the core catcher. These features make computational analysis more difficult. In this study, the MARS code is assessed using the two-phase natural circulation experiments that had been conducted at the CE-PECS facility to verify the cooling performance of a core catcher. The code is a system-scale thermal-hydraulic (TH code and has a multidimensional TH component. The facility was modeled by using both one- and three-dimensional components. Six experiments at the facility were selected to investigate the parametric effects of heat flux, pressure, and form loss. The results show that MARS can predict the two-phase flow at the facility reasonably well. However, some limitations are obviously revealed.

  13. Development of integrated computer code for analysis of risk reduction strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Kim, Hee Dong

    2002-05-01

    The development of the MIDAS/TH integrated severe accident code was performed in three main areas: 1) addition of new models derived from the national experimental programs and models for APR-1400 Korea next generation reactor, 2) improvement of the existing models using the recently available results, and 3) code restructuring for user friendliness. The unique MIDAS/TH models include: 1) a kinetics module for core power calculation during ATWS, 2) a gap cooling module between the molten corium pool and the reactor vessel wall, 3) a penetration tube failure module, 4) a PAR analysis module, and 5) a look-up table for the pressure and dynamic load during steam explosion. The improved models include: 1) a debris dispersal module considering the cavity geometry during DCH, 2) hydrogen burn and deflagration-to-detonation transition criteria, 3) a peak pressure estimation module for hydrogen detonation, and 4) the heat transfer module between the molten corium pool and the overlying water. The sparger and the ex-vessel heat transfer module were assessed. To enhance user friendliness, code restructuring was performed. In addition, a sample of severe accident analysis results was organized under the preliminary database structure

  14. A study on the correlations development for film boiling heat transfer on spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Film boiling is the heat transfer mechanism that can occurs when large temperature differences exist between a cold liquid and hot material. In the nuclear reactor safety analysis, film boiling has become an important issue in recent years. During severe accident, hot molten corium fall into relatively cool water, and fragment into spheres or sphere-like particles. If the steam explosion is triggered, the thermal energy of corlium is converted into the mechanical energy that can threaten the integrity of reactor vessel or reactor cavity. One of the important concerns in the heat transfer analysis during pre-mixing stage is the film boiling heat transfer between the corium and water/steam two-phase flow. Until now, considerable works on film boiling have been performed. However, there is no available correlation adequate for severe accident analysis. In this study, film boiling heat transfer correlations have been developed, and their applicable ranges have been enlarged and their prediction accuracy has been enhanced. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  15. Simulationsexperimente zum Ausbreitungsverhalten von Kernschmelzen: KATS-8 bis KATS-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppinger, B; Fieg, G.; Massier, H.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.; Stern, G.

    2001-03-01

    In future Light Water Reactors special devices (core catchers) might be required to prevent containment failure by basement erosion after reactor pressure vessel meltthrough during a core meltdown accident. Quick freezing of the molten core masses is desirable to reduce release of radioactivity. Several concepts of core catcher devices have been proposed based on the spreading of corium melt onto flat surfaces with subsequent water cooling. Therefore, a series of experiments to investigate high temperature melt spreading on flat surfaces has been carried out using alumina-iron thermite melts as a simulant. The oxidic thermite melt is conditioned by adding other oxides to simulate a realistic corium melt as close as possible. Spreading of oxidic and metallic melts have been performed in one- and two-dimensional geometry. Substrates were inert ceramical layer, dry concrete and concrete with a water layer of several millimeters. The influence of a shallow water layer on the surface onto the spreading behaviour has also been studied. (orig.) [de

  16. Numerical analysis of crust formation in molten core-concrete interaction using MPS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiichi, Koshizuka; Shoji, Matsuura; Mizue, Sekine; Yoshiaki, Oka

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional code is developed for molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) based on Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method. Heat transfer is calculated without any specific correlations. A particle can be changed to a moving (fluid) or fixed (solid) particle corresponding to its enthalpy, which provide the phase change model for particles. The phase change model is verified by one-dimensional test calculations. Nucleate boiling and radiation heat transfers are considered between the core debris and the water pool. The developed code is applied to SWISS-2 experiment in which stainless steel is used as the melt material. Calculated heat flux to the water pool agrees well with the experiment, though the ablation speed in the concrete is a little slower. A stable crust is formed in a short time after water is poured in and the heat flux to the water pool rapidly decreases. MACE-M0 using corium is also analyzed. The ablation speed of concrete is slower than that of SWISS-2 because of low heat conduction in corium. An unlimited geometry is analyzed by setting the cyclic boundary condition on the sides. When the crust is broken by the decomposition gas, heat transfer to the water pool is kept high for a longer time because the crust re-formation is delayed. (author)

  17. Validation of Numerical Schemes in a Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Code for a Natural Convection Heat Transfer of a Molten Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Park, Rae Joon; Song, Jin Ho

    2010-01-01

    It is postulated that a fuel of a water-cooled nuclear reactor can be melted during a hypothetical severe accident. There are two strategies for cooling the molten corium, which are in-vessel corium cooling and exvessel corium cooling. They can be chosen depending on cooling characteristics of the reactor. The coolability of the molten pool is determined by comparing the thermal load from the pool and the maximum heat flux removable by cooling mechanism such as radiative or boiling heat transfer on the pool boundaries. In order to evaluate the molten pool coolability, it is important to correctly expect the thermal load by a natural convection heat transfer of the corium pool. Many correlations have been developed by conducting experiments for the natural convection of a pool. The main parameters of the heat transfer by the natural convection are Rayleigh (Ra) number, Prandtl (Pr) number and the geometry of the pool. Sometimes, the use of the correlations for the evaluation of the thermal load from the molten pool is limited by a high Ra number of the pool and its different shape from the existing correlations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used for the analysis of the heat transfer by a natural convection. In principle, CFD is applicable to the corium pool analysis. But unfortunately, some difficulties are encountered during the analysis, which are from numerical and physical instabilities. The physical instability is from turbulence fluctuation and inverted thermal layer near the upper surface of the volumetric-heated molten pool with a high Ra number. In order to resolve turbulent natural convection, buoyancy-modified two-equation turbulence models such as a k-e or k-w model with time-averaged Navier- Stokes equations are commonly used. Because an unsteadiness of a natural convection becomes nontrivial in a high Ra number pool, it is very difficult to get accurate heat flux on the pool surface with the time averaged turbulence model. Recently

  18. Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case

  19. Participation in EU SARNET2 Project for an Enhancement of Severe Accident Evaluation Capability in Domestic NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Hong, S. W.; Kim, S. B.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.

    2010-07-01

    The following results were obtained from the first year SARNET2 research activities. - WP4-2 session : acquisition of ASTEC 2.0 execution version, user manual and modeling/technical report for main six modules, code familiarization via ASTEC 2.0 code structure analysis and sample calculations. - WP6-4 session : preliminary calculations for APR1400 MCCI using MELCOR code. - WP7-1 session : thermal-hydraulic review of particle solidification model for steam explosion, suggestion of further activities for modeling corium material effect, review of physio-chemical particles and its applicability for modeling corium material effect. - WP7-2 session: review and benchmark analysis of ENACCEF experiments by participating in Task 3 'Combustion benchmark', and submission of analysis results for blind tests and preparation of analysis for open tests. - WP8-3 session: acquisition of ISTP Database and recent reports for two experiments (EPICUR/PARIS), review of technical issues in ST/FP, and selection of its domestic application field. The foregoing research results and experimental database for main SA issues obtained by this research are expected to be used for resolving SA issue remained in domestic NPPs (operating, to be constructed, future) and enhancing the evaluating capability of Level-2 PSA

  20. The Self-Powered Detector Simulation `MATiSSe' Toolbox applied to SPNDs for severe accident monitoring in PWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Fourrez, Stéphane; Pichon, Laurent; Makil, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the French National Research Agency program on nuclear safety and radioprotection, the `DIstributed Sensing for COrium Monitoring and Safety' project aims at developing innovative instrumentation for corium monitoring in case of severe accident in a Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor. Among others, a new under-vessel instrumentation based on Self-Powered Neutron Detectors is developed using a numerical simulation toolbox, named `MATiSSe'. The CEA Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Lab developed MATiSSe since 2010 for Self-Powered Neutron Detectors material selection and geometry design, as well as for their respective partial neutron and gamma sensitivity calculations. MATiSSe is based on a comprehensive model of neutron and gamma interactions which take place in Selfpowered neutron detector components using the MCNP6 Monte Carlo code. As member of the project consortium, the THERMOCOAX SAS Company is currently manufacturing some instrumented pole prototypes to be tested in 2017. The full severe accident monitoring equipment, including the standalone low current acquisition system, will be tested during a joined CEA-THERMOCOAX experimental campaign in some realistic irradiation conditions, in the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II research reactor.

  1. Utilization of hydrocarbons by cyanobacteria from microbial mats on oily coasts of the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hasan, R.H.; Sorkhoh, N.A.; Al Bader, D.; Radwan, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Phormidium corium, the predominant cyanobacteria in microbial mats on crude oil polluting the Arabian Gulf coasts, contribute to oil degradation by consuming individual n-alkanes. Both cyanobacteria grew phototrophically better in the presence of crude oil or individual n-alkanes than in their absence, indicating that hydrocarbons may have been utilized. This result was true when growth was measured in terms of dry biomass, as well as in terms of the content of biliprotein, the accessory pigment characteristic of cyanobacteria. The phototrophic biomass production by P. corium was directly proportional to the concentration of n-nonadecane (C 19 ) in the medium. The chlorophyll to carotene ratio of hydrocarbon-grown cyanobacteria did not decrease compared to the ratio in the absence of hydrocarbons, indicating that on hydrocarbons the organisms were not stressed. Comparing the fatty acid patterns of total lipids from hydrocarbon-grown cyanobacteria to those of the same organisms grown without hydrocarbons confirms that n-alkanes were taken up and oxidized to fatty acids by both cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  2. Core fusion accidents in nuclear power reactors. Knowledge review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This reference document proposes a large and detailed review of severe core fusion accidents occurring in nuclear power reactors. It aims at presenting the scientific aspects of these accidents, a review of knowledge and research perspectives on this issue. After having recalled design and operation principles and safety principles for reactors operating in France, and the main studied and envisaged accident scenarios for the management of severe accidents in French PWRs, the authors describe the physical phenomena occurring during a core fusion accident, in the reactor vessel and in the containment building, their sequence and means to mitigate their effects: development of the accident within the reactor vessel, phenomena able to result in an early failure of the containment building, phenomena able to result in a delayed failure with the corium-concrete interaction, corium retention and cooling in and out of the vessel, release of fission products. They address the behaviour of containment buildings during such an accident (sizing situations, mechanical behaviour, bypasses). They review and discuss lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) and simulation tests (Phebus-PF). A last chapter gives an overview of software and approaches for the numerical simulation of a core fusion accident

  3. Simulation experiment on the flooding behaviour of core melts: KATS-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieg, G.; Massier, H.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.; Stern, G.

    2000-11-01

    For future Light Water Reactors special devices (core catchers) are being developed to prevent containment failure by basement erosion after reactor pressure vessel meltthrough during a core meltdown accident. Quick freezing of the molten core masses is desirable to reduce release of radioactivity. Several concepts of core catcher devices have been proposed based on the spreading of corium melt onto flat surfaces with subsequent water cooling. A KATS-experiment has been performed to investigate the flooding behaviour of high temperature melts using alumina-iron thermite melts as a simulant. The oxidic thermite melt is conditioned by adding other oxides to simulate a realistic corium melt as close as possible in terms of liquidus and solidus temperatures. Before flooding with water, spreading of the separate oxidic and metallic melts has been done in one-dimensional channels with a silicate concrete as the substrate. The flooding rate was, in relation to the melt surface, identical to the flooding rate in EPR. (orig.) [de

  4. Research and development with regard to severe accidents in pressurised water reactors: Summary and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document reviews the current state of research on severe accidents in France and other countries. It aims to provide an objective vision, and one that's as exhaustive as possible, for this innovative field of research. It will help in identifying R and D requirements and categorising them hierarchically. Obviously, the resulting prioritisation must be completed by a rigorous examination of needs in terms of safety analyses for various risks and physical phenomena, especially in relation to Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments. PSA-2 should be sufficiently advanced so as not to obscure physical phenomena that, if not properly understood, might result in substantial uncertainty. It should be noted that neither the safety analyses nor PSA-2 are presented in this document. This report describes the physical phenomena liable to occur during a severe accident, in the reactor vessel and the containment. It presents accident sequences and methods for limiting impact. The corresponding scenarios are detailed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with in-vessel accident progression, examining core degradation (3.1), corium behaviour in the lower head (3.2), vessel rupture (3.3) and high-pressure core meltdown (3.4). Chapter 4 focuses on phenomena liable to induce early containment failure, namely direct containment heating (4.1), hydrogen risk (4.2) and steam explosions (4.3). The phenomenon that could lead to a late containment failure, namely molten core-concrete interaction, is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on problems related to in-vessel and ex-vessel corium retention and cooling, namely in-vessel retention by flooding the primary circuit or the reactor pit (6.1), cooling of the corium under water during the corium-concrete interaction (6.2), corium spreading (6.3) and ex-vessel core catchers (6.4). Chapter 7 relates to the release and transport of fission products (FP), addressing the themes of in-vessel FP release (7.1) and ex-vessel FP release (7.3), FP

  5. OECD MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) design report, Rev. 2 October 31, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.; Pfeiffer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are planned to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium (∼φ30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. A description of the test apparatus, instrumentation, data reduction, and test matrix are the subject of the first portion of this report. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The introduction of a thermal gradient across the crust is thought to be important for these tests because of uncertainty in the magnitude of the thermal stresses and thus their relative

  6. Severe accident research in the core degradation area: An example of effective international cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by the International Science and Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottomley, D., E-mail: paul.bottomley@ec.europa.eu [ITU Institut fuer Transurane, PO box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stuckert, J.; Hofmann, P. [KIT Campus Nord, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Pl. 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tocheny, L. [ISTC Krasnoproletarskaya 32-34, PO Box 20, 127473 Moscow (Russian Federation); Hugon, M. [European Commission DG - Research and Tech. Development, Sq. de Meeus, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Journeau, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Clement, B. [IRSN PSN-RES/SAG Cadarache, BP3 F13115, St Paul lez Durance (France); Weber, S. [GRS Muenchen, Thermal Hydraulics Div., Garching 85748,Germany (Germany); Guentay, S. [PSI NES/LTH OHSA C11, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Hozer, Z. [AEKI Fuel Department, P.O. Box 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Herranz, L. [CIEMAT, Energy -Nuclear Fission Division, Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Schumm, A. [EDF - R and D, SINETICS, Avenue du General de Gaulle 1, Clamart 92140 (France); Oriolo, F. [Pisa University, Ing. Mecc. Nucl. Prod., Largo Lazarino 2, Pisa 56126 (Italy); Altstadt, E. [HZDR Structural Matls, Rossendorf, Postfach 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Krause, M. [AECL - Reactor Safety, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Fischer, M. [AREVA NP GMBH, Dept. PEPA-G, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Khabensky, V.B. [Alexandrov Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Bechta, S.V. [Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Veshchunov, M.S. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Russian Academy of Sciences, 52 B. Tulskaya, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Palagin, A.V. [KIT Campus Nord, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Pl. 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISTC supported successful nuclear safety projects between EU and Russian institutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-tier project monitoring has proved to be very successful and flexible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples are reactor degradation, corium steel corrosion, and corium thermodynamics. - Abstract: The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) was set up in Moscow to support non-proliferation of sensitive knowledge and technologies in biological, chemical and nuclear domains by engaging scientists in peaceful research programmes with a broad international cooperation. The paper has two following objectives: Bullet to describe the organization of complex, international, experimental and analytical research of material processes under extreme conditions similar to those of severe accidents in nuclear reactors and, Bullet to inform briefly about some results of these studies. The main forms of ISTC activity are Research Projects and Supporting Programs. In the Research Projects informal contact expert groups (CEGs) were set up by ISTC to improve coordination between adjacent projects and to encourage international collaboration. The European Commission was the first to use this. The CEG members - experts from the national institutes and industry - evaluated and managed the projects' scientific results from initial stage of proposal formulation until the final reporting. They were often involved directly in the project's details by joining the Steering Committees of the project. The Contact Expert Group for Severe Accidents and Management (CEG-SAM) is one of these groups, five project groups from this area from the total of 30 funded projects during 10 years of activity are detailed to demonstrate this: (1) QUENCH-VVER from RIAR, Dimitrovgrad and IBRAE, Moscow, and PARAMETER projects (SF1-SF4) from LUCH, Podolsk and IBRAE, Moscow; these concerned a detailed study of bundle quenching from high

  7. The MELTSPREAD Code for Modeling of Ex-Vessel Core Debris Spreading Behavior, Code Manual – Version3-beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MELTSPREAD3 is a transient one-dimensional computer code that has been developed to predict the gravity-driven flow and freezing behavior of molten reactor core materials (corium) in containment geometries. Predictions can be made for corium flowing across surfaces under either dry or wet cavity conditions. The spreading surfaces that can be selected are steel, concrete, a user-specified material (e.g., a ceramic), or an arbitrary combination thereof. The corium can have a wide range of compositions of reactor core materials that includes distinct oxide phases (predominantly Zr, and steel oxides) plus metallic phases (predominantly Zr and steel). The code requires input that describes the containment geometry, melt “pour” conditions, and cavity atmospheric conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and cavity flooding information). For cases in which the cavity contains a preexisting water layer at the time of RPV failure, melt jet breakup and particle bed formation can be calculated mechanistically given the time-dependent melt pour conditions (input data) as well as the heatup and boiloff of water in the melt impingement zone (calculated). For core debris impacting either the containment floor or previously spread material, the code calculates the transient hydrodynamics and heat transfer which determine the spreading and freezing behavior of the melt. The code predicts conditions at the end of the spreading stage, including melt relocation distance, depth and material composition profiles, substrate ablation profile, and wall heatup. Code output can be used as input to other models such as CORQUENCH that evaluate long term core-concrete interaction behavior following the transient spreading stage. MELTSPREAD3 was originally developed to investigate BWR Mark I liner vulnerability, but has been substantially upgraded and applied to other reactor designs (e.g., the EPR), and more recently to the plant accidents at Fukushima Daiichi. The most recent round of

  8. Assessment of the integral code ASTEC with respect to the late in-vessel phase of core degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, Christophe; Starflinger, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    The integral code ASTEC is being developed jointly by GRS and IRSN as the European reference code for severe accidents. In the EU project CESAM it is foreseen to assess the capabilities of ASTEC to deal with a broad range of reactor designs (PWR, BWR, VVER, CANDU, Gen III+, etc.) and especially to model and capture the effect of severe accident mitigation measures. This requires a physically sound and sufficiently accurate modelling of the processes and phenomena that govern the course of the accident, and the modelling has to be validated to a sufficient extent. Concentrating on the in-vessel aspects of severe accidents, the present paper addresses these requirements by presenting results of ASTEC calculations for relevant experiments that cover the major physical phenomena during core degradation (melting and relocation of the fuel, oxidation, molten corium pool formation and its coolability in the lower plenum once it slumped from the core region). The assessment of models for bundle degradation is based on CORA (13 and W2). CORA represented a bundle of non-irradiated, electrically heated UO 2 -rods. Melt progression in strongly degraded geometry is addressed in the PHEBUS-FTP4 experiment carried out with irradiated fuel in debris bed configuration. The validation of molten pool modelling is based on BALI and RASPLAV-Salt experiments. The BALI-facility consists of a full-scale slice of lower plenum (allowing experiments at prototypical Rayleigh numbers) and utilizes uniformly heated water as simulant for corium. The RASPLAV experiments use a scaled-down slice of the lower head. Use of non-eutectic molten salt as simulant should address the effect of a significant solidification range typical for real corium. Calculation results of ASTEC are discussed in comparison with experimental measurements. Further, questions concerning the extrapolation of findings from validation to reactor application are critically discussed, concerning e.g. choice of model parameters

  9. Mixing Characteristics during Fuel Coolant Interaction under Reactor Submerged Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. W.; Na, Y. S.; Hong, S. H.; Song, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A molten material is injected into an interaction chamber by free gravitation fall. This type of fuel coolant interaction could happen to operating plants. However, the flooding of a reactor cavity is considered as SAM measures for new PWRs such as APR-1400 and AP1000 to assure the IVR of a core melt. In this case, a molten corium in a reactor is directly injected into water surrounding the reactor vessel without a free fall. KAERI has carried out fuel coolant interaction tests without a free fall using ZrO 2 and corium to simulate the reactor submerged conditions. There are four phases in a steam explosion. The first phase is a premixing phase. The premixing is described in the literature as follows: during penetration of melt into water, hydrodynamic instabilities, generated by the velocities and density differences as well as vapor production, induce fragmentation of the melt into particles; the particles fragment in turn into smaller particles until they reach a critical size such that the cohesive forces (surface tension) balance exactly the disruptive forces (inertial); and the molten core material temperature (>2500 K) is such that the mixing always occurs in the film boiling regime of the water: It is very important to qualify and quantify this phase because it gives the initial conditions for a steam explosion This paper mainly focuses on the observation of the premixing phase between a case with 1 m free fall and a case without a free fall to simulate submerged reactor condition. The premixing behavior between a 1m free fall case and reactor case submerged without a free fall is observed experimentally. The average velocity of the melt front passing through 1m water pool; - Case without a free fall: The average velocity of corium, 2.7m/s, is faster than ZrO 2 , 2.3m/s, in water. - Cases of with a 1 m free fall and without a free fall : The case without a free fall is about two times faster than a case with a 1 m free fall. Bubble characteristics; - Case

  10. Development of simplified 1D and 2D models for studying a PWR lower head failure under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koundy, V.; Dupas, J.; Bonneville, H.; Cormeau, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the study of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactors, the scenarios that describe the relocation of significant quantities of liquid corium at the bottom of the lower head are investigated from the mechanical point of view. In these scenarios, the risk of a breach and the possibility of a large quantity of corium being released from the lower head exist. This may lead to direct heating of the containment or outer vessel steam explosion. These issues are important due to their early containment failure potential. Since the TMI-2 accident, many theoretical and experimental investigations, relating to lower head mechanical behaviour under severe thermo-mechanical loading in the event of a core meltdown accident have been performed. IRSN participated actively in the one-fifth scale USNRC/SNL LHF and OECD LHF (OLHF) programs. Within the framework of these programs, two simplified models were developed by IRSN: the first is a simplified 1D approach based on the theory of pressurized spherical shells and the second is a simplified 2D model based on the theory of shells of revolution under symmetric loading. The mathematical formulation of both models and the creep constitutive equations used are presented in detail in this paper. The corresponding models were used to interpret some of the OLHF program experiments and the calculation results were quite consistent with the experimental data. The two simplified models have been used to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor lower head under severe accident conditions leading to failure. The average transient heat flux produced by the corium relocated at the bottom of the lower head has been determined using the IRSN HARAR code. Two different methods, both taking into account the ablation of the internal surface, are used to determine the temperature profiles across the lower head wall and their effect on the time to failure is discussed. Using these simplified models

  11. 1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Cheol

    2007-02-01

    During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift

  12. Conjugate heat transfer analysis for in-vessel retention with external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Woon; Bae, Jae-ho; Song, Hyuk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conjugate heat transfer analysis method is applied for in-vessel corium retention. • 3D heat diffusion has a formidable effect in alleviating focusing heat load from metallic layer. • The focusing heat load is decreased by about 2.5 times on the external surface. - Abstract: A conjugate heat transfer analysis method for the thermal integrity of a reactor vessel under external reactor vessel cooling conditions is developed to resolve light metal layer focusing effect issue for in-vessel retention. The method calculates steady-state three-dimensional temperature distribution of a reactor vessel using coupled conjugate heat transfer between in-vessel three-layered stratified corium (metallic pool, oxide pool and heavy metal and polar-angle dependent boiling heat transfer at the outer surface of a reactor vessel). The three-layer corium heat transfer model is utilizing lumped-parameter thermal-resistance circuit method. For the ex-vessel boiling boundary conditions, nucleate, transition and film boiling are considered. The thermal integrity of a reactor vessel is addressed in terms of heat flux at the outer-most nodes of the vessel and remaining thickness profile. The vessel three-dimensional heat conduction is validated against a commercial code. It is found that even though the internal heat flux from the metal layer goes far beyond critical heat flux (CHF) the heat flux from the outermost nodes of the vessel may be maintained below CHF due to massive vessel heat diffusion. The heat diffusion throughout the vessel is more pronounced for relatively low heat generation rate in an oxide pool. Parametric calculations are performed considering thermal conditions such as peak heat flux from a light metal layer, heat generation in an oxide pool and external boiling conditions. The major finding is that the most crucial factor for success of in-vessel retention is not the mass of the molten light metal above the oxide pool but the heat generation rate

  13. Separate effects tests on hydrogen combustion during direct containment heating events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.; Albrecht, G.; Kirstahler, M.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of severe accident research for light water reactors Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK/IKET) operates the facilities DISCO-C and DISCO-H since 1998, conceived to investigate the direct containment heating (DCH) issue. Previous DCH experiments have investigated the corium dispersion and containment pressurization during DCH in different European reactor geometries using an iron-alumina melt and steam as model fluids. The analysis of these experiments showed that the containment was pressurized by the debris-to-gas heat transfer but also to a large part by hydrogen combustion. The need was identified to better characterize the hydrogen combustion during DCH. To address this issue separate effect tests in the DISCO-H facility were conducted. These tests reproduced phenomena occurring during DCH (injection of a hot steam-hydrogen mixture jet into the containment and ignition of the air-steam-hydrogen mixture) with the exception of corium dispersion. The effect of corium particles as igniters was simulated using sparkler systems. The data will be used to validate models in combustion codes and to extrapolate to prototypic scale. Tests have been conducted in the DISCO-H facility in two steps. First a small series of six tests was done in a simplified geometry to study fundamental parameters. Then, two tests were done with a containment geometry subdivided into a subcompartment and the containment dome. The test conditions were as follows: As initial condition in the containment an atmosphere was used either with air or with a homogeneous air-steam mixture containing hydrogen concentrations between 0 and 7 mol%, temperatures around 100 C and pressure at 2 bar (representative of the containment atmosphere conditions at vessel failure). Injection of a hot steam-hydrogen jet mixture into the reactor cavity pit at 20 bar, representative of the primary circuit blow down through the vessel and hydrogen produced during this phase. The most important variables

  14. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests; Mesures des tres hautes temperatures: Applications a des essais de surete des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-09-27

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  15. Integrated hydrogen control solutions for severe accidents using passive autocatalytic recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Tietsch, W.; Sabate Farnos, R.

    2012-01-01

    In a severe accident or a beyond-design-basis-accident, the reaction of water with zirconium alloy cladding, radiolysis of water, corium-concrete reactions and other corrosion phenomena generate hydrogen (H2). The detonation of this H2 in containment or in auxiliary buildings can result in damage to structures or loss of containment integrity. Identifying the generation and special distribution of hydrogen and controlling its concentration with Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs) solves this concern. Westinghouse's approach for hydrogen management starts by defining the quantities and transport/distribution of H 2 in-containment and out of containment with analysis tools such as MAAP, MELCOR, GASFLOW or FATE. Based on the results of these analyses, an optimized H2 Control Strategy is proposed in terms of number and location of PARs, and efficient integration with other H 2 management devices like e.g. existing igniters, H 2 monitors, etc.

  16. Application of the core-concrete interaction code Wechsl to reactor case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerino, G.

    1986-09-01

    The WECHSL code, developed at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, West-Germany, is used for core melt accidents in nuclear power plants. The first calculations, considering silicate and limestone/common sand concretes of different compositions, analyze the influence of the initial mass of Zirconium in the corium and, in one case, the effect of sump water ingression on the top of the melt. Moreover, for a limestone concrete, a sensitivity study is made on the melting temperature of the concrete influencing the decomposition enthalpy. The main conclusion of that paper is that, in any case, the temperature of the melt drops rapidly from the initial temperature to a temperature level close to the solidification temperature of the metal phase in a relatively short period of time (approximately 15 minutes) and then a balance between the removed heat from the melt and heating sources inside the melt is established

  17. ECO steam explosion experiments on the conversion of thermal into mechanical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Kaiser, A.; Schuetz, W.; Will, H.

    2001-01-01

    In case of a steam explosion, e.g. as a consequence of a severe reactor accident, part of the thermal energy of the melt is transferred into mechanical energy. At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, so-called ECO experiments, are being directed to measure the conversion factor under well-defined conditions. In ECO, alumina from a thermite reaction is used as a simulating material instead of corium. Dimensions of the test facility as well as major test conditions, e.g. temperature and release mode of the melt, water inventory and test procedure, are based on the former PREMIX experimental series. In the paper, results of the first test, ECO 01, are given. (orig.)

  18. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT STATUS AT Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kymalainen, O.; Tuomisto, H.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the specific design features of IVO's Loviisa Plant, most notably the ice-condenser containment, strongly affect the plant response in a hypothetical core melt accident. They have together with the relatively stringent Finnish regulatory requirements forced IVO to develop a tailor made severe accident management strategy for Loviisa. The low design pressure of the ice-condenser containment complicates the design of the hydrogen management system. On the other hand, the ice-condensers and the water available from them are facilitating factors regarding in-vessel retention of corium by external cooling of reactor pressure vessel. This paper summarizes the Finnish severe accident requirements, IVO's approach to severe accidents, and its application to the Loviisa Plant

  19. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the 'Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires' (DRN) during the year 1999. DRN is one of the CEA Institutions. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in English) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department for the year 1999 are presented giving information on the simulation of low mach number compressible flow, experimental irradiation of multi-materials, progress in the dry route conversion process of UF 6 to UO 2 , the neutronics, the CASCADE installation, the corium, the BWR type reactor cores technology, the reactor safety, the transmutation of americium and fuel cell flow studies, the crack propagation, the hybrid systems and the CEA sites improvement. (A.L.B.)

  20. Liquid metal reactor applications of the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.E.; Bergeron, K.D.; Gido, R.; Valdez, G.D.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1988-01-01

    The CONTAIN code is the NRC's best-estimate code for the evaluation of the conditions that may exist inside a reactor containment building during a severe accident. Included in the phenomena modeled are thermal-hydraulics, radiant and convective heat transfer, aerosol loading and transient response, fission product transport and heating effects, and interactions of sodium and corium with the containment atmosphere and structures. CONTAIN has been used by groups in Japan and West Germany to assess its ability to analyze accident consequences for liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants. In conjunction with this use, collaborative efforts to improve the modeling have been pursued. This paper summarizes the current state of the version of CONTAIN that has been enhanced with extra capabilities for LMR applications. A description of physical models is presented, followed by a review of validation exercises performed with CONTAIN. Some demonstration calculations of an integrated LMR application are presented

  1. Determination of appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Min, Beong-Tae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of the present work is to use experiments that have been performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe during about the last ten years for determining the most appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations. The results of a QUEOS experiment are used to fix the parameters concerning heat transfer. The QUEOS experiments are especially suited for this purpose as they have been performed with small hot solid spheres. Therefore the area of heat exchange is known. With the heat transfer parameters fixed in this way, a PREMIX experiment is recalculated. These experiments have been performed with molten alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as a simulant of corium. Its initial temperature is 2600 K. With these experiments the models and parameters for jet and drop break-up are tested.

  2. Development and application of surrogate model for assessment of ex-vessel debris bed dryout probability - 15157

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakush, S.E.; Lubchenko, N.T.; Kudinov, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider a water-cooled power reactor severe accident scenario with pressure vessel failure and subsequent release of molten corium. A surrogate model for prediction of dryout heat flux for ex-vessels debris beds of different shapes is developed. Functional form of dryout heat flux dependence on problem parameters is developed by the analysis of coolability problem in non-dimensional variables. It is shown that for a flat debris bed the dryout heat flux can be represented in terms of three 1-dimensional functions for which approximating formulas are found. For two-dimensional debris beds (cylindrical, conical, Gaussian heap, mound-shaped), an additional function taking into account the bed shape geometry is obtained from numerical simulations using DECOSIM code as a full model. With the surrogate model in hand, risk analysis of debris bed coolability is carried out by Monte Carlo sampling of the input parameters within selected ranges, with assumed distribution functions

  3. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  4. The role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of acute bovine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Mutsaers, C W; Klarenbeek, A

    1991-07-01

    To study the possible role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis, local and systemic injections of endotoxin (E. coli 0111 B4) with different doses were given to three groups of four cows each. Clinical and haematologic parameters indicated an acute-phase response, including positive plasma ethanol gelation (soluble fibrin), the occurrence of fibrin degradation products and decreased thrombocyte counts. Local Shwartzman reactions were not evoked. Clinical examination of the claws and the gait of the animals revealed no signs of laminitis. However, on histopathological examination of the claw corium signs of laminitis such as vacuolisation of the Stratum basale, lymphocyte and leucocyte infiltration and thrombosis were found. These results indicate that endotoxin indeed may be involved in the pathogenesis of laminitis. For the development of a clinical acute laminitis model in cattle either another dosage, other toxins or factors in addition to the endotoxin used in this experiment are needed.

  5. Bovine pododermatitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgasa, M N

    1987-01-01

    Pododermatitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) is a major cause of lameness and discomfort to cattle with resultant economic losses. The disease is a result of multifactorial aetiology most of which is not clearly understood. Feeding readily fermentable carbohydrates to unaccustomed cattle predisposes to the disease. Histamine, lactic acid and endotoxins are believed to be involved. Systemic acidosis, histaminosis and endotoxaemia are thought to produce the pathophysiological characteristics of laminitis. The diagnosis is primarily based on the observation of symmetrical and bilateral lesions in hooves and characteristic lameness affecting all feet. Gross lesions include concavity of the dorsal wall, discolorations in the sole and rotation of the pedal bone. Degenerative changes and arteriosclerosis are constant histological findings in the corium, with chronic thrombi and chronic granulation tissue. The disease may be treated conservatively and by application of cyclo-oxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prevented or controlled by proper feeding and management practices.

  6. Vaporization of chemical species and the production of aerosols during a core debris/concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butland, A.T.D.; Mignanelli, M.A.; Potter, P.E.; Smith, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium chemical composition within gas bubbles sparging through isothermal molten corium-concrete mixtures has been evaluated theoretically. A series of sensitivity calculations gives some insight into a number of factors which are of importance in determining the radionuclide and non-radioactive releases during core-concrete interaction. The degree of mixing or layering of the pool has turned out to be of paramount importance in determining the magnitudes of the releases. The presence of unoxidized zirconium in the melt tends to enhance the release of a number of species and the type of concrete used for the base mat can have a significant effect. The predictions can be sensitive to the thermodynamic data used in the calculations. The vaporization of various species into the gas bubbles can require large amounts of heat; the loss of this heat from the melt can have an effect on the extent of the vaporization

  7. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design

  8. Determination of appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Min, Beong-Tae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to use experiments that have been performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe during about the last ten years for determining the most appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations. The results of a QUEOS experiment are used to fix the parameters concerning heat transfer. The QUEOS experiments are especially suited for this purpose as they have been performed with small hot solid spheres. Therefore the area of heat exchange is known. With the heat transfer parameters fixed in this way, a PREMIX experiment is recalculated. These experiments have been performed with molten alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) as a simulant of corium. Its initial temperature is 2600 K. With these experiments the models and parameters for jet and drop break-up are tested

  9. In vessel retention for VVER 1000 - Experimental work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batek, D.

    2015-01-01

    After Fukushima accident, the nuclear community realized that it is necessary to have strategy and solution for severe accident management. In Vessel Retention (IVR) of corium is an important strategy to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident. In this poster the author reviews the present status of experimental works made by UJV (Czech Republic) from 2012 until now, on the IVR strategy specifically applied for the VVER 1000 unit. The BESTH 1 experiment was prepared to test the behavior of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) surface under 2 configurations: clean and corroded. BESTH 2 experiment is a modification of BESTH 1 experiment in order to get greater thermal fluxes. The BESTH 3 facility is a large scale experiment that is under extensive design (2016-2017) whose main objective will be to investigate the results of vast analytical works made by experts with specialization of severe accident phenomenology

  10. On the origin of metal impurities in content of lava-like fuel-containing materials of Chornobyl NSC-Shelter object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mikhailov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Version of the origin of material metallic impurities in silicate matrix of lava-like fuel-containing masses (LFCM, which were formed during the Chernobyl Unit 4 accident, is presented. Based on comparative quantitative characteristics of observable mass ratios of iron, chromium and nickel in different LFCM clusters and potential sources of their appearance - metal structures, the degree of impact of various factors on the formation of metal components in Chernobyl corium (MCC was given. It was concluded that initial MCC composition was formed on the basis of 08X18H10T stainless steel melt, from which the elements of fuel channel structure and lower water pipelines were manufactured.

  11. Analysis for the coolability of the reactor cavity in a Korean 1000 MWe PWR using MELCOR 1.8.3 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Ju Yeul; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Yong

    1996-01-01

    The analysis for the coolability of the reactor cavity in typical Korean 1000 MWe Nuclear Unit under severe accidents is performed using MELCOR 1.8.3 code. The key parameters molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) such as melt temperature, concrete ablation history and gas generation are investigated. Total twenty cases are selected according to ejected debris fraction and coolant mass. The ablation rate of concrete decreases as mass of the melt decreases and coolant mass increases. Heat loss from molten pool to coolant is comparable to total decay heat, so concrete ablation is delayed until water is absent and crust begins to remove. Also, overpressurization due to non-condensible gases generated during corium and concrete interacts can cause to additional risk of containment failure. It is concluded that flooded reactor cavity condition is very important to minimize the cavity ablation and pressure load by non-condensible gases on containment

  12. The Live program - Results of test L1 and joint analyses on transient molten pool thermal hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, M.; Buerger, M. [Univ Stuttgart, Inst Kernenerget and Energiesyst, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Miassoedov, A.; Gaus-Liu, X.; Palagin, A. [IRSN Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Godin-Jacqmin, L. [CEA Cadarache, DEN STRI LMA, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Tran, C. T.; Ma, W. M. [KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Chudanov, V. [Nucl Safety Inst, Moscow 113191 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The development of a corium pool in the lower head and its behaviour is still a critical issue. This concerns, in general, the understanding of a severe accident with core melting, its course, major critical phases and timing, and the influence of these processes on the accident progression as well as, in particular, the evaluation of in-vessel melt retention by external vessel flooding as an accident mitigation strategy. Previous studies were especially related to the in-vessel retention question and often just concentrated on the quasi-steady state behaviour of a large molten pool in the lower head, considered as a bounding configuration. However, non-feasibility of the in-vessel retention concept for high power density reactors and uncertainties e. g. due to layering effects even for low or medium power reactors, turns this to be insufficient. Rather, it is essential to consider the whole evolution of the accident, including e. g. formation and growth of the in-core melt pool, characteristics of corium arrival in the lower head, and molten pool behaviour after the debris re-melting. These phenomena have a strong impact on a potential termination of a severe accident. The general objective of the LIVE program at FZK is to study these phenomena resulting from core melting experimentally in large-scale 3D geometry and in supporting separate-effects tests, with emphasis on the transient behaviour. Up to now, several tests on molten pool behaviour have been performed within the LIVE experimental program with water and with non-eutectic melts (KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}) as simulant fluids. The results of these experiments, performed in nearly adiabatic and in isothermal conditions, allow a direct comparison with findings obtained earlier in other experimental programs (SIMECO, ACOPO, BALI, etc. ) and will be used for the assessment of the correlations derived for the molten pool behaviour. Complementary to other international programs with real corium melts, the results

  13. Re criticality assessment following reactor core damage in Fukushima unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Chang Je; Ha, Kwang Soon; Song, Yong Mann; Ryu, Eun Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe core damage accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (NPPs), many researchers have studied a possible Re criticality caused by core melting or corium. However, no one can accurately examine the internal conditions of the reactor vessel, and thus there have been different opinions from some organizations depending on their assumption and analysis methods. If there is a potential Re criticality in the reactor vessel, some counter plans for the accident management should be established to prevent and mitigate re criticality, and to return the plant to a safe and stable state. In this study, the criticality level following a severe core damage accident was first analyzed using the MCNPX 2.6.0 code. Based on this result, practical strategies in terms of accident management were obtained by charging soluble boron (H 3B O 3) into re flooded water

  14. Severe accident in pressurized water reactors: molten fuel-coolant interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battail-Claret, Sylvie

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the phenomenon of interaction between corium and water, the author of this research thesis proposes a scenario to describe the behaviour of a drop of molten iron oxide suddenly plunged into a bath of liquid at room temperature. First, she addresses the modelling of the evolution of the vapour film which surrounds the hot drop and comprises a phase of establishment of a steady film and the phase of destabilisation of this film when an external pressure wave passes by. Besides, she modelled the process of fragmentation of a hot body induced by the destabilisation of a process due to the impact of liquid water micro-jets with water trapping in the hot body. Finally, a model of 'bubble dynamics' is proposed to describe the evolution of the vapour bubble fed by fragments. Theoretical results are compared with experimental results [fr

  15. OECD MCCI project enhancing instrumentation for reactor materials experiments, Rev. 0 September 3, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Basu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Reactor safety experiments for studying the reactions of a molten core (corium) with water and/or concrete involve materials at extremely high temperature. Such high temperature severely restricts the types of sensors that can be employed to measure characteristics of the corium itself. Yet there is great interest in improving instrumentation so that the state of the melt can be established with more precision. In particular, it would be beneficial to increase both the upper range limit and accuracy of temperature measurements. The poor durability of thermocouples at high temperature is also an important issue. For experiments involving a water-quenched melt, direct measurements of the growth rate of the crust separating the melt and water would be of great interest. This is a key element in determining the nature of heat transfer between the melt and coolant. Despite its importance, no one has been able to directly measure the crust thickness during such tests. This paper considers three specialized sensors that could be introduced to enhance melt characterization: (1) A commercially fabricated, single point infrared temperature measurement with the footprint of a thermowell. A lens assembly and fiber optic cable linked to a receiver and amplifier measures the temperature at the base of a tungsten thermowell. The upper range limit is 3000 C and accuracy is ±0.25% of the reading. (2) In-house development of an ultrasonic temperature sensor that would provide multipoint measurements at temperatures up to ∼3000 C. The sensors are constructed from tungsten rods and have a high temperature durability that is superior to that of thermocouples. (3) In-house development of an ultrasonic probe to measure the growth rate of the corium crust. This ultrasonic sensor would include a tungsten waveguide that transmits ultrasonic pulses up through the corium melt towards the crust and detects reflections from the melt/crust interface. A measurement of the echo time delay would

  16. Practical application of computer program Panthere for workers' radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, Pierre; Michoux, Xavier; Lereculey, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The civil engineering operations to strengthen the raft of Fessenheim's nuclear plant were carried out by EDF. This technical modification has two principles objectives: 1) to increase the thickness of the reactor pit's concrete and 2) to create a new spreading area for corium (by creating a penetration through the wall of the reactor pit). Behind the complex technical operations two radioprotection issues were studied using the computer program 'PANTHERE': 1) Workers' radiation protection during the execution of the work (because of high dose rates in the reactor pit) and 2) operators' radiation protection after the execution of the work. Results contributed to decrease personal and collective dosimetry of operations and to model and design a biological shield to protect workers during Fessenheim reactor operation. (authors)

  17. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  18. Upgrade of High-Energy X-Ray real-time radioscopy for KROTOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estre, N.; Payan, E.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Compagnon, F.; Valerian, M.; Mallet, R. [CEA-Cadarache (France)

    2015-07-01

    As part of its R and D programs on severe accidents, in particular on understanding of corium-water interaction, CEA is commissioning an update of the KROTOS experiment at Cadarache. The Xray imaging setup (high energy real-time radioscopy) is upgraded to provide the best performances for the new experimental program. In order to fit the performance needs (faster acquisition, smaller detection limit and higher field of view), two radioscopy setups, with two linear accelerators (linacs 9 MV and 6 MV), are placed in the irradiation cell. Having discussed the expected performances in terms of frequency, detection limit and field-of-view, this article details each stage of both radioscopy chains: principles and technical characteristics. Then, linacs and cameras synchronization (at few hundred Hertz), data flows and storage setups are detailed. Finally, experimental characterizations and performance validations on phantom are presented. (authors)

  19. Upgrade of High-Energy X-Ray real-time radioscopy for KROTOS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estre, N.; Payan, E.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Compagnon, F.; Valerian, M.; Mallet, R.

    2015-01-01

    As part of its R and D programs on severe accidents, in particular on understanding of corium-water interaction, CEA is commissioning an update of the KROTOS experiment at Cadarache. The Xray imaging setup (high energy real-time radioscopy) is upgraded to provide the best performances for the new experimental program. In order to fit the performance needs (faster acquisition, smaller detection limit and higher field of view), two radioscopy setups, with two linear accelerators (linacs 9 MV and 6 MV), are placed in the irradiation cell. Having discussed the expected performances in terms of frequency, detection limit and field-of-view, this article details each stage of both radioscopy chains: principles and technical characteristics. Then, linacs and cameras synchronization (at few hundred Hertz), data flows and storage setups are detailed. Finally, experimental characterizations and performance validations on phantom are presented. (authors)

  20. Experimental study on thermal interaction between a high-temperature molten jet and plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Saito, M.; Furutani, A.; Isozaki, M.; Imahori, S.; Konishi, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent simulant experiments to study molten corium-structure interactions under postulated core disruptive accident (CDA) conditions in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFMRs). These experiments were conducted in the MELT-II facility generating high-temperature molten simulants by an induction heating technique. From a series of molten jet-structure interaction experiments, the effects of the solidified crust layer and molten layer on the erosion behavior were identified, and analytical models were developed to assess the structure erosion rate with and without crust formation. Especially, we revealed the inherent mitigation mechanism that when the molten oxide jet with high melting point falls down onto the structure plate, solidified crust of the oxide can significantly reduce the erosion rate. (author)

  1. Ultrasound Examination Through The Sole Horn On A Weight‐Bearing Claw: Pilot In‐Vitro Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    of a 700 kg heavy Holstein cow The correlation between the thickness of the soft tissue measured with the two different methods was 0.91 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Figure 1). Discussion The bottom of the tub could carry the weight of a 700 kg cow. It was possible to scan through the sole horn......Introduction A decrease of the soft tissue thickness in the claw increases the pressure on the corium from the pedal bone and may lead to injuries and claw horn lesions (Ossent & Lischer 1998, Tarlton, et al. 2002). Ultrasonography has been described as a useful method to exam the soft tissue...... the sole horn and through the polyethylene plate respectively had an acceptable correlation. Acknowledgements Thanks to Mogens Nielsen Kreaturslagteri A/S for providing slaughter house legs. References Kofler J, Kubber P, and Henninger W 1999 Ultrasonographic imaging and thickness measurement of the sole...

  2. Numerical investigation on natural convection and solidification of molten pool with OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Meng Zhaocan; Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    The in-vessel retention is adopted by the third generation nuclear power technology as an important severe accident mitigation strategy. The integrity of reactor pressure vessel depends on the heat flux distribution of molten pool. In present study, the solidification model in open source CFD software OpenFOAM was applied to simulate solidification and natural convection which was driven by internal heat source or temperature difference. The stratified molten pool heat transfer experiment carried out by Royal Institute of Technology was analyzed in the paper, and the solidified crust, temperature and heat flux distributions were obtained. The simulation results were compared with experimental data. It is shown that this numerical method can be used in the simulation of natural convection and solidification of molten pool, and it will probably be used in the analysis of molten corium behavior in reactor lower head. (authors)

  3. Proceedings of the Workshop on in-vessel core debris retention and coolability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This conference on in-vessel core debris retention and coolability is composed of 37 papers grouped in three sessions: session 1 (Keynote papers: Key phenomena of late phase core melt progression, accident management strategies and status quo of severe fuel damage codes, In-vessel retention as a severe accident management scheme, GAREC analyses in support of in-vessel retention concept, Latest findings of RASPLAV project); session 2 - Experiments and model development with five sub-sessions: sub-session 1 (Debris bed heat transfer: Debris and Pool Formation/Heat Transfer in FARO-LWR: Experiments and Analyses, Evaporation and Flow of Coolant at the Bottom of a Particle-Bed modelling Relocated Debris, Investigations on the Coolability of Debris in the Lower Head with WABE-2D and MESOCO-2D, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of the Heat Transfer Mechanisms in the Lower Head, Simulation of the Arrival and Evolution of Debris in a PWR Lower Head with the SFD ICARE2 code), sub-session 2 (Corium properties, molten pool natural convection, and crust formation: Physico-chemistry and corium properties for in-vessel retention, Experimental data on heat flux distribution from volumetrically heated pool with frozen boundaries, Thermal hydraulic phenomena in corium pools - numerical simulation with TOLBIAC and experimental validation with BALI, TOLBIAC code simulations of some molten salt RASPLAV experiments, SIMECO experiments on in-vessel melt pool formation and heat transfer with and without a metallic layer, Numerical investigation of turbulent natural convection heat transfer in an internally-heated melt pool and metallic layer, Current status and validation of CON2D and 3D code, Free convection of heat-generating fluid in a constrained during experimental simulation of heat transfer in slice geometry), sub-session 3 (Gap formation and gap cooling: Quench of molten aluminum oxide associated with in-vessel debris retention by RPV internal water, Experimental investigations

  4. Low pressure injection sequence sensitivity study of the M1 module of MEDICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.; Norkus, J.K.; Welzbacker, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the consequences of a PWR containment failure and the ensuing radiological source term following a severe reactor accident, it is necessary to understand the ex-vessel behavior of the molten core. The M1 module of MEDICI models the dynamic fuel-coolant mixing, energetic interaction, and ejection of fuel and coolant from the reactor cavity following such an accident. A sensitivity study of the low pressure injection sequence was performed utilizing a Box-Behnken statistical design to treat five sets of input variables considered to be significant in the mixing and steam explosion processes. The low pressure injection sequence was studied in which the molten corium is modeled as a pour stream entering the cavity without entraining or sweeping out fuel or coolant

  5. Boiling in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference day of the French society of thermal engineers was devoted to the analysis of heat transfers and fluid flows during boiling phenomena in porous media. This book of proceedings comprises 8 communications entitled: 'boiling in porous medium: effect of natural convection in the liquid zone'; 'numerical modeling of boiling in porous media using a 'dual-fluid' approach: asymmetrical characteristic of the phenomenon'; 'boiling during fluid flow in an induction heated porous column'; 'cooling of corium fragment beds during a severe accident. State of the art and the SILFIDE experimental project'; 'state of knowledge about the cooling of a particulates bed during a reactor accident'; 'mass transfer analysis inside a concrete slab during fire resistance tests'; 'heat transfers and boiling in porous media. Experimental analysis and modeling'; 'concrete in accidental situation - influence of boundary conditions (thermal, hydric) - case studies'. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear reactor cavity floor passive heat removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Neeley, Gary W.; Inman, James B.

    2018-03-06

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor and includes a concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor. An ex vessel corium retention system includes flow channels embedded in the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor, an inlet in fluid communication with first ends of the flow channels, and an outlet in fluid communication with second ends of the flow channels. In some embodiments the inlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a first elevation and the outlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a second elevation higher than the first elevation. The radiological containment may include a reactor cavity containing a lower portion of the pressure vessel, wherein the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor is the reactor cavity floor.

  7. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given [fr

  8. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part I: Experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gavillet, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Würenlingen and Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); De Bremaecker, A. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel test section and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 and 900 mm) of the 1-m long test section are presented in this paper. Material interactions leading to local corium formation were identified: firstly between fuel and Zircaloy-4 cladding, notably at 823 mm, where the cladding melting temperature was reached, and secondly between fuel and stainless steel oxides. Regarding fission products, molybdenum left so-called metallic precipitates mainly composed of ruthenium. Xenon and caesium behave similarly whereas barium and molybdenum often seems to be associated in precipitates.

  9. Complex Sensory Corpuscles in the Upper Jaw of Horsfield’s Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Buchtová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensory corpuscles of Testudo horsfieldii in the skin of the upper lip and face were studied with light and electron microscopy. The sensory corpuscles were situated under epidermis; in the corium and also between the upper jaw bone tissues in the rostral part of oral cavity. The skin sensory corpuscles with a ramified inner core were grouped in clusters. Within the corpuscle there were several simple inner cores embedded within a common superficial capsule. The complex corpuscles have a novel structure in comparison to what has been described for sensory nerve endings in turtle. The complex sensory corpuscles probably function as mechanoreceptors important for monitoring the movement of the keratinized ridges and the most rostral part of the upper jaw, the rhamphotheci.

  10. Glomerular nerve endings in corial papillae of the pig lip skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovský, L; Pác, L; Krivánková, L

    1982-01-01

    In the tops of corial papillae of the pig lip skin the authors sometimes observed besides typical sensory corpuscles also glomerular nerve endings. They are formed by one axon or they are polyaxon. The nerve fibres are richly branched in the formation. In electronogrammes a large number of axons is visible in cross sections round some of which there are more or less formed lamellous systems up to four lamellae. Between the axons there are nuclei of Schwann cells, on the surface there is a thin capsule of fibrocyte character. In non-primate mammals the typical receptor in the corium of the skin are simple corpuscles, in primates glomerular nerve endings. As concerns sensory corpuscles it is the other way round. The authors are of the opinion that the observed glomerular endings represent morphologically a transitory formation. With respect to the occurrence of lamellous complexes in the glomeruli, they can be considered as equivalent to simple sensory corpuscles with rapid adaptation.

  11. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the issue of severe accidents which may occur on operating pressurised water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    While containing other related documents (expert report, mail), this synthetic report analyses and comments some aspects of the assessment and treatment of severe accidents by EDF in its operating PWRs (pressurised water nuclear reactors). These aspects are: the EDF referential related to severe accidents (objectives of consequence limitation and prevention, long term management, probabilistic objectives, radiological objectives, expected performance of equipment and systems), the re-assessment of the 'S3 reference source term' which corresponds to a typical discharge (selection of representative scenarios, new approach based on waste categorization, the taking into account of various species, components and systems), the water management in the reactor tank (risks of explosion, of critical corium level, etc.), the strategy of an anticipated opening of the containment envelope venting-filtration device in order to avoid a core fusion, and the risk associated by a cesspool filling-in by debris

  12. In-vessel core debris retention through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel. SCDAP/RELAP5 assessment for the SBWR lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heel, A.M.J.M. van.

    1995-09-01

    In this report the results are discussed from various analyses on the feasibility and phenomenology of the External Flooding (EF) concept for an SBWR lower head, filled with a large heat generating corium mass. In applying External Flooding as an accident management strategy after or during core melt down, the lower drywell is filled with water up to a level where a large portion of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is flooded. The purpose of this method is to establish cooling of the vessel wall, that is challenged by the heat load resulting from the corium, in such a way that its structural integrity if not endangered. The analysis discussed in this report focus on the thermal response of the vessel wall and the ex-vessel boiling processes under the conditions described above. For these analyses the SCDAP/REALP5 MOD 3.1 code was used. The major outcome of the calculations is, that a major part of the vessel wall remains well below themelting temperature of carbon steel, as long as flooding of the external surface of the lower head is established. The SCDAP/RELAP5 analyses indicated that low-quality Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was not exceeded, under all the conditions that had been tested. However, a comaprison of the heat fluxes, as calculated in RELAP5, with the CHF values obtained from the Zuber correlation and the Vishnev correction factor (for boiling at inclined surfaces) proved that CHF values, based on these criteria, were exceeded in several surface points of the lower head mesh. The correlations, as resident in the current version of RELAP5 MOD 3.1, might lead to over-estimation of CHF for the EF analyses discussed in this report. The use of the more conservative Zuber correlation with the Vishnev correction factor is recommended for EF analyses. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of accidental loss of pool coolant due to leakage in a PWR SFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng

    2015-01-01

    melting, and even the molten corium pool to avoid molten-corium-concrete-interaction (MCCI)

  14. Preliminary Design of Optimized Reactor Insulator for Severe Accident Mitigation of APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sun; Lee, Jae-Gon; Kang, Yong-Chul

    2007-01-01

    APR1400, a Korean evolutionary advance light water reactor, has many advanced safety feature to prevent and mitigate of design basis accident (DBA) and severe accident. When reactor cooling system (RCS) fails to cooling its core, the core melted down and the molten core gathers together on bottom of reactor vessel. The molten core hurts reactor vessel and is released to containment, which raises the release of radioactive isotopes and the heating of the containment atmosphere. Finally, the corium is accumulated in the bottom of reactor cavity and it also raises the Molten Core and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) and the heating of containment atmosphere. There are two strategies to cooling molten core. Those are in-vessel retention and ex-vessel cooling. At the early stage of APR1400 design, only ex-vessel cooling which is cooling of the molten core outside the vessel after vessel failure is considered based on EPRI Utility Requirement Document (URD) for Evolutionary LWR. However, a need has been arisen to reflect current research findings on severe accident phenomena and mitigation technologies to Korean URD and IVRERVC (In-Vessel corium Retention using Ex-Reactor Vessel Cooling) was adopted APR1400. The ERVC is not considered as a licensing design basis but based on the defense-in-depth principle and safety margin basis, which is the top-tier requirement of the severe accident mitigation design as stated in the KURD. The Severe Accident Management strategy for APR1400 is intended to aid the plant operating staff to secure reactor vessel integrity in the early stage of the severe accident. As a part of a design implementation of IVR-ERVC for APR1400, we developed the preliminary design requirement, design specification and conceptual design

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Particle Shape on Frictional Pressure drop in Particulate Debris Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To ensure the long-term cooling of corium in the reactor cavity, it is important to ensure the coolant ingression into the internally heat generated corium debris bed which is governed by pressure drop in porous media. For this reason, it is necessary to understand pressure drop mechanisms in porous bed to verify the feasibility of water penetration into particulate debris bed. According to the previous investigations on molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) experiments, it was found that quenched particulate debris bed was composed of irregular shape particles. Therefore, empirical or semiempirical models based on the Ergun equation (Ergun, 1952) for single-phase flow in porous media composed of single sized spherical particle were developed to consider the effect of particle shape on frictional pressure drop by means of adding a shape factor or modifying the Ergun constants etc. (Leva, 1959, Handley and Heggs, 1968, Macdonald, 1979, Foumeny et al., 1996). An experimental investigate on single-phase frictional pressure drop of water in packed bed was conducted in the transparent cylindrical test section with the inner diameter of 100 mm and the height of 700 mm to study the effect of particle shape on frictional pressure drop in porous media. This paper reports the experimental data for spherical particles with the diameter of 2 mm and 5 mm and cylindrical particles with ED of 2 mm and 5 mm. And also, the experimental data compared with the models to predict frictional pressure drop in particulate bed. The conclusions are summarized as follows. As a result of the experiment to measure frictional pressure drop in particulate bed composed of cylindrical particles the models predict the experimental data well within 22.11 % except the Handley and Heggs model when ED is applied to the models.

  16. Modeling in fast dynamics of accidents in the primary circuit of PWR type reactors; Modelisation en dynamique rapide d'accidents dans le circuit primaire des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, M.F

    2003-12-01

    Two kinds of accidents, liable to occur in the primary circuit of a Pressurized Water Reactor and involving fast dynamic phenomena, are analyzed. The Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is the accident used to define the current PWR. It consists in a large-size break located in a pipe of the primary circuit. A blowdown wave propagates through the circuit. The pressure differences between the different zones of the reactor induce high stresses in the structures of the lower head and may degrade the reactor core. The primary circuit starts emptying from the break opening. Pressure decreases very quickly, involving a large steaming. Two thermal-hydraulic simulations of the blowdown phase of a LOCA are computed with the Europlexus code. The primary circuit is represented by a pipe-model including the hydraulic peculiarities of the circuit. The main differences between both computations concern the kind of reactor, the break location and model, and the initialization of the accidental operation. Steam explosion is a hypothetical severe accident liable to happen after a core melting. The molten part of the core (called corium) falls in the lower part of the reactor. The interaction between the hot corium and the cold water remaining at the bottom of the vessel induces a massive and violent vaporization of water, similar to an explosive phenomenon. A shock wave propagates in the vessel. what can damage seriously the neighbouring structures or drill the vessel. This work presents a synthesis of in-vessel parametrical studies carried out with the Europlexus code, the linkage of the thermal-hydraulic code Mc3d dedicated to the pre-mixing phase with the Europlexus code dealing with the explosion, and finally a benchmark between the Cigalon and Europlexus codes relative to the Vulcano mock-up. (author)

  17. A state of the art on penetration failure estimation under external vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. T.; Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, S. B.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, K. Y.

    2000-04-01

    A state of the art on penetration failure was reviewed and analyzed to establish the direction of the experimental program in the KNGR and to decide the test section design. The interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel and the corium behavior in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel were analyzed to investigate the penetration effect on severe accident progression, and the TMI-2 accident was investigated in the point of penetration failure. Theoretical model and experiment results on penetration failure under the severe accident were investigated and reviewed to establish the direction of the experimental program on the estimation of the penetration failure in the KNGR. These results were compared with the TMI-2 results. The existing test facilities on penetration failure were investigated and reviewed to decide the test section design. It can be said from the state of the art review that penetration in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel is a week point in the reactor vessel failure under the severe accident, but the reactor vessel may not be failed by penetration failure in condition with the coolant supply to the penetration. Since the penetration is different with reactor types and there is no study on estimation of the penetration welding, it is necessary to investigate failure or not of the penetration in condition with external vessel cooling to maintain the reactor vessel integrity in KNGR. In the present experimental program on the integrity estimation of the KNGR penetration, the aluminum oxide melt by thermite reaction and the test section with one penetration of the real size and real material were selected. The melt mass, the pressure of the system, and the vessel geometry were selected as an experimental parameter. (author)

  18. Reactor Core Failure Analysis for Feasibility Study of IVR-ERVC Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kukhee; Cho, Yongjin; Hwang, Taesuk

    2014-01-01

    The complicated physical phenomena in a reactor vessel under severe accident environments should be evaluated by effective cooling methods at the same time to satisfy thermal failure margin of the strategy. The reactor integrity by this margin criterion is guaranteed if the heat flux obtained by the analysis of heat balance equations between heat structures in a reactor vessel does not exceed the critical-heat-flux (CHF) limit for nucleate boiling on the vessel outer surface. This method assumes the layer configuration of molten pools (number of layers, thickness of layers and heat generation rate of molten corium, etc.) and evaluates representative states by a 1-dimensional heat transfer analysis. Boundary conditions of model should be well defined to increase accuracy of assessed heat flux and these are dependent on accident scenarios. Therefore, conservative assumptions or results from the analysis using system codes for accident analyses should be considered to determine boundary conditions. In this paper, in-vessel molten corium behaviors during LBLOCA which is considered as the most conservative accident scenario in IVR-ERVC design concerns are examined using MELCOR 1.8.6 to check the feasibility of APR1400 IVR-ERVC strategy. The relocated debris mass in the lower head of APR1400 reactor is analyzed using MELCOR1.8.6. This analysis is to determine the boundary conditions of the heat balance equations consisting of the lumped parameter method in order to calculate heat flux at external vessel wall surface. As a result, lower head vessel failure has been occurred at the time of about 7e3 which is very short time comparing with total period of ERVC process. Even though the effect of external vessel cooling is well-modeled, however, the differences between debris mass are relatively small. Therefore, the physical feasibility of the creep rupture model in MELCOR COR package should be verified for an adequate debris mass assessment in a reactor lower head under the

  19. Survey of Regulations Applicable to the Finned Containment in Korean Nuclear Power Plant for Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hyung Gyun; Kang, Hie Chan

    2016-01-01

    In severe accident, the molten corium would discharge into the reactor cavity and interact with water and concrete of cavity. Molten corium includes non-oxidation metals such as Zr, Fe and Cr. These metal species reacted with water emit hydrogen gas. In addition to this, a mount of steam can be emitted to the containment such as steam line break accident. As a result, steam and hydrogen gas can pressurize containment over the design pressure and threaten its integrity. For this reasons, a concept equipped with finned on the containment building was proposed for coping with prolonged accident. Finned containment can enhance heat transfer to the ambient, and the building itself is working as a heat sink. Multiple metal fins and metal rod are penetrated into containment wall, and the rods are working as an additional path of heat removal. To be accepted in the nuclear power plants, this configuration should satisfy the requirement of heat removal and follow all regulations related with containment also. For applying to Korean nuclear power plants, the finned containment should follow all regulations specialized in Korea such as Nuclear regulatory criteria for light water reactor and Guidelines of nuclear safety examination for light water reactor. A concept of containment as a passive cooling system has been proposed. Furthermore, the new containment concept can be applied on the real containment which satisfies the various regulations. Finned containment would be expected positive effects on heat removal from the containment. If the fins are properly welded to the liner, finned containment could satisfy the leak tightness and prevention of external influences. Finned containment could be favorable to protect external impact like aircraft crash because of the additional structural integrity by the fins

  20. Containment Modelling with the ASTEC Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, Sinisa; Grgic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    ASTEC is an integral computer code jointly developed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Germany) to assess the nuclear power plant behaviour during a severe accident (SA). It consists of 13 coupled modules which compute various SA phenomena in primary and secondary circuits of the nuclear power plants (NPP), and in the containment. The ASTEC code was used to model and to simulate NPP behaviour during a postulated station blackout accident in the NPP Krsko, a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. The primary system of the plant was modelled with 110 thermal hydraulic (TH) volumes, 113 junctions and 128 heat structures. The secondary system was modelled with 76 TH volumes, 77 junctions and 87 heat structures. The containment was modelled with 10 TH volumes by taking into account containment representation as a set of distinctive compartments, connected with 23 junctions. A total of 79 heat structures were used to simulate outer containment walls and internal steel and concrete structures. Prior to the transient calculation, a steady state analysis was performed. In order to achieve correct plant initial conditions, the operation of regulation systems was modelled. Parameters which were subjected to regulation were the pressurizer pressure, the pressurizer narrow range level and steam mass flow rates in the steam lines. The accident analysis was focused on containment behaviour, however the complete integral NPP analysis was carried out in order to provide correct boundary conditions for the containment calculation. During the accident, the containment integrity was challenged by release of reactor system coolant through degraded coolant pump seals and, later in the accident following release of the corium out of the reactor pressure vessel, by the molten corium concrete interaction and direct containment heating mechanisms. Impact of those processes on relevant

  1. A fast running method for predicting the efficiency of core melt spreading for application in ASTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, C.

    2010-01-01

    The integral Accident Source Term Evaluation Code (ASTEC) is jointly developed by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) and the German Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH to simulate the complete scenario of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear light water reactor, from the initial event until the possible radiological release of fission products out of the containment. In the frame of the new series of ASTEC V2 versions appropriate model extensions to the European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) are under development. With view to assessing with ASTEC the proper operation of the ex-vessel melt retention and coolability concept of the EPR with regard to melt spreading an approximation of the area finally covered by the corium and of the distance run by the corium front before freezing is required. A necessary capability of ASTEC is in a first step to identify such boundary cases, for which there is a potential that the melt will freeze before the spreading area is completely filled. This paper presents a fast running method for estimating the final extent of the area covered with melt on which a simplified criterion in ASTEC for detecting such boundary cases will be based. If a boundary case is detected the application of a more-detailed method might be necessary to assess further the consequences for the accident sequence. The major objective here is to provide a reliable method for estimating the final result of the spreading and not to provide highly detailed methods to simulate the dynamics of the transient process. (orig.)

  2. SARNET, a success story. Survey of major achievements on severe accidents and of knowledge capitalization within the ASTEC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albiol, T.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Reinke, N.

    2013-01-01

    51 organizations from Europe and Canada cooperated within SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence) joining their capacities of research in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, in regard to Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). SARNET defines common research programmes and develops common computer codes and methodologies for safety assessment. The ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany) for Light Water Reactor (LWR) source term SA evaluation, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) level-2 studies and SA management evaluation, is the main integrating component of SARNET. The scientific knowledge generated in the Corium, Source Term and Containment Topics has been integrated into the code through improved or new physical models. ASTEC constitutes now the reference European SA integral code. During the 4 and half years of SARNET, 30 partners have assessed the successive versions of the ASTEC V1 code through validation. More than 60 scientists have been trained on the code use. Validation tasks on about 65 experiments were performed to cover all physical phenomena occurring in a severe accident: circuit thermalhydraulic, core degradation, fission products (FP) release and transport, Molten-Corium-Concrete-Interaction (MCCI), and in the containment, thermalhydraulic, aerosol and iodine as well as hydrogen behaviour. The overall status of validation can be considered as good, with results often close to results of mechanistic codes. Some reach the limits of present knowledge, for instance on MCCI, and, like in most codes, an adequate model for reflooding of a degraded core is still missing. IRSN and GRS are currently preparing the new series of ASTEC V2 versions that will account for most of the needs of evolution expressed by the SARNET partners. The first version V2.0, planned for March 09, will be applicable to EPR and will include the ICARE2

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Particle Shape on Frictional Pressure drop in Particulate Debris Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Hyun Sun

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the long-term cooling of corium in the reactor cavity, it is important to ensure the coolant ingression into the internally heat generated corium debris bed which is governed by pressure drop in porous media. For this reason, it is necessary to understand pressure drop mechanisms in porous bed to verify the feasibility of water penetration into particulate debris bed. According to the previous investigations on molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) experiments, it was found that quenched particulate debris bed was composed of irregular shape particles. Therefore, empirical or semiempirical models based on the Ergun equation (Ergun, 1952) for single-phase flow in porous media composed of single sized spherical particle were developed to consider the effect of particle shape on frictional pressure drop by means of adding a shape factor or modifying the Ergun constants etc. (Leva, 1959, Handley and Heggs, 1968, Macdonald, 1979, Foumeny et al., 1996). An experimental investigate on single-phase frictional pressure drop of water in packed bed was conducted in the transparent cylindrical test section with the inner diameter of 100 mm and the height of 700 mm to study the effect of particle shape on frictional pressure drop in porous media. This paper reports the experimental data for spherical particles with the diameter of 2 mm and 5 mm and cylindrical particles with ED of 2 mm and 5 mm. And also, the experimental data compared with the models to predict frictional pressure drop in particulate bed. The conclusions are summarized as follows. As a result of the experiment to measure frictional pressure drop in particulate bed composed of cylindrical particles the models predict the experimental data well within 22.11 % except the Handley and Heggs model when ED is applied to the models

  4. Modeling in fast dynamics of accidents in the primary circuit of PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Two kinds of accidents, liable to occur in the primary circuit of a Pressurized Water Reactor and involving fast dynamic phenomena, are analyzed. The Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is the accident used to define the current PWR. It consists in a large-size break located in a pipe of the primary circuit. A blowdown wave propagates through the circuit. The pressure differences between the different zones of the reactor induce high stresses in the structures of the lower head and may degrade the reactor core. The primary circuit starts emptying from the break opening. Pressure decreases very quickly, involving a large steaming. Two thermal-hydraulic simulations of the blowdown phase of a LOCA are computed with the Europlexus code. The primary circuit is represented by a pipe-model including the hydraulic peculiarities of the circuit. The main differences between both computations concern the kind of reactor, the break location and model, and the initialization of the accidental operation. Steam explosion is a hypothetical severe accident liable to happen after a core melting. The molten part of the core (called corium) falls in the lower part of the reactor. The interaction between the hot corium and the cold water remaining at the bottom of the vessel induces a massive and violent vaporization of water, similar to an explosive phenomenon. A shock wave propagates in the vessel. what can damage seriously the neighbouring structures or drill the vessel. This work presents a synthesis of in-vessel parametrical studies carried out with the Europlexus code, the linkage of the thermal-hydraulic code Mc3d dedicated to the pre-mixing phase with the Europlexus code dealing with the explosion, and finally a benchmark between the Cigalon and Europlexus codes relative to the Vulcano mock-up. (author)

  5. Effect of the in- and ex-vessel dual cooling on the retention of an internally heated melt pool in a hemispherical vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, K.I.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Thermal Hydraulic Safety Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A concept of in-vessel melt retention (IVMR) by in-vessel reflooding and/or reactor cavity flooding has been considered as one of severe accident management strategies and intensive researches to be performed worldwide. This paper provides some results of analytical investigations on the effect of both in- / ex-vessel cooling on the retention of an internally heated molten pool confined in a hemispherical vessel and the related thermal behavior of the vessel wall. For the present analysis, a scale-down reactor vessel for the KSNP reactor design of 1000 MWe (a large dry PWR) is utilized for a reactor vessel. Aluminum oxide melt simulant is also utilized for a real corium pool. An internal power density in the molten pool is determined by a simple scaling analysis that equates the heat flux on the the scale-down vessel wall to that estimated from KSNP. Well-known temperature-dependent boiling heat transfer curves are applied to the in- and ex-vessel cooling boundaries and radiative heat transfer has been only considered in the case of dry in-vessel. MELTPOOL, which is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code developed at KAERI, is applied to obtain the time-varying heat flux distribution from a molten pool and the vessel wall temperature distributions with angular positions along the vessel wall. In order to gain further insights on the effectiveness of in- and ex-vessel dual cooling on the in-vessel corium retention, four different boundary conditions has been considered: no water inside the vessel without ex-vessel cooling, water inside the vessel without ex-vessel cooling, no water inside the vessel with ex-vessel cooling, and water inside the vessel with ex-vessel cooling. (authors)

  6. On the treatment of plane fusion front in lumped parameter thermal models with convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Skrzypek, E.; Saas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid phase approximations for a two-phase Stefan fusion problem with convection are analyzed. • A reference solution combines integral conservation eqs and a FE solution of the 1D heat equation. • Numerical results are presented for a transient in light water reactor severe accident analysis. • The models performances are highlighted on fusion transients in terms of Biot and Stefan numbers. - Abstract: Within the framework of lumped parameter models for integral codes, this paper focuses on the modeling of a two-phase Stefan fusion problem with natural convection in the liquid phase. In particular, this specific Stefan problem is of interest when studying corium pool behavior in the framework of light water reactor severe accident analysis. The objective of this research is to analyze the applicability of different approximations related to the modeling of the solid phase in terms of boundary heat flux closure relations. Three different approximations are considered: a quadratic profile based model, a model where a parameter controls the power partitioning at the interface and the steady state conduction assumption. These models are compared with an accurate front-tracking solution of this plane fusion front problem. This “reference” is obtained by combining the same integral conservation equations as the approximate models with a mesh-based solution of the 1D heat equation. Numerical results are discussed for a typical configuration of interest for corium pool analysis. Different fusion transients (constructed from nondimensionalization considerations in terms of Biot and Stefan numbers) are used in order to highlight the potential and limitations of the different approximations.

  7. Integrated conjugate heat transfer analysis method for in-vessel retention with external reactor vessel cooling - 15477

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.W.; Bae, J.H.; Seol, W.C.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated conjugate heat transfer analysis method for the thermal integrity of a reactor vessel under external reactor vessel cooling conditions is developed to resolve light metal layer focusing effect issue. The method calculates steady-state 3-dimensional temperature distribution of a reactor vessel using coupled conjugate heat transfer between in-vessel 3-layered stratified corium (metallic pool, oxide pool and heavy metal) and polar-angle dependent boiling heat transfer at the outer surface of a reactor vessel. The 3-layer corium heat transfer model is utilizing lumped-parameter thermal-resistance circuit method and ex-vessel boiling regimes are parametrically considered. The thermal integrity of a reactor vessel is addressed in terms of un-molten thickness profile. The vessel 3-dimensional heat conduction is validated against a commercial code. It is found that even though the internal heat flux from the metal layer goes far beyond critical heat flux (CHF) the heat flux from the outermost nodes of the vessel may be maintained below CHF due to massive vessel heat diffusion. The heat diffusion throughout the vessel is more pronounced for relatively low heat generation rate in an oxide pool. Parametric calculations are performed considering thermal conditions such as peak heat flux from a light metal layer, heat generation in an oxide pool and external boiling conditions. The major finding is that the most crucial factor for success of in-vessel retention is not the mass of the molten light metal above the oxide pool but the heat generation rate inside the oxide pool and the 3-dimensional vessel heat transfer provides a much larger minimum vessel wall thickness. (authors)

  8. Effect of the in- and ex-vessel dual cooling on the retention of an internally heated melt pool in a hemispherical vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.I.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of in-vessel melt retention (IVMR) by in-vessel reflooding and/or reactor cavity flooding has been considered as one of severe accident management strategies and intensive researches to be performed worldwide. This paper provides some results of analytical investigations on the effect of both in- / ex-vessel cooling on the retention of an internally heated molten pool confined in a hemispherical vessel and the related thermal behavior of the vessel wall. For the present analysis, a scale-down reactor vessel for the KSNP reactor design of 1000 MWe (a large dry PWR) is utilized for a reactor vessel. Aluminum oxide melt simulant is also utilized for a real corium pool. An internal power density in the molten pool is determined by a simple scaling analysis that equates the heat flux on the the scale-down vessel wall to that estimated from KSNP. Well-known temperature-dependent boiling heat transfer curves are applied to the in- and ex-vessel cooling boundaries and radiative heat transfer has been only considered in the case of dry in-vessel. MELTPOOL, which is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code developed at KAERI, is applied to obtain the time-varying heat flux distribution from a molten pool and the vessel wall temperature distributions with angular positions along the vessel wall. In order to gain further insights on the effectiveness of in- and ex-vessel dual cooling on the in-vessel corium retention, four different boundary conditions has been considered: no water inside the vessel without ex-vessel cooling, water inside the vessel without ex-vessel cooling, no water inside the vessel with ex-vessel cooling, and water inside the vessel with ex-vessel cooling. (authors)

  9. Survey of Regulations Applicable to the Finned Containment in Korean Nuclear Power Plant for Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyung Gyun [Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hie Chan [Kunsan University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In severe accident, the molten corium would discharge into the reactor cavity and interact with water and concrete of cavity. Molten corium includes non-oxidation metals such as Zr, Fe and Cr. These metal species reacted with water emit hydrogen gas. In addition to this, a mount of steam can be emitted to the containment such as steam line break accident. As a result, steam and hydrogen gas can pressurize containment over the design pressure and threaten its integrity. For this reasons, a concept equipped with finned on the containment building was proposed for coping with prolonged accident. Finned containment can enhance heat transfer to the ambient, and the building itself is working as a heat sink. Multiple metal fins and metal rod are penetrated into containment wall, and the rods are working as an additional path of heat removal. To be accepted in the nuclear power plants, this configuration should satisfy the requirement of heat removal and follow all regulations related with containment also. For applying to Korean nuclear power plants, the finned containment should follow all regulations specialized in Korea such as Nuclear regulatory criteria for light water reactor and Guidelines of nuclear safety examination for light water reactor. A concept of containment as a passive cooling system has been proposed. Furthermore, the new containment concept can be applied on the real containment which satisfies the various regulations. Finned containment would be expected positive effects on heat removal from the containment. If the fins are properly welded to the liner, finned containment could satisfy the leak tightness and prevention of external influences. Finned containment could be favorable to protect external impact like aircraft crash because of the additional structural integrity by the fins.

  10. Simulation of the ACE L2 and ACE L5 MCCI experiment under dry surface conditions with ASTEC MEDICIS using an effective heat transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agethen, Kathrin; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2013-07-01

    In a postulated severe accident the loss of cooling can lead to a melting of the core and to a failure of the vessel. The molten core material discharges to the containment cavity and interacts with the concrete basemat. The heat up of the concrete leads to the release of sparing gases (H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SiO), which stir the pool und causes chemical reactions. Especially the metals (Zr, Fe, Ni, Cr) in the corium are oxidized und the exothermic energy is released to the melt, which raises the melt temperature further. The release of combustible gases (H{sub 2}, CO) and fission products to the containment atmosphere occurs as a result. In the long time (>10 h) containment failure and basemat penetration may occur, which can lead to fission product release to the environment. For further development and validation, simulations of experiments in which molten core concrete interaction (MCCI) is investigated, are necessary. In this work the new available effective heat transfer model in MEDICIS is used to calculate experiments of the ACE program, in which generic corium material is heated up and interacts with the concrete basemat. Here, especially the ACE L2 experiment with siliceous concrete and the ACE L5 experiment with limestone common sand (LCS) concrete will be presented. These experiments enable to analyze the heat transfer from the interior of the melt to the upper surface under dry conditions. Secondary the modeling in ASTEC version 2.p2 with the effective heat transfer module in MEDICIS is described. Results of MEDICIS simulations will be discussed by means of phenomena like ablation behavior and erosions depth, layer temperature and surface heat loss. Finally the issue of an effective heat transfer coefficient for the surface under dry conditions without top flooding is figured out. (orig.)

  11. Overview of in-vessel retention concept involving level of passivity: with application to evolutionary pressurized water reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, Seong H.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, one strategy of severe accident management, the applicability of the in-vessel retention (IVR) concept, which has been incorporated in passive type reactor designs, to evolutionary type reactor designs, is examined with emphasis on the method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) to realize the IVR concept in view of two aspects: for the regulatory aspect, it is addressed in the context of the resolution of the issue of corium coolability; for the technical one, the reliance on and the effectiveness of the IVR concept are mentioned. Additionally, for the ERVC method to be better applied to designs of the evolutionary type reactor, the conditions to be met are pointed out in view of the technical aspect. Concerning the issue of corium coolability/quenchability, based on results of the review, plausible alternative strategies are proposed. According to the decision maker's risk behavior, these would help materialize the conceptual design for evolutionary type reactors, especially Korea Next Generation Reactors (KNGRs), which have been developing at the Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI): (A1) Strategy 1A: strategy based on the global approach using the reliance on the wet cavity method; (A2) Strategy 1B: strategy based on the combined approach using both the reliance on the wet cavity method and the counter-measures for preserving containment integrity; (A3) Strategy 2A: strategy based on the global approach to the reliance on the ERVC method; (A4) Strategy 2B: strategy based on the balanced approach using both the reliance on the ERVC method and the countermeasures for preserving containment integrity. Finally, in application to an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design, several recommendations are made in focusing on both monitoring the status of approaches and preparing countermeasures in regard to the regulatory and the technical aspects

  12. Overview of IRSN R and D on NPP safety, with focus on severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    IRSN contributes to the continuous improvement of safety level of Gen.II and III reactors, with the aim to approach for Gen.II the target safety level of Gen.III. This needs to build the necessary knowledge to appreciate margins for safety important systems, structures and components in the frame of plant operation life extension beyond 40 years. Research is a major IRSN mission that is tightly linked to expertise needs: it involves 40% of overall budget and, out of radiation protection and safety of waste disposal, around 280 scientists. IRSN has acquired a huge experience in the last 30 years on severe accidents, both on experimental and theoretical aspects, in particular through management of large international research programmes like the Phébus. FP integral experiments in the last 20 years and the coordination of the SARNET network of excellence that continues now in the frame of the NUGENIA European association. Besides, IRSN is developing, in collaboration with GRS (Germany), the integral system code ASTEC that is considered now as the European reference code due to the continuous capitalization of all the international knowledge. The presentation summarizes the ongoing IRSN research on the different phenomena involved in severe accidents, with more focus in the last years on mitigation devices or measures, i.e. for in-vessel and ex-vessel corium coolability, hydrogen explosion risk and source term. IRSN leads several international projects in Euratom frame (such as CESAM on ASTEC, PASSAM on source term mitigation, and IVMR on in-vessel corium retention) or OECD/NEA/CSNI (such as STEM). Moreover, several national projects on the above issues are ongoing with the French actors in this domain. Collaboration between IRSN and India is very active and efficient on ASTEC code with BARC and AERB, in particular through PHWR model development and assessment, and could be extended in the future to other issues either on severe accidents or on other Topics. (author)

  13. Analyses on ex-vessel debris formation and coolability in SARNET frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlner, G.; Buck, M.; Meignen, R.; Kudinov, P.; Ma, W.; Polidoro, F.; Takasuo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Melt outflow varies from dripping melt outflow to molten corium jets of variable size. • Experiments show clear trend of producing particles in size range 2-4 mm. • Code calculations show complete solidification of particles, yielding formation of fragmented debris beds. • Limits of debris bed cooling and coolability margins are analysed. - Abstract: The major aim of work in the SARNET2 European project on ex-vessel debris formation and coolability was to get an overall perspective on coolability of melt released from a failed reactor pressure vessel and falling into a water-filled cavity. Especially, accident management concepts for BWRs, dealing with deep water pools below the reactor vessel, are addressed, but also shallower pools in existing PWRs, with questions about partial cooling and time delay of molten corium concrete interaction. The subject can be divided into three main topics: (i) Debris bed formation by breakup of melt, (ii) Coolability of debris and (iii) Coupled treatment of the processes. Accompanied by joint collaborations of the partners, the performed work comprises theoretical, experimental and modelling activities. Theoretical work was done by KTH on the melt outflow conditions from a RPV and on the quantification of the probability of yielding a non-coolable ex-vessel bed by use of probabilistic assessment. IKE introduced a theoretical concept to improve debris bed coolability. A large amount of experimental work was done by partners (KTH, VTT, IKE) on the coolability of debris beds using different bed geometries, particles, heating methods and water feeds, yielding a valuable base for code validation. Modelling work was mainly done by IKE, IRSN, RSE and VTT concerning jet breakup and/or debris bed formation and cooling in 2D and 3D geometries. A benchmark for the DEFOR-A experiment of KTH was performed. Important progress was reached for several tasks and aspects and important insights are given, enabling to focus the

  14. Experimental study on two-phase flow natural circulation in a core catcher cooling channel for EU-APR1400 using air-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Won [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Thanh Hung [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Revankar, Shripad T., E-mail: shripad@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Two-phase flow regimes and transition behavior were observed in the coolant channel. • Test were conducted for natural circulation with air-water. • Data were obtained on flow regime, void fraction, flow rates and re-wetting time. • The data were related to a cooling capability of core catcher system. - Abstract: Ex-vessel core catcher cooling system driven by natural circulation is designed using a full scaled air-water system. A transparent half symmetric section of a core catcher coolant channel of a pressurized water reactor was designed with instrumentations for local void fraction measurement and flow visualization. Two designs of air-water top separator water tanks are studied including one with modified ‘super-step’ design which prevents gas entrainment into down-comer. In the experiment air flow rates are set corresponding to steam generation rate for given corium decay power. Measurements of natural circulation flow rate, spatial local void fraction distribution and re-wetting time near the top wall are carried out for various air flow rates which simulate boiling-induced vapor generation. Since heat transfer and critical heat flux are strongly dependent on the water mass flow rate and development of two-phase flow on the heated wall, knowledge of two-phase flow characteristics in the coolant channel is essential. Results on flow visualization showing two phase flow structure specifically near the high void accumulation regions, local void profiles, rewetting time, and natural circulation flow rate are presented for various air flow rates that simulate corium power levels. The data are useful in assessing the cooling capability of and safety of the core catcher system.

  15. Melt cooling by bottom flooding. The COMET core-catcher concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, Jerzy Jan; Alsmeyer, Hans; Tromm, Walter; Buerger, Manfred; Journeau, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The COMET concept has been developed to cool an ex-vessel corium melt in case of a hypothetical severe accident leading to vessel melt-through. After erosion of a sacrificial concrete layer the melt is passively flooded by bottom injection of coolant water. The open porosities and large surface that are generated during melt solidification form a porous permeable structure that is permanently filled with the evaporating water and thus allows an efficient short-term as well as long-term removal of the decay heat. The advantages of this concept are the fast cool-down and complete solidification of the melt within less than one hour typically. This stops further release of fission products from the corium. A drawback may be the fast release of steam during the quenching process. Several experimental series have been performed by FZK (Germany) to test and optimise the functionality of the different variants of the COMET concept. Thermite generated melts of iron and aluminium oxide were used. The large scale COMET-H test series with sustained inductive heating includes nine experiments performed with an array of water injection channels embedded in a sacrificial concrete layer. Variation of the water inlet pressure and melt height showed that melts up to 50 cm height can be safely cooled with an overpressure of the coolant water of 0.2 bar. The CometPC concept is based on cooling by flooding the melt from the bottom through layers of porous, water filled concrete. The third variant of the COMET design, CometPCA, uses a layer of porous, water filled concrete CometPCA from which flow channels protrude into the layer of sacrificial concrete. This modified concept combines the advantages of the original COMET concept with flow channels and the high resistance of a water-filled porous concrete layer against downward melt attack. Four large scale CometPCA experiments (FZK, Germany) have demonstrated an efficient cooling of melts up to 50 cm height using the recommended water

  16. OECD/CSNI Workshop on In-Vessel Core Debris Retention and Coolability - Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behbahani, Ali-Reza; Drozd, Andrzej; Kim, Sang-Baik; Micaelli, Jean-Claude; Okkonen, Timo; Sugimoto, Jun; Trambauer, Klaus; Tuomisto, Harri

    1999-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 an OECD Workshop on Large Pool Heat transfer was held in Grenoble. The scope of this workshop was the investigation of (1) molten pool heat transfer, (2) heat transfer to the surrounding water, and (3) the feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling through external cooling of the vessel. Since this time, experimental test series have been completed (e.g., COPO, ULPU, CORVIS) and new experimental programs (e.g., BALI, SONATA, RASPLAV, debris and gap heat transfer) have been established to consolidate and expand the data base for further model development and to improve the understanding of in-vessel debris retention and coolability in a nuclear power plant. Discussions within the CSNI's PWG-2 and the Task Group on Degraded Core Cooling (TG-DCC) have led to the conclusion that the time was ripe for organizing a new international Workshop with the objectives: - to review the results of experimental research that has been conducted in this area; - to exchange information on the results of member countries experiments and model development on in-vessel core debris retention and coolability; - to discuss areas where additional experimental research is needed in order to provide an adequate data base for analytical model development for core debris retention and coolability. The scope of this workshop was limited to the phenomena connected to in-vessel core debris retention and coolability and did not include steam explosion and fission product issues. The workshop was structured into the following sessions: Key note papers; Experiments and model development; Debris bed heat transfer; Corium properties, molten pool convection and crust formation; Gap formation and gap cooling; Creep behaviour of reactor pressure vessel lower head; Ex-vessel boiling and critical heat flux phenomena; Scaling to reactor severe accident conditions and reactor applications. Compared to the previous workshop held in Grenoble in 1994, large progress has been made in the

  17. Modelling and analysis of severe accidents for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusheva, Polina

    2012-01-01

    effectiveness of the procedures strongly depends on the ability of the passive safety systems to inject as much water as possible into the reactor coolant system. The results on the early in-vessel phase have shown potentially delayed RPV failure by depressurization of the primary side, as slowing the core damage gives more time and different possibilities for operator interventions to recover systems and to mitigate or terminate the accident. The ANSYS model for the description of the molten pool behaviour in the RPV lower plenum has been extended by a model considering a stratified molten pool configuration. Two different pool configurations were analysed: homogeneous and segregated. The possible failure modes of the RPV and the time to failure were investigated to assess the possible loadings on the containment. The main treated issues are: the temperature field within the corium pool and the RPV and the structure-mechanical behaviour of the vessel wall. The results of the ASTEC calculations of the melt pool configuration were applied as initial conditions for the ANSYS simulations, allowing a more detailed and more accurate modelling of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the core melt and the RPV wall. Moreover, for the late in-vessel phase, retention of the corium in the RPV was investigated presuming external cooling of the vessel wall as mitigative severe accident management measure. The study was based on the finite element computer code ANSYS. The highest thermomechanical loads are observed in the transition zone between the elliptical and the vertical vessel wall for homogeneous pool and in the vertical part of the vessel wall, which is in contact with the molten metal in case of sub-oxidized pool. Assuming external flooding will retain the corium within the RPV. Without flooding, the vessel wall will fail, as the necessary temperature for a balanced heat release from the external surface via radiation is near to or above the melting point of the steel.

  18. The Development of Severe Accident Codes at IRSN and Their Application to Support the Safety Assessment of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, Cataldo; Bleyer, Alexandre; Bentaib, Ahmed; Chatelard, Patrick; Cranga, Michel; Van Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    IRSN uses a two-tier approach for development of codes analysing the course of a hypothetical severe accident (SA) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR): on one hand, the integral code ASTEC, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS, for fast-running and complete analysis of a sequence; on the other hand, detailed codes for best-estimate analysis of some phenomena such as ICARE/CATHARE, MC3D (for steam explosion), CROCO and TONUS. They have been extensively used to support the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the 900 MWe PWR and, in general, for the safety analysis of the French PWR. In particular the codes ICARE/CATHARE, CROCO, MEDICIS (module of ASTEC) and TONUS are used to support the safety assessment of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR). The ICARE/CATHARE code system has been developed for the detailed evaluation of SA consequences in a PWR primary system. It is composed of the coupling of the core degradation IRSN code ICARE2 and of the thermal-hydraulics French code CATHARE2. The CFD code CROCO describes the corium flow in the spreading compartment. Heat transfer to the surrounding atmosphere and to the basemat, leading to the possible formation of an upper and lower crust, basemat ablation and gas sparging through the flow are modelled. CROCO has been validated against a wide experimental basis, including the CORINE, KATS and VULCANO programs. MEDICIS simulates MCCI (Molten-Corium-Concrete-Interaction) using a lumped-parameter approach. Its models are being continuously improved through the interpretation of most MCCI experiments (OECD-CCI, ACE...). The TONUS code has been developed by IRSN in collaboration with CEA for the analysis of the hydrogen risk (both distribution and combustion) in the reactor containment. The analyses carried out to support the EPR safety assessment are based on a CFD formulation. At this purpose a low-Mach number multi-component Navier-Stokes solver is used to analyse the hydrogen distribution. Presence of air, steam and

  19. Influence of the oxidation of a molten pool on fission product release by the computer code RELOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhietpass, I.D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of reactor safety research is to prevent the release of radionuclides into the environment of a nuclear power plant. Although Light Water Reactors are well configured by a multitude of safety systems and a severe accident seems very unlikely to happen, risk analyses are made implying a severe accident. In that the reactor core might melt in consequence of insuffient cooling, relocate and accumulate forming a molten pool and thus providing a potential contribution to the aerosol source term. For the investigation of the release of radionuclides from a molten pool the code RELOS is under development at the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics of the Ruhr- Universitaet Bochum. RELOS calculates for a multi-component/multi-phase system that amount of a component which evaporates from a hot liquid phase into a cooler gas atmosphere. The release behaviour of a radionuclide is determined by its volatility. Chemical reactions of less volatile elements could produce components being more volatile. Particularly the formation of (higher) metallic oxides could influence the volatility in evidence. In RELOS chemical compositions are determined by thermochemical equilibrium analyses in terms of free enthalpy minimization. In order to investigate the impact of pool oxidation on the fission product release behaviour RELOS is calculating, mechanistic models were implemented calculating the amount of oxygen being available at the pool surface and its transfer into the liquid corium phase. For this a diffusion and a convection model were provided. The diffusion model is based on Fick's second law and was realised using Crank-Nicolson, an implicit differential method. The convection model considers a mass transfer coefficient and the difference of the concentrations at the phase boundary and the bulk of the liquid corium. Moreover, the convection model includes both the temperature induced convection resulting from a cooler pool surface and a heated bottom - as it

  20. Main modelling features of the ASTEC V2.1 major version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelard, P.; Belon, S.; Bosland, L.; Carénini, L.; Coindreau, O.; Cousin, F.; Marchetto, C.; Nowack, H.; Piar, L.; Chailan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent modelling improvements of the ASTEC European severe accident code are outlined. • Key new physical models now available in the ASTEC V2.1 major version are described. • ASTEC progress towards a multi-design reactor code is illustrated for BWR and PHWR. • ASTEC strong link with the on-going EC CESAM FP7 project is emphasized. • Main remaining modelling issues (on which IRSN efforts are now directing) are given. - Abstract: A new major version of the European severe accident integral code ASTEC, developed by IRSN with some GRS support, was delivered in November 2015 to the ASTEC worldwide community. Main modelling features of this V2.1 version are summarised in this paper. In particular, the in-vessel coupling technique between the reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulics module and the core degradation module has been strongly re-engineered to remove some well-known weaknesses of the former V2.0 series. The V2.1 version also includes new core degradation models specifically addressing BWR and PHWR reactor types, as well as several other physical modelling improvements, notably on reflooding of severely damaged cores, Zircaloy oxidation under air atmosphere, corium coolability during corium concrete interaction and source term evaluation. Moreover, this V2.1 version constitutes the back-bone of the CESAM FP7 project, which final objective is to further improve ASTEC for use in Severe Accident Management analysis of the Gen.II–III nuclear power plants presently under operation or foreseen in near future in Europe. As part of this European project, IRSN efforts to continuously improve both code numerical robustness and computing performances at plant scale as well as users’ tools are being intensified. Besides, ASTEC will continue capitalising the whole knowledge on severe accidents phenomenology by progressively keeping physical models at the state of the art through a regular feed-back from the interpretation of the current and

  1. Development of TPNCIRC code for Evaluation of Two-Phase Natural Circulation Flow Performance under External Reactor Vessel Cooling Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A-Reum; Song, Hyuk-Jin; Park, Jong-Woon

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident, corium is relocated to the lower head of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Design concept of retaining the corium inside a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) through external cooling under hypothetical core melting accidents is called external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). In this respect, validated two-phase natural circulation flow (TPNC) model is necessary to determine the adequacy of the ERVC design and operating conditions such as inlet area, form losses, gap distance, riser length and coolant conditions. The most important model generally characterizing the TPNC are void fraction and two-phase friction factors. Typical experimental and analytical studies to be referred to on two-phase circulation flow characteristics are those by Reyes, Gartia et al. based on Vijayan et al., Nayak et al. and Dubey et al. In the present paper, two-phase natural circulation (TPNC) flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) conditions are studied using two existing TPNC flow models of Reyes and Gartia et al. incorporating more improved void fraction and two-phase friction models. These models and correlations are integrated into a computer program, TPNCIRC, which can handle candidate ERVC design parameters, such as inlet, riser and downcomer flow lengths and areas, gap size between reactor vessel and surrounding insulations, minor loss factors and operating parameters of decay power, pressure and subcooling. Accuracy of the TPNCIRC program is investigated with respect to the flow rate and void fractions for existing measured data from a general experiment and ULPU specifically designed for the AP1000 in-vessel retention. Also, the effect of some important design parameters are examined for the experimental and plant conditions. Using the flow models and correlations are integrated into a computer program, TPNCIRC, a number of correlations have been examined. This seems coming from the differences of void fractions

  2. Detailed evaluation of two phase natural circulation flow in the cooling channel of the ex-vessel core catcher for EU-APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae-Joon, E-mail: rjpark@kaeri.re.kr; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Rhee, Bo-Wook; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Ex-vessel core catcher of PECS is installed in EU-APR1400. • CE-PECS has been conducted to test a cooling capability of the PECS. • Two phase flow in CE-PECS and PECS was analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3. • RELAP5 results are very similar to the CE-PECS data. • The super-step design is suitable for steam injection into the downcomer in PECS. - Abstract: The ex-vessel core catcher of the PECS (Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System) is installed to retain and cool down the corium in the reactor cavity of the EU (European Union)-APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400. A verification experiment on the cooling capability of the PECS has been conducted in the CE (Cooling Experiment)-PECS. Simulations of a two-phase natural circulation flow using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in the CE-PECS and PECS have been conducted to predict the two-phase flow characteristics, to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the cooling channel, and to evaluate the scaling in the experimental design of the CE-PECS. Particularly from a comparative study of the prototype PECS and the scaled test facility of the CE-PECS, the orifice loss coefficient in the CE-PECS was found to be 6 to maintain the coolant circulation mass flux, which is approximately 273.1 kg/m{sup 2} s. The RELAP5 results on the coolant circulation mass flow rate are very similar to the CE-PECS experimental results. An increase in the coolant injection temperature and the heat flux lead to an increase in the coolant circulation mass flow rate. In the base case simulation, a lot of vapor was injected into the downcomer, which leads to an instability of the two-phase natural circulation flow. A super-step design at a downcomer inlet is suitable to prevent vapor injection into the downcomer piping.

  3. Detailed evaluation of two phase natural circulation flow in the cooling channel of the ex-vessel core catcher for EU-APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Rhee, Bo-Wook; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ex-vessel core catcher of PECS is installed in EU-APR1400. • CE-PECS has been conducted to test a cooling capability of the PECS. • Two phase flow in CE-PECS and PECS was analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3. • RELAP5 results are very similar to the CE-PECS data. • The super-step design is suitable for steam injection into the downcomer in PECS. - Abstract: The ex-vessel core catcher of the PECS (Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System) is installed to retain and cool down the corium in the reactor cavity of the EU (European Union)-APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400. A verification experiment on the cooling capability of the PECS has been conducted in the CE (Cooling Experiment)-PECS. Simulations of a two-phase natural circulation flow using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in the CE-PECS and PECS have been conducted to predict the two-phase flow characteristics, to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the cooling channel, and to evaluate the scaling in the experimental design of the CE-PECS. Particularly from a comparative study of the prototype PECS and the scaled test facility of the CE-PECS, the orifice loss coefficient in the CE-PECS was found to be 6 to maintain the coolant circulation mass flux, which is approximately 273.1 kg/m"2 s. The RELAP5 results on the coolant circulation mass flow rate are very similar to the CE-PECS experimental results. An increase in the coolant injection temperature and the heat flux lead to an increase in the coolant circulation mass flow rate. In the base case simulation, a lot of vapor was injected into the downcomer, which leads to an instability of the two-phase natural circulation flow. A super-step design at a downcomer inlet is suitable to prevent vapor injection into the downcomer piping.

  4. Experimental analysis of ex-vessel core catcher cooling system performance for EU-APR1400 during severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K. W.; Park, H. S.; Revankar, S. T. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the coolant channel which has a unique design and large scale flow paths, natural circulation is passively activated by buoyancy driven force. Since two-phase flow behavior in a large scale channel is different from that in a small scale channel, the two-phase flow affecting the cooling capability is difficult to be predicted in the large channel. Therefore, cooling experiment in the core catcher coolant path is necessary. Cooling Experiment - Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System(CE-PECS) is constructed in full scale(in height and width) slice of half prototype. It actually simulates steam-water flow in the coolant channel for different decay heat condition of the corium. In this study, thermal power considering of total amount of decay heat 190 kW which corresponds to 40MW of thermal power in the prototype is loaded on the top wall of the CE-PECS coolant channel. Natural circulation flow rate and pressure drops at the two-phase region are measured in various power level. Temperatures of heater block and working fluid in various position along the flow path enable to calculate heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients distribution. These results are used for evaluating heat removal capability of core catcher facility. Two-phase natural circulation experiment is carried out in CE-PECS facility. Based on the prototypic condition, 190 kW of total power is supplied to the top of the coolant path. Uniform distribution of heat load on the downward facing heater bock produces -300 kW/m2 at 100 % power ratio. Although the experiment should consider the heat loss and heat flux uniformity, several noticeable conclusions have been made as followings; 1. Mass flow rate and two-phase pressure drop are measured in various power conditions. 2. Slightly inclined top wall at the downstream of the channel shows better heat exchange performance than horizontal top wall because enhanced convection due to the increase of void fraction improves local cooling. This

  5. Formation and reduction behaviors of zirconium oxide compounds in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O melt at 923 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu, E-mail: sakamura@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwadokita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Iizuka, Masatoshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwadokita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kitawaki, Shinichi; Nakayoshi, Akira; Kofuji, Hirohide [International Research Institute for Nuclear Decommissioning (IRID), 2-23-1 Nishi-shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The reduction behaviors of ZrO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and (U,Pu,Zr)O{sub 2} in a LiCl–Li{sub 2}O salt bath at 923 K were investigated. This study was conducted as part of a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of damaged fuel debris generated by severe accidents at light water reactors. It was demonstrated in electrolytic reduction tests that the uranium in synthetic corium specimens of (U,Pu,Zr)O{sub 2} with various ZrO{sub 2} contents could be reduced to the metallic form and that part of the zirconium was converted to Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Zirconium metal and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} were obtained by the reduction of ZrO{sub 2}. The reduction of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} did not proceed even in LiCl containing no Li{sub 2}O. Moreover, the stable chemical forms of the ZrO{sub 2}–Li{sub 2}O complex oxide were investigated as a function of the Li{sub 2}O concentration in LiCl. ZrO{sub 2} was converted to Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} at a Li{sub 2}O concentration of 0.018 wt%. As the Li{sub 2}O concentration was increased, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was converted to Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and then to Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6}. It is suggested that the removal of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} from the reduction product is a key point in the pyrochemical treatment of corium. - Highlights: • The uranium in (U,Pu,Zr)O{sub 2} could be reduced to the metallic form in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O. • Part of the zirconium was converted to Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} during electrolytic reduction. • Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} formed at high Li{sub 2}O concentrations in LiCl.

  6. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    , the liquid composition at the interface is concentrated in the refractory species. During the transient, the interface temperature is equal to the liquidus temperature corresponding to the local and instantaneous composition of the liquid at the interface. Regarding the design of a protective layer made of refractory materials, we can answer the question of how much ceramic can be dissolved and its impact on melt temperature evolution during the dissolution process. It also impacts on subsequent corium solidification since the additional mass of dissolved ceramic leads to increased volume of the molten material, significantly increasing the time required for complete solidification. For the long term, ceramic material does not offer better confinement than a crust made of solidified corium. This work served as support to a generalisation of the model of transient evolution of interface temperature in various severe accident situations (Seiler and Combeau, 2014)

  7. Development of Lower Plenum Molten Pool Module of Severe Accident Analysis Code in Korea