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Sample records for coriolus versicolor potentiate

  1. Polysaccharopeptides derived from Coriolus versicolor potentiate the S-phase specific cytotoxicity of Camptothecin (CPT on human leukemia HL-60 cells

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    Jiang Pingping

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharopeptide (PSP from Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi is used as a supplementary cancer treatment in Asia. The present study aims to investigate whether PSP pre-treatment can increase the response of the human leukemia HL-60 cells to apoptosis induction by Camptothecin (CPT. Methods We used bivariate bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide (BrdUrd/PI flow cytometry analysis to measure the relative movement (RM of the BrdUrd positively labeled cells and DNA synthesis time (Ts on the HL-60 cell line. We used annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis to quantify the viable, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The expression of cyclin E and cyclin B1 was determined with annexin V/PI flow cytometry and western blotting. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to test the cytotoxicity of PSP and CPT. Results PSP reduced cellular proliferation; inhibited cells progression through both S and G2 phase, reduced 3H-thymidine uptake and prolonged DNA synthesis time (Ts in HL-60 cells. PSP-pretreated cells enhanced the cytotoxicity of CPT. The sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxic effects of CPT was seen to be the highest in the S-phase and to a small extent of the G2 phase of the cell cycle. On the other hand, no cell death (measured by annexin V/PI was evident with the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with treatment of either PSP or CPT. Conclusion The present study shows that PSP increases the sensitization of the HL-60 cells to undergo effective apoptotic cell death induced by CPT. The pattern of sensitivity of cancer cells is similar to that of HL-60 cells. PSP rapidly arrests and/or kills cells in S-phase and did not interfere with the anticancer action of CPT. PSP is a potential adjuvant to treat human leukemia as rapidly proliferating tumors is characterized by a high proportion of S-phase cells.

  2. New polyhydroxylated metabolite derived from biotransformation of diosgenin by the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microbial transformation of diosgenin(1) was carried out with the white-rot fungus,Coriolus versicolor.A new polyhydroxyl metabolite,(25R)-spirost-5-ene-3β,7β,21-triol(2),was obtained as a result of hydroxylation.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  3. Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

  4. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  5. Function of the iron-binding chelator produced by Coriolus versicolor in lignin biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; YAN WenChao; CHEN JiaChuan; HUANG Feng; GAO PeiJi

    2008-01-01

    An ultrafiltered low-molecular-weight preparation of chelating compounds was isolated from a wood-containing culture of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. This preparation could chelate Fe3+ and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, demonstrating that the substance may serve as a ferric chelator,oxygen-reducing agent, and redox-cycling molecule, which would include functioning as the electron transport carrier in Fenton reaction. Lignin was treated with the iron-binding chelator and the changes in structure were investigated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, difference spectrum caused by ionization under alkaline conditions and nitrobenzene oxidation. The results indicated that the iron-binding chelator could destroy the β-O-4 bonds in etherified lignin units and insert phenolic hydroxyl groups. The low-molecular-weight chelator secreted by C. versicolor resulted in new phenolic substructures in the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase. Thus, the synergic action of the iron-binding chelator and the lignocellulolytic enzymes made the substrate more accessible to degradation.

  6. Function of the iron-binding chelator produced by Coriolus versicolor in lignin biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Yan, WenChao; Chen, JiaChuan; Huang, Feng; Gao, PeiJi

    2008-03-01

    An ultrafiltered low-molecular-weight preparation of chelating compounds was isolated from a wood-containing culture of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. This preparation could chelate Fe3+ and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, demonstrating that the substance may serve as a ferric chelator, oxygen-reducing agent, and redox-cycling molecule, which would include functioning as the electron transport carrier in Fenton reaction. Lignin was treated with the iron-binding chelator and the changes in structure were investigated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, difference spectrum caused by ionization under alkaline conditions and nitrobenzene oxidation. The results indicated that the iron-binding chelator could destroy the beta-O-4 bonds in etherified lignin units and insert phenolic hydroxyl groups. The low-molecular-weight chelator secreted by C. versicolor resulted in new phenolic substructures in the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase. Thus, the synergic action of the iron-binding chelator and the lignocellulolytic enzymes made the substrate more accessible to degradation.

  7. Function of the iron-binding chelator produced by Coriolus versicolor in lignin biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An ultrafiltered low-molecular-weight preparation of chelating compounds was isolated from a wood-containing culture of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. This preparation could chelate Fe3+ and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, demonstrating that the substance may serve as a ferric chelator, oxygen-reducing agent, and redox-cycling molecule, which would include functioning as the electron transport carrier in Fenton reaction. Lignin was treated with the iron-binding chelator and the changes in structure were investigated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, difference spectrum caused by ionization under alkaline conditions and nitrobenzene oxidation. The results indicated that the iron-binding chelator could destroy the β-O-4 bonds in etherified lignin units and insert phenolic hydroxyl groups. The low-molecular-weight chelator secreted by C. versicolor resulted in new phenolic substructures in the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase. Thus, the synergic action of the iron-binding chelator and the lignocellulolytic enzymes made the substrate more acces- sible to degradation.

  8. The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia

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    Xianying Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD. Based on H&E staining analysis, the combination of CVP and GF decreased the severity of the pathological findings in the brain. Given that the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was downregulated, the inflammation response in AD mice was considered to be inhibited. The downregulation of GFAP further demonstrated that inflammation was reduced in the brain of AD mice following treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were elevated in the brains of treated mice, indicating that oxidation levels were reduced upon the combination treatment. Our results provide new insights into the efficient utilization of traditional medicine for preventing dementia.

  9. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL-1. C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  10. Acute Toxicity Test of Polysaccharides Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract with Parameters of Hepatocyte Damages, SGPT and SGOT Enzyme in Mice

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    Andita Ayu Mandasari; Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih; Win Darmanto

    2015-01-01

    Coriolus versicolor is a mushroom that has polysaccharopeptide krestin (PSK) and polysaccharopeptide (PSP). Many reports showed that polysaccharide krestin as a compound which could reduce mutagen induction, radiation, and development of cancer spontaneusly. However, all substances entering in body could change become toxic depending on dosage. Therefore, this research was aimed to know the effects of PSK on hepatocyte damages, SGPT and SGOT enzymes. Polysaccharide krestin was given by intrap...

  11. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major infection agent of tuberculosis that is controlled by the response of cell-mediated immunity. It is macrophages and cytolytic T lymphocytes. Activated macrophages will produce free radicals. Excessive free radicals cause tissue damage. Polysaccharide krestin contains β-glucan. It is a scavenger of free radicals. This research aimed to identify the influence of polysaccharide krestin from C. versicolor on nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations of mice serum exposed by M. tuberculosis. Nitrite concentration was determined by nitrite assay. Malondialdehyde concentration was determined by TBARS assay. The result showed that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure (P1 and adding polysaccharide krestin before-after exposure (P3 had the best potential to decrease nitrite concentration. Nitrite concentrations of P1 and P3 were 1.364 ± 0.523 M and 1.456 ± 0.712 M respectively. Meanwhile, P1 group and adding polysaccharide krestin after exposure (P2 had the best potential to decrease malondialdehyde concentration. Malondialdehyde concentrations of P1 and P2 were 1125.86 ± 97.96 µM and 953.86 ± 328.16 µM respectively. Their nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased, compared to K and K- groups. The research conclusion was that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure could decrease both nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations.How to CiteWahyuningsih, S., Pramudya, M., & Sugiharto, S. (2016. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 12-17.

  12. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major infection agent of tuberculosis that is controlled by the response of cell-mediated immunity. It is macrophages and cytolytic T lymphocytes. Activated macrophages will produce free radicals. Excessive free radicals cause tissue damage. Polysaccharide krestin contains β-glucan. It is a scavenger of free radicals. This research aimed to identify the influence of polysaccharide krestin from C. versicolor on nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations of mice serum exposed by M. tuberculosis. Nitrite concentration was determined by nitrite assay. Malondialdehyde concentration was determined by TBARS assay. The result showed that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure (P1 and adding polysaccharide krestin before-after exposure (P3 had the best potential to decrease nitrite concentration. Nitrite concentrations of P1 and P3 were 1.364 ± 0.523 M and 1.456 ± 0.712 M respectively. Meanwhile, P1 group and adding polysaccharide krestin after exposure (P2 had the best potential to decrease malondialdehyde concentration. Malondialdehyde concentrations of P1 and P2 were 1125.86 ± 97.96 µM and 953.86 ± 328.16 µM respectively. Their nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased, compared to K and K- groups. The research conclusion was that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure could decrease both nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations.How to CiteWahyuningsih, S., Pramudya, M., & Sugiharto, S. (2016. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 12-17.

  13. Beneficial effects of a Coriolus versicolor-based vaginal gel on cervical epithelization, vaginal microbiota and vaginal health: a pilot study in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Santiago; Losa, Fernando; Dexeus, Damián; Cortés, Javier

    2017-03-16

    To assess the effect of a 12-day treatment using a vaginal gel based on niosomes containing hyaluronic acid, ß-glucan, alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Coriolus versicolor, Asian centella, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera on vaginal microbiota, cervical epithelization and vaginal health. Open-label, prospective pilot study conducted in asymptomatic women in daily practice. Cervical epithelization was evaluated by colposcopy using an ectopy epithelization score (from 5: no ectopy to 1: severe ectopy and bleeding), vaginal microbiota using the VaginaStatus-Diagnostic test (Instiüt für Mikroökologie, Herborn, Germany) and further rated by the investigator using a 5-point Liker scale (from 5: normal to 1: very severe deterioration in which all evaluated species were altered), and vaginal health using the Vaginal Health Index. In 21 women, a positive effect to improve epithelization of the cervical mucosa, with a mean score of 4.42 at the final visit as compared to 3.09 at baseline (P microbiota status, with a mean score of 4.0 at the final visit vs. 3.3 at baseline (P = NS) (21.2% improvement). In 11 women, the Vaginal Health Index increased from 19.0 at baseline to 22.3 at the final visit (P = 0.007). The concentration of Lactobacillus spp. increased 54.5% of women and pH decreased from 4.32 to 4.09. These encouraging preliminary results provide the basis for designing a randomized controlled study, and for potential use in human papilloma virus infection. ISRCTN77955077 . Registration date: February 15, 2017. Retrospectively registered.

  14. Aktivitas polisakarida krestin dari ekstrak Coriolus versicolor terhadap peningkatan antibodi Mus musculus akibat paparan Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to know the bioactivity of polysaccharide krestin (PSK with a different timing on formation of mice antibodyexposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used as infection agent that had an abilitiy to be imunogenicand to lead immune system responsses decreased. Polysaccharides krestin was used as immunopotentiator which had a role to activatemacrophage and stimulate B cell in order to produce antibody. This research involved 30 adult female mice of Mus musculus strain Balb/C in the age of 8 €“10 weeks and in the weight between of 30 €“40 g. Mice were divided into six groups, as follows: group K asa control, was added only aquades; group K+ as positive control, was added only PSK; group K- as negative control, was exposedby M. tuberculosis only; group P1 was added PSK before being exposed by M. tuberculosis; group P2 was added PSK after beingexposed by M. tuberculosis; group P3 was added PSK before and after being exposed by M. tuberculosis. Polysaccharides krestin wasadded by gavage with single dose of 500 μg and M. tuberculosis was exposed intraperitoneally with concentration of 5x108 bacteryper ml. The bioactivity of PSK was observed by formation antibody using indirect ELISA test. The results of research were the averageof OD value of K group was 0,590 ± 0,042, K+ group was 0.641 ± 0.025, K- group was 1.044 ± 0.054, P1 group was 1.032 ± 0.125,P2 group was 1.127 ± 0.042, P3 group was 1.230 ± 0.097. The conclusion of this research showed that the adding of PSK increasedmice formation antibody. The time of adding before and after being exposed M. tuberculosis was the most potential to raise antibodyproduction on mice.

  15. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs: (Ⅱ) Decolorization of dyes by laccase containing fermentation broth with or without self-immobilized mycelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The capability of decolorization for commercial dyes byCoriolus versicolor fermentation broth containing laccase with orwithout immobilized mycelium was evaluated. With cell-freefermentation broth containing laccase, high decolorization ratiowas achieved for acid orange 7, but not for the other dyesconcerned. The immobilized mycelium was proved to be more efficientthan the cell-free system. All the four dyestuffs studied werefound being decolourized with certain extent by immobilizedmycelium. The repeated-batch decolorization was carried out withsatisfactory results. The experimental data showed that thecontinuous decolorization of wastewater from a printing and dyeingindustry was possible by using the self-immobilized C. Versicolor.

  16. 云芝、脉射菌产木质素降解酶的比较研究%Studies on Production of Lignin Degradation Enzymes by White Fungi Coriolus versicolor and Phlebia radiata

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    王传槐; 杨勇

    2003-01-01

    对两种白腐菌--云芝(Coriolus versicolor)和脉射菌(Phlebia radiata)在静置液体培养条件下最适产漆酶和赖锰过氧化物酶(MnP)的培养液组成进行了比较研究,同时,还对此二菌在产酶过程中还原糖的消耗与蛋白质积累变化进行了检测分析.

  17. 云芝漆酶对靛蓝废水脱色降解研究%Decolorization on Indigo Dyeing Wastewater by Laccase from Coriolus versicolor

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    高恩丽; 仲伟佳; 付小兰; 陈福山; 叶志刚

    2012-01-01

    [Object] The study aimed to discuss the decolorization on indigo dyeing wastewater by laccase from Coriolus versicolor. [ Method] Firstly, the effects of temperature, pH, indigo concentration, HBT concentration, laccase dosage on the decolorization of indigo dyeing wastewater by laccase/HBT, and then the synergism of laccase and acid cellulase was analyzed. [Result] Using ABTS as the substrate, the kinetic parameters, Km and Vm, were 0. 318 mmol/L and 0.035 5 mmol/( L · min) respectively. The decolorization rate of indigo reached 96.5% with HBT as introducer for40 min at temperature 50 °C, pH=4.5, indigo concentration 100 mg/L, HBT concentration 0. 1% and laccase dosage 100 IU/L. Reducing backstaining of blue jeans by the synergism of laccase and acid cellulase during the bio-finishing was experimented, and the results showed that the backstaining degree of blue jeans was reduced by 85% when the amount of laccase was 15 000 IU/kg. Besides, the synergism of laccase and acid cellulase decreased the amount of indigo in wastewater by 83. 8% . [ Conclusion] The laccase from Coriolus versicolor had a good prospect in the bio-finishing of blue jeans and the decolorization of indigo dyeing wastewater.%[目的]探讨云芝漆酶对靛蓝废水的脱色净化作用.[方法]首先研究不同温度、pH、靛蓝浓度、HBT添加量、漆酶用量对漆酶/HBT脱色作用的影响,然后分析漆酶和酸性纤维素的酶协同水洗.[结果]当以1-羟基苯并三唑(简称HBT)为介体时,云芝漆酶/HBT对靛蓝作用的动力学参数Km和Vmax分别为0.318 mmol/L和0.035 5 mmol/(L·min).在温度50℃,pH4.5,靛蓝浓度100 mg/L,介体HBT用量0.1%,漆酶用量100 IU/L条件下,作用40 min时,靛蓝脱色率高达96.5%.牛仔布生物整理中采用漆酶与酸性纤维素酶协同作用,当漆酶用量为15 000IU/kg牛仔布时,牛仔布的返沾程度减少85%,同时水洗废水中靛蓝含量减少83.8%.[结论]漆酶在牛仔服的生物整理及染整

  18. Isolation,Purification and Structural Characterization of an Aqueous Polysacc-haride from Natural Coriolus versicolor%野生云芝中水溶性多糖的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海生; 梁荣能; 徐一新

    2000-01-01

    目的:进一步研究野生云芝(Coriolus versicolor (L.) Fr.)子实体中具有生物活性的多糖成分.方法:采用水提醇沉淀法得粗多糖,经H2O2脱色,醇分部沉淀,SephadexG75和HPLC纯化,GC和光谱测定糖组成及糖链结构.结果:从野生云芝中分离纯化了一种水溶性多糖CVPS-B,分子量39kd,其单糖组成及摩尔比为:Glc,Fuc,Ara,Man,Gal,13.647∶5.882∶4.452:2.425∶1.000;其多糖主链为β(1-3)葡聚糖,支链上含有一定量的夫糖(fucose).结论:CVPS-B为云芝中新发现的一组分多糖,与日本培养的云芝多糖PS-K类似,但不含多肽,而与上海师范大学培养的云芝多糖PSP有所不同.

  19. Research of the Process of Coriolus Versicolor Strain V1 by Liquid Fermentation%云芝菌株CV1液体发酵的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔细鹏; 王敏; 史宝军

    2013-01-01

      利用CV1菌株液体发酵生产云芝多糖,分别考察培养基碳源、培养基氮源、碳源浓度、氮源浓度、无机盐对该菌株产云芝多糖性能的影响,采用正交实验法确立了云芝CV1产胞外多糖的最佳培养基:蔗糖:4%,大豆粉:5%;KH2PO4:0.1%;MgSO4:0.1%;在摇床转速:200r/min、发酵温度:26-28℃、发酵周期:65h、培养基初始pH值:自然条件下云芝CV1的胞外粗多糖(EPS)含量可达7.458g/L,菌丝体(Biomass)可达64.619g/L.%Use CV1 strain liquid fermentation producing polysaccharide of the Coriolus versicolor , separately in-spected medium carbon source, medium nitrogen source, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source, inorganic salt concentration of the strains producing the effect on the properties of polysaccharides, using the orthogonal ex-periment method established CV1 produce extracellular polysaccharide the best medium: cane sugar 4%, soybean meal 5%, KH2PO4 0.1%, MgSO4 0.1%, 200rpm, 26-28℃, 65h, medium initial pH value: Natural conditions CV1 of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) content can reach 7.458g/L, Biomass can reach 64.619g/L.

  20. Anti-tumor Effect of Phellinus Linteus and Coriolus Versicolor Capsule on S180 sarcoma and H22 hepatoma in mice%桑黄云芝胶囊对小鼠肉瘤S180及肝癌H22移植性肿瘤生长的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤星; 朱学萍; 张海林; 聂克; 郭炜

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the anti-tumor effect of Phellinus Linteus and Coriolus Versicolor Capsules (PLCVC) in S180 sarcoma and H22 hepatoma animal models in mice. Methods: The sarcoma S1180 and hepatoma H22 models were established in mice. After 12 days of treatment, the animals were killed, and the subcutaneous sarcoma were separated and weighted. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), CD4 and CD8 of S180 tumor tissue were investigated by immunohistochemical method. KM mice were intraperitoneal injected with H22 hepatoma cells, and treated with different experimental drugs. The survival time was observed and recorded, and life-prolongation rate was calculated. Result: PLCVC could inhibit the growth of S180 and H22 tumor, and inhibit the expression of VEGF, improve the expression of CD4 and CD8. The survival time of the mice treated by PLCVC were significantly longer than the untreated group. Conclusion: PLCVC can inhibit the growth of tumour, the mechanism is partially related to inhibiting angiogenesis and improving the immunological function.%目的:观察桑黄云芝胶囊对小鼠肉瘤S180及肝癌H22实体瘤的抑瘤作用及对肝癌H22腹水型小鼠生存期的影响.方法:昆明小鼠分别右腋皮下接种肉瘤S180及肝癌H22瘤种,连续灌胃给药12 d后处死动物,剥离皮下肿瘤并称重.S180瘤块用4%多聚甲醛固定,用免疫组织化学法检测瘤组织中血管内皮生长因子(VEGF),CD4及CD8的表达.另取昆明小鼠ip肝癌H22瘤种,连续桑黄云芝胶囊ip 10 d,停药后继续观察至小鼠死亡,记录小鼠生存天数,计算生命延长率.结果:与模型组相比,桑黄云芝胶囊可使S180和H22瘤重明显减轻,抑制VEGF表达,增强CD4和CD8表达,可明显延长H22肝癌腹水型荷瘤小鼠的生存天数.结论:桑黄云芝胶囊可抑制肿瘤生长,延长荷瘤小鼠生存期,其作用机理部分与抑制新生血管生成、增强机体免疫力有关.

  1. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four human liver cancer (7703, HepG2, 7721, PLC) and four human breast cancer (Bcap37, ZR75-30, MCF-7, T-47D) cell lines using a MTT cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that the CVP ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics ...

  2. Potential of extracellular enzymes from Trametes versicolor F21a in Microcystis spp. degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingjing; Pu, Gaozhong; Shao, Chen; Cheng, Shujun; Cai, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Jia, Yong; Tian, Xingjun

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that microorganisms may be used to eliminate cyanobacteria in aquatic environments. The present study showed that the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor F21a could degrade Microcystis aeruginosa. After T. versicolor F21a and Microcystis spp. were co-incubated for 60h, >96% of Microcystis spp. cells were degraded by T. versicolor F21a. The activities of extracellular enzymes showed that cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, and laccase were vital to Microcystis spp. degradation in the early stage (0h to 24h), while β-glucosidase, protease, laccase, and manganese peroxidase in the late stage (24h to 60h). The positive and significant correlation of the degradation rate with these enzyme activities indicated that these enzymes were involved in the degradation rate of Microcystis spp. cells at different phases. It suggested that the extracellular enzymes released by T. versicolor F21a might be vital to Microcystis spp. degradation. The results of this study may be used to develop alternative microbial control agents for cyanobacterial control.

  3. Statistical Correlation between Ligninolytic Enzymes Secretion and Remazol Brilliant Yellow-3GL Dye Degradation Potential of Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Agha Hassan; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2016-04-01

    Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was used for biodegradation of Remazol Brilliant Yellow 3-GL (RBY3-GL) reactive textile dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. During the initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (93.5%) of RBY3-GL was achieved in 7 days' shaking incubation period at pH 4 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors were statistically optimized to enhance the efficiency of T. versicolor IBL-04 for maximum decolorization. Under optimal conditions T. versicolor IBL-04 completely decolorized (100%) the RBY3-GL in 2 days of incubation with negligible adsorption on fungal mycelia. Laccase was the major enzyme (938.3 U/mL) secreted by T. versicolor IBL-04 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP. In this article and for the first time, a statistical correlation has been successfully investigated between the ligninolytic enzymes from an indigenously isolated white rot fungi, T. versicolor IBL-04, and the degradation of RBY3-GL.

  4. Pityriasis versicolor alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, W; Krämer, H-J; Mayser, P

    2005-03-01

    Pityriasis versicolor alba is a hypopigmented or depigmented variant of pityriasis versicolor characterized by maculous, partly pityriasiform, scaly depigmented lesions occurring particularly in seborrhoeic areas. Long-persisting hypopigmentation after healing of the pityriasis versicolor was first described by Gudden in 1853. Hypopigmentation and depigmentation were later differentiated as an independent variant of the disease. In 1848, Eichstedt recognized the pathogen-related character of pityriasis versicolor in its hyperpigmented form. Today it is generally accepted that the disease is caused by yeasts of the genus Malassezia, of which nine species are differentiated. It is controversial whether a single species is responsible for the disease. The pathogenesis of depigmentation has not been established. A screening effect by the scale layer as well as toxic effects on pigment synthesis by fungal metabolites have been discussed. With regard to the second mechanism, the newly discovered tryptophan-derived metabolites of M. furfur might be significant. Evidence-based data concerning the therapy of pityriasis versicolor alba do not exist. According to current recommendations, pityriasis versicolor should be rapidly treated with antimycotics, followed by ultraviolet therapy to induce maturation of existent melanosomes and accelerate repigmentation. However, depigmented lesions are difficult to improve by ultraviolet therapy.

  5. Pitiríase Versicolor Pityriasis Versicolor

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    Josenildo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A expressão pitiríase versicolor define uma infecção fúngica superficial caracterizada por alterações na pigmentação cutânea. O distúrbio de pigmentação é devido à colonização do estrato córneo por um fungo dimórfico, lipofílico, encontrado na flora normal da pele, conhecido como Malassezia furfur. Trata-se de doença prevalente nos trópicos, mas também comum em climas temperados. Há vários tratamentos disponíveis com taxas elevadas de cura, porém as recorrências são freqüentes.Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection characterized by changes in skin pigment due to colonization of the stratum corneum by a dimorphic lipophilic fungus of the normal flora of the skin, known as Malassezia furfur. This disease is most prevalent in the tropics, but is also common in temperate climates. Treatment is available and cure rates are high, although recurrence is common.

  6. Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini with Aspergillus versicolor

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    S. Israel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A native heat-tolerant strain of Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill. Tirab. highly antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini (Foc was isolated from arid soils. In tests performed to ascertain its antagonistic activity against Foc as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, a 99.2 and 96.4% reduction in Foc propagules was achieved in A. versicolor and T. harzianum infested soil respectively. The reduction of Foc propagules in Foc and A. versicolorinfested soil was also determined. In a liquid-culture test, even at a low concentration of 0.5 ml cell-free filtrate, A. versicolor inhibited mycelial growth of Foc. Population changes of A. versicolor were examined at different soil moisture gradients, where maximum survival and multiplication of A. versicolor was estimated at 50% of moisture holding capacity. In general, with increasing concentrations of A. versicolor inoculum, soil population densities of Foc went down. Studies on thermal resistance showed that A. versicolor survived and multiplied even at 65°C. Soil amended with A. versicolor alone, or with a combination of T. harzianum and Verbisina enceloides residues was significantly better at reducing Foc than was non-amended control soil. A marked increase in the root length of cumin was observed in soil amended with A. versicolor or T. harzianum or both. The results suggest that A. versicolor has a potential value for use against Fusarium in hot arid soils because it can survive under dry and high-temperature conditions.

  7. Uncommon cases of pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C

    2008-06-01

    Malassezia may play a role in several dermatoses. It is responsible for foliculitis and mainly for pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is the most known dermatitis because of its clinical aspects and frequently for its poor response to the therapy, mainly in chronic forms. The clinical aspects of uncommon and rare forms of pityriasis versicolor have been reported. The data related to the patients observed in the last thirty years in Siena are reported. In addition, a study was carried out in Pisa by Professor F. Mancianti to identify species of Malassezia isolated in 37 patients.

  8. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL) than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus) species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:22862820

  9. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgher Muhammad

    2012-08-01

    . Conclusions The indigenously isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications.

  10. Mycological study of tinea versicolor

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    Sankara Rao I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycological study of 100 cases of tinea versicolor was undertaken. Skin scrapings from 100 cases were subjected for culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar, out of which 60 positive cultures (60% were obtained.

  11. Blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Yuan; Min, Zhong-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    A 31-year-old male patient complained of having follicular and brownish red maculopapules along the Blaschko's lines on the right chest for 2 days. On examination, follicular brownish maculopapules were present on the chest with a uniform size of about 3 mm in diameter. The lesions were isolated without a tendency to merge, giving several S-shaped, band-like appearances. Direct mycological examination of the skin flakes revealed many pseudomycelial hyphae and yeast cells with typical spaghetti and meatball appearance. Wood's light examination of the lesion revealed a golden yellow fluorescence. A diagnosis of blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor was suggested because of blaschkoid distribution of the lesions in this new variant of PV.

  12. Trametes versicolor carboxylate reductase uncovered

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Margit; Winkler, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first carboxylate reductase from Trametes versicolor was identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme reduces aromatic acids such as benzoic acid and derivatives, cinnamic acid, and 3-phenylpropanoic acid, but also aliphatic acids such as octanoic acid are reduced. Graphical abstract

  13. Oral fluconazole in tinea versicolor

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    Sankara Rao I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 patients with extensive tinea versicolor were treated with single oral dose of 400 mg of fluconazole. 25 patients returned for follow-up. Follow-up at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks showed 100% clinical cure rate and 92% mycological cure rate. No significant side effects were noticed. The majority of patients found the treatment effective, safe and convenient.

  14. Chemical constituents of Simarouba versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Mesquita, Aldenor C. de; Pouliquen, Yvone B.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Lima, Roberto A. de; Cavalcante, Sergio H. [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Siqueira, Jose A. de; Alegrio, Leila V. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: braz@uenf.br

    2002-09-01

    From the roots, stems and fruits of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) were isolated quassinoids (3, 5-7), triterpenoids (8-14), a mixture of steroids (15-17), the flavonoid kaempferol (18) and the squalene derivative 11,14-diacetoxy-7,10; 15,18-diepoxy-6,19-dihidroxy-6,7,10,11,14,15,18,19-octahydrosqualene (19). Spectral data were used for structural characterization. (author)

  15. Triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Jun-Song; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Seven new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named dianversicosides A-G (1-7), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) group in 1-4 was ascertained by chemical analysis combined with a chiral HPLC method. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against a small panel of cancer and other cell lines.

  16. Bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolff, Hans

    2010-08-01

    An adolescent boy presented with isolated, symmetrical, bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor. This extremely rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of light brown patches on the areolae.

  17. Malassezia Species and Pityriasis Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Rodoplu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human diseases ranging from pityriasis versicolor to seborrhoeic dermatitis. In addition, since the 1980s, they have been reported as causing opportunistic systemic infections. The taxonomy of Malassezia spp. has recently been modified to include 13 obligatorily lipophilic species, plus one non-obligatorily lipophilic species, which only rarely colonizes human hosts and currently the genus consist 14 species as M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. yamatoensis, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. Fastidious growth requirements of Malassezia yeasts defied the initial attempts to culture these organisms and their true identification and the relationship between different species only became apparent with the application of modern molecular techniques. The causative fungus is seen especially in such seborrheic areas as the scalp, face, trunk and upper back. Under the influence of various exogenous or endogenous predisposing factors, these yeasts change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form and become pathogenic. Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor which is caused by Malassezia species is generally easy and lies on the basis of its clinical appearance and can be confirmed by mycological examination. The diagnosisis is mainly based on direct examination with potassium hydroxide (KOH and demonstration that represents pseudohyphae and blastoconidia as the typical %u201Cspaghetti and meatballs%u201D pattern. Characteristic features of the genus Malassezia include a distinctive morphology and an affinity for lipids in culture. Culture is necessary to recover the infecting strain, especially for epidemiologic purposes and also to test its antifungal susceptibility

  18. Management of seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faergemann, J

    2000-01-01

    Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are two very common skin diseases. Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic superficial fungal disease usually located on the upper trunk, neck, or upper arms. In pityriasis versicolor, the lipophilic yeast Malassezia (also know as Pityrosporum ovale or P. orbiculare) changes from the blastospore form to the mycelial form under the influence of predisposing factors. The most important exogenous factors are high temperatures and a high relative humidity which probably explain why pityriasis versicolor is more common in the tropics. The most important endogenous factors are greasy skin, hyperhidrosis, hereditary factors, corticosteroid treatment and immunodeficiency. There are many ways of treating pityriasis versicolor topically. Options include propylene glycol, ketoconazole shampoo, zinc pyrithione shampoo, ciclopiroxamine, selenium sulfide, and topical antifungals. In difficult cases, short term treatment with fluconazole or itraconazole is effective and well tolerated. To avoid recurrence a prophylactic treatment regimen is mandatory. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by red scaly lesions predominantly located on the scalp, face and upper trunk. There are now many studies indicating that Malassezia plays an important role in this condition. Even a normal number of Malassezia will start an inflammatory reaction. Mild corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. However, the disease recurs quickly, often within just a few days. Antifungal therapy is effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and, because it reduces the number of Malassezia, the time to recurrence is increased compared with treatment with corticosteroids. Antifungal therapy should be the primary treatment of this disease.

  19. Atypical pityriasis versicolor case report

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    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection caused by mycelial form of Malassezia spp, which is confined to stratum corneum. It usually present in the trunk as either hypo or hyperpigmented, aymptomatic, round to oval macules of varying sizes, which may merged to form geographic shape. Diagnosis is usually done clinically, or KOH examination which shows typical spagetti and meat balls appearances, or even by wood’s lamp which shows orange to yellow fluorescence. The case series had been recording in between 2012 to 2013. Within that period, we had recorded 32 cases. All the patients which we had recorded presented with multiple, asymptomatic macules of small sizes varying from 1-2 cm in diameter to 3-4mm in diameter, usually round to oval, hypopigmented, non scaly lesions. 26 patients had lesions on forearms, 3 patients had lesions on dorsa of hands bilaterally, 3 patients had similar kind of lesions on thigh. Besnier’s test was positive in 14 (43.75% patients. KOH examinations showed fungal hyphae in 14 (33.33% patients with typical spagetti and meat balls appearances in 9 (8.13% patients. All of them were given and all of them got response and healed within 2-4 months.

  20. Vulvar pityriasis versicolor in an immunocompetent woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tania; Scurry, James

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of isolated vulvar pityriasis versicolor in a 24-year-old healthy woman. A 24-year-old woman presented with variable color change on the vulva of 8 months in duration. Areas of tan and white skin were observed on the mons pubis. The pubic hair had been shaved. Initially, the paler areas were deemed abnormal suggesting vitiligo, but the biopsy showed normal skin including normal numbers of melanocytes. Subsequently, biopsy of the tan area showed pityriasis versicolor. She was successfully treated with topical 2% ketoconazole, with gradual fading of lesions. With increased body awareness and the current popularity of pubic hair removal, young women may consult clinicians about color changes on the vulva. Clinicians should be aware that vulvar pityriasis versicolor may occur in healthy women with no other skin involvement.

  1. Case report. Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica; Aste, Natalia; Biggio, P

    2002-04-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a common dermatomycosis, occurring throughout the world, characterized by irregular, slightly scaly patches, varying in color from red/light brown to white. Pityriasis rotunda, on the other hand, is an uncommon disease, reported in specific ethnic groups, and characterized by perfectly round or oval patches of varying color, with a scaly surface. The histologic pattern is that of ichthyosis vulgaris. We report here the case of a male patient, aged 31, from Sardinia (Italy), affected by Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda. Mycological examination allowed us to formulate the correct diagnosis, and ensuing treatment with antifungal drugs was entirely successful. The authors, while pointing out the rarity of this case, stress the possibility that Pityriasis versicolor mimics Pityriasis rotunda and vice-versa, especially in those countries in which the two diseases are endemic. More widespread recourse to microscopic examination can help avoid the risk of mistaken diagnosis and consequent incorrect treatment.

  2. Fluconazole and itraconazole in pityriasis versicolor

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    Jaswal Ritu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species. It has a high incidence and prevalence in tropical climates. Although it responds well to treatment, relapses and recurrences are frequent. In the present study the therapeutic response of single dose fluconazole (400 mg with itraconazole (100mg twice daily ? 7 days was compared in sixty patients of pityriasis versicolor. No significant statistical difference (p>0.05% was observed between efficacy of two drugs. Therapy with fluconazole is preferable in view of single dose administration and lesser cost as compared to itraconazole.

  3. A Steroidal Glycoside from Cynanchum versicolor Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guang ZHENG; Run Hui LIU; Ling Yi KONG; Wei Dong ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A new C21 steroidal glycoside, named cynanversicoside F (1), was isolated from the root of Cynanchum versicolor Bunge. Its structure was established as glaucogenin-A 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  4. 云芝漆酶在牛仔布生物整理中的应用%Application of laccase from Coriolus Versicolor in biofinishing of blue jeans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恩丽; 张树江; 夏黎明; 余为民

    2007-01-01

    采用漆酶与酸性纤维素酶协同作用来降低牛仔布生物整理中的返沾色.结果表明:单独添加酸性纤维素酶虽然除毛效果好、剥色明显,但靛蓝染料对牛仔布的返沾色较重.而添加漆酶与酸性纤维素协同整理时,可以显著减少返沾色;当漆酶用量为5.0 g/kg牛仔布时,牛仔布的返沾程度减少83%,协同水洗时间以60 min为宜.牛仔布水洗整理的工厂放大试验显示:漆酶与酸性纤维素酶协同作用,一方面可使牛仔布的返沾色显著减弱,获得独特的"雪花"效果;另一方面还可使工厂废水中的靛蓝含量减少80%,有利于降低环境污染.

  5. Acute Toxicity Test of Polysaccharides Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract with Parameters of Hepatocyte Damages, SGPT and SGOT Enzyme in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andita Ayu Mandasari; Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih; Win Darmanto

    2015-01-01

    .... However, all substances entering in body could change become toxic depending on dosage. Therefore, this research was aimed to know the effects of PSK on hepatocyte damages, SGPT and SGOT enzymes...

  6. Hypopigmented macules: leprosy, atopy or pityriasis versicolor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massone, C; Cavalchini, A; Clapasson, A; Nunzi, E

    2010-12-01

    Lepromatous leprosy (LL) represents the highest infective and multibacillary form of leprosy. Clinical manifestations are consequent to the haematogenous spread of bacilli and include macules, plaques and nodules in a symmetric distribution or a diffuse infiltration of the skin. LL may mimic many different inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases and in a small percentage of patients, skin manifestation may be atypical. This article reports the case of a South American child with LL presenting with symmetrically distributed hypopigmented macules previously misdiagnosed as pytiriasis alba, atopic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor. Atopy and pityriasis versicolor are common skin conditions that can be also observed in leprosy patients and that can masquerade the diagnosis of LL, especially if occurring in dark skin. Dermatologists in Europe should be aware of this unusual form of presentation of leprosy and must take in mind Hansen disease in the differential diagnosis in patients coming from endemic areas.

  7. Atrophying pityriasis versicolor: is this a new variant of pityriasis versicolor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Seok; Shin, Min-Kyung; Haw, Choong-Rim

    2010-11-01

    An atypical clinical form of pityriasis versicolor has been infrequently reported, in which cutaneous atrophy is associated with individual pityriasis versicolor lesions. The pathogenesis of this atrophy remains unclear, but is believed to be a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to antigens derived from the Malassezia species. A 60-year-old man presented with multiple, slightly scaly, and depressed maculopatches or plaques on the trunk and extremities. Our microscopic examination of the skin scrapings on a KOH preparation revealed numerous short hyphae and spores. The patient was treated daily with 200 mg of itraconazole in combination with topical antifungals, achieving clinical improvement and mycological recovery, which was confirmed upon follow-up 1 month later. This is the first case report of atrophying pityriasis versicolor in Korea. It needs to be differentiated from other atrophying disorders of the skin.

  8. Growth of Trametes versicolor on phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemendzhiev, H; Gerginova, M; Krastanov, A; Stoilova, I; Alexieva, Z

    2008-11-01

    Trametes versicolor 1 was shown to grow on phenol as its sole carbon and energy source. The culture growth and degradation ability dependence on culture medium pH value was observed. The optimal pH value of a liquid Czapek salt medium was 6.5. The investigated strain utilized completely 0.5 g/l phenol in 6 days. The dynamics of the phenol degradation process was investigated. The process was characterized by specific growth rate micromax 0.33 h(-1), metabolic coefficient k=4.4, yield coefficient Yx/s=0.23 and rate of degradation Q=0.506 h(-1). The intracellular activities of phenol hydroxylase (0.333 U/mg protein) and cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (0.41 U/mg protein) were demonstrated for the first time in this fungus. In an attempt to estimate the occurrence of gene sequences in T. versicolor 1 related to phenol degradation pathway a dot blot analysis with total DNA isolated from this strain was performed. Two synthetic oligonucleotides were used as hybridizing probes. One of the probes was homologous to the 5'end of phyA gene coding for phenol hydroxylase in Trichosporon cutaneum ATCC 46490. The other probe was created on the basis of cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme coding gene in T. cutaneum ATCC 58094. The results of these investigations showed that T. versicolor 1 may carry genes similar to those of Trichosporon cutaneum capable to degrade phenol.

  9. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

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    Marzia Scarpari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1.

  10. Drug: D08755 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4299 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents...D08755 Drug Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide; Krestin (TN); Askre (TN) Coriolus Versicolor [TAX:5325] Ther

  11. Prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in young Italian sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingordo, V; Naldi, L; Colecchia, B; Licci, N

    2003-12-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal disease with a world-wide distribution, but there are few available studies on its prevalence in the general population. To assess the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in a representative sample of young Italian sailors, evaluating the influence of habits and risk factors in the affected individuals. Young cadets (n = 1024: 975 men and 49 women, mean age 22 years) of the Italian Navy Petty Officers' School in Taranto were consecutively examined by the same observer. The diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor was based on clinical picture and/or Wood's lamp examination. All the subjects filled in a questionnaire about sport practice, swimming pool attendance, marching, presence of hyperhidrosis and a positive clinical history of pityriasis versicolor in the past. The affected individuals were also asked if they were aware of their skin lesions. Differences between answers of affected and unaffected subjects were tested by Fisher's exact P-value test, and odds ratios were calculated. Pityriasis versicolor was diagnosed in 22 subjects (2.1%), all men, of whom 15 (68%) were not aware of their condition. No statistical association was found between active pityriasis versicolor and sport practice, swimming pool attendance, marching or presence of hyperhidrosis. A significant association [odds ratio 8.7 (95% confidence interval 3.3-21.5); Fisher's exact P-value test P history of pityriasis versicolor. The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in this sample of young Italian sailors was not high, in agreement with the available surveys performed in the general population in temperate climates. Many affected subjects were not aware of their condition. The only important factor associated with pityriasis versicolor was a previous history of pityriasis versicolor. This observation could confirm the hypothesis that constitutional factors, e.g. seborrhoea and chemical constitution of sebum, may play a crucial role in temperate climates

  12. Ketoconazole 2% shampoo in pityriasis versicolor: An open trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by a lipophilic yeast. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ketoconazole 2% shampoo in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor, for which thirty patients were included. The shampoo was applied daily for 3 days and found to be very effective in clearing the signs and symptoms of the disease. There was no serious adverse effects.

  13. Pityriasis versicolor in the pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a mild chronic infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts. Although it is primarily seen in adults, children are often affected in the tropics . METHODS: Over a period of 2 years, children (up to the age of 14 years who were clinically and mycologically diagnosed as PV were included in the study. The clinical and epidemiological pattern in different age groups was noted. RESULTS: PV in this age group formed about 31% of the total cases of PV; 4.8% cases presented in infancy. The commonest site of involvement was the face in 39.9% of the cases. Most of the cases presented in summer months. CONCLUSIONS: PV is not an uncommon disease among children in the tropics. There is a sudden resurgence of cases in the hot monsoons and even infants are not spared.

  14. Amaranth decoloration by Trametes versicolor in a rotating biological contacting reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Juliana; Shin, Maria; Wong, Sunny; Goode, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Sequential batch and continuous operation of a rotating biological contacting (RBC) reactor and the effects of dissolved oxygen on the decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor were evaluated. Amaranth belongs to the group of azo dyes which are potential carcinogens and/or mutagens that can be transformed into toxic aryl amines under anaerobic conditions. Cultivation of T. versicolor in a stirred tank reactor was found to be unsuitable for amaranth decoloration due to significant biomass fouling and increase in medium viscosity. Assuming that decoloration follows first-order kinetics, amaranth was decolorized more rapidly when T. versicolor was immobilized on jute twine in a RBC reactor operated either in a sequential batch (k=0.25 h(-1)) or in a continuous (0.051 h(-1)) mode compared to a stirred tank reactor (0.015 h(-1)). Oxygen was found to be essential for decoloration with the highest decoloration rates occurring at oxygen saturation. Although longer retention times resulted in more decoloration when the RBC was operated in the continuous mode (about 33% amaranth decoloration), sequential batch operation gave better results (>95%) under similar nutrient conditions. Our data indicate that the fastest decoloration should occur in the RBC using nitrogen-free Kirk's medium with 1 g/l glucose in sequential batch operation at rotational speeds and/or aeration rates which maintain oxygen saturation in the liquid phase.

  15. Tramesan, a novel polysaccharide from Trametes versicolor. Structural characterization and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpari, Marzia; Reverberi, Massimo; Parroni, Alessia; Scala, Valeria; Fanelli, Corrado; Pietricola, Chiara; Zjalic, Slaven; Maresca, Vittoria; Tafuri, Agostino; Ricciardi, Maria R; Licchetta, Roberto; Mirabilii, Simone; Sveronis, Aris; Cescutti, Paola; Rizzo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Mushrooms represent a formidable source of bioactive compounds. Some of these may be considered as biological response modifiers; these include compounds with a specific biological function: antibiotics (e.g. plectasin), immune system stimulator (e,g, lentinan), antitumor agents (e.g. krestin, PSK) and hypolipidemic agents (e.g. lovastatin) inter alia. In this study, we focused on the Chinese medicinal mushroom "yun zhi", Trametes versicolor, traditionally used for (cit.) "replenish essence and qi (vital energy)". Previous studies indicated the potential activity of extracts from culture filtrate of asexual mycelia of T. versicolor in controlling the growth and secondary metabolism (e.g. mycotoxins) of plant pathogenic fungi. The quest of active principles produced by T. versicolor, allowed us characterising an exo-polysaccharide released in its culture filtrate and naming it Tramesan. Herein we evaluate the biological activity of Tramesan in different organisms: plants, mammals and plant pathogenic fungi. We suggest that the bioactivity of Tramesan relies mostly on its ability to act as pro antioxidant molecule regardless the biological system on which it was applied.

  16. [Pityriasis versicolor : new aspects of an old disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P A; Preuss, J

    2012-11-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is one of the most common infectious skin diseases, as well as the most common dermatosis associated with pigmentation alterations of the skin. PV is prevalent in 1% of the population living in temperate climate zones and more common during the summer. In tropical areas, PV is found in up to 50% of all patients consulting a dermatologist. Of the known Malassezia species, M. globosa is currently felt to play a key role in the pathogenesis of PV, as it is most commonly found in PV lesions. In addition, its round-shaped cells may contribute to the characteristic histology of the disease ("spaghetti and meatballs"). However, the clinical appearance of PV including hyper- and hypopigmentation, fluorescence of the lesions, as well as a lack of inflammation despite high fungal load cannot fully be explained by the presence of M. globosa, which is also found on healthy skin. In M. furfur a tryptophan-dependent metabolic pathway generates a number of indole pigments, which may be associated with the clinical appearance of PV. In the model organism Ustilago maydis it was shown that the formation of the indole compounds occurs spontaneously after initial conversion of tryptophan into indole pyruvate controlled by the key enzyme aminotransferase Tam 1. We review the present knowledge of PV and highlight the potential role of Tam1 in explaining the poorly understood aspects of the disease. Promising therapeutic results using the application of Tam1 inhibitors to treat PV support the enzyme's important role in the disease pathogenesis.

  17. Fluconazole in the therapy of Pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poljački Mirjana N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the results of the systemic application of flukonazole in therapy of Pityriasis versicolor. It was arranged for the total number of 38 patients, 18 females and 20 males. The diagnosis of diseases was established on the base of the clinical examination, the native mycological examination and by the using of Wood lamps. The therapy was passed by the using of 300 mg flukonazole in a single dose, once weekly, during two weeks. The following period amounted to one week after the passed therapy. The therapeutic efficacy was assessed with regard to the clinical and mycological healing. The clinical efficacy was assessed semiquantitative on the base of increasing of the percentage rates of the total score of disease that was computed by collecting of the numeric values for every clinical argument typical for the disease, and the mycological efficacy on the base of the mycological findings and the fluorescence finding after lightening with the Wood's lamp. The controlling examinations were performed on day 0, 14 and 22. The results of investigations have shown that the complete clinical healing was achieved after two weeks of therapy in 94,74%, and the mycological healing in 92,11% patients. The rate of the mycological healing was evaluated after 1 week of following period equal to the rate of the clinical healing and it was also 94,74%. The undesirable effects of the drug applications weren't by any patient.

  18. Acral pityriasis versicolor – A rare clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by the yeast of the genus Malassezia and presents as hypo or hyper pigmented scaly macules. The most commonly affected sites include upper trunk, upper arms, neck and the abdomen. Lesions confined to the acral parts like hands and feet have rarely been reported. In this article the author reports a 40 year old male who presented with multiple hypo pigmented scaly macules confined to the acral parts (hands and wrist. The acral variant of pityriasis versicolor is considered to be a very rare clinical entity which prompted the author to report this case.

  19. Clinicomycological profile of pityriasis versicolor in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographical variation in the distribution of Malassezia species associated with pityriasis versicolor (PV has led to the necessity of studying epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV. Aims: To study the epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV in a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: The study was carried out with a cross-sectional design. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty-two consecutive PV patients were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and investigations. Skin scrapings were processed by direct microscopy and culture. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of Malassezia species with clinical and epidemiological characteristics was studied. Statistical analysis of the data was done using statistical software. Results: Maximum number of PV cases (33.9% belonged to the age group of 21–30 years with a male preponderance. 61.4% of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle, 70.2% showed the gradual onset of the disease, 51.1% presented with pruritus and in 66.4% of the patients symptoms were continuous. Most commonly involved body site was neck (27.8%, 77.09% of the lesions were bilaterally asymmetrical, 87.4% were macular, and 89.3% were hypopigmented. Malassezia furfur (77.3% was the predominant species. Sedentary lifestyle (61.4% and increased sweating (48% were the most commonly associated predisposing factors. Conclusion: PV is more common in males. Distribution of Malassezia species varies significantly from those reported in other parts of India. M. furfur was the most common species responsible for PV in our region. Hence, further studies are required to evaluate the exact cause of this variation.

  20. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve

    2016-04-01

    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  1. Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    Vol. 15(8), pp. 221-235, 24 February, 2016. DOI: 10.5897/AJB2014.14358 .... wood of S. versicolor, isolated two quassinoids, excelsina ...... Química Orgânica da Universidade Federal do Ceará: Fortaleza,. 119f. Mesquita ML (2009). Potencial ...

  2. Disruption of barrier function in dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Jun Young; Song, Chang Hyun; Jung, Hong Dae; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2011-11-01

    Dermatophytes have the ability to form molecular attachments to keratin and use it as a source of nutrients, colonizing keratinized tissues, including the stratum corneum of the skin. Malassezia species also affect the stratum corneum of the skin. Therefore, dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor of the skin are thought to be important factors of profound changes in skin barrier structure and function. We aimed to describe the changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and skin pH in the lesions of the dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. Thirty-six patients with dermatophytosis (14 with tinea cruris, 13 with tinea corporis and nine with tinea pedis or tinea manus) and 11 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. TEWL, stratum corneum conductance and skin pH were determined by biophysical methods to examine whether our patients exhibited changes in barrier function. Dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor except tinea pedis and tinea manus showed highly significant increase in TEWL compared with adjacent infection-free skin. Hydration was significantly reduced in lesional skin compared with adjacent infection-free skin. From this study, infections with dermatophytes and Malassezia species on the body can alter biophysical properties of the skin, especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss. On the contrary, infections with dermatophytes on the palms and soles little affect the barrier function of the skin. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. [Pityriasis versicolor in Greece and its predisposition factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisis, N; Stratigos, J; Marcelou-Kinti, U; Capetanakis, J

    1977-11-01

    The age and seasonal incidence of 2610 patients with pityriasis versicolor in Greece were studied. Determination of the pH of Na and K ions of the sweat and the microbiol flora of the skin of pityriasis versicolor patients was undertaken. Besides these the effectiveness of a 1% selenium disulfid suspension was tested. The results indicate that the age groups of 20-29 and 30-30 years are mostly affected by the disease. A high incidence of the skin manifestation was noted during the summer and fall months. A difference of the pH of the sweat between pityriasis versicolor and healthy controls was observed, but no difference was found in the Na and K ions of the sweat among these two groups. Neither did the microbial flora from the skin lesions of patients and from corresponding sites of controls show any difference. The high relapse in this experiment indicates the relative ineffectiveness of selenium disulfid preparations when used as a 1% suspension in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

  4. Influence of systemic corticotherapy on the triggering of pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fraga, Clarissa Matarangas Moreira; de Cássia Birschiner, Rita; Naseri, Alice Pignaton; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2014-09-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a frequent mycosis and the use of systemic corticotherapy is one of its predisposing factors. This is an observational, cross-sectional, analytical and comparative study, conducted from January 2012 to January 2013 in the following outpatient clinics: Dermatology Service, Cassiano Antonio Moraes Hospital (HUCAM), Vitória, ES, Brazil; Nephrology Service, HUCAM; and Leprosy Department, Maruípe Health Unit, Vitória, ES, Brazil. Patients, undergoing long-term systemic corticotherapy (or not), were assessed with respect to the presence of pityriasis versicolor. If there was mycosis, a direct mycological examination would be carried out. The spss 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. From the total of 100 patients, nine had pityriasis versicolor, being eight from the corticotherapy group and one from the group with no use of corticosteroids. Regarding the patients with mycosis, the prevalent age ranged from 20 to 39 years, with six patients; six were women; seven mixed race; eight were undergoing long-term systemic corticotherapy; seven were taking low-dose systemic corticosteroids; four had leucocytosis; five had normal total cholesterol and triglycerides; and four had normal glycaemia. There was increased frequency of pityriasis versicolor in the group undergoing systemic corticotherapy with statistical significance, corroborating the only study on the topic (1962).

  5. Pityriasis versicolor: avoiding pitfalls in disease diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Shayna C

    2013-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is common among young active duty members with overactive sweat glands working in humid environments and results in pigmentary changes that can be profound in those with darker skin. This article addresses several issues related to making the correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment, as well as the specific challenges military providers may face in these cases.

  6. Discovery of novel xylosides in co-culture of basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum by integrated metabolomics and bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Tan, Ling-Ling; Sadilek, Martin; Fan, Huan; Hu, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptomic analysis of cultured fungi suggests that many genes for secondary metabolite synthesis are presumably silent under standard laboratory condition. In order to investigate the expression of silent genes in symbiotic systems, 136 fungi-fungi symbiotic systems were built up by co-culturing seventeen basidiomycetes, among which the co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum demonstrated the strongest coloration of confrontation zones. Metabolomics study of this co-culture discovered that sixty-two features were either newly synthesized or highly produced in the co-culture compared with individual cultures. Molecular network analysis highlighted a subnetwork including two novel xylosides (compounds 2 and 3). Compound 2 was further identified as N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-β-D-xyloside and was revealed to have the potential to enhance the cell viability of human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line of Beas-2B. Moreover, bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis of T. versicolor revealed a potential candidate gene (GI: 636605689) encoding xylosyltransferases for xylosylation. Additionally, 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were detected for the first time in G. applanatum, which may be ascribed to response against T.versicolor stress. In general, the described co-culture platform provides a powerful tool to discover novel metabolites and help gain insights into the mechanism of silent gene activation in fungal defense. PMID:27616058

  7. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation.

  8. Discovery of novel xylosides in co-culture of basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum by integrated metabolomics and bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Tan, Ling-Ling; Sadilek, Martin; Fan, Huan; Hu, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2016-09-01

    Transcriptomic analysis of cultured fungi suggests that many genes for secondary metabolite synthesis are presumably silent under standard laboratory condition. In order to investigate the expression of silent genes in symbiotic systems, 136 fungi-fungi symbiotic systems were built up by co-culturing seventeen basidiomycetes, among which the co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum demonstrated the strongest coloration of confrontation zones. Metabolomics study of this co-culture discovered that sixty-two features were either newly synthesized or highly produced in the co-culture compared with individual cultures. Molecular network analysis highlighted a subnetwork including two novel xylosides (compounds 2 and 3). Compound 2 was further identified as N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-β-D-xyloside and was revealed to have the potential to enhance the cell viability of human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line of Beas-2B. Moreover, bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis of T. versicolor revealed a potential candidate gene (GI: 636605689) encoding xylosyltransferases for xylosylation. Additionally, 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were detected for the first time in G. applanatum, which may be ascribed to response against T.versicolor stress. In general, the described co-culture platform provides a powerful tool to discover novel metabolites and help gain insights into the mechanism of silent gene activation in fungal defense.

  9. Spores of Aspergillus versicolor isolated from indoor air of a moisture-damaged building provoke acute inflammation in mouse lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Juha; Komulainen, Hannu; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Nevalainen, Aino; Pelkonen, Jukka; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Microbial growth in moisture-damaged buildings has been associated with respiratory health effects, and the spores of the mycotoxin producing fungus Aspergillus versicolor are frequently present in the indoor air. To characterize the potential of these spores to cause harmful respiratory effects, mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to a single dose of the spores of A. versicolor (1 x 10(5), 1 x 10(6), 5 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), or 1 x 10(8) spores), isolated from the indoor air of a moisture-damaged building. Inflammation and toxicity in lungs were evaluated 24 h later by assessment of biochemical markers and histopathology. The time course of the effects was investigated with the dose of 5 x 10(6) spores for up to 28 days. The exposure to the spores increased transiently proinflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor [TNF] alpha and interleukin [IL]-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The cytokine responses were dose and time dependent. The highest cytokine concentrations were measured at 6 h after the dose, and they returned to the control level by 3 days. Moreover, the spores of A. versicolor recruited inflammatory cells into airways: Neutrophils peaked transiently at 24 h, macrophages at 3 days, and lymphocytes at 7 days after the dosing. The inflammatory cell response did not completely disappear during the subsequent 28 days, though no histopathological changes were seen at that time point. The spores did not induce expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in lavaged cells. Only the highest spore dose (1 x 10(8)) markedly increased serum IL-6, increased vascular leakage, and caused cytotoxicity (i.e., increased levels of albumin, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and hemoglobin in BALF) in the airways. In summary, the spores of A. versicolor caused acute inflammation in mouse lungs. This indicates that they have potential to provoke adverse health effects in the occupants of moisture-damaged buildings.

  10. Novos aspectos na evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor New aspects in the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A pitiríase versicolor é uma doença infecciosa causada por várias espécies de Malassezia com uma tendência a se tornar recidivante ou crônica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho foi conduzido na tentativa de conhecer a evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor em relação ao número de recidivas após um tratamento adequado no período de 12 meses e correlacionar o número de recidivas com as espécies de Malassezia isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Cento e dois pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de pitiríase versicolor foram acompanhados por um período de 12 meses para observarmos o número de recidivas da doença. RESULTADOS: A pitiríase versicolor, após um tratamento adequado, apresentou três tipos de evolução clínica num período de 12 meses: pitiríase versicolor sem nenhum episódio de recidiva (32,35%; pitiríase versicolor recidivante, com um a quatro episódios de recidiva (52,94% devidos a fatores de predisposição relacionados; e pitiríase versicolor crônica, com mais de quatro episódios de recidiva (14,70% sem nenhuma relação com fatores de predisposição. CONCLUSÕES: A pitiríase versicolor apresentou uma evolução clínica de acordo com o número de episódios de recidiva da doença analisados durante um período de 12 meses que pode ser considerada da seguinte maneira: pitiríase versicolor com cura clínica e micológica, pitiríase versicolor recidivante e pitiríase versicolor crônica.BACKGROUND: Pytiriasis versicolor is an infectious disease caused by several Malassezia species which has a tendency to become relapsing or chronic. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor with regard to the number of relapses after a 12-month therapy and correlate this number with isolates of Malassezia species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 102 patients with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor were monitored for 12

  11. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E., E-mail: CarlosEsteban.Rodriguez@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Jesus Garcia-Galan, Ma. [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, C/Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L{sup -1}, although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  12. Predisposing factors on the surface of the skin in persons with pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, M; Kümpel, D; Friederich, H C

    1975-12-31

    This is a report on biochemical and physiological examinations carried out on 20 test persons who in the last 2 years had contacted and completely recovered from pityriasis versicolor and on 25 control persons of corresponding age and sex. The tests on the skin surface of the patients with pityriasis versicolor show, when compared with the corresponding control group, the following significant results: 1. Significantly more amino acids could be extracted from the skin of the pityriasis versicolor patients than from the skin of the control persons. 2. A significantly shorter alkali neutralisation time was to be found in the pityriasis versicolor patients than in the control persons. 3. The degree of water spreading on the skin was found to be significantly reduced in the pityriasis versicolor patients when compared with the control persons. It is probable that these results point to important predisposing factors for pityriasis versicolor.

  13. Increase of the Trametes versicolor efficiency in bioremediation process for diclofenac biodegradation in aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia POPA (UNGUREANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diclofenac (DCF is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and, as pollutant, it represents a persistent residue hazard to health and to the environment. Trametes versicolor was previously selected for its ability in diclofenac biodegradation (up to 20% during cultivation in submerged system under aerobic conditions at an initial DCF concentration of 10 mg L-1. The influence of some factors such as nitrogen sources glucose, MnSO4·H2O, CuSO4·5H2O, inoculum level, initial DCF concentration and incubation time, upon the biodegradation potential was examined by Plackett-Burman analysis. The parameters significantly influencing the DCF biotransformation were found to be yeast extract, glucose, CuSO4·5H2O and inoculum level. In these optimum conditions, the DCF biotransformation yield was 80%. This result was 60% superior in comparison with the medium without optimization. Analysis of variance exhibited a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.9987 and ensured that the polynomial model with the experimental data was a satisfactory one. Optimal conditions obtained in this work led to a solid foundation for further use of Trametes versicolor in biotreatment of high strength DCF pollutant effluents in water wastes.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE : Skin Characteristics in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using Non-Invasive Method, MPA5

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyun Jung Park; ; Yang Won Lee; Yong Beom Choe; Kyu Joong Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Skin pigmentary changes of pityriasis versicolor may occur as either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions, depending on the outcome of interactions between Malassezia yeasts and the skin...

  15. Production of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on semisynthetic liquid and solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, C J; Lubben, A; Steyn, M

    1976-08-01

    Higher yields of sterigmatocystin were obtained with Aspergillus versicolor than with Bipolaris sorokiniana both in liquid and on solid media. The optimum temperature for sterigmatocystin production by A. versicolor was 27 to 29 degrees C and 23 degrees C for B. sorokiniana. In liquid shake cultures, production of sterigmatocystin by B. sorokiniana was negligible, whereas maximal production by A. versicolor was 210 mg/liter. On solid substrates, the highest yields (8 g/kg) were obtained with A. versicolor on still cultures of whole corn supplemented with Soytone.

  16. Pityriasis Versicolor on Penile Shaft in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

  17. Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area.

  18. Comparative histopathology of Pityriasis versicolor and Pityrosporum folliculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five cases each of pityriasis versicolor (PV and pityrosporum folliculitis (PF were selected for this study. Histopathologically in PV, spores and hyphae in spaghetti and meatball appearance in stratum corneum, and perivascular mononuclear infiltrate were seen. In PF, spores were inside the dilated hair follicles filled with keratin, perifollicular and perivascular mononuclear infiltration were seen. Basket weave hyperkeratosis, edema and disruption of collagen were seen in 88% cases of PF and have not been reported earlier.

  19. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  20. A Case of Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis Mimicking Pitriasis versicolor

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    Gürlevik Z et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP which is also known as Gourgerot-Corteoud Syndrome is an unusual condition. The etio-pathogenesis is still unclear. This disease is mostly affecting female gender. The most common location for the CRP is on the intermammary and interscapular areas. We presented the case of a male patient with CRP resembling Pityriasis versicolor. The patient was treated with azitromycin and topical retinoid. We observed a good response to azitromycin.

  1. Pityriasis versicolor: an update on pharmacological treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Lyons, Danika C A

    2014-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species; a yeast that naturally colonizes on the skins surface. High efficacy rates are generally obtained with both topical and systemic treatments. However, recurrence rates following successful treatment remain high and there are no dosage guidelines available for administration of systemic antifungal agents that carry risks of adverse events. This review focused on providing an overview of existing treatments for PV and an introduction to new treatments. A literature search was conducted using the search strategy, pityriasis versicolor OR tinea versicolor. Over the past decade, few new treatments have been introduced, but the efficacy and the dosing regimens of existing treatments have been systematically reviewed. The results of these reviews are discussed. Existing topical and systemic agents are both effective treatments against PV. Previous dosage recommendations for systemic agents have been modified based on recent evidence elucidated in systematic reviews. However, the absence of standardized collection and reporting practices in clinical trials precludes any conclusions to be drawn regarding the efficacy and safety of topical and systemic agents in comparison or in concert with each other.

  2. Advertisement-call preferences in diploid-tetraploid treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor): implications for mate choice and the evolution of communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, H Carl

    2005-02-01

    property relative to the threshold for resolving differences in that property. The results of the experiments reported here also predict patterns of mate choice within and between contemporary populations. First, intraspecific mate choice in both species is expected to be strongly influenced by variation in temperature among calling males. Second, simultaneous differences in pulse rate and pulse shape are required for effective species discrimination by females of H. versicolor but not by females of H. chrysoscelis. Third, there is greater potential for sexual selection within populations and for discrimination against calls produced by males in other geographically remote populations in H. chrysoscelis than in H. versicolor.

  3. Depigmented lesions of pityriasis versicolor: A diagnostic dilemma with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tejinder Kaur; Daljit Singh; Suresh K Malhotra; Arashbir Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial mycosis affecting the skin. It is caused by malassezia species of fungi. Common sites of involvement are chest, neck and shoulders. We report a rare case of pityriasis versicolor affecting both arms and dorsum of both hands but sparing the commonly involved sites and masquerading vitiligo.

  4. Depigmented lesions of pityriasis versicolor: A diagnostic dilemma with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Kaur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial mycosis affecting the skin. It is caused by malassezia species of fungi. Common sites of involvement are chest, neck and shoulders. We report a rare case of pityriasis versicolor affecting both arms and dorsum of both hands but sparing the commonly involved sites and masquerading vitiligo.

  5. Follicular pityriasis versicolor-Rare variant of a common dermatological disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tasleem Arif; Shagufta Rather

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by yeast of the genus Malassezia. It is characterized by hypopigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches usually involving the trunk [1]. The variants of pityriasis versicolor include hypochromic, hyperchromic, combination of hypo-hyperchromic, erythematous, circinate, atrophic and acral [2-4].

  6. Follicular pityriasis versicolor-Rare variant of a common dermatological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by yeast of the genus Malassezia. It is characterized by hypopigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches usually involving the trunk [1]. The variants of pityriasis versicolor include hypochromic, hyperchromic, combination of hypo-hyperchromic, erythematous, circinate, atrophic and acral [2-4].

  7. Clinical Trial Of Ketoconazole 2% + Zinc Pyrithione 1% Shampoo In The Management Of Tinea Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An open uncontrolled trial, to assess the efficacy of ketoconazole 2%+zinc pyrithione 1% shampoo was conducted in patients with extensive tinea versicolor. The results show that this is an effective and well tolerated combination in the management of tinea versicolor.

  8. Experimenal Studies of Phellinus Linteus and Coriolus Versicolor Capsules on Reducing Adverse Effect Induced by Chemotherapy%桑黄云芝胶囊对化疗药物减毒作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤星; 张海林; 朱学萍; 聂克; 郭炜

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察桑黄云芝胶囊对化疗药物所致白细胞减少和肾功能损伤的保护作用.方法:分别给小鼠腹腔注射环磷酰胺和顺铂造模,桑黄云芝胶囊灌胃给药,测定小鼠外周血白细胞水平和血清尿素氮(BUN),血清肌酐(Scr)水平.结果:桑黄云芝胶囊可以升高环磷酰胺所致的白细胞减少,降低顺铂升高的血清BUN,Scr水平.结论:桑黄云芝胶囊可以显著减轻化疗药物所致的白细胞减少、肾功能损伤等毒副作用.

  9. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

    2010-03-04

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics.

  10. Cresols utilization by Trametes versicolor and substrate interactions in the mixture with phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexieva, Zlatka; Yemendzhiev, Hyusein; Zlateva, Plamena

    2010-07-01

    The ability of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor strain 1 to degrade and utilize methylated phenols (cresols) was established for the first time in a medium not containing any other carbon components. The data obtained demonstrated the better potential of the strain to assimilate p-cresol instead of o- or m- cresol. The 0.5 g/l p-cresol provided was degraded in full after 96 h. The effect of a dual substrate mixture (0.3 g/l phenol + 0.2 g/l p-cresol) on the growth behavior and degradation capacity of the investigated strain was examined. The cell-free supernatants were analyzed by HPLC. It was established that the presence of p-cresol had not prevented complete phenol degradation but had a significant delaying effect on the phenol degradation dynamics. Phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1.2-dioxygenase and cis,cis-muconate cyclase activities were obtained in conditions of single and mixed substrates cultivation. The influence of different phenolic substrates on phenol hydroxylase activity in Trametes versicolor 1 was established. The mathematical models describing the dynamics of single substrates' utilization as well as the mutual influence of phenol and p-cresol in the mixture were developed on the bases of Haldane kinetics. The estimated interaction coefficients (I(ph/cr) = 4.72, I(cr/ph) = 7.46) demonstrated the significant inhibition of p-cresol on phenol biodegradation and comparatively low level of influence of phenol presence on the p-cresol degradation. Molecular 18S RNA gene taxonomy of the investigated strain was performed.

  11. Adsorption behavior of mercury on functionalized aspergillus versicolor mycelia: atomic force microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujoy K; Das, Akhil R; Guha, Arun K

    2009-01-06

    The adsorption characteristics of mercury on Aspergillus versicolor mycelia have been studied under varied environments. The mycelia are functionalized by carbon disulfide (CS(2)) treatment under alkaline conditions to examine the enhance uptake capacity and explore its potentiality in pollution control management. The functionalized A. versicolor mycelia have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) probing. SEM and AFM images exhibit the formation of nanoparticles on the mycelial surface. ATR-IR profile confirms the functionalization of the mycelia following chemical treatment. ATR-IR and EDXA results demonstrate the binding of the sulfur groups of the functionalized mycelia to the mercury and consequent formation metal sulfide. AFM study reveals that the mycelial surface is covered by a layer of densely packed domain like structures. Sectional analysis yields significant increase in average roughness (R(rms)) value (20.5 +/- 1.82 nm) compared to that of the pristine mycelia (4.56 +/- 0.82 nm). Surface rigidity (0.88 +/- 0.06 N/m) and elasticity (92.6 +/- 10.2 MPa) obtained from a force distance curve using finite element modeling are found to increase significantly with respect to the corresponding values of (0.65 +/- 0.05 N/m and 32.8 +/- 4.5 MPa) of the nonfunctionalized mycelia. The maximum mercury adsorption capacity of the functionalized mycelia is observed to be 256.5 mg/g in comparison to 80.71 mg/g for the pristine mycelia.

  12. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  13. Identification of Malassezia yeast species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Vanessa; Tanhausen, Fernanda; Weiss, Luciana; Milan, Thais; Mezzari, Adelina; Weber, Magda Blessmann

    2011-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a disease with worldwide distribution. Twelve different species of Malassezia yeast have been described. The objective of this study was to determine which species of Malassezia are more prevalent in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Samples were collected by scraping the lesions of 87 patients with a clinical suspicion of pityriasis versicolor. The samples were then submitted to fungal microscopy and culture to identify the species. The species found were: Malassezia sympodialis (30%), Malassezia furfur (25.7%), Malassezia globosa (22.7%), Malassezia restricta (12.1%), Malassezia obtusa (7.6%) and Malassezia slooffiae (1.5%).

  14. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  15. Skin Characteristics in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using Non-Invasive Method, MPA5

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin pigmentary changes of pityriasis versicolor may occur as either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions, depending on the outcome of interactions between Malassezia yeasts and the skin, such as lipoperoxidation process, stimulus of inflammatory cell to melanocytes, and increased thickness of keratin layer. Objective To investigate skin characteristic factors that enhance the susceptibility to Malassezia yeasts and provoke different color changes of pityriasis versicolor patien...

  16. [Labor epidural analgesia for a woman with a pityriasis versicolor in the lumbar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubar, G; Omarjee, M; Viguié, C; Barbarot, S; Mignon, A

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is usually contraindicated in case of infection at the site of needle insertion. Tinea versicolor is a benign superficial cutaneous fungal infection caused by the proliferation of a skin commensal yeast of low pathogenicity. We report the case of a pregnant woman with a tinea versicolor in the lumbar region, who benefited from a labor epidural analgesia, realised with reinforced antiseptic measures. No neurological or infectious complication occurred.

  17. Statistical optimization for decolorization of textile dyes using Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S

    2009-06-15

    The conventional treatment of dark coloured textile wastewater using chemical coagulation generates large volume of sludge, which requires further treatment and disposal. In the present investigation, a systematic optimization study of the important variables influencing the decolorization of Reactive Orange-16 (RO-16) and Reactive Red-35 (RR-35) dyes by the white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) was carried out. A full factorial central composite design was employed for experimental design and optimization of results. The effect of concentrations of dye, glucose and ammonium chloride on decolorization was studied and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum decolorization of 94.5% and 90.7% for RO-16 and RR-35 was obtained at optimum concentrations of dye, glucose and ammonium chloride i.e., 0.66, 17.50 and 2.69 g/L for RO-16 and 0.68, 16.67 and 2.13 g/L for RR-35, respectively.

  18. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  19. Immunological study of Pityriasis versicolor and Pityrosporum folliculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five cases of pityriasis versicolor and 25 cases of pityrosporum folliculitis were selected for this study. Skin scrapings in 10% potassium hydroxide showed spores and hyphae in all 25 cases of PV. Smears from PF showed Gram positive spores in all 25 cases and in addition few short hyphae in 3 cases. Initially IgM and Later both IgM and IgG were raised. Similar response was seen in PF initially and later IgM, IgG and IgA all were raised in PF. Though antibody levels were slightly higher in PF, yet basically the pattern was similar in PV and PF.

  20. Study of oral Ketoconazole on recurrent & extensive Pityriasis Versicolor

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    Moghaddami M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Several topical agents have been used for treating Pityriasis versicolor. But the main problem is recurrence. In this study 82 patients with recurrent and/or extensive from of infection were treated with oral Ketoconazole. 200 mg once daily for a maximum of 4 weeks. Seventeen patients have been infected for the first time and sixty five for the several times. The duration of disease in most cases (35.4% were between 1-3 years. Out of 82 studied patients only 60 cases were referred for follow up. The clinical and mycological cure were seen in 54 cases (90% after 15 days therapy. In other 6 patients after 15 days the lesions have not cured completely so the treatment was continued for other 2 weeks, but after that, only one of them referred to the clinic, which treatment extended with topical therapy.

  1. The evaluation of local oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with pityriasis versicolor: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan

    2016-11-01

    Yeast of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses. The mechanisms by which the yeast cause these dermatoses, however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction between fungi and keratinocytes, especially the effects of fungi on the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species by human keratinocytes. This is the first study we aimed to evaluate the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in affected skin areas in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Sixty pityriasis versicolor patients and 60 healthy subjects as control group were enrolled. Scraping samples were obtained from the lesional skin areas in patients and from the normal skin areas in controls. The distribution of lesions of pityriasis versicolor was mild in all patients. We have isolated two Malassezia species: M. furfur being isolated in 75% of patients, followed by M. globosa (25%). The levels of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were significantly higher in patients than the controls (P pityriasis versicolor is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance. It might be secondary consequence of pityriasis versicolor infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Molecular identification and prevalence of malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor patients from kashan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaee, Rezvan; Katiraee, Farzad; Ghaderi, Maryam; Erami, Mahzad; Kazemi Alavi, Azam; Nazeri, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts found on the skin surface of humans and other warm-blooded vertebrates. It is associated with various human diseases, especially pityriasis versicolor, which is a chronic superficial skin disorder. The aim of the present study was to identify Malassezia species isolated from patients' samples affected by pityriasis versicolor, using molecular methods in Kashan, Iran. A total of 140 subjects, suspected of having pityriasis versicolor from Kashan, were clinically diagnosed and then confirmed by direct microscopic examination. The scraped skin specimens were inoculated in modified Dixon's medium. DNA was extracted from the colonies and PCR amplification was carried out for the 26s rDNA region. PCR products were used to further restriction fragment length polymorphism by CfoI enzyme. Direct examination was positive in 93.3% of suspected pityriasis versicolor lesions. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of Malassezia species between women and men. The highest prevalence of tinea versicolor was seen in patients 21-30 years-of-age. No difference could be seen in the frequency of Malassezia species depending on the age of the patients. In total, 65% of patients with pityriasis versicolor had hyperhidrosis. The most commonly isolated Malassezia species in the pityriasis versicolor lesions were; Malassezia globosa (66%), M. furfur (26%), M. restricta (3%), M. sympodialis (3%), and M. slooffiae (2%). Malassezia species were mainly isolated from the neck and chest. This study showed M. globosa to be the most common Malassezia species isolated from Malassezia skin disorders in Kashan, Iran. The PCR-RFLP method was useful in the rapid identification of the Malassezia species. By using these methods, the detection and identification of individual Malassezia species from clinical samples was substantially easier.

  3. A study on the adsorption mechanism of mercury on Aspergillus versicolor biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujoy K; Das, Akhil R; Guha, Arun K

    2007-12-15

    The adsorption behavior of mercury on Aspergillus versicolor biomass (AVB) has been investigated in aqueous solution to understand the physicochemical process involved and to explore the potentiality of AVB in pollution control management. This biomass has been successfully used for reducing the mercury concentration level in the effluent of chloralkali and battery industries to a permissible limit. The results establish that 75.6 mg of mercury is adsorbed per gram of biomass. The adsorption process is found to be a function of pH of the solution, with the optimum range being pH 5.0-6.0. The process obeys the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrates a conspicuous surface morphology change of the mercury-adsorbed biomass. A nearly uniform distribution of metal ions on the mycelial surface excepting a few aggregation points is revealed by X-ray elemental mapping profiles. The results of zeta potential measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and blocking of the functional groups by chemical modification reflect the binding of mercury on the biomass occurs through electrostatic and complexation reactions. The accumulation of mercury on the cell wall associated with negligible diffusion and or transportation into cytoplasm finds support from the results of adsorption kinetics and transmission electron micrographs. Mercury adsorption on biomass also leads to elongation of cells and cytoplasmic aggregation of spheroplast/protoplasts, indicating that the cell wall acts as a permeation barrier against this toxic metal.

  4. Occurrence of the Toxin-Producing Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Piontek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In an area representative of a moderate climate zone (Lubuskie Province in Poland, mycological tests in over 270 flats demonstrated the occurrence of 82 species of moulds. Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi was often encountered on building partitions (frequency 4: frequently. The ability to synthesize the carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST means that it poses a risk to humans and animals. Biotoxicological tests of biomasses of A. versicolor were conducted in the Microbiological and Toxicological Laboratory, using the planarians Dugesia tigrina (Girard. The obtained results of the tests covered a broad range of toxicity levels of isolated strains: from weakly toxic (100–1000 mg·L−3 to potently toxic (1–10 mg·L−3. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC physicochemical method confirmed the ability of A. versicolor strains to synthesize sterigmatocystin. All of the samples of the air-dry biomasses of the fungi contained ST in the range between 0.03 and 534.38 mg·kg−1. In the bio-safety level (BSL classification A. versicolor belongs to category 1. Additionally, A. versicolor is an allergenic mould.

  5. Skin Characteristics in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using Non-Invasive Method, MPA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2012-11-01

    Skin pigmentary changes of pityriasis versicolor may occur as either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions, depending on the outcome of interactions between Malassezia yeasts and the skin, such as lipoperoxidation process, stimulus of inflammatory cell to melanocytes, and increased thickness of keratin layer. To investigate skin characteristic factors that enhance the susceptibility to Malassezia yeasts and provoke different color changes of pityriasis versicolor patients. To clarify these factors, we investigated the skin characteristics of pityriasis versicolor patients, using a non-invasive method known as MPA 5® (Courage and Khazaka, Germany). A total of 90 normal healthy subjects and 30 pityriasis versicolor patients were included in this study. Both hyperpigmented and hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor skin lesions showed higher humidity, increased sebum excretion rate and increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values than normal healthy subjects. But no significant difference of specific Malassezia yeasts species between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions was evident. These results indicate that higher humidity and increased sebum level provide a better growing environment of Malassezia yeasts in the skin, leading to the assumption that interaction between Malassezia yeasts and skin barrier materials makes disruption of skin barrier causing increased TEWL.

  6. Pityriasis versicolor: A clinicomycological and epidemiological study from a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sudip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pityriasis versicolor is a mild, chronic, usually asymptomatic superficial fungal infection of the stratum corneum, caused by Malassezia yeasts. The purpose of the present study is to assess the clinical profile of a group of patients with pityriasis versicolor and to find out the epidemiological characteristics in this part of India as well as any association, if any, with other diseases. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 110 consecutive patients of pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was confirmed mycologically at a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. All data were recorded in a predesigned, pretested semi-structured schedule. The total duration of study period was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were young adults. Most of the patients were asymptomatic. There is prominent seasonal variation of the patients with a peak in August and September months. Most of the lesions were hypopigmented scaly macules and were KOH positive. Most commonly involved sites were chest, face and back. Seborrheic dermatitis sometimes coexisted with pityriasis versicolor and a number of patients also had diabetes mellitus and immunosuppressive conditions. Conclusions: Overall, the clinicomycological and epidemiological profile of pityriasis versicolor infection as observed in a tertiary care setting in eastern India does not differ significantly from those observed by previous workers elsewhere.

  7. Isolation of Malassezia globosa and M. sympodialis from patients with pityriasis versicolor in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiroz, Carmen; Ara, Mariano; Varea, Marzo; Rezusta, Antonio; Rubio, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum by several yeast species formerly collectively named Malasseziafurfur. The genus Malassezia has been recently enlarged with new species. With the exception of M. pachydermatis, the remaining six species have an absolute requirement in vitro for supplementation of long-chain fatty acids in media. These lipophilic yeasts comprise six species: M. furfur, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae and M. sympodialis. The aim of this study was to establish whether there was any association between the various species of Malassezia and pityriasis versicolor lesions. Thus, we studied the isolates from 79 patients with pityriasis versicolor, both from lesions and from apparently healthy skin close to the visible lesions. In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the species most frequently isolated was M. globosa (90%), followed by M. sympodialis (41%). Almost all isolates (99%) belonged to one of these two species. The most frequent pattern was M. globosa as the sole species (58% of cases), although the association with M. sympodialis was also frequent (30%). These results confirmed M. globosa as the main agent of pityriasis versicolor and M. sympodialis as the second agent in importance. Malassezia globosa was found to be a species with high levels of esterase and lipase enzymes of probable importance in their pathogenicity.

  8. Investigation of the toxicity of the products of decoloration of Amaranth by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V

    2007-01-01

    Trametes versicolor decolorized 2000 mg L(-1) of the mono-azo substituted naphthalenic dye Amaranth with no dye sorption observed visually. The changes in the toxicity were assessed over a period of 30 d for the dye-treated viable culture, control (no dye added), and a boiled culture treated with dye, using the Microtox Acute Toxicity assay. Before dye addition, the culture filtrate had some toxicity, which increased after the dye addition. The toxicity of the dye-treated culture decreased during the treatment. The loss of toxicity occurred at the same time, with the loss of color suggesting that detoxification is associated with decoloration. The change in pH was due to natural metabolic processes and had a small effect on detoxification. Because the toxicity of the treatment was similar to that of the control at the end of the treatment, the effluent seems to be safe for release into the environment, potentially rendering this treatment suitable for industrial application.

  9. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Elena; Piaserico, Stefano; Alaibac, Mauro

    2017-01-18

    Pityriasis versicolor is one of the most frequent epidermal mycotic infections in the world, but its atrophic variant is rarely described. The aetiology of the atrophy is still unknown, and two main hypotheses have been formulated, one suggesting a correlation with long-term use of topical steroids and the other a delayed type hypersensitivity to epicutaneous antigens derived from components of the fungus. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor is a benign disease, but needs to be distinguished from other more severe skin diseases manifesting with cutaneous atrophy. The diagnosis can be easily confirmed by direct microscopic observation of the scales soaked in 15% potassium hydroxide, which reveals the typical 'spaghetti and meatball' appearance, or by a skin biopsy in doubtful cases. Here, we describe a case of extensive atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a woman affected by Sjögren's syndrome which completely resolved after topical antifungal treatment. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Uso da vespa social Polistes versicolor no controle de desfolhadores de eucalipto Use of social wasp Polistes versicolor on eucalyptus caterpillar control

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    Thiago Elisei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os recursos forrageados por Polistes versicolor em área de reflorestamento com eucalipto e identificar as presas forrageadas. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 2007, foram realizadas 24 observações da atividade forrageadora de colônias de P. versicolor presentes em um reflorestamento de eucalipto, em Juiz de Fora, MG, totalizando 240 horas de registros. Durante as dez horas de observação diária, foram registrados e qualificados, a cada 30 minutos, os retornos das operárias para a colônia. Foram registrados 1.809 retornos, dos quais 51,63% foram com néctar; 6,85%, com água; 4,7%, com fibra vegetal; 17,41%, com presas; e 19,40%, sem recurso forrageado (improdutivos. As operárias de P. versicolor predaram exclusivamente lagartas de lepidópteros, que foram a única fonte de proteína animal oferecida aos insetos imaturos, na colônia. Dessa forma, a espécie estudada apresenta potencial como agente controlador biológico de herbívoros desfolhadores de eucalipto.The objective of this work was to determine the resources foraged by Polistes versicolor on an eucalyptus reforestation and to identify preys in the resources foraged. From January to December, 2007, 24 foraging activity observations were done on colonies of P. versicolor in an eucalyptus reforestation, in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, totalizing 240 hours of registrations. During ten hours, the return of the workers to the colony was registered and qualified, every 30 minutes. In this work, 1,809 returns were registered, and 51.63% were with nectar; 6.85%, with water; 4.7%, with vegetable fiber; 17.41%, with preys; and 19.40%, without foraged resource (unproductive. Polistes versicolor workers preys exclusively caterpillars, that were the only animal protein source offered to the immature insects in the colony. Thus, the studied species can be used as a biological controller of eucalyptus defoliating herbivores.

  11. Pitiríase versicolor circinada: isolamento de Malassezia sympodialis - Relato de caso Pityriasis versicolor circinata: isolation of Malassezia sympodialis - Case report

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    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem caso de pitiríase versicolor circinada, cujo agente etiológico isolado foi Malassezia sympodialis em uma mulher de 34 anos. O isolamento e identificação da Malassezia sympodialis foi em ágar Dixon modificado e o método molecular para confirmação da espécie foi PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.The authors report a case of pityriasis versicolor circinata whose isolated etiologic agent was Malassezia sympodialis in a 34-year-old woman. The isolation and identification of Malassezia sympodialis were accomplished with modified Dixon's agar, and the molecular method used to confirm the species was polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP.

  12. Hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor on Becker′s naevus : Hope for new method of treatment ?

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    Singal Archana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor superimposed on pre existing Becker′s naevus associated with congenital melanocytic naevus is being reported for its rarity. The possible role of dicarboxylic acid and other free radicles produced by Pityrosporum ovale in treating Becker′s Naevus is also suggested.

  13. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Daiane; Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Vetoratto, Gerson; Amaro, Taís Guarienti; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malassezia yeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease.

  14. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical experience with Lamisil cream and Lamisil DermGel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faergemann, J; Hersle, K; Nordin, P

    1997-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic superficial fungal disease usually located on the upper trunk, neck or upper arms. Terbinafine is an orally and topically active allylamine antifungal derivative with a broad antifungal spectrum. Several studies have documented the high activity of terbinafine (Lamisil) cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor, with cure rates of 79-100% after 2-4 weeks of treatment. Lamisil emulsion gel (Lamisil DermGel) is a new topical formulation that remains in the skin in high concentrations for several months after just 1 week of application. Recently, in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, comparative, multicentre study, we have treated patients with pityriasis versicolor with either terbinafine 1% emulsion gel (Lamisil DermGel) or placebo gel. Sixty-one patients were included, 31 in the Lamisil DermGel group and 30 in the placebo gel group. The gel was applied once daily for 7 days and the patients were followed up for 8 weeks. Twenty-eight patients in the active and 29 patients in the placebo group were evaluable for efficacy. Using the intent-to-treat efficacy analysis, 21/28 (75%) were cured in the Lamisil-DermGel-treated group compared to 4/29 (14%) in the placebo group. No side-effects were seen. In conclusion, Lamisil DermGel was well tolerated and superior to placebo in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor when applied once daily for 7 days.

  15. Prevalence of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Rosario, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background Malassezia species are considered opportunistic yeasts of increasing clinical importance. These lipophilic yeasts are associated with various human diseases, especially pityriasis versicolor (PV), a chronic superficial scaling dermatomycosis. Aims The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and analyze the distribution of the different species of Malassezia in patients with PV in Rosario city (Argentina). Methods A total of 264...

  16. Pitiríase versicolor e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA

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    Roza Marlon Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é uma infecção crônica recorrente da camada córnea causada pela Malassezia furfur, geralmente assintomática, podendo ser causa de fungemia. A síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida caracteriza-se por uma importante depressão celular, o que propicia a ocorrência de infecções oportunistas. OBJETIVOS: Dados a imunodepressão causada pelo HIV e o risco da presença de M. furfur em sua forma patogênica no imunocomprometido, realizou-se este trabalho comparativo buscando as reais diferenças da pitiríase versicolor no imunocompetente e no imunodeprimido pelo HIV. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, no período de julho de 1998 a junho de 1999, 50 pacientes HIV positivos do Hospital Universitário da UFJF. Como grupo controle, foram examinados de forma aleatória 50 pacientes soronegativos para HIV. Para cada paciente foi preenchido um protocolo constando de identificação e exames clínicos e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: A pitiríase versicolor foi diagnosticada clinicamente no grupo HIV positivo em sete (14% pacientes, resultado coincidente no grupo controle. Quanto ao passado para a pitiríase versicolor, 12 (24% pacientes já haviam apresentado tal doença no grupo HIV positivo, e igual incidência ocorreu no grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: A pitiríase versicolor não se mostrou mais freqüente e nem mais agressiva na população imunodeprimida pelo HIV em relação ao grupo controle, enquanto a dermatite seborréica apresentou-se mais freqüente no grupo infectado pelo HIV.

  17. Identification and speciation of Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having pityriasis versicolor

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    Avani Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood′s lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71% in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81% who were students (30.21% by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%, followed by M. furfur (34.28%. Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood′s lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications.

  18. DISTRIBUTION OF MALASSEZIA SPECIES IN PATIENTS WITH PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN SOUTH INDIA

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    Kavitha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pityriasis Versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which is caused by a group of yeasts called Malassezia. OBJECTIVES To isolate and identify the causative fungi from clinically suspected cases of Pityriasis Versicolor by 10% KOH and to compare the results of 10% KOH with culture. METHODS 100 clinically diagnosed cases of Pityriasis Versicolor of all age groups and both sexes, attending the Outpatient Department of Dermatology at Bapuji Hospital and Chitageri Hospital were included in this study. Skin scrapings from lesions of all cases were subjected to 10% KOH examination and culture. A control group of 50 healthy individuals was studied to know the normal fungal flora of the skin. Differentiation of all Malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological tests including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. RESULTS Out of 100 clinically diagnosed Pityriasis Versicolor cases, 97(97% cases showed characteristic arrangement of fungal elements in 10% KOH preparation and culture was positive in 68 cases. The most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (54.41%, followed by M. furfur (25%, M. sympodialis (11.76% and M. obtusa (8.82%. In control group, M. globosa was the common isolate. CONCLUSION In comparison with culture results, the sensitivity and specificity of 10% KOH is 100% and 9.37% respectively. It does not require highly skilled personnel to perform or interpret results. The only disadvantage of KOH examination is that the Malassezia species cannot be differentiated. Culture is the gold standard, but it is time consuming and requires considerable expertise. Therefore, 10% KOH examination is a rapid, simple, sensitive and effective diagnostic test for Pityriasis Versicolor. M. globosa was the most common isolated species followed by M. furfur, M. sympodialis and M. obtusa

  19. Distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, G; Saracli, M A; Gümral, R; Taner Yildiran, S

    2014-06-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial mycotic disease of the skin which is caused by different species of Malassezia genus. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the aetiology of pityriasis versicolor (PV) with a mycological study made according to the new species and additionally, the success of the different sampling techniques, duration and recurrence history of the disease, distribution of infecting strains according to the affected body sites were also investigated. In total, 146 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. Fungal elements could only be visualized by potassium hydroxide examination in 36.4% of the samples. Specimens obtained by scraping skin surface by a sterile scalpel and/or sterile sticky plaster (OpSite) were inoculated in plates containing modified Dixon's medium. Out of 146 samples, 109 (74.7%) yielded a growth which was considered to be Malassezia spp. in culture. Species level identification of suspicious Malassezia yeasts was made according to their macroscopic and microscopic features, and their physiological characteristics. Among the identified species, Malassezia globosa (65.1%) was the most commonly isolated species, followed by Malassezia obtusa (17.4%). However, four Malassezia isolates could not be identified at species level with conventional methods. While most of the patients suffered their first episode of pityriasis versicolor (76%), back of the trunk was the mostly affected body site (39%). In conclusion, Malassezia globosa was found to be the predominant species in pityriasis versicolor patients in our region, and culture of the specimen is necessary for the epidemiologic purposes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Identification and speciation of malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Avani; Koticha, Avani; Ubale, Milind; Wanjare, Shashir; Mehta, Preeti; Khopkar, Uday

    2013-05-01

    Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood's lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Majority of the patients were males (59.71%) in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81%) who were students (30.21%) by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%), followed by M. furfur (34.28%). Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood's lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications.

  1. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  2. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  3. Clinico-epidemiological study of pityriasis versicolor in a rural tertiary care hospital

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    Nazeema Tabaseera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to know the incidence of pityriasis versicolor in relation to age, sex, seasons and occupation in a rural set up. Methods: A total of 105 patients of pityriasis versicolor were clinically evaluated and confirmed mycologically at central lab in a tertiary care hospital in South India. The obtained data was recorded and analysed accordingly. Results: Male preponderance was observed in the study. Disease was most pronounced in younger age group (21-30 years especially students. 61.9% of patients sought medical advice on cosmetic grounds while 38% had pruritis. Chest was the commonest site of affection followed by neck and back. Conclusion: Early identification of the yeast by simple laboratory techniques would help prevent recurrences, systemic complications and cosmetological problems which are high especially among the students and younger age groups. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1438-1440

  4. GC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis of biodegradation of new disazo dye by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, H Ardag; Demircali, A; Aydemir, C; Pazarlioglu, N; Karci, F

    2011-01-01

    In this study; sub-tropical white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor was investigated for its ability to degrade 4-(3'-methyl-4'-(4"-nitrophenyl)azo- 1'H-pyrazol-5'-ylazo)-3-methyl- H-pyrazol-5-on in the mediums containing glucose and different concentrations of degrade dye in batch systems. This dye was synthetized at Pamukkale Universtiy of Organic Chemistry research laboratory. Samples were collected on 10 days, and was detected by Shimadzu UV-1600A spectrophotometry. Decolorization study showed that this disazo dye was removed by more than 70% in 10 days. Laccase enzyme activity was detected in samples and then last sample was analyzed by GC-MS. Metabolites weren't showed in GC-MS result. It was concluded that T. versicolor could achieve the biodegradation of this new disazo dye.

  5. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  6. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

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    Diego Moldes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

  7. Cyclo-(trp-phe diketopiperazines from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from Piper aduncum

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    Juliana R. Gubiani

    Full Text Available Six known compounds, three peptide derivatives: cyclo-(tryptophyl-phenylalanyl (2, diketopiperazine dimer WIN 64821 (3 and 3-hydroxy-15H-tryptophenaline (4, one adenine derivative: 2-hydroxy-6-N-isopentenyl-adenine (5, one phtalide derivative: 4-methoxyphtalide (1 and one benzoic acid derivative: 3-hydroxy-4-(1-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl benzoic acid (6, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor associated with the Piper aduncum plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 1 D and 2D NMR spectra and in comparison with works reported in the literature. This paper, in effect, deals with the first report of these compounds in A. versicolor.

  8. Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor

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    Nagpal V

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

  9. Novel Chromone Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor Isolated from the Sponge Xestospongia exigua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua, fungal isolates of Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill)Triab were obtained. Isolation and purification of ethyl acetate extracts from culture filtrates of the fungus led to yield six new chromone derivatives namely aspergione A, aspergione B, aspergione C, aspergione D, aspergione E, aspergione F. The structures of all the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopy (UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC and HMBC) analysis.

  10. The Reproducing Capacity of Gamma Irradiated Adults of Trogoderma Versicolor (Creutz)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Kawy, F. K. [فايزكمال عبد القوي; Hasaballa, Z. A.

    1993-01-01

    Male and female, Trogoderma versicolor (Creutz.) were irradiated by gamma radiation as newly emerged adults (12-24 hrs. after emergence). Males required higher doses than females to be sterilized and the reproductive inability increased with increasing dose. Doses of 210 and 80 Gray were sufficient to induce almost complete sterility for males and females, respectively. Egg production per female was highest in crosses involving irradiated males as compared with eggs produced from irradiated f...

  11. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe (1, cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro (2, phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3, cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro (4, cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro (5 and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6, were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1, 72.9% (2, 23.5% (3, 29.6% (4, 30.9% (5 and 51.1% (6 at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent

  12. Activation of dormant secondary metabolite production by introducing neomycin resistance into the deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-07-29

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(D-Pro-D-Phe) (1), cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-L-prolinate (3), cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro) (4), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1-6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent fungal

  13. Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

  14. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India

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    Chaudhary Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Aim: Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests. Results: In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon′s agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5% were M. globosa, 15 (17.2% were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0% were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9% each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4% isolates were M. restricta. Conclusion: M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  15. Laccase production by free and immobilized mycelia of Peniophora cinerea and Trametes versicolor: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, Sara C; Moreira, Sérgio; Milagres, Adriane M F; Macedo, Eugénia A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2013-03-01

    The production of laccase by immobilized mycelia of Peniophora cinerea and Trametes versicolor was studied. In an initial stage, experimental assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks using free and immobilized mycelium, and the performance of the fungal strains to produce the enzyme was compared. Both fungi adhered into the support material (a synthetic fiber), growing not only on the surface but also in the interspaces of the fibers. Immobilization of P. cinerea provided a 35-fold increase in laccase production when compared to the production obtained by using free mycelium. On the other hand, immobilization of T. versicolor caused a decrease in laccase activity. A comparison between the strains revealed that immobilized P. cinerea (3,500 U/L) surpassed the enzyme production by free T. versicolor (800 U/L). When the conditions that gave the best laccase production to each fungus were employed in a stirred tank bioreactor, very low laccase production was observed for both the cases, suggesting that shear stress and mycelia damage caused by the agitation impellers negatively affected the enzyme production.

  16. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-01

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge.

  17. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajkumar S Radder; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag

    2004-03-01

    The determinants of offspring size and number in the tropical oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor, were examined using both univariate and multivariate (path) analyses. In C. versicolor maternal snout-vent length (SVL) and body condition influence clutch mass and clutch size but have no significant influence on offspring size. The positive effect of maternal SVL and body condition on offspring number is counterbalanced by a negative effect of breeding time on egg mass. In fact, breeding time directly influences the offspring body mass and condition through variation in the egg mass. There is a trade-off between offspring mass and condition with offspring number, and breeding time influences both. Offspring hatched from the eggs of early (May–June) or mid (July–August) breeding periods invariably show lower mass and condition than those hatched from the eggs of late breeding season (September–October). Yet, there is no variation in offspring SVL among early, mid and late clutches. Thus, in C. versicolor offspring SVL is optimized while body mass and condition are not optimized.

  18. Malassezia yeast species isolated from Iranian patients with pityriasis versicolor in a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Abbas; Naderi, Reza; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Falahati, Mehraban; Farehyar, Shirin; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amir Poya

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor lesions and to examine if the range of species varies with patients characteristics such as: age, sex and family history and also clinical findings such as site and number of the lesions. In a prospective study from July 2006 to July 2007, the patients with a clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor (n = 166) were asked to participate in the study. A total of 116 patients had positive culture for Malassezia species: M. globosa was found in 52 (31.3%) cases, M. furfur in 34 (20.5%) cases, M. pachydermatis in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. restricta in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. slooffiae in 6 (3.6%) cases. According to our data, M. globosa is the main species causing pityriasis versicolor, M. furfur was found to be the second-most frequent species. M. sympodialis and M. obtusa were not found in any case, and in 30.2% of patient's Malassezia culture was negative.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M; Sugita, T; Saeed, H; Ahmed, A

    2013-02-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum caused by Malassezia yeasts. The cutaneous Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor were elucidated using a molecular-based, culture-independent method and compared with that in healthy individuals. Scale samples were collected by applying an Opsite™ transparent dressing to lesional and non-lesional sites on 29 Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor and 54 healthy individuals. Malassezia DNA was extracted directly from the samples. The overall level of colonization by Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta was analyzed by real-time PCR using a TaqMan probe. The overall level of colonization by Malassezia at the lesional sites was higher than that at the non-lesional sites for all body sites, including the face, neck, cheeks, and trunk (2.7- to 6.0-fold increase). Both M. globosa and M. restricta were detected in patients and healthy individuals. However, M. globosa predominated at lesional sites, whereas the level of colonization by both species was similar in healthy individuals.

  20. Comparison between fluconazole and ketoconazole effectivity in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Azizi, Hoda; Suizi, Behnaz

    2007-07-01

    Topical drugs are often effective in limited lesions of pityriasis versicolor; but in extensive cases, systemic drugs are more suitable. Previous studies have shown that ketoconazole and fluconazole are effective in 42-97% and 74-100% of lesions respectively. Our purpose was to compare the effectiveness of a single dose of 400 mg ketoconazole with two doses of 300 mg of fluconazole with 2 weeks interval. Ninety patients with extensive pityriasis versicolor (body involved area > or =25%) were randomly assigned to treatment with either a single dose of 400 mg of ketoconazole or with two doses of 300 mg of fluconazole with 2 weeks interval. One month after the treatment, the improvement rate and side effects were evaluated by clinical examination and questionnaire. Sixty cases (66.7%) completed the study. They were 51 males and nine females, with a mean age of 30 years. At the follow-up visit (1 month after the end of treatment), the improvement rate for ketoconazole (87.9%) was not significantly different from fluconazole (81.5%), (Fisher test: P = 0.37). Due to the hepatotoxicity of ketoconazole, fluconazole appears to be more suitable in the treatment of extensive pityriasis versicolor.

  1. Metabolites from the biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by Trametes versicolor or laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Núria; Parella, Teodor; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria; Sarrà, Montserrat

    2009-06-01

    The feasibility of degrading triphenylmethane dyes by Trametes versicolor and laccase has been investigated for the following dyes: Acid Fuchsin, Brilliant Green 1, Basic Fuchsin, Methyl Green or Acid Green 16. The toxicity level of triphenylmethane dyes is linked to their basic character, but significant detoxification is obtained when there is biodegradation. Identification of enzymatic degradation products by (1)H NMR made it possible to propose a general rule for the laccase attack on triphenylmethane compounds. The enzyme completely degrades the molecular part of the canonical resonance substructures of dyes, because no N-substituted, mono-N and di-N,N substituted p-amine aromatic residues seem to be wholly degraded. No enzymatic degradation is observed in the cases of either the non-substituted or trisubstituted-N,N,Np-amine aromatic residues. On the other hand, for all the dyes tested, no aromatic residues are detected after fungal treatment; this means that T. versicolor is more capable of performing further degradation than is laccase. The results of this study demonstrated that compounds with a triphenylmethane structure can be degraded by T. versicolor even if they are highly toxic. The enzyme laccase plays an important role in the attack on the structure and a general rule for predicting which products would be obtained after the enzymatic treatment is suggested.

  2. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati Hojjat

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from healthy skins. Methods Differentiation of all malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological test including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. Results In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (53.3%, followed by M. furfur (25.3%, M. sympodialis(9.3%, M. obtusa (8.1% and M. slooffiae (4.0%. The most frequently isolated species in the skin of healthy individuals were M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. sloofiae and M. restricta which respectively made up 41.7%, 25.0%, 23.3%, 6.7% and 3.3% of the isolated species. Conclusions According to our data, M. globosa was the most prevalent species in the skin of healthy individuals which recovered only in the yeast form. However, the Mycelial form of M. globosa was isolated as the dominant species from pityriasis versicolor lesions. Therefore, the role of predisposing factors in the conversion of this yeast to mycelium and its subsequent involvement in pityriasis versicolor pathogenicity should be considered.

  3. Functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles: fabrication, laccase adsorption performance and direct laccase capture from Trametes versicolor fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-12-01

    A simple and highly efficient protocol using magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs) with metal affinity ligands was developed to directly capture laccase from Trametes versicolor fermentation broth. The Cu(2+)-chelated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs-Cu(2+)) with pore sizes ranging from 3.6 to 27.1 nm exhibited size selectivity on laccase capture from the fermentation broth, and the MMSNPs-Cu(2+) with an average pore size of 14.5 nm provided 60.6-fold purification of laccase and 114.6% recovery yield of enzyme activity. Both size selectivity of the MMSNPs and affinity of the chelated metal ion resulted in high laccase capture efficiency from the fermentation broth. The most efficient MMSNPs-Cu(2+) demonstrated no significant loss in laccase capture effectiveness following 10 reuse cycles. This simple and efficient strategy has the potential to be used for the robust and inexpensive preparation of purified laccase at the industrial scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits

  5. Decoloration of Amaranth by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Part II. Verification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V

    2007-02-01

    The involvement of lignin peroxidase (LiP) in the decoloration of the mono-azo substituted napthalenic dye Amaranth was investigated with pure enzymes and whole cultures of Trametes versicolor. The verification study confirmed that LiP has a direct influence on the initial decoloration rate and showed that another enzyme, which does not need hydrogen peroxide to function and is not a laccase, also plays a role during decoloration. These results confirm the results of a previous statistical analysis. Furthermore, the fungal mycelium affects the performance of the decoloration process.

  6. The effect of aeration on the biotransformation of lignocellulosic wastes by white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M J; Elorrieta, M A; Vargas-García, M C; Suárez-Estrella, F; Moreno, J

    2002-01-01

    The mineralisation and the humification of organic matter (OM) in sterile horticultural plant wastes inoculated with Coriolus versicolor or Phanerochaete flavido-alba was investigated under different aeration rates in order to determine their efficacy as potential inoculants for composting. The change in elemental composition, lignin content and OM fractions was analysed during a 90-day incubation. Both fungi degraded 30% of lignin at low aeration rates. Different aeration rates led to significant changes in OM mineralisation induced by C. versicolor, but did not have noticeable effect on P. flavido-alba activity. The mineralisation was more effectively carried out by P. flavido-alba than by C. versicolor. Lignin degradation and the linked humification process were equally achieved by the two fungi and were enhanced in aerated conditions. The fungi analysed may facilitate the composting of lignocellulosic wastes by means of an increase in substrate bioavailability and OM humification.

  7. Dectin-1 and IL-17A suppress murine asthma induced by Aspergillus versicolor but not Cladosporium cladosporioides due to differences in β-glucan surface exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Cole, Rachael A; Gibson, Aaron M; Bass, Stacey A; Budelsky, Alison L; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana

    2012-10-01

    There is considerable evidence supporting a role for mold exposure in the pathogenesis and expression of childhood asthma. Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides are common molds that have been implicated in asthma. In a model of mold-induced asthma, mice were repeatedly exposed to either A. versicolor or C. cladosporioides spores. The two molds induced distinct phenotypes, and this effect was observed in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains. C. cladosporioides induced robust airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilia, and a predominately Th2 response, whereas A. versicolor induced a strong Th17 response and neutrophilic inflammation, but very mild AHR. Neutralization of IL-17A resulted in strong AHR and eosinophilic inflammation following A. versicolor exposure. In Dectin-1-deficient mice, A. versicolor exposure resulted in markedly attenuated IL-17A and robust AHR compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, C. cladosporioides induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation independent of IL-17A and Dectin-1. A. versicolor, but not C. cladosporioides, spores had increased exposure of β-glucans on their surface and were able to bind Dectin-1. Thus, the host response to C. cladosporioides was IL-17A- and Dectin-1-independent, whereas Dectin-1- and IL-17A-dependent pathways were protective against the development of asthma after exposure to A. versicolor.

  8. Antifungal activity of oregano extract against A. Versicolor, E. Nidulans and Eurotium spp.: Producers of sterigmatocystin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L. on growth of Aspergillus versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Eurotium herbariorum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. rubrum - producers of sterigmatocystin (STC isolated from salads. Antifungal tests were performed by agar plates method. The composition of the active component of extract was determined by GC-MS method and the major components were: carvacrol (34.20%, triacetin (22.91%, carvone (18.05%, p-cymene (8.05% and thymol (3.74%. The examined extract showed the ability to reduce mold growth at all applied concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for E. nidulans, E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami were 2.5% (v/v and over 2.5% (v/v for A. versicolor. At 1.5% (v/v concentration the extract completely inhibited the growth of E. rubrum, whereas higher dose of 2.5% (v/v was fungicidal against E. herbariorum. Besides its sensory role in food products, the examined oregano extract also exhibits antifungal activities against producers of STC.

  9. Effect Of Metal Ions On Triphenylmethane Dye Decolorization By Laccase From Trametes Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmelová Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Laccase activity was inhibited by monovalent ions (Li+, Na+, K+ and Ag+ but the presence of divalent ions increased laccase activity at the concentration of 10 mmol/l. The effect of metal ions on decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes with different structures namely Bromochlorophenol Blue, Bromophenol Blue, Bromocresol Blue and Phenol Red was tested. The presence of metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ slightly decreased triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from T. versicolor except Na+ and Mg2+, which caused the increase of decolorization for all tested dyes. Decolorization of selected dyes showed that the presence of low-molecular-weight compounds is necessary for effective decolorization. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT is the most frequently used. Although HBT belongs to most frequently used redox mediator and generally increase decolorization efficiency, so its presence decreased decolorization percentage of Bromophenol Blue and Bromochlorophenol Blue, the influence of metal ions to dye decolorization by laccase has the similar course with or without presence of redox mediator HBT.

  10. Characterization of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth of Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung Suk

    2016-09-23

    The dye decolorization rate in a cell-free culture broth of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor CBR43 was studied, including the effects of inhibitors of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization activity. The maximum rates of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth were 1410, 44.7, 41.2, and 0.19 μmol L(-1) min(-1) for Acid Blue 62, Acid Black 175, Reactive Blue 4, and Acid Red 114, respectively. The inhibition effects of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization were quantitatively compared using the half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50), which indicates the concentration of an inhibitor required for 50% inhibition. Based on IC50 values, dye decolorization in the cell-free culture broth of CBR43 was most potently inhibited by Cd(II), whereas the inhibitory effect of NaCl was relatively low. The dye decolorization rates and IC50 data can be used in the design and development of a dye-wastewater treatment process using T. versicolor CBR43 and its operating factors.

  11. Characterization and decolorization applicability of xerogel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    A novel manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from solid state culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was immobilized using xerogel matrix composed of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and propyltetramethoxysilane (PTMS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the successful entrapment of MnP into the xerogel matrix. An immobilization efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with a purified active fraction containing 2 mg/mL MnP. After 24 h incubation at varying pH and temperatures, the immobilized MnP retained 82 and 75% activity at pH 4 and 80°C, respectively. Xerogel matrix immobilization enhanced the catalytic efficiency of entrapped MnP. Metal ions including Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ stimulated enzyme activity while cysteine, EDTA and Ag+ inhibited the activity. MnP preserved 82% of its initial activity during oxidation of MnSO4 in 10 consecutive cycles, demonstrating the reusability of xerogel entrapped MnP. The immobilized MnP could be stored for up to 75 days at 4°C without significant activity loss. To explore the industrial applicability of MnP, the immobilized MnP was tested for decolorization of textile industry effluent in a Packed Bed Reactor System (PBRS). After five consecutive cycles, 98.8% decolorization of effluent was achieved within 5 h. The kinetic properties, storage stability and reusability of entrapped MnP from T. versicolor IBL-04 reflect its prospects as biocatalyst for bioremediation and other industrial applications.

  12. Evaluation of support materials for the surface immobilization and decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M; Nguyen, T; Ramsay, J

    2002-10-01

    The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and polyethylene teraphthalate fibers) and to subsequently decolorize amaranth was evaluated. Jute was found to be the best support material as T. versicolor grew well on it without color leaching from the support and without loss of the jute's integrity over a 4 week period. The fungus immobilized on jute, straw and hemp decolorized amaranth (50 mg l(-1)) at a rate of about 5 mg l(-1) h(-1) without glucose being added. When 1 g l(-1) glucose was added, the dye was degraded more quickly (about 8 mg l(-1) h(-1)). Decoloration did not occur in a suspension culture without glucose. As the number of decoloration cycles increased, the rate of decoloration decreased. This rate was restored to its original level after the biomass was incubated in fresh growth medium for 5 days. With all immobilization supports, the toxicity of the medium before and after decoloration was the same or lower.

  13. Expression of antimicrobial peptides and toll-like receptors is increased in tinea and pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Mörig, A; Neumann, B; Proksch, E

    2014-03-01

    In superficial tinea and pityriasis versicolor, the causative fungi are for the most part confined to the stratum corneum which is barely reached by leukocytes. Therefore, a role of non-cellular components in the epidermal antifungal defence was suggested. To investigate the presence of such factors in these infections, the expression of human beta defensins 2 and 3 (hBD-2, hBD-3), RNase 7, psoriasin, toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9) and dectin 2 was analysed by use of immunostainings in skin biopsies. We found that hBD2, hBD3, psoriasin, RNase7, TLR2 and TLR4 were significantly more often expressed in distinct layers of lesional epidermis as compared with uninfected epidermis. In both infections but not in normal skin, hBD2 and hBD3 were commonly expressed within the stratum corneum and in the stratum granulosum. Similarly, psoriasin was seen more often in the upper skin layers of both infections as compared with normal skin. No significant differences between normal and infected skin were found for the expression of TLR9 and dectin 2. Our findings clearly show the expression of specific antimicrobial proteins and defence-related ligands in superficial tinea as well as in pityriasis versicolor, suggesting that these factors contribute to fungal containment. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohi T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Malassezia yeasts are globally distributed agents of pityriasis versicolor and are implicated in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic and atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study is to identify the Malassezia species obtained from pityriasis versicolor patients, using morphological, biochemical, physiological as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. Materials and Methods: The identification of Malassezia species is performed according to microscopic features and physiological characteristics, including catalase reaction and Tween assimilation tests. The DNA is extracted from cultured Malassezia using the glass bead, phenol-chloroform method. The internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS1 region is amplified and there is restricted digestion of the PCR products with two enzymes Cfo I and Bst F5I. Results : The most commonly isolated species is M. globosa (47.6%. RFLP analysis of the PCR products of the ITS1 region is in complete agreement with those from the DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 region and the biochemical tests. Conclusion : Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that PCR-RFLP is a relatively simple and quick method, completely comparable to the routine methods used for Malassezia identification.

  15. Biosorption of Cr(VI from Aqueous Solutions Using Trametes Versicolor Polyporus Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Subbaiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of chromium(VI from aqueous solution was studied using abundantly available trametes versicolor polyporus fungi as biosorbing medium under equilibrium and column flow conditions. Various sorption parameters such as contact time, effect of pH, concentration of Cr(VI and amount of biomass on the adsorption capacity of the biosorbent were studied. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models and the model parameters are evaluated. In addition, the data were used to predict the kinetics of adsorption. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cr(VI on fungi followed second order kinetics. The column flow adsorption data were used to predict break through curves. The fungi loaded with Cr(VI was regenerated with 0.1 M NaOH solution and the regenerated biomass was used in the subsequent adsorptiondesorption cycles. The experimental results demonstrated that the trametes versicolor polyporus fungi could be used as sorbent for immobilizing Cr(VI.

  16. Walking to survive : searching feeding and egg production of carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour

  17. [Missing granulocytic infiltrate in pityriasis versicolor--indication of specific anti-inflammatory activity of the pathogen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, N; Bär, Silja; Mayser, P

    2005-01-01

    The yeast Malassezia furfur is a part of the resident flora of human skin. It causes various diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, which hardly shows signs of inflammation despite marked clinical symptoms (e.g. hypopigmentation). The pathophysiology related morphological picture might give a clue to this phenomenon. As a part of the literature data are controversial, the present study compared the inflammatory infiltrate of pityriasis versicolor with that of tinea corporis in 40 human skin preparations each from diagnostic specimens. All preparations were stained with HE and PAS. Neutrophilic granulocytes were counted in the HE stain, and hyphae and spores in the PAS stain. The number of counted cells was related to the size of the respective area and the values were compared between pityriasis and tinea corporis. Significantly, more neutrophilic granulocytes were found with tinea corporis (P > 0.01), while they were virtually not demonstrable with pityriasis versicolor. It is surprising that fungal load in the stratum corneum is significantly higher with pityriasis versicolor (P > 0.01). Obviously the immune response involving neutrophilic granulocytes does not occur despite high bacterial load. This might be explained by reduced immunogenicity because of high content of lipids in the cell membrane. Furthermore, pityriarubins that are produced during tryptophan metabolism might be involved, which, in a stimulus-dependent manner, can suppress the ROS production of neutrophilic granulocytes in vivo.

  18. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  19. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object

  20. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  1. Humoral immunity to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C in patients with pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbee, H R; Fruin, A; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J; Ingham, E

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the humoral immune responses to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C of 10 patients with pityriasis versicolor, 10 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. A transferable solid-phase ELISA was used to determine titres of total Igs, IgM, IgA and IgG specific to M. furfur serovars A, B and C. The results demonstrated that patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a significantly higher titre of total Igs to serovar A than patients with pityriasis versicolor; and that patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a significantly higher titre of IgA to serovar C than patients with pityriasis versicolor. The titres of total Igs for controls and patients with seborrheic dermatitis were significantly lower to serovar B than to serovar C. A modified TSP ELISA was used to determine the titres of the IgG subclasses. Titres of IgG1,3,4 to serovar B were significantly higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients than pityriasis versicolor patients and titres of IgG3 to serovar A were significantly higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients than pityriasis versicolor patients. However, despite the differences between the patient groups, none of these results was significantly different to those of controls. Thus, this study did not demonstrate any differences in humoral immunity of patients suffering from Malassezia-associated dermatoses when compared to normal controls. These results may suggest that the humoral immune response to M. furfur is not related to the pathogenesis of Malassezia-associated dermatoses, but simply to the carriage of M. furfur on the skin.

  2. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO₂) or V (as NaVO₃) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) μg/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) μg/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat.

  3. DECREASEMENT OF COLOUR AND COD CONTENT OF THE LIQUID WASTE PRODUCT FROM THE JEANS WASHING INDUSTRY BY CHITOSAN AND Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Bulan, Rumondang; Sinaga, Mersi Suryani; Darnianti, Darnianti

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan and Trametes versicolor were used as the material for processing liquid waste product from the jeans washing industry in this study as they were more economics and no negative damage in the environmental life. This research is to find out the chitosan and Trametes versicolor effect as the coagulant in decreasing the colour and the COD content of the liquid waste product from the jeans washing industry using the coagulation method and floculation. The dosage of chitosan and Trametes v...

  4. The anti-tumor effect of Phellinus Linteus and Coriolus Versicolor Capsules on spontaneous lung metastasis model mice of lewis lung cancer%桑黄云芝胶囊对Lewis肺癌自发肺转移模型小鼠的抑瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭炜; 董文亮; 李坤星

    2010-01-01

    目的:通过应用Lewis肺癌移植性肿瘤小鼠模型,观察桑黄云芝胶囊的抑瘤及抗转移作用.方法:G57BL/6小鼠右腋皮下接种Lewis肺癌瘤株,连续ig给药21 d后,处死动物,摘取瘤体称重,并计算肿瘤生长抑制率.剥离鼠肺,用Bouin氏液固定,解剖镜下计数肺部正反面及肺叶间的转移瘤集落数.结果:桑黄云芝胶囊高、中、低3个剂量对Lewis肺癌荷瘤小鼠肿瘤的生长均有明显的抑制作用(与模型组比较,P<0.05),抑瘤率分别为21.2%,21.0%,24.6%.桑黄云芝胶囊高剂量组Lewis肺癌荷瘤小鼠肺转移集落明显少于模型组(P<0.05).结论:桑黄云芝胶囊对Lewis肺癌荷瘤小鼠肿瘤生长具有明显抑制作用,并可抑制Lewis肺癌荷瘤小鼠的肺转移,以高剂量最为明显.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird Amazilia versicolor, a polymorphic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Souto, Helena Magarinos; Ruschi, Piero Angeli; Furtado, Carolina; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird (Amazilia versicolor) was partially sequenced in one-sixth of an Illumina HiSeq lane. The mitochondrial genome was assembled using MIRA and MITObim software, yielding a circular molecule of 16,861 bp in length and deposited in GenBank under the accession number KF624601. The mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. The molecule was assembled using 21,927 sequencing reads of 100 bp each, resulting in ∼130 × coverage of uniformly distributed reads along the genome. This is the forth mitochondrial genome described for this highly diverse family of birds and may benefit further phylogenetic, phylogeographic, population genetic and species delimitation studies of hummingbirds.

  6. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Sterols from Trametes versicolor (Bres. Rivarden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliebre-Lara, Vivian; Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Kunert, Olaf; Nogueiras Lima, Clara; Bauer, Rudolf

    2016-08-10

    Two ergostanes, 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (1) and 5α-ergost-7,22-dien-3β-ol (2), and a lanostane, 3β-hydroxylanostan-8,24-diene-21-oic acid (trametenolic acid) (3), were isolated from an n-hexane extract prepared from the fruiting body of Trametes versicolor (Bres. Rivarden). The activity of the isolated sterols was evaluated against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Lainson and Shaw, 1972. The lanostane, compound (3), showed the best inhibitory response (IC50 promastigotes 2.9 ± 0.1 μM and IC50 amastigotes 1.6 ± 0.1 μM). This effect was 25-fold higher compared with its cytotoxic effect on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. Therefore, trametenolic acid could be regarded as a promising lead for the synthesis of compounds with antileishmanial activity.

  7. Decoloration of Amaranth by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Part I. Statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V; McLellan, Jim

    2007-02-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor decolorized the mono-azo-substituted naphthalenic dye Amaranth. The relationship between the amount of enzymes present in the system and the efficiency of the decoloration process was investigated. The two responses used to quantify the process of decoloration (i.e., initial decoloration rate, v0, and the percent concentration of dye decolorized in 1 h, %c) were correlated with the amount of three enzymes considered for the study (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase) and analyzed through stepwise regression analysis (forward, backward, and mixed). The results of the correlation analysis and those of the regression analysis indicated that lignin peroxidase is the enzyme having the greatest influence on the two responses.

  8. Comparative study of ketoconazole versus selenium sulphide shampoo in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal K

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated with either 2% ketoconazole shampoo (20 patients or 2.5% selenium sulphide shampoo (20 patients, once a week for three weeks. On global assessment after one month of start of therapy, 19 (95% out of 20 patients treated with ketoconazole shampoo were cured while one case had mild residual disease. In selenium sulphide shampoo group, 17 (85% out of 20 patients were cured, one had mild residual disease and two had considerable residual disease. No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in one patient of ketoconazole group and two patients of selenium sulphide group during the follow - up period of three months.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extracts from Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extracts obtained from Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes versicolor were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermis, E. raffinosus, S. cerevisiae and C. albicans were determined by the microbroth dillution method according by EUCAST in 96-well microplates. Microorganisms were obtained from Czech Collection of Microorganisms. Absorbances after and before the experiment were subtracted, converted to binary system and obtained values to Probit analysis were used. Of the two macromycetes extracts tested, not all extracts showed antimicrobial activity in tested MICs range. The highest antimicrobial activity showed the both extracts to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The less antimicrobial effects had the both macromycetes extracts to Staphylococcus epidermis. Antimicrobial activity of macromycetes methanolic crude extracts to others tested microorganisms showed no effect or used concentration could be higher.

  10. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  11. Diploid and tetraploid grey treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor) have similar metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, S; Marsden, J E; Pough, F H

    1985-01-01

    We measured oxygen consumption of the diploid frog Hyla chrysoscelis and its recently evolved tetraploid cryptic species Hyla versicolor at rest and during forced locomotory exercise. We also measured whole-body lactic acid concentrations of individuals of the two species at rest and following 4 min of exercise. Contrary to predictions based on tissue-culture experiments, rates of organismal metabolism are not different in this diploid/tetraploid species pair: the diploid and tetraploid species did not differ in rates of oxygen consumption at rest or during exercise. Furthermore, whole-body lactate concentrations of frogs at rest and following forced locomotion were the same in the diploid and tetraploid species. For these species, polyploidy does not appear to be associated with lower maintenance costs at the level of the organism. However, polyploidy also does not appear to have metabolic consequences that would limit the behavioral or ecological repertoire of an anuran.

  12. Tinea Versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria—for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC ...

  13. Biodegradation of pesticide triclosan by A. versicolor in simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan is known as an antimicrobial agent, a powerful bacteriostat and an important pesticide. In this paper biodegradation of triclosan by Aspergillus versicolor was investigated. Effects of simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media on fungal triclosan degradation process were detected. HPLC analysis showed that fungal triclosan biodegradation yield was 71.91% at about 7.5 mg/L concentration in semi-synthetic medium and was 37.47% in simulated wastewater. Fungus could be able to tolerate the highest triclosan concentration (15.69 mg/L). The biodegradation yield was 29.81% and qm was 2.22 mg/g at this concentration. Some of the parameters, such as pH, culture media, increasing triclosan and biomass concentrations were optimized in order to achieve the effective triclosan biodegradation process. The highest triclosan biodegradation yields of all microorganisms were achieved by A. versicolor.

  14. Generation of a transformant showing higher manganese peroxidase (Mnp) activity by overexpression of Mnp gene in Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sumin; Park, Nammee; Song, Hong-Gyu; Choi, Hyoung T

    2007-06-01

    Trametes versicolor has a lignin degrading enzyme system, which is also involved in the degradation of diverse recalcitrant compounds. Manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) is one of the lignin degrading enzymes in T. versicolor. In this study, a cDNA clone of a putative MnP-coding gene was cloned and transferred into an expression vector (pBARGPE1) carrying a phosphinothricin resistance gene (bar) as a selectable marker to yield the expression vector, pBARTvMnP2. Transformants were generated through genetic transformation using pBARTvMnP2. The genomic integration of the MnP clone was confirmed by PCR with bar-specific primers. One transformant showed higher enzyme activity than the recipient strain did, and was genetically stable even after 10 consecutive transfers on non-selective medium.

  15. Ensaio terapêutico com o Ketoconazol na pitiríase versicolorTherapeutic trial with Ketoconazole in PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dagher

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimentação terapêutico-laboratorial com o Ketoconazol na Pitiríase Versicolor, obtendo os seguintes resultados: - Curados, 16 (88,88% pacientes; Melhorados, 2 pacientes (11,11%, Inalterados e Piorados, nenhum caso (0,00%, no total de 18 doentes estudados. Do ponto de vista laboratorial, houve negativação dos exames micológicos em 100,00% dos casos.Eighteen patients with pityriasis versicolor were treated with a single daily dose of 200mg of Ketoconazole administered with a meal, for a period of 30 days. Evaluation was based on clinical and mycological responses. Clinical and parasitoligical cure was obtained in 16 (88,88% patients and marked clinical improvement in 2(11,11%. No undesirable side effects were observed in the treatment.

  16. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-09-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound ( 1) and a previously isolated compound ( 2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one ( 1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  17. The effect of Egyptian honeybee propolis on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in Ras cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Salwa A; Elewa, Neimat A

    2007-02-01

    Propolis is a natural product collected by honeybee workers. The product was tested for its antifungal effect against Aspergillus versicolor ATCC 12996 as well as biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin during ripening of Egyptian Ras cheese. The use of different concentrations of aqueous propolis extract 250, 500 and 1000 part per million (ppm) on the cheese surface was investigated. Mould growth and toxin production were completely inhibited at the highest concentration 1000 ppm, while the lower concentrations exhibited definite fungistatic activity during 90 days of ripening. Control cheese demonstrated that the amount of sterigmatocystin produced was proportional to the growth of Asp. versicolor during three months of ripening. It could be concluded that propolis concentration of 1000 ppm could prevent mould growth and sterigmatocystin production in Ras cheese. The economic as well as the public health importance of propolis as a natural preservative in cheese manufacture is discussed.

  18. Detection of Malassezia Species Isolated From Patients With Pityriasis Versicolor and Seborrheic Dermatitis Using Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The species of the genus Malassezia are lipophilic and dimorphic yeasts that are regarded as part of the normal flora of the skin of humans and warm-blooded animals. These organisms are the cause of superficial mycosis in humans and other animals, and are common in pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of common Malassezia species in patients affected by pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis using of the nested PCR method, in the city of Ahvaz. Patients and Methods In the present study, 85 samples from patients with pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis were analyzed by the nested-PCR method. During the first stage, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region from the ribosomal DNA was reproduced using primers ITS4-R and ITS1F-N. During the second stage, the product of the first step was used as DNA and using three special primer pairs, including Mf-F, 5.8SR and M.gl-F, 5.8SR and M.rt-F and M.rt-R, the inner part of the first phase was detected. Results The most common isolate was Malassezia furfur (51.3% followed by M. globosa (35.2% and M. restricta (13.5%. Amongst the 30 patients with seborrheic dermatitis, in 15 cases (65.2% M. restricta, in six cases (26.1% M. globosa and in two cases (8.7% M. furfur was detected and in seven patients no isolate was detected. Conclusions The nested-PCR is a rapid and repeatable method for identification of important Malassezia species and this method is recommended for use on more patients. In addition the most common agents of pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis were M. furfur and M. restricta, respectively.

  19. ABILITY OF Phanerochaete chrysosporium AND Trametes versicolor TO REMOVE Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ METAL IONS

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    Josué Solís Pacheco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungal biomass as an alternative for removing heavy metals has become increasingly important in recent years, replacing conventional methods based on chemical physical processes. In this study, we evaluated the biosorption of Zn2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+, which were analyzed to determine their effect on growth kinetic parameters of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 1267. Growth kinetics were performed in four liquid culture media: 1 Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB used as control, 2 YNB medium plus Pb2+ (0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1, 3 YNB medium plus Zn2+ (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 and 4 YNB medium plus Cr3+ (0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1. The flasks were incubated at 25 °C with shaking at 150 rpm. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES with prior acid digestion of the sample. The results demonstrated that Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 12679 are able to grow in the culture medium with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at different concentrations. However, P. chrysosporium ATCC 32629 showed greater adaptability and ability to adsorb Cr3+ in the culture medium at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, whereas T. versicolor ATCC 12679 was capable of Pb2+ biosorption at concentrations of 0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1.

  20. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen.

  1. Randomized comparative clinical trial of artemisia sieberi 5% lotion and clotrimazole 1% lotion for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor

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    Rad Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the therapeutic effects of topical Artremisia sieberi 5% lotion with topical clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor and microscopic identification of Malassezia furfur were randomly assigned to treatment with either topical Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion (group 1 or topical clotrimazole 1% lotion (group 2 for 2 weeks. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 51 and 49 patients respectively. The patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically at baseline and every 2 weeks for a period of 4 weeks. Results: At the end of the second week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 65.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively ( P < 0.01, but at the same time mycological cure rate was 92.2% for group 1 and 73.5% for group 2 ( P < 0.05. At the end of the fourth week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 59.2% for group 1 and group 2 respectively ( P < 0.01, and at the same time mycologic cure rate was 96.1% for group 1 and 65.3% for group 2 ( P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion was more effective than clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

  2. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA REMOCIÓN DE VERDE DE BROMOCRESOL Y ROJO CONGO ENTRE Sechium edule Y Trametes versicolor

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    Maribel Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo entre las capacidades de remoción de T. versicolor , desarrolla do en medio líquido y la biomasa vegetal de Se c hium edule con espinas. A mbas biomasas fueron deshidratadas y molidas . L os bioensayo s se realizaron a tempe r atura ambiente y a pH controlados. Los porcentajes de remoción del rojo congo fue ron 78.83 y 75.35 % para S. edule y T. versicolor respectivamente . P ara el verde de bromocresol los porcentaje s de remoción fue ron de 86.34 % con Sechi um edule y 72 % con T . versicolor . En ambos casos, se observó que la biomasa de S. edule tuvo mayor potencial para remo ver tanto al rojo congo sin control de pH y al verde de bromocresol a pH de 4 .0 . Esto implica una ventaja de Sechium edule frente a la pr oducción de hongos ligninolíticos que últimamente han sido estudiados para la degradación de colorantes ; cuya desventaja principal es su cultivo bajo condiciones controladas.

  3. Solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal with the white-rot fungi trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, Łukasz; Jaszek, Magdalena; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Rapeseed meal is valuable high-protein forage, but its nutritional value is significantly reduced by the presence of a number of antinutrients, including phenolic compounds. Solid-state fermentation with white-rot fungi was used to decrease the sinapic acid concentration of rapeseed meal. After 7 days of growth of Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, the sinapic acid content of rapeseed meal was reduced by 59.9 and 74.5 %, respectively. At the end of the experiment, sinapic acid concentration of T. versicolor cultures decreased by 93%of the initial value; in the case of cultures of P. ostreatus, 93.2 % reduction was observed. Moreover, cultivation of white-rot fungi on rapeseed meal resulted in the intensive production of extracellular laccase, particularly strong during the late phases of growth of T. versicolor. The obtained results confirm that both fungal species may effectively be used to decompose antinutritional phenolics of rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal may also find use as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for a biotechnological production of laccase by white-rot fungi.

  4. Flutrimazole shampoo 1% versus ketoconazole shampoo 2% in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. A randomised double-blind comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigopoulos, D; Gregoriou, S; Kontochristopoulos, G; Ifantides, A; Katsambas, A

    2007-05-01

    Flutrimazole is an imidazole derivative that has been proven to be efficient in superficial skin fungal infections. The aim of this randomised double-blind study was to compare for the first time, the efficiency and safety of flutrimazole 1% shampoo versus ketoconazole 2% shampoo in the treatment of tinea versicolor. Study population consisted of 60 patients with pityriasis versicolor diagnosed clinically and through direct microscopy and culture. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: one instructed to apply flutrimazole shampoo 1% and one instructed to apply ketoconazole shampoo 2% both on head and body for 14 days. Patients were re-evaluated 14 days after the end of treatment clinically and through direct microscopy and culture. Twenty-one of 26 patients (80.8%) in the ketoconazole and 22 of 29 patients (75.9%) in the flutrimazole group had both visual healing and negative mycological evaluation. Comparison of the response between the two groups with the Yates' corrected chi-square was found statistically not significant (chi(2) = 0.19, d.f. = 1, P = 0.91). None of the patients in the two groups reported any adverse effects. Fourteen (53%) patients in the ketoconazole group and 23 (79%) in the flutrimazole group assessed the shampoos as cosmetically acceptable regarding texture, smell and foam properties. Flutrimazole shampoo 1% appears to present efficacy comparable with ketoconazole 2% in the treatment of tinea versicolor.

  5. Degradation of the drug sodium diclofenac by Trametes versicolor pellets and identification of some intermediates by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Escola d' Enginyeria (Estonia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Perez-Trujillo, Miriam [Servei de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cruz-Morato, Carles [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Escola d' Enginyeria (Estonia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.caminal@uab.es [Unitat de Biocatalisis Aplicada associada al IQAC (CSIC-UAB), EE, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Vicent, Teresa [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Escola d' Enginyeria (Estonia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Degradation of diclofenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely found in the aquatic environment, was assessed using the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Almost complete diclofenac removal ({>=}94%) occurred the first hour with T. versicolor pellets when the drug was added at relatively high (10 mg L{sup -1}) and environmentally relevant low (45 {mu}g L{sup -1}) concentrations in a defined liquid medium. In vivo and in vitro experiments using the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole and purified laccase, respectively, suggested at least two different mechanisms employed by T. versicolor to initiate diclofenac degradation. Two hydroxylated metabolites, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac, were structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance as degradation intermediates in fungal cultures spiked with diclofenac. Both parent compound and intermediates disappeared after 24 h leading to a decrease in ecotoxicity calculated by the Microtox test. Laccase-catalyzed transformation of diclofenac led to the formation of 4-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-1,3-benzenedimethanol, which was not detected in in vivo experiments probably due to the low laccase activity levels observed through the first hours of incubation.

  6. Identification of Malassezia Species Isolated from Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using PCR-RFLP Method in Markazi Province, Central Iran.

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    Mojtaba Didehdar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia species are members of the normal skin microbial that are cause of pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection with world-wide distribution. The phenotypic methods for identification of Malassezia species usually are time consuming and unreliable to differentiate newly identified species. But DNA-based techniques rapidly and accurately identified Malassezia species. The purpose of this study was isolation and identification of Malassezia Species from patients with pityriasis versicolor by molecular methods in Markazi Province, Central Iran in 2012.Mycologic examinations including direct microscopy and culture were performed on clinical samples. DNA extraction was performed from colonies. The ITS1 region of rDNA from isolates of Malassezia species were amplified by PCR reaction. The PCR were digested by Cfo I enzyme.From 70 skin samples, were microscopically positive for Malassezia elements, 60 samples were grown on culture medium (85.7%. Using PCR-RFLP method, that was performed on 60 isolates, 37(61.6% M. globosa, 14(23.3% M. furfur, 5(8.4% M. sympodialis and 4(6.7% M. restrictawere identified. In one case was isolated M. globosa along with M. restricta.The PCR-RFLP method is a useful and reliable technique for identification of differentiation of Malas-sezia species.

  7. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, A; Sei, Y; Guillot, J

    2000-10-01

    We identified Malassezia species isolated from 42 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis, 17 patients with atopic dermatitis, 22 patients with pityriasis versicolor, 35 normal subjects and 73 healthy medical students. Regarding the prevalence of Malassezia species in the 35 normal subjects, the frequency of isolation of Malassezia globosa was 22%, M. sympodialis 10% and M. furfur 3%. M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis, M. restricta and M. obtusa were infrequently isolated from normal skin. Two different species were isolated coincidentally from seven samples. In the patients with atopic dermatitis, M. furfur was isolated more frequently from lesional skin (21%) than non-lesional skin (11%). However, there was no statistical significance. Therefore, this result, by itself, is insufficient to prove that M. furfur should be considered to be an exacerbating factor of atopic dermatitis. In seborrhoeic dermatitis, M. furfur (35%) and M. globosa (22%) were isolated from lesional skin on the face at significantly high rates in comparison with the normal subjects. Therefore, M. furfur and/or M. globosa may be pathogens of seborrhoeic dermatitis. M. globosa was isolated at a frequency of 55% from lesional skin of pityriasis versicolor, while all other species were below 10%. These data suggest that the pathogenic species of pityriasis versicolor is M. globosa.

  8. [Levels of selenium in urine after treatment of pityriasis versicolor with a 1.0% selenium sulfide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Martins, J E; Macedo De Souza, E; Salebian, A; Sampaio, S A

    1976-01-01

    The treatment of pityriasis versicolor by the topical application of selenium sulfide 1% was studied in two groups of patients. Diagnosis and response to therapy was determined by clinical observation. Wood's light fluorescence, and direct microscopic examination. The efficacy of three different therapeutic regimes was studied in one group by the application of the drug to the entire skin for either five minutes, fifteen minutes, or twelve hours for eighteen days. Each method proved equally effective in resolving the infection. Therefore, the cutaneous application of selenium sulfide 1 % for five minutes daily for eighteen days is the recommended treatment for pityriasis versicolor. The percutaneous absorption of selenium sulfide was also studied in another groups who applied the drug to the entire skin for five minutes for eighteen days. Fluorimetric analysis of urinary samples collected on the third and thirteenth days of treatment revealed no significant increase in the excretion of selenium as compared to pretreatment levels. Systemic toxicity was not observed in any of the patients treated. The results suggest that the selenium sulfide is absorbed poorly from the skin and is a safe and effective therapy for pityriasis versicolor.

  9. A reappraisal of the role of Pityrosporum orbiculare in pityriasis versicolor and the significance of extracellular lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, M D; Ward, M E; Jacobs, P

    1978-12-01

    Pityrosporum orbiculare is an obligate lipophilic yeast in vitro, which suggests it possesses an extracellular lipase crucial for nutrition. If present in vivo, the enzyme would enable the yeast to utilize skin surface lipids, which may therfore play an important role in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor. Cultured P. orbiculare and biopsy material from patients with pityriasis versicolor were investigated for the presence of lipase by electron microscope histochemistry. At sites of lipase activity, fatty acid hydrolyzed from Tween 80 substrate reacts with Ca++ ions to form an insoluble Ca++ soap. Exchange of Ca++ with Pb++ enables the sites of lipase activity to be visualized as electron dense deposits of insoluble lead soap. Surface lipase activity was apparent when the technique was applied to P. orbiculare grown on lipid containing medium and its specificity confirmed by removal of substrate and inhibition by di-isopropyl fluorophosphate and quinine hydrochloride, but not by sodium fluoride. When the same technique was applied to stratum corneum infected with Pityrosporum furfur (Malassez), no reaction product could be detected. It is postulated that lipase, although critical for fungal nutrition in vitro, is unlikely to be of importance in vivo. Skin surface lipids are therefore probably not relevant to the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor.

  10. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E. [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Baron, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jelic, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farre, Marinella; Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Petrovic, Mira [Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: Gloria.Caminal@uab.cat [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); King Saud University (KSU), P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); and others

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge from a WWTP was treated in a fungal slurry reactor with Trametes versicolor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twenty-four pharmaceuticals were removed at important extents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-filters and brominated flame retardants were also degraded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall toxicity of sludge increased despite the pollutant removal. - Abstract: Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16-53% and 22-100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase.

  11. DECREASEMENT OF COLOUR AND COD CONTENT OF THE LIQUID WASTE PRODUCT FROM THE JEANS WASHING INDUSTRY BY CHITOSAN AND Trametes versicolor

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    Rumondang Bulan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan and Trametes versicolor were used as the material for processing liquid waste product from the jeans washing industry in this study as they were more economics and no negative damage in the environmental life. This research is to find out the chitosan and Trametes versicolor effect as the coagulant in decreasing the colour and the COD content of the liquid waste product from the jeans washing industry using the coagulation method and floculation. The dosage of chitosan and Trametes versicolor were 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/L of the liquid waste product whereas the combination of chitosan and Trametes versicolor were 4:1, 3:2, 2:3 and 1:4. The data resulted from the analysis were shown as a graphics. The research results show that the optimum dosage of chitosan as coagulant was 800 mg/L which was able to decrease the colour intensity. For blue colour, the intensity decreased from 1.2 to 0.1%; the yellow colour intensity decreased from 0.9 to 0.0% and the COD 91.23%. The optimum dosage of Trametes versicolor of 600 mg/L was able to decrease the blue colour intensity from 1.2 to 0.11%; the yellow colour intensity from 0.9 to 0.1% and the COD was 91.37%. By using the combinationof chitosan and Trametes versicolor it was shown that the best result was using the 3:2 ratio which was able to decrease the blue colour intensity from 0.9 to 0.1% and the yellow colour intensity from 0.9 to 0.0% and the COD was 86.68%.   Keywords: colour intensity, COD, liquid waste product of the jeans washing, chitosan, Trametes versicolor

  12. Identificação de espécies de Malassezia em pacientes com pitiríase versicolor em Goiânia-GO Identification of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Goiânia-GO

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    Karla Carvalho Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a freqüência de pitiríase versicolor e identificar leveduras do gênero Malassezia, de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Micologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás em Goiânia. Foram diagnosticados 95 casos de pitíriase versicolor e identificados quatro espécies de Malassezia: Malassezia furfur, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia globosa e Malassezia obtusa.The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of pityriasis versicolor occurrence and to identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia in patients at the mycology laboratory of the Federal University of Goiás, in Goiânia, State of Goiás. Ninety-five cases of pityriasis versicolor were diagnosed, and four species of Malassezia were identified: Malassezia furfur, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia globosa and Malassezia obtusa.

  13. Immobilization of the laccases from trametes versicolor and streptomyces coelicolor on single-wall carbon nanotube electrodes: a molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trohalaki, S. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Dayton, OH (United States); Pachter, R. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Luckarift, H.R. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States); Johnson, G.R. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we investigate the immobilization of laccases from Trametes versicolor (TvL) and the small laccase (SLAC) from Streptomyces coelicolor on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) surfaces. SLAC may potentially offer improved adsorption on the electrode, thus improving bioelectrocatalytic activity via direct electron transfer (DET). Laccase immobilization on SWCNTs is achieved non-covalently with a molecular tether (1-pyrene butanoic acid, succinimidyl ester) that forms an amide bond with an amine group on the laccase surface while the pyrene coordinates to the SWCNT by {pi}-{pi} stacking. In our approach, density functional theory calculations were first used to model the interaction energies between SWCNTs and pyrene to validate an empirical force field, thereafter applied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the simulated models, the SWCNT was placed near the region of the (type 1) Cu(T1) atom in the laccases, and in proximity to other regions where adsorption seems likely. Calculated interaction energies between the SWCNTs and laccases and distances between the SWCNT surface and the Cu(T1) atom have shown that SWCNTs adsorb more strongly to SLAC than to TvL, and that the separation between the SWCNTs and Cu(T1) atoms is smaller for SLAC than for TvL, having implications for improved DET. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

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    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  15. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

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    Luca Dellafiora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage.

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of embryonic and larval exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater pond sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Adrianne B; Snodgrass, Joel W; Gallagher, Matthew T; Casey, Ryan E; Van Meter, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However, because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond sediments to Hyla versicolor, an anuran commonly found using retention ponds for breeding, we exposed embryos and larvae to sediments in laboratory microcosms. Exposure to pond sediments reduced survival of embryos by approximately 50% but did not affect larval survival. Larvae exposed to stormwater pond sediment developed significantly faster (x = 39 days compared to 42 days; p = 0.005) and were significantly larger at metamorphosis (x = 0.49 g compared to 0.36 g; p road salt contributes to the degradation of stormwater pond habitat quality for amphibian reproduction and that future research should focus on understanding interactions among road salts and other pollutants and stressors characteristic of urban environments.

  17. Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation of 17β-Estradiol Using Immobilized Laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantale Cardinal-Watkins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many natural and synthetic estrogens are amenable to oxidation through the catalytic action of oxidative enzymes such as the fungal laccase Trametes versicolor. This study focused on characterizing the conversion of estradiol (E2 using laccase that had been immobilized by covalent bonding onto silica beads contained in a bench-scale continuous-flow packed bed reactor. Conversion of E2 accomplished in the reactor declined when the temperature of the system was changed from room temperature to just above freezing at pH 5 as a result of a reduced rate of reaction rather than inactivation of the enzyme. Similarly, conversion increased when the system was brought to warmer temperatures. E2 conversion increased when the pH of the influent to the immobilized laccase reactor was changed from pH 7 to pH 5, but longer-term experiments showed that the enzyme is more stable at pH 7. Results also showed that the immobilized laccase maintained its activity when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a low mean residence time over a 12-hour period and when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a high mean residence time over a period of 9 days.

  18. A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls.

  19. Flavonoid C- and O-glycosides from the Mongolian medicinal plant Dianthus versicolor Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Werner, Ingrid; Presser, Armin; Zehl, Martin; Swoboda, Zita; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2011-09-27

    Eighteen flavonoids were identified from an aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor, a plant used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver diseases. The flavonoid C- and O-glycosides isoorientin-7-O-rutinoside, isoorientin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isovitexin-7-O-rutinoside, isovitexin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isoscoparin-7-O-rutinoside, isoscoparin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isoscoparin-7-O-galactoside, and isoorientin-7-O-galactoside were isolated and structurally elucidated. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic techniques including LC-UV-DAD, LC-MS(n), LC-HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by GC-MS analysis after hydrolysis. Flavonoids with such a high glycosylation pattern are rare within the genus Dianthus. Furthermore, isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin), isovitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, apigenin-6-glucoside (isovitexin), luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, as well as the aglycons luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, diosmetin, and acacetin were identified by TLC and LC-DAD-MS(n) in comparison to reference substances or literature data. The NMR data of seven structures have not been reported in the literature to date.

  20. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor retain parasitic competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya; Yoder, John I

    2007-04-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae invade roots of neighboring plants to rob them of water and nutrients. Triphysaria is facultative parasite that parasitizes a broad range of plant species including maize and Arabidopsis. In this paper we describe transient and stable transformation systems for Triphysaria versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes were both able to transiently express a GUS reporter in Triphysaria seedlings following vacuum infiltration. There was a correlation between the length of time seedlings were conditioned in the dark prior to infiltration and the tissue type transformed. In optimized experiments, nearly all of the vacuum infiltrated seedlings transiently expressed GUS activity in some tissue. Calluses that developed from transformed tissues were selected using non-destructive GUS staining and after several rounds of in vivo GUS selection, we recovered uniformly staining GUS calluses from which roots were subsequently induced. The presence and expression of the transgene in Triphysaria was verified using genomic PCR, RT PCR and Southern hybridizations. Transgenic roots were also obtained by inoculating A. rhizogenes into wounded Triphysaria seedlings. Stable transformed roots were identified using GUS staining or fluorescent microscopy following transformation with vectors containing GFP, dsRED or EYFP. Transgenic roots derived from both A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes transformations were morphologically normal and developed haustoria that attached to and invaded lettuce roots. Transgenic roots also remained competent to form haustoria in response to purified inducing factors. These transformation systems will allow an in planta assessment of genes predicted to function in plant parasitism.

  2. Contribution of manganese peroxidase and laccase to dye decoloration by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Paul-Philippe; Ramsay, Juliana Akit

    2005-12-01

    During dye decoloration by Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 in modified Kirk's medium, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase were produced, but not lignin peroxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase or manganese-independent peroxidase. Purified MnP decolorized azo dyes [amaranth, reactive black 5 (RB5) and Cibacron brilliant yellow] in Mn(2+)-dependent reactions but did not decolorize an anthraquinone dye [Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR)]. However, the purified laccase decolorized RBBR five to ten times faster than the azo dyes and the addition of a redox mediator, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), did not alter decoloration rates. Amaranth and RB5 were decolorized the most rapidly by MnP since they have a hydroxyl group in an ortho position and a sulfonate group in the meta position relative to the azo bond. During a typical batch decoloration with the fungal culture, the ratio of laccase:MnP was 10:1 to 20:1 (based on enzyme activity) and increased to greater than 30:1 after decoloration was complete. Since MnP decolorized amaranth about 30 times more rapidly than laccase per unit of enzyme activity, MnP should have contributed more to decoloration than laccase in batch cultures.

  3. Co-culturing Effects of Coexisting Bacteria on Wood Degradation by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    White-rot fungi are the main decomposers of wood cell-wall polymer in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other coexisting microorganisms in decayed wood. A white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor strain TN6F, was isolated from a fruit body, and 44 strains of coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate, natural white rot-decayed wood. The effects of these bacteria on fungal growth were examined by an in vitro confrontation growth assay. Among the isolates, nine bacterial strains inhibited the growth of strain TN6F, while 35 strains did not affect the growth of TN6F. However, when co-cultured with strain TN6F on wood powder, many bacterial strains promoted the weight loss of the substrate. A subsequent chemical composition analysis showed that co-culturing accelerated delignification. Higher laccase activity was detected when strain TN6F was co-cultured on wood powder medium with bacterial strains TN6W-26 or TN6W-27. These results indicate that some bacterial strains might promote wood degradation.

  4. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Galaverna, Gianni; Reverberi, Massimo; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage. PMID:28045427

  5. Pityriasis versicolor during anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody therapy: therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Riccardo; Rech, Giulia; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Antonucci, Angela; Ismaili, Alma; Patrizi, Annalisa; Bardazzi, Federico

    2012-09-01

    Anecdotal reports have shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibition may cause unchecked superficial infection with the microorganisms responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV). We observed several cases of PV, which is frequently resistant to topical therapies, in psoriatic patients undergoing anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody therapy. To evaluate the incidence and the therapeutic management of PV in this group of individuals, between 1 January and 27 December 2010, we examined 153 psoriatic patients for the hypopigmented/hyperpigmented macular and scaling lesions associated with PV. All patients positive for PV were given topical therapy with miconazole nitrate cream twice daily for 28 days, after which they were re-evaluated. In patients non-responsive to topical therapy, we started systemic therapy with fluconazole, 300 mg week(-1) for 3 weeks. We diagnosed seven cases of PV. At the end of topical treatment, complete healing of lesions was observed in only one patient. In the other six patients, systemic treatment led to complete resolution of the infection. Although the onset of PV during anti-TNF-α therapy is seldom reported, it is not likely to be rare, but rather under-reported because of its limited pathological significance. In our opinion, the therapeutic management of this condition deserves greater consideration, as the use of topical treatments alone is largely ineffective compared with systemic treatment.

  6. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  7. Vasotocin maintains multiple call types in the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, M B; Hoover, M A; Mingo, A M; Boyd, S K

    1999-10-01

    The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) influences vocalizations in some anuran amphibians but it is unknown whether AVT alters all vocal behaviors of a species similarly. We first characterized the vocal repertoire of male gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). Three different call types were distinguished by unique sets of temporal and spectral features. Second, we examined the effects of AVT on each call type by injecting frogs with either AVT (100 microg; intraperitoneal) or saline and recording subsequent behavior. In the field, AVT maintained advertisement calling, whereas calling ceased in saline-injected animals. Advertisement call rate in AVT-injected males fell significantly and dominant frequency of the call was significantly higher. In the laboratory, AVT induced advertisement calling in males that were not initially vocalizing and dominant frequency was also significantly higher in these males. AVT maintained aggressive calling similarly but the characteristics of aggressive calls were not altered by AVT. There were no significant differences in release call behavior between AVT- and saline-injected groups; however, release call duration decreased significantly in AVT-injected animals, compared with preinjection values for the same animals. The effects of AVT on vocal behavior in this species are therefore not the same for each call type. AVT may act at more general motivational levels in the central nervous system and other neural or endocrine factors may control choice of call type and direct motor output.

  8. Diversification and Demography of the Oriental Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor) on Hainan Island and the Adjacent Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Guo, Xianguang; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Shi, Haitao; Li, Jiatang; Li, Jun; Cai, Bo; Wang, Yuezhao

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) is one of the few non-gekkonid lizards that are geographically widespread in the tropics. We investigated its population dynamics on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland of China and Vietnam, focusing on the impact of cyclic upheaval and submergence of land bridges during the Pleistocene. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals two mitochondrial lineages, A and B, which are estimated to have coalesced about 0.26 million years ago (95% credibility interval: 0.05–0.61 million years ago). Lineage A contains individuals mainly from central and southern Wuzhi Mountain on Hainan Island, whereas lineage B mainly comprises individuals from other sites on the island plus the adjacent mainland. The estimated coalescence times within lineages A (0.05 million years ago) and B (0.13 million years ago) fall within a period of cyclical land-bridge formation and disappearance in the Pleistocene. A spatial analysis of molecular variance identified two distinct population groupings: I, primarily containing lineage A, and II, mainly consisting of lineage B. However, haplotypes from lineages A and B occur sympatrically, suggesting that gene flow is ongoing. Neither Wuzhi Mountain nor Qiongzhou Strait and Gulf of Tonkin act as barriers to gene flow among C. versicolor populations. Analyses of the data using mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots provide evidence of a relatively stable population size through time for Group I, and moderate population expansions and contractions during the end of the Pleistocene for Group II. We conclude that the phylogeographical patterns of C. versicolor are the combined product of Pleistocene sea-level oscillations and nonphysical barriers to gene flow. PMID:23840304

  9. Culture medium optimization for laccase production by Coriolus hirsutus using molasses distillery wastewater%毛云芝菌利用糖蜜酒精废水产漆酶培养基优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙巍; 许玫英; 孙国萍

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance thc production of laccase and reduce the cost of laccase production, the culture medium for the growth of Coriolus hirsutus, a laccase production strain, was studied using molasses distillery wastewater (MDW) as carbon source. The different concentrations of molasses distillery wastewater and proportion of urea were optimized consequently through Box-Behnken experiment design under the foundation of signal factor experiment. As the optimization result, the production of laccase with the concentration of MDW 47% and proportion of urea 0.5% was six times higher than that from the original medium used previously. This indicates that the laccase production using MDW as carbon source is feasible. At the same time, the study makes the theoretical foundation for the exploitation and utilization of MDW to produce high value product.%为提高毛云芝菌的漆酶产量,降低生产成本,同时使糖蜜废水中的营养成分得到充分利用,变废为宝,以糖蜜废水作为碳源,对毛云芝菌发酵产漆酶进行研究.在单因素试验基础上,以不同浓度糖蜜废水、尿素含量为自变量,漆酶活力为因变量,采用Box-Behnken设计方法得到最佳的培养基配方为糖蜜废水浓度47%,尿素添加量0.5%,漆酶活力可达1810.0 U/mL,约为优化前的6倍.说明毛云芝菌利用糖蜜废水作为碳源生产漆酶是可行的,为糖蜜废水资源化利用高效生产有价值产品奠定了理论基础.

  10. Purification of recombinant laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia methanolica and its use for the decolorization of anthraquinone dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei; Lu, Fuping; Liu, Minyao; Li, Tuoping; Pu, Jun; Wang, Na; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Chenyun

    2008-12-01

    A recombinant laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia methanolica was produced constitutively in a defined medium. The recombinant laccase was purified using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated as 64 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified recombinant laccase decolorized more than 90% of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) initially at 80 mg l(-1) after 16 h at 45 degrees C and pH 5 when 25 U laccase ml(-1) was used. The purified recombinant laccase could efficiently decolorize RBBR without additional redox mediators.

  11. A double-blind comparison of 2% ketoconazole and 1% clotrimazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwada R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty adult patients of pityriasis versicolor were treated with either topical 2% ketoconazole cream (20 patients or topical 1% clotrimazole cream (20 patients. In global assessment of treatment after 2 weeks, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with ketoconazole cream were cured while 2 cases had considerable residual lesions. In clotrimazole treated group, 17 (85% out of 20 patients were cured and 3 still had considerable lesions. No significant difference was observed in response rates in the two groups. No side effects were reported in either groups.

  12. Histological and histochemical studies on the innervation of the respiratory organs of Calotes versicolor Daud. (Agamidae, Lacertilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R; Kumar, S; Sharma, M C

    1979-12-01

    A study on the innervation of the respiratory organs of Calotes versicolor has been made using cholinesterase and silver reduction techniques. The tracheal and bronchial plexuses have been described. A number of nerve terminations along with synapses are reported. ChE activity has been observed on the periphery of the alveoli which is believed to be of importance in controlling the acetylcholine level, acting as a general tissue enzyme to prevent excessive accumulation of acetylcholine. Vascular nerve supply has been found to be largely of vagal origin.

  13. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.; Linder, Gregory L.; Krest, Sherry K.; Sparling, Donald W.; Little, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  14. Recovery of Phenolic Acid and Enzyme Production from Corn Silage Biologically Treated by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Šelo, Gordana; Zelić, Bruno; Planinić, Mirela; Tišma, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Corn silage is used as high-energy forage for dairy cows and more recently for biogas production in a process of anaerobic co-digestion with cow manure. In this work, fresh corn silage after the harvest was used as a substrate in solid-state fermentations with T. versicolor with the aim of phenolic acid recovery and enzyme (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production. During 20 days of fermentation, 10.4-, 3.4-, 3.0-, and 1.8-fold increments in extraction yield of syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, respectively, were reached when compared to biologically untreated corn silage. Maximal laccase activity was gained on the 4th day of fermentation (V.A. = 180.2 U/dm(3)), and manganese peroxidase activity was obtained after the 3rd day of fermentation (V.A. = 30.1 U/dm(3)). The addition of copper(II) sulfate as inducer during solid state fermentation resulted in 8.5- and 7-fold enhancement of laccase and manganese peroxidase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of pH and temperature on enzyme activities was investigated. Maximal activity of laccase was obtained at T = 50 °C and pH = 3.0, while manganese peroxidase is active at temperature range T = 45-70 °C with the maximal activity at pH = 4.5.

  15. Evaluation of pityriasis versicolor in prisoners: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahi-Moghaddam Abdoreza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a mild but recurrent superficial fungal infection of stratum corneum. Many predisposing factors such as late teen and young adulthood age, tropical and subtropical climate (and to a lesser extent temperate climate, immunosuppression, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, hyperhidrosis, poor hygiene and a few other factors have been proposed for this condition. Aim: Regarding these probable and possible risk factors, we felt that jail is a unique population which can be affected by this infection and therefore we decided to evaluate some aspects of this infection in this population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study in male prisoners of Bandarabbas city, 230 prisoners were randomly selected. One hundred and five (45.67% of them were diagnosed to be infected. They were also evaluated regarding age, duration of being imprisoned, skin color, site of lesion and its pigmentation change and any concomitant clinical manifestation such as pruritis, burning or cebure. Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test was used for data analysis. Results: Mean age of infected population was 31.62 ± 8.67 years while peak incidence of PV was in 28-32 years age group. The most common color change was hypopigmentation. No case of PV hyperpigmentation was seen. We could not also observe any association between skin color and duration of being imprisoned with the frequency of infection. Conclusion: There seems to be no difference between pattern of infection in the general population and prisoners′ population in the aspects evaluated.

  16. 萎缩性花斑糠疹%Atrophying pityriasis versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕; 朱小红; 陈浩; 张海平; 吉津; 杨莉佳

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with scaly atrophic erythema on the chest and abdomen for nearly 2 years.Direct microscopic examination of the lesion scrapings revealed numerous stubby hyphae and clustered spores.Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of the biopsy tissue showed the presence of numerous hyphae and spores in the horny layer.The stain for elastic fibers revealed that the number of elastic fibers decreased,and some elastic fibers became fine and disrupted.The patient was diagnosed with atrophying pityriasis versicolor.The lesions subsided and direct microscopic examination was negative after 1-week treatment with oral itraconazole of 200 mg once daily and 4-week treatment with topical 2% sertaconazole cream.%患者女,26岁.因胸腹部鳞屑性红斑伴萎缩近2年就诊.取皮屑直接镜检,见较多粗短的菌丝及成簇孢子.皮损组织病理检查,过碘酸雪夫(PAS)染色见角质层内较多菌丝和孢子.弹力纤维染色示弹力纤维减少,部分弹力纤维纤细、断裂.诊断:萎缩性花斑糠疹.治疗:口服伊曲康唑胶囊200mg/d共1周,外用2%舍他康唑乳膏4周,皮疹消退,真菌直接镜检复查阴性.

  17. Identification of Malassezia species from pityriasis versicolor lesions with a new multiplex PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuran, Emre; Karaarslan, Aydın; Karasartova, Djursun; Turegun, Buse; Sahin, Fikret

    2014-02-01

    Despite the fact that a range of molecular methods have been developed as tools for the diagnosis of Malassezia species, there are several drawbacks associated with them, such as inefficiency of differentiating all the species, high cost, and questionable reproducibility. In addition, most of the molecular methods require cultivation to enhance sensitivity. Therefore, alternative methods eliminating cultivation and capable of identifying species with high accuracy and reliability are needed. Herein, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was especially developed for the detection of eleven Malassezia species. The multiplex PCR was standardized by incorporating a consensus forward primer, along with Malassezia species-specific reverse primers considering the sizes of the PCR products. In the method, the multiplex-PCR primer content is divided into three parts to circumvent the problem of increased nonspecific background resulting from the use of a large number of primers. DNA extraction protocol described by Harju and colleagues was modified using liquid nitrogen instead of -80 °C to break down the yeast membrane. By a modified extraction procedure followed by multiplex PCR and electrophoresis, the method enables identification and differentiation of Malassezia species from both of the samples obtained directly from skin and yeast colonies grown in culture. Fifty-five patients who were confirmed with pityriasis versicolor were enrolled in the study. Multiplex PCR detected and differentiated all 55 samples obtained directly from the patients' skin. However, 50 out of 55 samples yielded Malassezia colony in the culture. In addition, eight of 50 colonies were misdiagnosed or not completely differentiated by conventional methods based on the sequence analysis of eight colonies. The method is capable of identifying species with high accuracy and reliability. In addition, it is simple, quick, and cost-effective. More importantly, the method works

  18. Pitiríase versicolor: isolamento e identificação das principais espécies de Malassezia Pityriasis versicolor: isolation and identification of the main species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As espécies do gênero Malassezia isoladas foram: Malassezia sympodialis (16,66%, Malassezia furfur (12,50%, Malassezia globosa (11,45% e Malassezia slooffiae (2,10%. A Malassezia sympodialis foi a espécie que predominou em nosso estudo. As espécies de Malassezia identificadas não mostraram correlação com as variantes clínicas e com a distribuição das lesões de pitiríase versicolor quanto às regiões do corpo.Species of the genus Malassezia isolated were: Malassezia sympodialis (16.66%, Malassezia furfur (12.50%, Malassezia globosa (11.45%, and Malassezia slooffiae (2.10%. Malassezia sympodialis predominated in the study. The species of Malassezia identified did not show correlation with clinical variants and with the distribution of pityriasis versicolor lesions in relation to areas of the body.

  19. Single-dose oral fluconazole versus topical clotrimazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mohammad; Akbari, Negin; Alborzi, Nazila; Sadani, Somayeh; Keshtkar, Abas A

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of topical clotrimazole and systemic fluconazole in pityriasis versicolor. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out in the dermatological clinic of Gorgan, northern Iran, between April 2006 and May 2007. All consecutive patients with pityriasis versicolor were included and randomly divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), patients underwent treatment with a single dose of fluconazole capsule (400 mg) and placebo cream. In the second group (G2), patients underwent treatment with clotrimazole cream (twice daily) and placebo capsule. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. All subjects were re-evaluated 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the end of the therapeutic course. After 2 weeks, the rate of complete resolution of disease was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (49.1% vs 30%). After 4 weeks, 41 patients (81.2%) of G1 and 52 patients (94.9%) of G2 showed complete resolution. After 12 weeks, 46 patients (92%) in G1 and 45 patients (81.8%) in G2 showed complete resolution. Recurrence rate in G1 and G2 were 6% and 18.2%, respectively. No complications were seen in either group. In this study, clinical response at week 4 was greater in the clotrimazole group than the fluconazole group. Recurrence at week 12 after treatment was less with oral fluconazole than clotrimazole cream. So, for better evaluation, more studies need to be done.

  20. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ottoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc activity (80.2 U∙L−1 was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs.

  1. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F.; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L−1) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  2. Changes in oxidative enzyme activity during interspecific mycelial interactions involving the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Jennifer; Baldrian, Petr; Rogers, Hilary J; Boddy, Lynne

    2010-06-01

    Interspecific fungal antagonism leads to biochemical changes in competing mycelia, including up-regulation of oxidative enzymes. Laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP), manganese-repressed peroxidase (MRP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) gene expression and enzyme activity were compared during agar interactions between Trametes versicolor and five other wood decay fungi resulting in a range of interaction outcomes from deadlock to replacement of one fungus by another. Increased laccase and Mn-oxidising activities were detected at all interaction zones, but there were few changes in activity in regions away from the interaction zone in T. versicolor mycelia compared to self-pairings. Whilst no LiP activity was detected in any pairing, low level LiP gene expression was detected. MnP activity was detected but not expression of MnP genes; instead, MRP could explain the observed activity. No relationship was found between extent of enzyme activity increase and interaction outcome. Similarities between patterns of gene expression and enzyme activity are discussed.

  3. Strains ofaspergillus versicolor tiraboschi synthesizing sterigmatocystin and the differentiation of mycotoxic risk dependent on their productivity in housing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, M

    2007-03-01

    In biomasses from 22 moulds isolated in housing buildings a Chromatographie HPLC UV/VIS analysis was carried out to assess the production of sterigmatocystin by fungal isolates. The results are discussed with respect to mycotoxic risk for people exposed to the presence ofAspergillus versicolor. This fungus is often present on building materials, but does not always produce the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST). In this study, 19 (86%) of the 22 strains synthesized ST at detectable levels (>0.03 mg kg-1 biomass). Three of the strains (14%) were found to synthesize ST at levels exceeding 100 mg kg-1 of the air-dry mould biomass with laboratory medium. One strain proved to be highly productive and synthesized more than 500 mg kg-1 ST. Thus, it presented the highest mycotoxic danger for the dwellers of the buildings whereA. versicolor infested the walls. However, most strains are low producers of ST, with 12 of 22 isolates synthesizing less than 10 mg kg-1 biomass. Mycotoxigenic and highly productive strains that produced significant amounts of ST (>500 mg kg-1 biomass) were less frequently found, with approximately 5% of all isolates from buildings studied for ST production.

  4. Expression of phenotypic plasticity in hatchlings of the lizard Calotes versicolor (Squamata: Agamidae: influence of nest moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Calotes versicolor breed from late May to early October. The breeding activity begins with the onset of the southwest monsoon. The eggs laid in early breeding season experience more wet conditions than those of the late breeding season. We studied the influence of nest moisture levels on the phenotypic traits of hatchlings by burying the eggs in 5-cm-deep sand nests with ~50%(wet nest or ~20% (relatively dry nest moisture to simulate nesting conditions of early and late breeding seasons. A group of eggs were subjected to standard laboratory incubation procedure in which eggs are half-buried in the moist sand and the other half exposed to air. Hatching time and hatchling body size varied with the treatment. The eggs from dry nests hatched later and hatchlings were the biggest but possessed least amount of residual yolk compared to those of 'wet nest' and also 'lab incubated' groups. In these hatchlings head and limb sizes were significantly larger than that of the other two groups. The findings show: (1 a developmental plasticity in the lizard, (2 that under low moist conditionslarger body size is preferred, and (3 that the trade-off between somatic growth of embryos and future energy reserves (residual yolk of hatchlings is influenced by the soil moisture in C. versicolor.

  5. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  6. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  7. Epidemiological Characters of Pityriasis Versicolor and Erythrasma among Admitted Patients of Medical Mycology Lab of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 1994 -2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaeili, A. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The rate of superficial mycoses are increasing in special conditions. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the epidemiological parameters of Pityriasis versicolor and Erythrasma during 1994- 2011. Material and Methods: In this study, we assessed the results of direct microscopic study and the other data of the patients for Pityriasis versicolor and Erythrasma in 1994-2011. Results: Of 2265, 1294 (57% suffered from pityriasis versicolor, who were mostly males (60%. The highest frequency was related to 20-29 year old and the lowest to 0-9. High school and university students were the most infected groups (33%, September was the most common period and the most common site of involvement was chest and abdomen. The people infected with Erythrasma (971; 42%, were mostly 30 -39 year old , males( 58% , urban ( 98% , reported in July and involved in groin. Conclusion: The frequency of both diseases was high in active age group, males, and the hot months of the year, which are the most common predisposing factors. Keywords: Pityriasis Versicolor; Erythrasma; Kermanshah

  8. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharide extracts from the widely used mushrooms Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovljevic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of polysaccharide extracts of four of the most widely known mushrooms often used in medicinal applications as well as in tea and food, namely Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor, were studied. G. applanatum and L edodes extracts wer

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF SERTACONAZOLE 2% CREAM IN TREATMENT OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR AND A COMPARISION WITH THAT OF CLOTRIMAZOLE 1% CREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Tatavarthi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor is a mild superficial, chronic recurrent fungal infection. Many topical agents have been used with varying degree of success and high recurrence rate. The current study was conducted to clinically evaluate the efficacy of sertaconazole 2% in treating and preventing recurrences of pityriasis versicolor as compared to clotrimazole1%cream. AIMS: Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of sertaconazole 2% cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor and its comparison with that of clotrimazole 1% cream. MATERIALS & METHODS: 110 patients who were diagnosed clinically and microscopically as pityriasis versicolor and fulfilling the criteria were enrolled, of which 55 were treated with 2% sertaconazole cream and 55 with 1% clotrimazole cream twice daily for 4 weeks. At the end of fourth week patients were examined both clinically and mycologically. Follow up was done at 6 weeks to note any relapse clinically and mycologically. RESULTS : Out of 110 patients 4 patients using sertaconazole, 6 patients using clotri mazole were lost for follow - up and excluded from the study. Global assessment was done at the end of treatment i.e., 4 weeks with clinical and mycological cure rate, revealed that 42(82.3% of the sertaconazole group, 30(61.2% of the clotrimazole group we re improved clinically. Mycological examination at the same time was negative in 44(86.3%, 33(67.4% respectively. 7(13.7% of sertaconazole group, 12(24.48% of clotrimazole group show no significant change. 4(8.16% patients using clotrimazole complaine d of deterioration of symptoms but none using sertaconazole. CONCLUSION : Comparing the results obtained in this trial showed that sertaconazole was more efficacious than clotrimazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor because of its direct membrane damaging effect. But in terms of pigmentary resolution sertaconazole is not comparable to clotrimazole cream due to persistent effect of azelic acid.

  10. Identificação de espécies de malassésia na pitiríase versicolor em um serviço de dermatologia do sul do Brasil Identification of Malassezia yeast species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Petry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A pitiríase versicolor é uma doença de distribuição universal. Existe a descrição de 12 espécies de malassezia. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar quais as espécies de malassezia mais prevalentes nos pacientes com pitiríase versicolor. Foram realizadas as coletas através de raspado das lesões nos pacientes com suspeita clínica de pitiríase versicolor e posterior exame micológico e cultural para identificação final da espécie. Foram coletadas amostras de 87 pacientes. Quanto às culturas, 30% foram de Malassezia sympodialis, 25,7% de Malassezia furfur, 22,7% de Malassezia globosa, 12,1% de Malassezia retrita, 7,6% de Malassezia obtusa e 1,5% de Malassezia sloofiae

  11. Chemical constituents ofAspergillus versicolor EN-298, an endophytic fungusderived from the marine algaCeramium japonicum%日本仙菜来源内生真菌Aspergillus versicolor EN-298化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳宁; 李晓明; 张鹏; 徐刚明; 王斌贵

    2015-01-01

    从采自烟台养马岛的日本仙菜(Ceramium japonicum)中分离得到的一株内生真菌Aspergillus versicolor EN-298,对其次级代谢产物进行了系统研究,利用反相柱层析、正相柱层析、葡聚糖凝胶Sephadex LH-20以及制备薄层层析(pTLC)等分离手段获得10个单体化合物。通过一维、二维核磁共振技术(1D、2D NMR)等鉴定了所有化合物的结构。并对分离得到的化合物进行了抑菌活性测试,其中化合物10对迟缓爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda)表现出一定的抑制作用。%Ten compounds were isolated from the secondary metabolites ofAspergillus versicolor EN-298, an endophytic fungus that was isolated from the marine red algaCeramium japonicum. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including UV and NMR (1D and 2D) as well as by comparison with authentic standards and literature reports. All compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity, and the compound10 showed moderate activity against aqua-bacterialEdwardsiella tarda with an MIC value of 16μg/mL.

  12. Decoloración de CD2 (café directo 2) por enzimas intracelulares y extracelulares de Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La contaminación por colorantes textiles representa un problema ecológico a nivel mundial. En el presente trabajo se mostró que es posible la decoloración del Café Directo 2 (CD2) por medio de extractos crudos de enzimas intracelulares y extracelulares, así como de la biomasa fúngica de Trametes versicolor cultivado en medio líquido con inductores metálicos en su forma viable. La experimentación se efectuó a tempera- tura ambiente, a 800rpm y con un pH inicial de 4,5; la actividad de lacasa s...

  13. Secondary metabolites of a deep sea derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a and their bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianglan; Cai, Shengxin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng

    2014-08-01

    In order to obtain novel secondary metabolites, a deep sea inhabiting fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a was investigated. One new diketopiperazine brevianamide W ( 1a), as well as five known diketopiperazine alkaloids, diketopiperazine V ( 1b), brevianamide Q ( 2), brevianamide R ( 3), brevianamide K ( 4), and brevianamide E ( 5), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy techniques (NMR, MS). The six compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with clearance ratio of 55.0% ( 1a and 1b), 53.7% ( 2), 46.2% ( 3), 61.4% ( 4) and 19.3% ( 5) at a concentration of 13.9 μmol L-1, respectively; while the positive control ascorbic acid showed a ratio of 70.3% at the concentration of 28.4 μmol L-1.

  14. Enzymatic removal of estrogenic activity of nonylphenol and octylphenol aqueous solutions by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapane, Maria [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Nicolucci, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Mita, Luigi [National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano G., E-mail: mita@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Diano, Nadia [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Endocrine disruptors cause adverse effects in living organisms. ► Nonylphenol and Octylphenol are alkylphenols recognized as endocrine disruptors. ► It is necessary to remove or reduce their presence in the environment. ► Waters polluted by these pollutants have been bioremediated by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor. ► Laccase treated solutions were found to have lost any estrogenic activity. -- Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor, filled with laccase-based beads, has been employed to bioremediate aqueous solutions polluted by endocrine disruptors belonging to the alkylphenols (APs) class. In particular Octylphenol and Nonylphenol have been studied. The catalytic activity of free and immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor has been characterized as a function of pH, temperature and substrate concentration in the reaction medium. In view of practical applications for each substrate concentration the removal efficiency (RE), the time to halve the initial concentration (τ{sub 50}), and the t{sub c=0}, i.e. the time to reach complete pollutant removal, have been calculated. The immobilized laccase exhibited a lower affinity for octylphenol (K{sub m} = 1.11 mM) than for Nonylphenol (K{sub m} = 0.72 mM), but all the other parameters of applicative interest resulted more significant for octylphenol. For example, the times to reach the complete removal of octylphenol compared to those for nonylphenol at the same concentration is shorter of about 15% (at low concentrations) up to 40% (at high concentrations). The study of cell proliferation with MPP89 cells, a human mesothelioma cell line, and the assay with the YES test indicated the loss of estrogenic activity of the APs solutions after laccase treatment.

  15. Intoxicação experimental por Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae em ovinos e indução de resistência ao consumo da planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariany C. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Simarouba versicolor é uma árvore semidecídua pertencente à família Simaroubaceae. Um surto de intoxicação por S. versicolor em bovinos por brotos da planta presente no pasto em Mato Grosso do Sul e sua reprodução experimental foram descritos. Esse estudo teve por objetivos verificar experimentalmente se os ovinos podem ser utilizados como modelo clínico-patológico no estudo da intoxicação por Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (fam. Simaroubaceae, determinar se há indução de resistência pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses e, se a planta mantém sua toxicidade quando dessecada. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo o primeiro com folhas verdes ou folhas dessecadas e trituradas de S. versicolor em doses únicas de 5g/kg, 5g/kg e 3g/kg a três ovinos (Ovino 1, 2 e 3 respectivamente. O experimento 2, foi realizado com diferentes doses diárias de folhas dessecadas e trituradas de S. versicolor em quatro ovinos que receberam 1,5g/kg, 0,75g/kg, 0,6g/kg e 0,3g/kg e, com um ovino que recebeu 3g/kg como controle positivo (Ovino 4. A administração foi suspensa quando os ovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Após doze dias de recuperação, os animais sobreviventes foram desafiados com a mesma dose diária da planta ingerida anteriormente para avaliar o desenvolvimento de resistência. Os sinais clínicos observados nos dois experimentos caracterizaram-se por anorexia, mucosas oculares congestas, polidipsia, sialorreia, fezes pastosas que evoluíram para diarreia líquida fétida esverdeada, decúbito lateral e morte para os Ovinos 1 a 7. As principais lesões histológicas observadas foram necrose do tecido linfoide (linfonodos, baço, placas de Peyer e enterite necrosante. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que os ovinos podem ser utilizados como modelo experimental clínico-patológico na intoxicação por S. versicolor. Com o método utilizado, não houve resistência ao consumo diário de folhas

  16. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  17. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount. PMID:26288400

  18. Cell-mediated immune responses to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C in patients with pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbee, H R; Ingham, E; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

    1994-06-01

    It has been postulated that patients with Malassezia furfur-associated dermatoses have a deficient cell-mediated immune response to M. furfur. This study examined the cell-mediated immune responses to M. furfur serovars A, B and C of 10 patients with pityriasis versicolor and 10 age- and sex-matched controls; and 10 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. The responses to each serovar of M. furfur were assessed using the lymphocyte transformation assay and the leukocyte migration inhibition assay. The lymphocyte transformation responses of the patients with pityriasis versicolor to M. furfur serovars A, B and C (0/10, 6/10 and 5/10 respectively) were not significantly different from those of controls (0/10, 2/10 and 1/10). However, for patients with seborrheic dermatitis, significantly more patients' lymphocytes responded to serovars B and C (6/10 and 6/10 respectively) than those of controls (1/10 and 1/10). No patient or control responded to serovar A. In the leukocyte migration inhibition assay, the leukocytes from a greater proportion of patients with pityriasis versicolor (5/7) responded to serovar B than controls (2/10); and the leukocytes from a greater proportion of patients with seborrheic dermatitis (4/10) responded to serovar C than controls (0/9). Thus, this data did not indicate the presence of any cell-mediated immune deficiency to M. furfur in patients with pityriasis versicolor or seborrheic dermatitis, as measured by the lymphocyte transformation assay or the leukocyte migration inhibition assay. The greater responsiveness of T lymphocytes from patients may indicate that T lymphocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  19. Cloning of novel cellulases from cellulolytic fungi: heterologous expression of a family 5 glycoside hydrolase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Alejandro; Vega, Marcela; Lienqueo, María Elena; Garcia, Alejandro; Carmona, Rene; Salazar, Oriana

    2011-12-10

    Total cDNA isolated from cellulolytic fungi cultured in cellulose was examined for the presence of sequences encoding for endoglucanases. Novel sequences encoding for glycoside hydrolases (GHs) were identified in Fusarium oxysporum, Ganoderma applanatum and Trametes versicolor. The cDNA encoding for partial sequences of GH family 61 cellulases from F. oxysporum and G. applanatum shares 58 and 68% identity with endoglucanases from Glomerella graminicola and Laccaria bicolor, respectively. A new GH family 5 endoglucanase from T. versicolor was also identified. The cDNA encoding for the mature protein was completely sequenced. This enzyme shares 96% identity with Trametes hirsuta endoglucanase and 22% with Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII). The enzyme, named TvEG, has N-terminal family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1). The full length cDNA was cloned into the pPICZαB vector and expressed as an active, extracellular enzyme in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Preliminary studies suggest that T. versicolor could be useful for lignocellulose degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodegradation of sulfamethazine by Trametes versicolor: Removal from sewage sludge and identification of intermediate products by UPLC-QqTOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Galan, Ma. Jesus, E-mail: mggqam@cid.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E., E-mail: CarlosEsteban.Rodriguez@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Vicent, Teresa, E-mail: Teresa.Vicent@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: Gloria.Caminal@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia, E-mail: dbcqam@cid.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona. C/Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain); King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-15

    Degradation of the sulfonamide sulfamethazine (SMZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was assessed. Elimination was achieved to nearly undetectable levels after 20 h in liquid medium when SMZ was added at 9 mg L{sup -1}. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase-mediators resulted in almost complete removal. On the other hand, inhibition of SMZ degradation was observed when piperonilbutoxide, a cytochrome P450-inhibitor, was added to the fungal cultures. UPLC-QqTOF-MS analysis allowed the identification and confirmation of 4 different SMZ degradation intermediates produced by fungal cultures or purified laccase: desulfo-SMZ, N{sup 4}-formyl-SMZ, N{sup 4}-hydroxy-SMZ and desamino-SMZ; nonetheless SMZ mineralization was not demonstrated with the isotopically labeled sulfamethazine-phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6} after 7 days. Inoculation of T. versicolor to sterilized sewage sludge in solid-phase systems showed complete elimination of SMZ and also of other sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole) at real environmental concentrations, making this fungus an interesting candidate for further remediation research. - Highlights: {yields}Degradation of sulfamethazine by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. {yields}The laccase enzymatic system and cytochrome P-450 were involved in the degradation. {yields}Four different degradation products of sulfamethazine were identified and confirmed. {yields}The molecular structures and masses of the metabolites were accurately calculated. {yields}Full elimination of sulfamethazine was observed in regular sewage sludge.

  1. The effect of citrate and sulfate of copper on the biomass composition of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (Polyporales, Polyporaceae

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    G. A. Al-Maali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study the influence of citrate and sulfate of copper on the biomass composition of the mycelium of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (L. Lloyd, (1920 cultivated in a liquid medium. The studied strain of Trametes versicolor 353 was obtained from the Culture Collection of Mushrooms (IBK from M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Copper citrate was obtained from the Institute of Nanobiotechnologies and Resource Conservation of Ukraine, Kyiv. In this study we used glucose-peptone-yeast extract medium. Cu2+ (sulfate or citrate form was added to the medium in concentration 4 mg/L. Mycelium was grown in a submerged culture on a rotary shaker (120 rpm at 26 °C in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 50 ml of liquid media. The biomass was harvested after 9 days of cultivation in the liquid medium, filtered, washed, dried to a constant weight at 105 °C and weighed. Total nitrogen content (Ntotal in the mycelium determined by the Kjeldahl method, crude protein content was determined as Ntotal x 6.25. The ash was obtained by the standard method. Total lipids were extracted from undried mycelium by a modified method of Bligh and Dyer. Amino acid composition was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography Agilent 1200 (Agilent technologies, USA. The methyl ethers of fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS Agilent 6890N/5973 inert. The results of our research demonstrated that sulfates and citrates of copper increased the amount of crude protein on the mycelium of T. versicolor 353. Also both form of copper increased the amount of ash by a third relative to the control medium. At the same time, both forms of copper reduced the amount of total carbohydrates on mycelial biomass. But copper sulfate reduced the amount of total lipids relative to the control medium and medium with copper citrate. It should be noted, that given the significant

  2. The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp

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    sanaz Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic, recurrent and often asymptomatic infection of stratum corneum, Which is caused by lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia. Human to human transmission through direct contact is possible. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp was perfumed. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study,115 students in the dormitories of the university of medical sciences were studied with the three methods:skin scraping, using  scotch tape and wood’s lamp. Results: Among 115 patients, 66.94% were female and 33.05% were male. The mean age was 21.38 years.25% of boys and 11.1% of girls were affected.The prevalence of  Pityriasis versicolor by  the three methods was determined 15.7%. In this study, the  most common site of infection was shoulder and neck. Conclusion: The recent study showed a high prevalence of Pityriasis versicolor in Lorestan University of  Medical Sciences students . The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor had a statistically significant difference between males and females, and was more common in females .  The pairwise comparison results obtained  from the three methods using the Kappa coefficient, scotch tape method  was the most consistent results than the other two methods.

  3. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tertiary Care Hospital, Punjab

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    M Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia species. Our aim was to identify Malassezia species from PV patients and healthy individuals in Punjab. Materials and Methods: Modified Dixon agar was used as isolation culture medium. Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. The biochemical evaluation consisted of culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase reaction, Tween assimilation, Cremophor EL assimilation, splitting of esculin and growth at 38 0 C. Results: Out of 58 microscopically diagnosed cases of PV, growth was obtained from 54 (93.10% cases. The most frequently isolated species were M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. furfur which made up 51.79%, 31.42% and 18.51% of the isolated etiological agents respectively. However, the major isolate from the back of healthy individuals was M. sympodialis (47.61%, followed by M.obtusa (19.04%, M. globosa (14.20%, M. furfur (9.52%, M. pachydermatis (4.76% and M. slooffiae (4.76%. Conclusions: M. globosa in its mycelial phase was the main etiological agent, but as normal flora from the back of healthy subjects, it was found in significantly less number (P = 0.01, suggesting that the higher pathogenicity of M. globosa in terms of enzymatic endowment, might be the cause of its predominance in PV lesions.

  4. DECOLORIZATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY NEWLY ISOLATED TRAMETES VERSICOLOR STRAIN Sevil PİLATİN, Buket KUNDUHOĞLU

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    Buket KUNDUHOĞLU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this century, the amount of industrial produces and their consumption has increased tremendously. Along with this increase, accumulation of industrial waste and its effect on nature has causedserious problems. Because of including various chemicals and especially dye, textile waste water is one of the most hazardous industrial wastes. Color is the most important pollutant in waste water and it should be decolorized. Decolorization is more important than degradation of organic substances from waste water. Even a small amount of dye found changes the color of rivers, lakes and other waterresources, and reduces the penetration of light and solubility of gases. White rot fungus are used as a biological system in degradation and decolorizing of textile dyes.In this study, parameters for decolorization of several textile dyes (Blue 49, Orange 12, Orange 13, Red 31, Black 5, RBBR by newly isolated Trametes versicolor M96was studied.It has been determined that pH, amount of inoculum, shaking speed (rpm, dye concentration and temperature are important factors in decolorization of the studied dyes. The maximum decolorization was found pH 4.5, amount of inoculums 50 ml, shaking speed 200 rpm, dye concentration 50 mg/l and heat 30 °C.

  5. Antifungal New Oxepine-Containing Alkaloids and Xanthones from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 05879.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; He, Weijun; Huang, Xiaolong; Tian, Xinpeng; Liao, Shengrong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Fazuo; Zhou, Xiaojiang; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-04-13

    Phytopathogenic fungi remain a continuous and huge threat in the agricultural fields. The agrochemical industry has made great development of the use of microbial natural products, which has been regarded as an effective strategy against phytopathogenic fungi. Antifungal bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate two new oxepine-containing alkaloids (1 and 2), two new 4-aryl-quinolin-2-one alkaloids (3 and 4), and four new prenylated xanthones (5-8) from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 05879. Extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, quantum mechanical calculations, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction were used to elucidate their structures, including their absolute configurations. Versicoloids A and B, versicone A, and cottoquinazoline A showed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal activities of these bioactive compounds strongly depend on the fungal species. Especially versicoloids A and B showed strong fungicidal effect (MIC of 1.6 μg/mL) against Colletotrichum acutatum, compared with that of the positive control cycloheximide (MIC of 6.4 μg/mL). The results of antifungal experiments indicated that versicoloids A and B may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals.

  6. An Analysis of the Malassezia Species Distribution in the Skin of Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Chengdu, China

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    Zhen Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.. Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%, M. restricta (91.7%, and M. sympodialis (50.0%. In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%, M. restricta (79.2%, and M. dermatis (33.3%. A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P=0.04. Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8±1.3,   2.5±1.1, and 3.2±1.6 times higher, resp.. The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals.

  7. An analysis of the Malassezia species distribution in the skin of patients with pityriasis versicolor in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhen; Ran, Yuping; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wan, Huiying; Li, Conghui

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,  2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals.

  8. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by laccase from Trametes versicolor covalently immobilized on amino-functionalized SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Luis Fernando; Morales, Gabriel; Sanz, Raquel

    2015-10-01

    A covalent immobilization method based on glutaraldehyde and amino-functionalized SBA-15 supports has been successfully applied to covalently and stably immobilize laccase from Trametes versicolor. The resultant biocatalysts displayed high incorporation yields of enzyme and led to excellent biodegradation rates of selected HPAs models, i.e. naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, in water. The nature of the hydrocarbon chain accompanying the amino group has been shown as determinant for the immobilization as well as for the activity and reusability of the materials. Thus, alkyl moieties displayed higher enzyme loadings than phenyl moieties, being more adequate the larger n-butyl tethering residue likely due to its higher mobility. Using the aminobutyl-based laccase-SBA-15, 82%, 73%, and 55% conversion of naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, respectively, were achieved after 48 h, very close to the values obtained with free laccase under the same reaction conditions. On the other hand, aminopropyl-based laccase-SBA-15 biocatalysts displayed the best reusability properties, retaining higher activity after four repeated uses than the corresponding aminobutyl-based materials.

  9. Aspectos clínicos de pacientes com pitiríase versicolor atendidos em um centro de referência em dermatologia tropical na cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil Clinical aspects of patients with pityriasis versicolor seen at a referral center for tropical dermatology in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Patrícia Motta de Morais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor (tinha versicolor é uma micose superficial crônica, causada por leveduras do gênero Malassezia spp. comensais das camadas queratinizadas da pele e que, sob determinadas condições ainda não esclarecidas, se torna patogênica, determinando as manifestações clínicas da doença. É uma dermatose recidivante e, mesmo após tratamento, pode deixar hipopigmentação persistente, causando problemas sociais aos indivíduos acometidos. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor atendidos em uma unidade de referência em Dermatologia (Fundação Alfredo da Matta. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série de casos em que foram detalhadas as manifestações cutâneas e as características epidemiológicas de pacientes atendidos na Fundação Alfredo da Matta com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor. RESULTADOS: Cento e dezesseis pacientes foram incluídos no estudo no período de janeiro a agosto de 2008. A maioria dos indivíduos é do sexo masculino, de cor parda, da faixa etária jovem e formada por estudantes, que apresentavam fatores predisponentes ao surgimento das manchas. Também a maioria apresentava lesões extensas e história passada da doença. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou alta proporção de indivíduos com quadros extensos e de longa duração da doença.BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor is a chronic superficial mycosis caused by yeasts of the Malassezia spp. genus commensal of the keratinized layers of the skin. Under conditions not yet understood, it becomes pathogenic determining the clinical manifestations of the disease. It is a recurrent skin condition and persistent hypopigmentation may remain after treatment, causing social problems to those affected. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at a referral center for dermatology (Alfredo da

  10. Intoxicação experimental por Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae em ovinos e indução de resistência ao consumo da planta Experimental poisoning by Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae in sheep and induced resistance to consumption of the plant

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    Ariany C. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Simarouba versicolor é uma árvore semidecídua pertencente à família Simaroubaceae. Um surto de intoxicação por S. versicolor em bovinos por brotos da planta presente no pasto em Mato Grosso do Sul e sua reprodução experimental foram descritos. Esse estudo teve por objetivos verificar experimentalmente se os ovinos podem ser utilizados como modelo clínico-patológico no estudo da intoxicação por Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (fam. Simaroubaceae, determinar se há indução de resistência pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses e, se a planta mantém sua toxicidade quando dessecada. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo o primeiro com folhas verdes ou folhas dessecadas e trituradas de S. versicolor em doses únicas de 5g/kg, 5g/kg e 3g/kg a três ovinos (Ovino 1, 2 e 3 respectivamente. O experimento 2, foi realizado com diferentes doses diárias de folhas dessecadas e trituradas de S. versicolor em quatro ovinos que receberam 1,5g/kg, 0,75g/kg, 0,6g/kg e 0,3g/kg e, com um ovino que recebeu 3g/kg como controle positivo (Ovino 4. A administração foi suspensa quando os ovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Após doze dias de recuperação, os animais sobreviventes foram desafiados com a mesma dose diária da planta ingerida anteriormente para avaliar o desenvolvimento de resistência. Os sinais clínicos observados nos dois experimentos caracterizaram-se por anorexia, mucosas oculares congestas, polidipsia, sialorreia, fezes pastosas que evoluíram para diarreia líquida fétida esverdeada, decúbito lateral e morte para os Ovinos 1 a 7. As principais lesões histológicas observadas foram necrose do tecido linfoide (linfonodos, baço, placas de Peyer e enterite necrosante. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que os ovinos podem ser utilizados como modelo experimental clínico-patológico na intoxicação por S. versicolor. Com o método utilizado, não houve resistência ao consumo diário de folhas

  11. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2015-09-01

    Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an impact on human health as they might be allergenic. Since molecular methods do not require a culture step, they seem an excellent alternative for the monitoring of indoor fungal contaminations. As a case study, we developed a SYBR® green real-time PCR-based assay for the specific detection and identification of Aspergillus versicolor, which is frequently observed in indoor environment and known to be allergenic. The developed primers amplify a short region of the internal transcribed spacer 1 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex. Subsequently, the performance of this quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was assessed using specific criteria, including an evaluation of the selectivity, PCR efficiency, dynamic range, and repeatability. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 or 2 copies of genomic DNA of A. versicolor. In order to demonstrate that this SYBR® green qPCR assay is a valuable alternative for monitoring indoor fungal contamination with A. versicolor, environmental samples collected in contaminated houses were analyzed and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the traditional methods.

  13. The use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of vesicles as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Katja; Kissner, Reinhard; Rakvin, Boris; Guo, Zengwei; Willeke, Martin; Busato, Stephan; Weber, Thomas; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O₂) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O₂ and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H₂O₂, the reaction with TvL/O₂ was much slower than with HRPC/H₂O₂, i.e. ≈27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O₂ yielded mainly overoxidized products (with λ(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H₂O₂ (with λ(max)≈1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H₂O₂, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O₂. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties.

  14. Screening of Biodegradable Function of Indigenous Ligno-degrading Mushroom Using Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kab-Yeul; Cho, Soo-Muk; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Gyu-Hyun; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2009-03-01

    The process of biodegradation in lingo-cellulosic materials is critically relevant to biospheric carbon. The study of this natural process has largely involved laboratory investigations, focused primarily on the biodegradation and recycling of agricultural by-products, generally using basidiomycetes species. In order to collect super white rot fungi and evaluate its ability to degrade lingo-cellulosic material, 35 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye. In the laccase enzymatic analysis chemical test, 33 white rot fungi and 2 brown rot fungi were identified. The degradation ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the utilized environmental conditions was higher in the mushrooms grown in dead trees and fallen leaves than in the mushrooms grown in humus soil and livestock manure. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAH-degradation activity of the identified strains, four strains, including Agrocybe pediades, were selected. The activities of laccase, MnP, and Lip of the four strains with PAH-degrading ability were highest in Pleurotus incarnates. 87 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye on solid media. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAHdegrading activity of the identified strains, it was determined that MKACC 51632 and 52492 strains evidenced superior activity in static and shaken liquid cultures. Subsequent screening on plates containing the polymeric dye poly R-478, the decolorization of which is correlated with lignin degradation, resulted in the selection of a strain of Coriolus versicolor, MKACC52492, for further study, primarily due to its rapid growth rate and profound ability to decolorize poly R-478 on solid media. Considering

  15. Análisis del Voltinismo y la Diapausa en Poblaciones de Apagomerella versicolor (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae en el Gradiente Latitudinal de su Distribución en la Argentina Voltinism and Diapause in Populations of Apagomerella versicolor (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in the Distribution of its Latitudinal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Logarzo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Apagomerella versicolor es un cerambícido cuyas larvas barrenan los tallos de plantas compuestas de los géneros Xanthium, Ambrosia y Pluchea (Asteraceae. En la Argentina se distribuye entre los 25º y 39º de LS. Estudios sobre la biología de este insecto realizados con poblaciones de los alrededores de Buenos Aires (35º S, indicaban que era una especie univoltina con diapausa larval durante el invierno y que se podía inducir la salida del estado de diapausa exponiendo las larvas a bajas temperaturas. Sin embargo algunas observaciones sugerían que poblaciones del norte del país podían ser bi o multivoltinas sin diapausa larval. En este trabajo estudiamos el voltinismo y la diapausa en una clina latitudinal entre los 25 y los 32º de LS. Se realizó un ensayo para revelar la presencia de diapausa.en las distintas latitudes, para ello, larvas de distintas latitudes fueron separadas en dos grupos, uno fue expuesto a un tratamiento de bajas temperaturas para romper la diapausa y el otro fue utilizado como control. Aquellas larvas que presentaran diapausa y recibieran un tratamiento de frío deberían empupar más rápidamente que aquellas que no fueron tratadas. Además se realizaron 10 viajes al área de estudio en los meses de enero, marzo, julio, agosto, octubre y diciembre en distintos años donde se revisaron las principales plantas huéspedes: Pluchea sagittalis Cabr. y Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw. Se observaron los estadios inmaduros presentes en las diferentes plantas según la latitud. La evidencia encontrada sugiere que A. versicolor es al menos bivoltina entre los 25 y los 27º de LS y que presenta diapausa en latitudes mayores a los 31º. Se discute la influencia de las plantas huéspedes sobre el voltinismo y la diapausa larval en poblaciones de A. versicolor.ABSTRACT. Apagomerella versicolor (Boheman, a long horn stem-borer beetle of the host genera Pluchea., Xanthium, and Ambrosia (Asteraceae. In Argentina, it occurs

  16. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.

  17. Kinetics of wheat straw solid-state fermentation with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus - lignin and polysaccharide alteration and production of related enzymatic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valmaseda, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Martinez, A.T. (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro des Investigaciones Biologicas)

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of straw solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to characterize the delignification processes by these white-rot fungi. Two sucessive phases could be defined during straw transformation, characterized by changes in respiratory activity, changes in lignin and polysaccharide content and composition, increase in in-vitro digestibility, and enzymatic activities produced by the fungi. Lignin composition was analysed after CuO alkaline degradation, and decreases in syringyl/guaiacyl and syringyl/p-hydroxyphenyl ratios and cinnamic acid content were observed during the fungal treatment. An increase in the phenolic acid yield, revealing fungal degradation of sidechains in lignin, was produced by P. ostreatus. The highest xylanase level was produced by P. ostreatus, and exocellulase activity was nearly absent from straw treated with this fungus. Laccase activity was found in straw treated with both fungi, but lignin peroxidase was only detected during the initial phase of straw transformation with T. versicolor. High levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-producing acryl-alcohol oxidase occurred throughout the straw SSF with P. ostreatus. (orig.).

  18. Comparative efficacy of topical application of tacrolimus and clotrimazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor: A single blind, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaskhah, Mozhdeh; Sadat, Maryam Sadat; Pakshir, Keyvan; Bagheri, Zahra

    2017-05-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common superficial fungal disease. Possibility of emergence of resistant strains to azoles, and difficulty in differentiation of hypopigmented PV and early vitiligo, encouraged us to evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrolimus (a calcineurin inhibitor agent with proven in vitro anti-Malassezia effect) for PV treatment generally and its effect on PV-induced hypopigmentation specifically. To evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrolimus on pityriasis versicolor. Fifty PV patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups applying either topical clotrimazol or tacrolimus twice daily for 3 weeks. They were evaluated at the beginning of study, in the third and fifth weeks clinically and mycologically (direct smear). Although both treatments resulted in global, clinical, and mycological cure of PV, there was no significant difference regarding the mentioned aspects of cure between tacrolimus and clotrimazole treated patients. (P-value: .63, .45, and .26, respectively) Tacrolimus had no significant effect on hypopigmentation in the fifth week follow-up. (P-value: .62). In spite of the lack of efficacy of tacrolimus on PV-induced hypopigmentation, the therapeutic effect on PV introduces tacrolimus as a therapeutic option for PV, especially when early vitiligo is among the differential diagnoses without concerning the aggravating effect of topical corticosteroids on PV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Box-Behnken design for extraction optimization of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian Phormidium versicolor cyanobacteria (NCC 466): Partial characterization, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Frikha, Donyez; Athmouni, Khaled; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Kallel, Monem; Maalej, Sami; Zhou, John; Ayadi, Habib

    2017-06-09

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the aqueous extraction of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian cyanobacteria Phormidium versicolor (NCC 466). The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.56±0.92% were as follows: extraction temperature at 81.05°C, extraction time of 3.99h, and water to raw material ratio of 21.52mLg(-1). Crude Phormidium versicolor polysaccharides (CPv-PS) are found to be a hetero-sulfated-anionic polysaccharides that contained carbohydrate (79.37±1.58%), protein (0.45±0.11%), uronic acids (4.37±0.19%) and sulfate (6.83±0.28%). The carbohydrate fraction was composed of arabinose, xylose, ribose, rhamnose, N-acetyl glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid and saccharose with corresponding mole percentages of 2.41, 14.58, 2.18, 6.23, 7.04, 28.21, 26.04, 3.02, 0.86 and 5.07, respectively. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CPv-PS strongly scavenged radicals, prevented bleaching of β-carotene and reduced activity. Furthermore, the CPv-PS exhibited effective antimicrobial properties. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzo[a]Pyrene: biodegradation by different Trametes versicolor Morphology and enzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, L.; Xavier Gabarrell, X.; Vicent, T.

    2009-07-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a persistent organic pollutant included in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons group (PAH), is of environmental concern due to its known carcinogenicity and bioaccumulation potential. Because of its toxic properties, it is included in the european community (EC) and United States Environmental Agency (EPA) priority pollutant list resulting in a much more strict regulation and complex tasks to be accomplished for remediation of PAH contaminated environments. (Author)

  1. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β-Lactoglobulin (BLG is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS. The apple phenolic extract contained significant amounts of quercetin glycosides, catechins and chlorogenic acid. The laccase cross-linked BLG in the presence of apple phenolics. The polymerization rendered the protein insoluble in the reaction mixture. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis of the cross-linking reaction mixture revealed a heterogeneous mixture of high molecular masses (cross-linked BLG, with a fraction of the BLG remaining monomeric. Enzymatic processing of BLG by laccase and apple polyphenols as mediators can decrease the biphasal pepsin–pancreatin digestibility of the monomeric and cross-linked protein, thus decreasing its nutritional value. In addition, reduced BLG digestibility can decrease its allergenic potential. Apple polyphenols can find usage in the creation of new, more functional food products, designed to prevent obesity and hypersensitivity-related disorders.

  2. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA , Brazil Pitiríase versicolor: caracterização clínico-epidemiológica em pacientes da área urbana de Buerarema-BA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Oliveira Santana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5% were positive; 72 (68.6% were female and 33 (31.4% were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é um distúrbio de pigmentação cutânea causada pela levedura lipofílica do gênero Malassezia sp. É uma micose superficial caracterizada por produzir lesões delimitadas, com descamação fina e de cor variável. No Brasil, o relato do número de casos e de estudos é restrito. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a incidência, as características das lesões, a eficácia do Sinal de Zileri e o perfil epidemiológico da pitiríase versicolor na área urbana do município de Buerarema-BA. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras biológicas no período de julho a setembro de 2010, em dias pré-establecidos, nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde. O Método de Porto foi utilizado como diagnóstico laboratorial. RESULTADOS: Dos 158 pacientes cadastrados com suspeita de pitiríase versicolor, 105 (66,5% mostraram-se positivos, sendo 72 (68,6% do sexo feminino e 33 (31,4% do sexo oposto. Ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante entre sexo e localização das lesões (p<0,05. A região com maior

  3. 载体吸附培养黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor) 对染料的脱色%Decolorization of dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on adsorptive carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 李学梅; 张文黎; 花清信; 苌道松; 徐颖; 李雪玲; 任四伟; 陈宣宇; 杨清香

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured on different carriers for continuous decolorization, the performance of different Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were researched and compared. In this paper, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured in liquid containing spherical sawdust, corncob and peanut shells under oscillation conditions. During few days of cultivation, large amount of bacteria was grew and attached on the carrier surface in membranous and lump state. After consecutive 4 rounds of decolorization, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on sawdust carrier had significant advantage both in continuous decolorization and producing enzymes, so the optimal adsorptive carrier was sawdust. After consecutive 2 rounds and 12 d of reactive black RB5 decolorization, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium culture with sawdust as adsorptive carrier could achieve the decolorization of 97 %; after three rounds of dye supplemented, the cultures also could remove nearly 96% of M-3BE and the maximum production of manganese dependant pcroxidase enzyme (MnP) and lignin peroxidase enzyme (LiP) was 611, 1 477 U/L. In the actual application, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor culture with sawdust as carriers should be added to dye wastewater treatment system to strengthen the biological treatment effect.%比较研究了不同载体吸附培养的黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor)对染料连续脱色的效果.结果表明:(1)白腐真菌黄孢原毛平革菌和云芝分别在含有球形的木屑、玉米芯和花生壳载体的液体环境中振荡培养,菌体以膜状或团状形式大量附着生长在载体表面.(2)连续4轮脱色过程中,不论黄孢原毛平革菌还是云芝,都是木屑为载体的培养液的持续脱色和产酶能力最好,宜选择木屑为载体.其中,木屑为载体的黄孢

  4. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  5. 杂色曲霉菌变应原分离、鉴定及纯化%Isolation,identification and partial purification of specific allergens from Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻海琼; 周一平; 胡川; 李金生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To isolate,identify and partially purify the allergens from fungal (Aspergillus versicolor). Methods Proteins from Aspergillus versicolor were isolated and seperated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE), and then identified by western-blot. The allergens of Aspergillus versicolor were consequently purified by ion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. Results More than 20 kinds of allergen protein were separated from the crude extract of the fungus by SDS-PAGE and 6 allergens were identified by western-blot. The allergens with molecular weight(MW) of 17kD,20kD and 62kD had higher binding rate. The allergens with molecular weight of 22 kD,35 kDa,76 kDa were minor allergens. The fraction containing the major allergen with MW of 20kD and the minor allergen with MW of 35kD were purified. Conclusion The study identified major and minor allergens of Aspergillus versicolor and partially purified the allergens, which may provide a theoretic basis for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy.%目的 对杂色曲霉菌变应原蛋白进行分离、鉴定与纯化.方法 提取杂色曲霉菌蛋白质,通过十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离,用免疫印迹(western-blot)鉴定变应原成分,用western-blot法鉴定出了6种变应原,通过离子交换和凝胶过滤层析纯化变应原.结果 碳酸氢盐-盐水提取液(Coca's液)共提取出23条蛋白质条带,分子量为17、20和62 kD的蛋白质为杂色曲霉菌主要变应原,而分子量为22、35和76kD的蛋白质为次要变应原;通过各种层析纯化变应原,得到含有分子量为20kD主要变应原和35kD的次要变应原的组分.结论 鉴定了杂色曲霉菌的主要和次要变应原并部分纯化出其变应原组分,为变态反应疾病的诊断和治疗提供依据.

  6. Optimization of C/N Ratio and Inducers for Wastewater Paper Industry Treatment Using Trametes versicolor Immobilized in Bubble Column Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available C/N ratio and MnSO4 and CuSO4 concentrations were optimized for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal of bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent by Trametes versicolor immobilized in polyurethane foam. Statistical differences (P<0.0001 at high C/N ratios (169, 2 mM CuSO4, and 0.071 mM MnSO4 were determined. Decolorization of 60.5%, COD removal of 55%, laccase (LAC 60 U/L, and manganese peroxidase (MnP 8.4 U/L were obtained. Maximum of decolorization (82%, COD removal (83%, LAC (443.5 U/L, and MnP (18 U/L activities at C/N ratio of 405 (6.75 mM CuSO4 and 0.22 mM MnSO4 was achieved in step 7 at 4 d. Positive correlation between the decolorization, COD removal, and enzymatic activity was found (P<0.0001. T. versicolor bioremediation capacity was evaluated in bubble column reactor during 8 d. Effluent was adjusted according to optimized parameters and treated at 25°C and air flow of 800 mL/min. Heterotrophic bacteria growth was not inhibited by fungus. After 4 d, 82% of COD reduction and 80% decolorization were recorded. Additionally, enzymatic activity of LAC (345 U/L and MnP (78 U/L was observed. The COD reduction and decolorization correlated positively (P<0.0001 with enzymatic activity. Chlorophenol removal was 98% of pentachlorophenol (PCP, 92% of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP, 90% of 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP, and 99% of 4-chlorophenols (4CP.

  7. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf - therapeutic pilot study Tratamento de pitiríase versicolor com aplicação tópica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf - estudo terapêutico piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS: Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS: No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83% volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07% using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p FUNDAMENTOS: Pitiríase versicolor é uma micose causada pela Malassezia spp., e que apresenta frequentes recidivas. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudos clínicos de fase I e II, para essa patologia, com óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus. MÉTODOS: Na fase I, participaram vinte voluntários para averiguar a segurança das formulações. Na fase II, 47 voluntários receberam as formulações do óleo essencial a 1,25 μL/mL, as quais deveriam ser utilizadas por quarenta dias, sendo o xampu três vezes por semana e o creme duas vezes ao dia. Um grupo controle na fase II, constituído por 29 voluntários recebeu as mesmas formulações, com cetoconazol a 2%. RESULTADOS: Verificada a segurança das formulações com a finalização da fase I, onde nenhuma reação adversa significativa foi

  8. Fungal contamination in swine: a potential occupational health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2013-01-01

    Poor air quality in a pig-confinement building may potentially place farmers at higher health risk than other workers for exposure to airborne pollutants that may reach infectious levels. The aim of this study was to assess worker exposure to fungi in indoor environments in Portuguese swine buildings. Air samples from 7 swine farms were collected at a flow rate of 140 L/min, at 1 m height, onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (MEA). Surfaces samples of the same indoor sites were obtained by swabbing the surfaces. Samples from the floor covering were also collected from four of seven swine farms. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5-7 days. After lab processing and incubation of obtained samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), CFU/cm(2), and CFU/g and qualitative results were determined with identification of isolated fungal species. Aspergillus versicolor was the most frequent species found in air (21%), followed by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17%) and Penicillium sp. (14%). Aspergillus versicolor was also the most frequent species noted on surfaces (26.6%), followed by Cladosporium sp. (22.4%) and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17.5%). Chrysosporium was the most frequently found genera in the new floor covering (38.5%), while Mucor was the most prevalent genera (25.1%) in used floor covering. Our findings corroborate a potential occupational health threat due to fungi exposure and suggest the need for a preventive strategy.

  9. A Ca-alginate particle co-immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanchun; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Xudong; Jin, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    For improving stability of immobilized white-rot fungus to treat various effluents, Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-link enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs) prepared from Trametes versicolor were co-immobilized into the Ca-alginate gel particles in this paper. The activity yields of obtained combi-CLEAs were 42.7% for lignin peroxidases (LiPs), 31.4% for manganese peroxidases (MnPs) and 40.4% for laccase (Lac), respectively. And their specific activities were 30.2U/g as combi-CLEAs-LiPs, 9.5 U/g as combi-CLEAs-MnPs and 28.4 U/g as combi-CLEAs-Lac. Further, the present of the combi-CLEAs in the particles extremely improved their ability to degrade the dyes. Compared to the immobilized Ph. chrysosporium without the combi-CLEAs, the co-immobilized particles enhanced the decolorized rate of Acid Violet 7 (from 45.2% to 93.4%) and Basic Fuchsin (from 12.1% to 67.9%). In addition, the addition of the combi-CLEAs improved the adaptability of the white-rot fungal particles to adverse environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 一株软珊瑚共附生真菌Aspergillus versicolor (ZJ-2008015)的次级代谢产物及其生物活性研究%Secondary metabolites and their bioactivities of a soft coral-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor (ZJ-2008015)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彩娟; 邵长伦; 王开玲; 赵栋霖; 王亚楠; 王长云

    2012-01-01

    目的 对一株软珊瑚共附生真菌进行次级代谢产物及生物活性研究.方法 采用活性追踪分离的方法,利用硅胶柱层析、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析和半制备HPLC等方法,对采自广西涠洲岛的肉芝软珊瑚Sarcophyton sp.中分离获得的杂色曲霉Aspergillus versicolor (ZJ-2008015)的发酵产物进行分离和纯化,利用NMR、MS等波谱方法,并与文献对照,确定化合物的结构;利用卤虫致死活性模型和抗菌活性模型评价化合物的生物活性.结果 从该菌发酵液的乙酸乙酯提取物中分离鉴定了6个单体化合物,分别为:(+)-sydonic acid (1),expansol G (2),(+)-sydowic acid(3),cyclo(L-Trp-L-Phe) (4),homodimeric WIN 64821 (5)和ergosta-6α-hydroxy-4,22-dien-3-one (6).结论 抗菌活性测试结果表明,没药烷型倍半萜类化合物1~3对白色葡萄球菌Staphylococcus albus和金黄色葡萄球菌Staphylococcus aureus显示较强的抗菌活性.%Objective To investigate the secondary metabolites and their bioactivities of a soft coral-derived fungus. Methods Under the guidance of bioassay, column chromatography on silica gel and Sepha-dex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC were used to isolate and purify the metabolites from the fermentation products of Aspergillus versicolor (ZJ-2008015) , a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarco-phyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis including NMR and MS, and by comparison with the data of literature. The bioactivities of the compounds were evaluated with brine shrimp lethality and antibacteria models.Results Six compounds were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of the culture broth and the mycelia of A. versicolor (ZJ-2008015), and their structures were identified as (+)-sydonic acid (1), expansol G (2), (+)-sydowic acid (3), cyclo (L-Trp-L-Phe) (4), homodimeric WIN 64821 (5), and ergosta-6α-rhy- droxy-4,22-dien-3-one (6). Conclusion The

  11. Role of Malassezia in the color diversity of pityriasis versicolor%马拉色菌在花斑癣色素改变中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔凡; 余晓东; 李筱芳; 陈先进; 沈永年; 吕桂霞; 刘维达

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of Malassezia isolates that can cause hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation in patients with pityriasis versicolor on the melanogenesis of B16F10 melanoma cells.and to detect the levels of cytokines associated with melanogenesis.Methods Primary culture of keratinocytes(1×106 cells/mL)derived from human prepuce were co-cultured with Malassezia strains isolated from hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions in the same patient with pityriasis versicolor,with the concentration ratio of keratinocytes to Malassezia cells being 1:1,1:10,1:20 and 1:30,respectively.The proliferation rate of keratinocytes was detected by MTT methOd.To observe the influence on B16F10 melanoma cells.five difierent types of culture supematant were prepared,i.e.the supematant from culture system of keratinocytes alone,supematant from the coculture system of keratinocytes and Malassezia isolates from hyperpigmented sites or hypopigmented sites,and supernatant from keratinocyte culture in the presence of Malassezia cell-free supematant from the culture medium of Malassezia strains from hyperpigmented or hypopigmented sites.ELISA test was performed in these supematants to detect the levels of several eytokines associated with melanogenesis,including basic fibroblast growth factor(b-FGF),endothelin-1,nerve growth factor(NGF)-β,IL-1α,lL-6,tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α and stem cell factor(SCF).B16F10 cells were cultured with the above 5 supematants.After 48-hour culture.the proliferation rate of B16F10 cells was measured with MTT method,melanin content by NaOH assay.expression and activity of tyrosinase via Western blot and dopa-oxidase assay,respectively.Results The growth rate of keratinocytes was not affected by MalassczJa(P>0.05)when the concentration ratio of keratinocytes to Malassezia cells was more than 1:20.The melanin content,tyrosinase activity and expression of tyrosinase of B16F10 cells were inereased in the presence of supernatant from co

  12. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Ascough, P.L.; Sturrock, C. J.; Bird, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C and 15N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same speci...

  13. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  14. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12 mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17 h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40 kDa and 40 kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12 mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4 h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme.

  15. Análisis del Voltinismo y la Diapausa en Poblaciones de Apagomerella versicolor (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae en el Gradiente Latitudinal de su Distribución en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo LOGARZO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Apagomerella versicolor es un cerambícido cuyas larvas barrenan los tallos de plantas compuestas de los géneros Xanthium, Ambrosia y Pluchea (Asteraceae. En la Argentina se distribuye entre los 25o y 39o de LS. Estudios sobre la biología de este insecto realizados con poblaciones de los alrededores de Buenos Aires (35o S, indicaban que era una especie univoltina con diapausa larval durante el invierno y que se podía inducir la salida del estado de diapausa exponiendo las larvas a bajas temperaturas. Sin embargo algunas observaciones sugerían que poblaciones del norte del país podían ser bi o multivoltinas sin diapausa larval. En este trabajo estudiamos el voltinismo y la diapausa en una clina latitudinal entre los 25 y los 32o de LS. Se realizó un ensayo para revelar la presencia de diapausa.en las distintas latitudes, para ello, larvas de distintas latitudes fueron separadas en dos grupos, uno fue expuesto a un tratamiento de bajas temperaturas para romper la diapausa y el otro fue utilizado como control. Aquellas larvas que presentaran diapausa y recibieran un tratamiento de frío deberían empupar más rápidamente que aquellas que no fueron tratadas. Además se realizaron 10 viajes al área de estudio en los meses de enero, marzo, julio, agosto, octubre y diciembre en distintos años donde se revisaron las principales plantas huéspedes: Pluchea sagittalis Cabr. y Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw. Se observaron los estadios inmaduros presentes en las diferentes plantas según la latitud. La evidencia encontrada sugiere que A. versicolor es al menos bivoltina entre los 25 y los 27o de LS y que presenta diapausa en latitudes mayores a los 31o. Se discute la influencia de las plantas huéspedes sobre el voltinismo y la diapausa larval en poblaciones de A. versicolor.

  16. 483例儿童花斑癣回顾性分析%Pityriasis versicolor in children: a retrospective study of 483 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施和建; 张国龙; 杜旭峰; 周晴; 王涛; 邵敏华; 黄海峰

    2008-01-01

    目的总结及分析儿童花斑癣患者的临床特点,比较与成人花斑癣的异同点.方法就诊于我院皮肤科门诊的花斑癣患者认真填写问卷调查表,内容包括:性别、年龄、发病年龄,病程、皮损部位、诱因、发病季节、家族史.并进行真菌学检查.结果儿童花斑癣患者共483例,其中男286例,占59.2%,女197例,占40.8%.年龄15天至12岁.所有患儿面部发病207例,占42.9%,其中发生于前额的共143例,占面部发病的69.1%.多汗患儿405例,占83.9%.有家族史38例,占7.9%.所有患儿均采用1%联苯苄唑乳膏外用,治疗2周以上,447例患儿通过治疗后得到有效的临床症状改善及病原学疗效,总有效率为92.5%.结论儿童花斑癣同成人花斑癣比较有不同的临床特点,发病因素与成人不尽相同,且在诊断上需与儿童面部色素减退性皮肤病进行鉴别.%Objective To assess the clinical characteristics of pityriasis versicolor (PV) in children vs adults. Methods Questionnaire was designed and given to consecutive patients with PV in the Department of Dermatology, Wuxi Children's Hospital, for collection of information on their sex, age, onset age, duration of disease, localization of lesions, inducement, onset season, and family history. Findings on mycological examination before and after medication were assessed. Results Totally, 483 children with PV were enrolled, including 286 (59.2%) boys and 197 (40.8%) girls. Patients aged from 15 days to 12 years. Facial lesions were the most frequent (n = 207, 42.9% ) manifestation with a preference on the forehead (n = 143, 69.1% ). Hyperhidrosis was found in 405 (83.9%) patients, and family history of PV in 38 (7.9%) patients. Patients were instructed to apply bifonazole 1% cream on lesions. After more than 2 weeks of treatment, 447 (92.5%) patients obtained both clinical and mycological improvement. Conclusions Difference is present between pediatric and adult PV in clinical manifestations

  17. Malassezia Species and Pityriasis Versicolor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodoplu, Gulin

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human...

  18. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN APPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY TO PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi involved in rot of apples in market and to test isolated potentially toxigenic species for ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. From 30 apples with rotting were isolated and identificated 8 genera (Penicillium, Monilinia, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium and Geotrichum of filamentous fungi. The most frequent (40% rot apples was Penicillium expansum, the most important producer of rotting during storage of apples. For the ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro were tested isolates, potential producers of mycotoxins. All tested isolates were determinated as producers of mycotoxins: Penicillium expansum (patulin and citrinin, 12 isolates, Penicillium citrinum (citrinin, 1 isolate, Penicillium roqueforti (roquefotin C, 1 isolate and Aspergillus versicolor (sterigmatocystin, 1 isolate.

  19. EFECTO DE LA GLUCOSA Y NITRATO DE AMONIO SOBRE LAS ENZIMAS LIGNINOLÍTICAS PRODUCIDAS POR Trametes versicolor INMOVILIZADO EN ESPUMA Y LA DECOLORACIÓN DE UN EFLUENTE PAPELERO EN UN BIORREACTOR DE LECHO FLUIDIZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez-Salgado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se han realizado varios estudios para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria papelera a escala de laboratorio, con el hongo Trametes versicolor inmovilizado en espuma de poliuretano; este hongo ha sido ampliamente estudiado por la producción de enzimas ligninolíticas y su potencial uso en la decoloración de efluentes. En este trabajo, se estudió el efecto de una fuente de carbono (glucosa y una de nitrógeno (nitrato de amonio en un biorreactor de lecho fluidizado, con adición al medio de cultivo de 0.02% (v/v de Tween 80, 12 ppm de MnSO4 y 1 mM de CuSO4, desarrollando un diseño factorial 22 con dos diferentes concentraciones de los nutrientes, siendo éstos las variables independientes y las variables dependientes fueron la actividad enzimática, las unidades de color y el consumo de sustrato los cuales fueron determinados por métodos colorimétricos, además de la biomasa y pH. El uso del biorreactor de lecho fluidizado con entrada de aire constante, arrojó datos importantes sobre la decoloracióny la producción de enzimas en el agua residual no estéril. Los máximos valores de la enzima Mnperoxidasa fueron hallados en las concentraciones altas y bajas de glucosa y nitrato de amonio con valores de 9.257U y 6.502U; para la enzima Lacasa, al adicionar separadamente las dos variables se obtuvo valores de 8.618U y 8.341U. Las enzimas fueron relacionadas con la disminución de las unidades de color hasta 481.06UC, junto con el aumento de la biomasa del hongo Trametes versicolor hasta 3.365 g junto con flora nativa del agua residual. Los resultados encontrados, determinaron que las variables de consumo de sustrato y biomasa, tienen una gran importancia debido a que el aumento de la biomasa genera un aumento en la actividad de la enzima MnP y en la reducción de las unidades de color.

  20. 云芝漆酶的生物降解与染料脱色作用研究%Research on the Biodegradation and Dye Decolourization for Laccase Produced from Trametes versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚朝阳; 郭伟云; 牛敬媛; 邵强; 李宗义

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]This research aimed to study the biodegradation and dye decolourization for laccase produced from Trametes versicolor.[Method]Crude laccase from T. versicolor HS-03 was used for the biodegradation of wheat straw and sawdust,and the decolourization of different molecular structure type's dye.[Result]It was indicated that the crude laccase raised the lignocellulose biodegradation efficiency which was about 5-6 doubles.Crude enzyme has wide spectrum decoloured function,especially the decoloring rate of malachite green,RB bright blue was over 85%.The rush hour of decolourization was 48-72 h.[Conclusion]This study could provide theoretical basis for dye decolourization of waste water,and provide strong references for the application of laccase in water treatment industry industrialization.%[目的]研究云芝漆酶的生物降解和染料脱色作用.[方法]以云芝HS-03发酵后所得漆酶粗制品,对麦草和锯末进行生物降解,并对几种常用染料进行脱色研究.[结果]结果表明:漆酶粗制品与纤维素酶、木聚糖酶协同作用大大提高了木质纤维素降解率,比单一组分酶获得还原性糖含量提高5~6倍.漆酶粗制品具有广谱的脱色作用,尤其对孔雀石绿、RB亮蓝的脱色率都超过了85%,脱色较为彻底,脱色高峰期为48~72 h.[结论]该研究可为废水染料脱色提供理论基础,为漆酶在水处理工业产业化中的应用提供强有力的依据.

  1. Treatment Effect and Safety of Naftifine/ketoconazole Cream to Facial Pityriasis Versicolor in Children%萘替芬酮康唑乳膏治疗儿童面部花斑癣的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李麟

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察萘替芬酮康唑乳膏治疗儿童面部花斑癣的疗效与安全。方法:将95例患儿随机分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组外用萘替芬酮康唑乳膏,对照组外用特比奈芬软膏,于治疗2、4周后观察疗效及有无不适反应,并根据真菌镜检结果判定疗效。结果:治疗组治疗2周时治愈率为90%,4周时治愈率为100%,不适反应率为10%;对照组治疗2周时治愈率为71%,4周时治愈率为84%,不适反应率为27%。两组有效率及安全性差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:萘替芬酮康唑乳膏治疗儿童面部花斑癣安全而有效。%Objective:To observe the clinical efficiency and safety in the treatment of facial pityriasis versicolor in children with Naftifine/Ketoconazole Cream. Methods:95 children patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Naftifine/ketoconazole cream were applied in the treatment group, and Terbinafine were applied in the control group. The clinical efficiency and side effects were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks later, and therapeutic effect was determined according to the results of fungus infection.Results:At the end of 2 weeks and 4 weeks, the efficacy of the treatment group was 90%and 100%, while control group was 71%and 84%. The side effects of treatment group was 10%, and control group 27%. All of them had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion:Naftifine/ketoconazole cream is efficient and safe to treat facial pityriasis versicolor in the children.

  2. Hypoglycemic Effects of Exo-biopolymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byung-Keun; Kim, Guk-Nam; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Jeong, Hun; Mehta, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Hypoglycemic effects of exo-biopolymers (EBP) produced by submerged mycelial cultures of Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Paecilomyces japonica, Armillariella mellea, and Fomes fomentarius were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats from each experimental group were orally administered with EBPs (100 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks. Though the hypoglycemic effect was achieved in all the cases, however, C. versicolor EBP proved as the most potent one. The administration of the C. versicolor EBP substantially reduced (29.9%) the plasma glucose level as compared to the saline administered group (control). It also reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 9.22, 23.83, 16.93, and 27.31%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of this EBP were also analyzed in detail. PMID:23997607

  3. Advanced progresses of immunomodulatory and anticancerous pharmacological study of Trametes versicolor polysaccharopeptide(PSP)%云芝糖肽的免疫和抗肿瘤药理活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明俊; 杨庆尧; 杨晓彤

    2011-01-01

    The progresses of immunomodulation and anticancerous activities of Trametes versicolor polysaccharopeptide(PSP) were introduced. PSP’s bidirectionally immune regulatory activities were summarized,and this review also introduced PSP’s study progresses of tumor cell apoptosis induction mechanisms relating to mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. In addition,the state-of-art progress of PSP anti prostate cancer stem cell effect was also presented.%对云芝糖肽在免疫调节、抗肿瘤等方面药理活性及其作用机制的最新研究进展作了综述,介绍了云芝糖肽对机体免疫功能的双向调节作用,以及云芝糖肽通过线粒体通路和死亡受体通路诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡的作用机制和抑制前列腺癌干细胞进而预防肿瘤发生的机制。

  4. ESTUDIO DEL EFECTO DE DOS INDUCTORES Y UN PROTECTOR ENZIMÁTICO SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS ENZIMAS Mn-PEROXIDASA Y LACASA PRODUCIDAS POR Trametes versicolor Y SU EFECTO EN LA DECOLORACI ÓN DE EFLUENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PAPELERA

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En este estudio se realizaron dos factoriales 23 para determinar el efecto del Tween80, como protector enzimático y la adición de MnSO4 y CuSO4 como inductores enzimáticos del hongo Trametes versicolor sobre un efluente estéril y uno no estéril. Para tal fin se realizó un diseño factorial 23 con tres concentraciones de cada uno de los inductores además del protector enzimático, siendo éstos las variables independientes; las variables dependientes del factorial fueron el porcentaje de decolora...

  5. 从花斑糠疹皮损分离的马拉色菌随机扩增多态性DNA研究%Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Malassezia isolates from cutaneous lesions of pityriasis versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢震; 冉玉平; 刘瑞; 杨如学; 李志瑜; 代亚玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 用随机扩增多态性DNA方法 研究分离自花斑糠疹的马拉色菌种间和株间差异,了解随机扩增多态性DNA分析(RAPD)与生理生化方法 在菌种分型上的差异及菌株DNA型别和菌种间的关系.方法 用氯化苄法提取马拉色菌标准株(10株7个种)和临床分离株(47株)的基因组DNA,其中临床株分离自34例花斑糠疹患者,经形态学和生理生化方法 鉴定为5个种(合轴马拉色菌、糠秕马拉色菌、钝形马拉色菌、球形马拉色菌、限制马拉色菌),用4种随机引物(S22、SS24、S25、S33)对菌株DNA做PCR随机扩增,NTSYS软件自动生成树状分支图.结果 绝大多数标本均可被4种引物扩增而获得清晰条带,其中2种引物(S22、S24)的条带更为稳定、清晰.共82条DNA片段被扩增,所有菌株均可见种间和株间多态性.有4例患者皮损同时分离出不同种的菌株显示遗传相似性高,在树状图中归入一类.结论 来自同一宿主的不同菌株遗传趋同现象提示马拉色菌的种特异性、菌种演化与宿主间存在密切关系.%Objective To investigate intraspecific and interspecific variation within Malassezia iso-lates from patients with pityriasis versicolor by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, to learn the difference between RAPD analysis and physiological and biochemical methods in the typing of Malassezia species, and to explore the relationship between RAPD patterns and Malassezia species. Methods A total of 47 Malassezia isolates were obtained from 34 patients with pityriasis versicolor, and they were classified into 5 species by morphological, physiological and biochemical features, I.e., M. Fin'fur, M. Obtusa, M. Globosa, M. Restricta and M. Sympodialis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the 47 clinical isolates and 10 reference strains (including 7 species) of Malassezia. PCR was performed using 4 random primers including S22, S24, S25 and S33. RAPD patterns were analyzed by NTSYS

  6. A Case of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis of Tinea Versicolor' s Type with Squamous Cell Carcinoma%花斑癣样疣状表皮发育不良伴鳞状细胞癌1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德欣; 陈永艳; 袁伟; 雷微; 黄洋

    2013-01-01

    A 41-years-old female patient presented with trunk and neck flat maculopapule for 30 years, with nodule-like ulceration on the left temporal besides glabellar reflex for 6 months. Histopathological examination of the back showed epidermis hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, the ballooning degeneration could be seen in the upper part of the stratum spinosum, inflammatory cell infiltration in derma. Histopathological examination of the left tempus showed tumor group was composed of squamous cells in the upper of dermis, the tumor cells with big cell nucleus and less cytolymph obvious atypia, vascular proliferation expansion in tumor mesen-chyme, and contain inflammatory cells. Diagnosis: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis of tinea versicolor' s type with squamous cell carcinoma of left temporal.%患者女,41岁.颈部、躯干淡红色斑30余年,左颞近眉弓处结节6个月.背部皮损组织病理示:表皮角化过度伴角化不全,棘细胞层上部可见空泡化细胞,真皮浅层见散在的炎细胞浸润;左颞部皮损组织病理示:真皮内可见大量鳞状细胞组成的呈团块状分布的肿瘤灶,瘤细胞核大浆少明显异型性,肿瘤灶间质内血管增生扩张,弥漫炎细胞浸润.诊断:花斑癣样疣状表皮发育不良伴左颞部鳞状细胞癌.

  7. Nested PCR analysis for malassezia microflora from the scales of patients with pityriasis versicolor%花斑癣患者皮屑中马拉色菌的巢式PCR法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀红; 冉玉平; 熊琳; 周光平; 山崎; 坪井良治; 小川秀兴

    2004-01-01

    目的用巢式PCR法检测马拉色菌特异的DNA从而快速准确的检测并鉴定马拉色菌的各菌种,并应用于花斑癣(Pityriasis Versicolor,PV)患者皮屑中马拉色菌携带情况中的研究.方法从PV患者的皮屑中提取马拉色菌的DNA,以马拉色菌属rRNA内转录间隔区设计属的引物和各个种的特异性引物分别进行巢式多聚酶链反应(nestPCR),检测105例PV患者皮屑中的马拉色菌的目的DNA片断.结果105例PV患者共检测到5例种的共321株马拉色菌的DNA.每例患者平均检测到约3种马拉色菌的DNA.各种马拉色菌的检出率依次为:球形马拉色菌80.0%,限制马拉色菌81.9%,合轴马拉色菌77.1%,糠秕马拉色菌41.9%,钝形马拉色菌15.2%.未检测到厚皮马拉色菌和斯洛菲马拉色菌.结论PV皮屑中存在多种马拉色菌,球形马拉色菌、合轴马拉色菌和限制马拉色菌是PV患者皮损处的主要马拉色菌种.

  8. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  9. Eficiência de um composto de iodo orgânico contra fungos apodrecedores de madeiras e térmitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre da Costa Florian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a low toxicity organic compound as fungicide and insecticide was studied by a accelerated laboratory bioassay according to the japanese standard. The compound was evaluated at concentrations of 0,5, 0,75 and 1,0% using ethanol as solvent. The subterraneous termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and the decay fungi Coriolus versicolor (white rot and Tyromyces palustris (brown rot were used in the trials to evaluate the insecticide and fungicide action respectively. The wood specimens with dimensions of 40 x 20 x 5mm were treated by surface coating (brushing method at a rate of 110±10g/m2. The percentage weight loss of the wood blocks and the termite mortality (insecticide action and the weight loss of the wood blocks before and after the fungi attack (fungicide action were determined. The efficiency of the formulations were evaluated according to the Value of Efficiency. Results showed that the compound was of little or no efficient as insecticide against Coptotermes formosanus in the three concentrations analysed. The compound showed a good performance as fungicide against Coriolus versicolor and Tyromyces palustris with a Value of Efficiency higher than 90 in the three concentrations analysed. The best results were obtained with the product at 1,0% concentration in the treated and unleached wood specimens. Tyromyces palustris caused a larger damage in the wood blocks than Coriolus versicolor. The product showed a low capacity of fixation in the wood; therefore, it is not indicated for treating wood that will be in direct contact with the soil or under outdoor conditions.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF A ORGANIC IODINE COMPOUND AGAINST WOOD DECAYING FUNGI AND TERMITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Weber Scheeren

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a low toxicity organic compound as fungicide and insecticide was studied by a accelerated laboratory bioassay according to the japanese standard. The compound was evaluated at concentrations of 0,5, 0,75 and 1,0% using ethanol as solvent. The subterraneous termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and the decay fungi Coriolus versicolor (white rot and Tyromyces palustris (brown rot were used in the trials to evaluate the insecticide and fungicide action respectively. The wood specimens with dimensions of 40 x 20 x 5mm were treated by surface coating (brushing method at a rate of 110±10g/m2. The percentage weight loss of the wood blocks and the termite mortality (insecticide action and the weight loss of the wood blocks before and after the fungi attack (fungicide action were determined. The efficiency of the formulations were evaluated according to the Value of Efficiency. Results showed that the compound was of little or no efficient as insecticide against Coptotermes formosanus in the three concentrations analysed. The compound showed a good performance as fungicide against Coriolus versicolor and Tyromyces palustris with a Value of Efficiency higher than 90 in the three concentrations analysed. The best results were obtained with the product at 1,0% concentration in the treated and unleached wood specimens. Tyromyces palustris caused a larger damage in the wood blocks than Coriolus versicolor. The product showed a low capacity of fixation in the wood; therefore, it is not indicated for treating wood that will be in direct contact with the soil or under outdoor conditions.

  11. Exploring the Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Jellyfish-Associated Marine Fungi by Cultivation-Dependent Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Fungi isolated from marine invertebrates are of considerable importance as new promising sources of unique secondary metabolites with significant biomedical potential. However, the cultivable fungal community harbored in jellyfish was less investigated. In this work, we seek to recover symbiotic fungi from different tissues of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. A total of seven morphotypes were isolated, which were assigned into four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Purpureocillium, and Tilletiopsis) from two phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) by comparing the rDNA-ITS sequences with the reference sequences in GenBank. The most fungi were found in the inner tissues of subumbrella. Two of the cultivation-independent procedures, changing media type and co-cultivation, were employed to maximize the complexity of metabolites. Thus, thirteen EtOAc gum were obtained and fingerprinted by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these complex mixtures were tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The antimicrobial results showed that all of the 13 EtOAc extracts displayed different levels of antibacterial activity, three of which exhibited strong to significant antibacterial activity to the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella entrica. Antifungal activity indicated that the EtOAc extracts from pure culture of Aspergillus versicolor and co-culture of A. versicolor and Tilletiopsis sp. in rice media were promising for searching new compounds, with the maximal mycelial growth inhibition of 82.32% ± 0.61% for Rhizoctonia solani and 48.41% ± 11.02% for Botrytis cinerea at 200 μg/ml, respectively. This study is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activity of jellyfish-associated fungi and allows the first sight into cultivable fungal community residing in jellyfish. Induced metabolites by cultivation-dependent approaches

  12. Exploring the Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Jellyfish-Associated Marine Fungi by Cultivation-Dependent Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yue

    Full Text Available Fungi isolated from marine invertebrates are of considerable importance as new promising sources of unique secondary metabolites with significant biomedical potential. However, the cultivable fungal community harbored in jellyfish was less investigated. In this work, we seek to recover symbiotic fungi from different tissues of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. A total of seven morphotypes were isolated, which were assigned into four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Purpureocillium, and Tilletiopsis from two phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota by comparing the rDNA-ITS sequences with the reference sequences in GenBank. The most fungi were found in the inner tissues of subumbrella. Two of the cultivation-independent procedures, changing media type and co-cultivation, were employed to maximize the complexity of metabolites. Thus, thirteen EtOAc gum were obtained and fingerprinted by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with a photodiode array (PDA detector. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these complex mixtures were tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The antimicrobial results showed that all of the 13 EtOAc extracts displayed different levels of antibacterial activity, three of which exhibited strong to significant antibacterial activity to the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella entrica. Antifungal activity indicated that the EtOAc extracts from pure culture of Aspergillus versicolor and co-culture of A. versicolor and Tilletiopsis sp. in rice media were promising for searching new compounds, with the maximal mycelial growth inhibition of 82.32% ± 0.61% for Rhizoctonia solani and 48.41% ± 11.02% for Botrytis cinerea at 200 μg/ml, respectively. This study is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activity of jellyfish-associated fungi and allows the first sight into cultivable fungal community residing in jellyfish. Induced metabolites by cultivation

  13. Curvularia haloperoxidase: Antimicrobial activity and potential application as a surface disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E.H.; Albertsen, Line; Johansen, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    . and Rhodotorula sp.), and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubigensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium paxilli) cultured in suspension. Also, bacteria adhering to the surfaces of contact lenses were killed. The numbers of S. marcescens and S...

  14. Copper inducing effect on laccase production of white rot fungi native from Misiones (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, María I; Shimizu, Ernesto; Zapata, Pedro D; Villalba, Laura L

    2010-05-05

    Fungi may be selected as models for gene expression studies and further adaptation for biotechnological enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate laccase production and to analyze the effect of Cu(2+) on selected fungi natives of Misiones, Ganoderma applanatum (strain F), Peniophora sp. (BAFC 633), Pycnoporus sanguineus (BAFC 2126) and Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus (BAFC 266). Fungi secretion system of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp., P. sanguineus and C. versicolor f. antarcticus is sensitive to stimulation by copper. Biomass values of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp. and C. versicolor f. antarcticus did not show differences between treatments. P. sanguineus biomass underwent a dramatic growth inhibition with 1mM Cu(2+) and marked delay in growth with 0.5mM Cu(2+). Proteins were increased with copper in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor and G. applanatum. G. applanatum and Peniophora sp. reached the highest enzyme activity at 10th day equivalent to 49.2-fold and 19.7-fold higher than the control samples, respectively. Copper produced an increase of constitutive laccases in all fungi and an additional inducible isoenzyme in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor f. antarcticus and G. applanatum.

  15. A study of over production and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashek, W.V.

    1992-12-28

    The current project is concerned with the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. The project is divided into two segments: over-production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electron microscopical techniques. The former approach employs recombinant DNA procedures, ligation of appropriate nuclease generated DNA fragments into a vector and the subsequent transformation of Escherichia coli to yield E. coli harboring a C. versicolor DNA insert. The biochemistry/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO inhibitors to elevate C.versicolor`s ability to synthesize and secrete lignocellulosic enzymes. In this connection, cell fractionation/kinetic analysis, TEM immunoelectron microscopic localization and TEM substrate localization of PPO are being employed to assess the route of secretion. Both approaches will culminate in the batch culture of either E. coli or C. versicolor, in a fermentor with the subsequent development of rapid isolation and purification procedures to yield elevated quantities of pure lignocellulosic enzymes. During the past year, research effort were directed toward determining the route of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) secretion by the wood-decay fungus, Coriolus versicolor. In addition, research activities were continued to over-produce and to purify PPO as well as define the time-dependent intra- and extra-cellular appearances of C. versicolor ligninases and cellulases.

  16. Purification and characterization of manganese peroxidases from native and mutant Trametes versicolor IBL-04%从野生与突变株云芝IBL-04提纯锰过氧化物酶及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Asgher; Muhammad Ramzan; Muhammad Bilal

    2016-01-01

    由野生及突变株云芝IBL-04制得细胞外锰过氧化物酶(MnPs),并经过硫酸铵沉淀、透析、离子交换和凝胶渗透层析法等步骤提纯.纯化的酶在十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)上于43 kDa区域呈现单一谱带,它适宜的pH值和温度分别为5.0和40°C.突变株MnPs表现出比野生株MnPs更宽的活性pH值范围和更高的热稳定性.从所选突变株所得纯化的MnPs表现出与野生株MnP几乎相同的电泳性质、稳态动力学、金属离子和EDCs降解效率.该生物酶与Mn2+一起催化的反应速率最快,但最高的亲和性对应于ABTS、甲氧基羟苯基乙二醇、4-氨基苯酚和活性染料. Mn2+和Cu2+可显著提高MnPs的活性,但Zn2+, Fe2+, EDTA和半胱氨酸则会不同程度地抑制其活性, Hg2+是最强的活性抑制剂.所有来源的MnPs均可有效催化EDCs、壬基苯酚和二氯苯氧氯酚降解,处理3 h可除去80%以上,在MnPs-介质体系中可进一步提高到90%.综上,云芝MnPs生物酶具有较高的pH适用性和热稳定性、独特的Michaelis-Menten动力学参数和高的EDCs去除效率等特点,因而有望工业化应用.%Extracellular manganese peroxidases (MnPs) produced by native and mutant strains of Trametes versicolor IBL‐04 (EB‐60, EMS‐90) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, followed by ion‐exchange and gel‐permeation chromatography. The purified enzymes elucidated a single band in the 43‐kDa region on sodium dodecyl sulphate‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzymes were found to be 5.0 and 40 °C, respec‐tively. Mutant strain MnPs exhibited a broader active pH range and higher thermal stability than native MnP. Purified MnPs from selected mutants showed almost identical properties to native MnP in electrophoresis, steady‐state kinetics, and metal ion and endocrine‐disrupting compound (EDC) degradation

  17. Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, R.; Leisola, M.S.A.; Fiechter, A.

    1988-10-01

    Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in agitated cultures Bjerkandera adusta showed highest lignin degradation rates. Metabolites accumulating during the degradation of veratryl alcohol were analyzed and compared. Peroxidase production seems to be a common feature of all the tested fungi. Polyclonal antibodies against the lignin peroxidase with pl of 4.65 from P. chrysosporium reacted with the extracellular peroxidases of C. pruinosum, C. versicolor and B. adusta, but not with those of Pleurotus ostreatus.

  18. 花斑糠疹和马拉色菌毛囊炎致病菌菌种分析%Study the Pathogenic Species of Pityriasis Versicolor and Malassezia Folliculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿承芳; 占萍; 陶丽; 李智华; 江清; 金云; 罗云鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 使用限制性内切酶方法鉴定临床花斑糠疹和马拉色菌毛囊炎致病菌菌种分布并比较其差异.方法 收集临床花斑糠疹和马拉色菌毛囊炎标本,植于Leeming-Notman培养基.培养阳性菌株提取DNA,扩增其26srDNA片段,用Cfo Ⅰ酶和BstF51酶切.结果 共鉴定花斑糠疹阳性菌株128份,其中糠秕马拉色菌49份,合轴马拉色菌23份,球形马拉色菌26份,钝性马拉色菌6份,M.japponica 1份,斯洛菲马拉色菌1份,混合感染标本22份.共鉴定马拉色菌毛囊炎阳性标本70份,其中糠秕马拉色菌43株,合轴马拉色菌5株,球形马拉色菌9株,钝性马拉色菌1株,混合感染标本12份.两种疾病菌种分布差异存在统计学意义(P=0.009).结论 花斑糠疹和马拉色菌毛囊炎致病菌菌种存在一定差异.限制性酶切方法为一种准确、快速的马拉色菌菌种鉴定方法.%Objective To investigate the pathogenic species in patients of Pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis(MF). Methods Clinical specimens from PV and MF patients were collected and cultured onto Leeming-Notman medium. DNA was extracted from positve cultures followed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism with 2 restriction enzymes, CfoI and BstF51. Results One hundred and twenty-eight cultures from PV were identified with 49 strains of M. furfur, 23 M. sympodialis,26 M. globosa, 6 M. obtuse, 1 M. japonica, 1 M. slooffiae and 22 mixed infections, respectively. Seventy cultures from MF were identified with 43 strains of M. furfur, 5M. sympodialis, 29 M. globosa, 1 M. obtuse,12 mixed infections, respectively. The distribution of malassezia species was significantly different between the two groups (P =0. 009) . Conclusion The pathogenic Malassezia flora show different between PV and MF. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism is an accurate and quick method to identify clinical Malassezia species.

  19. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish lignites and characterization of the products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesim Basaran; Adil Denizli; Billur Sakintuna; Alpay Taralp; Yuda Yurum [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2003-08-01

    The effect of some white-rot fungi on the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of two low-rank Turkish coals and the chemical composition of the liquid products and the microbial mechanisms of coal conversion were investigated. Turkish Elbistan and Beypazari lignites were used in this study. The white-rot fungi received from various laboratories used in the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of the lignites were Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Coriolus versicolor. FT-IR spectra of raw and treated coal samples were measured, and bio-liquefied/solubilized coal samples were investigated by FT-IR and LC-MS techniques. The Coriolus versicolor fungus was determined to be most effective in bio-liquefying/solubilizing nitric acid-treated Elbistan lignite. In contrast, raw and nitric acid-treated Beypazari lignite seemed to be unaffected by the action of any kind of white-rot fungi. The liquid chromatogram of the water-soluble bio-liquefied/solubilized product contained four major peaks. Corresponding mass spectra of each peak indicated the presence of very complicated structures. 17 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. DECAY RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL HEAT TREATED ASPEN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Bazyar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance of oil-heat treated aspen wood (Populus tremula l. against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor and brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana was investigated. Three different temperature stages and two time levels for oil heat treatment for the selection of optimum conditions were determined. Linseed oil as a heating medium was used. The mass loss of treated samples that were exposed to both fungi was significantly lower than that of the control samples. Results also showed improvement in dimensional stability after oil heat treatment. Decay resistance and dimensional stability of aspen wood were increased significantly with temperature increasing, but time seemed to have no effect on those properties. Oil heat treatment is a suitable method to improve decay resistance of aspen wood as it reduced the mass loss by 71% and 77% against Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana compared with control samples, respectively. On the other hand, oil heat treatment improved the dimensional stability by about 20.5%.

  1. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  2. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality......” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can provide general insights...

  3. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs.

  4. Causal agent of tobacco gray mould in Shaanxi Province and preventive effects of Trametes versicolor polysaccharides on the disease%陕西省烟草灰霉病病原及云芝多糖对其防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金岭; 罗晶; 单宏英; 成巨龙; 陈德鑫; 安德荣

    2013-01-01

    Based on morphological characters and molecular data, the pathogenic fungus of an unknown tobacco disease in Shaanxi Province in 2011 was identified. The suspected pathogen was isolated from diseased leaves of tobacco plants, and after pathogenicity tests and re-isolation of the pathogen, the strain LJL007 was determined to be responsible for the disease. The strain LJL007 was identified as Botrytis cinerea, whose teleomorph is Botryotinia fuckeliana on basis of morphological and cultural characters. We found that the sequences of the isolate LJL007 (Accession no.: HM17900) was 100% identical to that of B. fuckeliana (Accession no.: HM849615) by analyzing sequences of the ITS regions of ribosomal DNA, further confirming that the pathogen was Botrytis cinerea. Trametes versicolor polysaccharides cannot inhibit the mycelium growth and spore germination of Botrytis cinerea on potato dextrose agar. However, the polysaccharides had relatively good preventive effects on tobacco gray mould in the field, preventive effectiveness was 56.29%. The results of enzyme activity tests showed that Trametes versicolor polysaccharides significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and P-l,3-glucanase in the tobacco plants after treatment, the peak values of them increased by 56.89% and 429.83% as compared to the control treatment (treatment A: only spraying stilled water on the tobacco) respectively. These results indicated that Trametes versicolor polysaccharides could induce and improve resistance of tobacco plants to gray mould.%采用形态学观察和分子鉴定方法对2011年在陕西省发生的一种烟草未知病害的病原菌进行鉴定.从病叶组织分离纯化得到病原菌,通过致病性测定以及人工接种后再分离病菌,证明编号LJL007的菌株为该病的致病菌.依据病原菌的形态学和培养特征,将菌株LJL007鉴定为灰葡萄孢Botrytis cinerea Pers.,其有性型为富氏葡萄孢盘菌Botryotinia fuckeliana Whetzel

  5. ESTUDIO DEL EFECTO DE DOS INDUCTORES Y UN PROTECTOR ENZIMÁTICO SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS ENZIMAS Mn-PEROXIDASA Y LACASA PRODUCIDAS POR Trametes versicolor Y SU EFECTO EN LA DECOLORA- CIÓN DE EFLUENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PAPELERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gómez-Dorado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se realizaron dos factoriales 2 3 para determinar el efecto del Tween80, como protector enzimático y la adición de MnSO4 y CuSO4 como inductores enzimáticos del hongo Trametes versicolor sobre un efluente estéril y uno no estéril. Para tal fin se realizó un diseño factorial 2 3 con tres concentraciones de cada uno de los inductores además del protector enzimático, siendo éstos las variables independientes; las variables dependientes del factorial fueron el porcentaje de decoloración y la actividad enzimática las cuales fueron determinadas por métodos colorimétricos, además del pH. Los datos generados en este estudio, determinaron que las diferentes concentraciones de los inductores definidos para cada una de las enzimas, no tienen un efecto significativo sobre la actividad enzimática. Se determinaron máximos valores de actividad para la enzima Mn-peroxidasa de 6.19U y de 18.17U y los valores de actividad de la enzima Lacasa fueron de 4.99U y de 2.37U en los factoriales estéril y no estéril. Estos datos de actividad no fueron relacionados con los máximos índices de decoloración que fueron del 85% y 61% en cada uno de los factoriales al adicionar 0.02% de Tween80, 2mM de MnSO 4 y 5ppm de CuSO4. Las diferencias en la decoloración entre los dos efluentes, es dada por la cantidad de sólidos suspendidos en el medio que cambian su conformación al ser esterilizados y por la acumulación de metabolitos en el medio debido al crecimiento de flora nativa y del mismo hongo Trametes versicolor.

  6. Analysis on the triggering factors of pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis and seborrheic dermatitis%花斑癣、马拉色菌毛囊炎、脂溢性皮炎马拉色菌诱发因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许雪; 李红宾; 黄云丽; 李玉叶; 董天祥; 林松发; 程露

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the triggering factors of pityriasis versicolor , Malassezia folliculitis and seb-orrheic dermatitis.Methods Survey among the patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis or seborrheic dermatitis was performed by questionnaire.Results Of the 158 patients, there were 104 males and 54 females, aged 29.4 years.The proportion of patients with hyperidrosis and oily skin is more than 60%.Systemic or topical applica-tion of corticosteroids was the main risk factor of Malassezia folliculitis.Conclusion Malassezia infection was com-mon in young adults.Pityriasis vesicolor was common in patient with hyperidrosis.The oily skin and application of corticosteroids were the main triggering factor of Malassezia folliculitis.%目的调查昆明地区花斑癣、马拉色菌毛囊炎、脂溢性皮炎马拉色菌诱发因素,并比较三种疾病的诱发因素有无差异。方法收集花斑癣、马拉色菌毛囊炎、脂溢性皮炎(头皮屑)的病例,用自制的调查表对入选病例进行诱发因素调查,比较诱发因素在三种疾病间有无差异。结果共收集158例病例,男104例,女54例,平均年龄29.4岁,多汗、油性皮肤患者所占比例均超过60%,系统或局部使用糖皮质激素是马拉色菌毛囊炎的危险因素。结论马拉色菌感染好发于男性青壮年,多汗者易发生花斑癣,油性皮肤及使用糖皮质激素易发生马拉色菌毛囊炎。

  7. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence....... While most Bugkalot men have today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can...

  8. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  9. The immunomodulator PSK induces in vitro cytotoxic activity in tumour cell lines via arrest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Federico

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and has shown anticancer activity in vitro and in in vivo experimental models and human cancers. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential in adjuvant cancer therapy, with positive results in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunomodulator of biological responses. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological activity have yet to be fully elucidated. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumour activity of PSK has been evaluated in various tumour cell lines derived from leukaemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cervix, lung, pancreas and gastric cancers. Tumour cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of PSK on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in PSK-treated cells. Results PSK showed in vitro inhibition of tumour cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. The inhibition ranged from 22 to 84%. Inhibition mechanisms were identified as cell cycle arrest, with cell accumulation in G0/G1 phase and increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. These results indicate that PSK has a direct cytotoxic activity in vitro, inhibiting tumour cell proliferation. In contrast, PSK shows a synergistic effect with IL-2 that increases PBL proliferation. Conclusion These results indicate that PSK has cytotoxic activity in vitro on tumour cell lines. This new cytotoxic activity of PSK on tumour cells is independent of its previously described immunomodulatory activity on NK cells.

  10. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality”...

  11. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  12. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  13. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  14. Clinical efficacy of combined therapy of narrow-band ultraviolet B and 2% ketoconazole lotions for pityriasis versicolor%NB-UVB 联合2%酮康唑洗剂治疗花斑糠疹疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志超; 马凌云; 孙心君; 闫建军

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察窄谱中波紫外线(NB-UVB)联合2%酮康唑洗剂治疗花斑糠疹的临床疗效。方法120例花斑糠疹患者随机分为3组,A 组:单纯使用2%酮康唑洗剂外洗治疗,每日1次;B 组:NB-UVB 照射治疗,隔日照射1次;C 组:NB-UVB 与2%酮康唑洗剂联合治疗,方法分别与 A 组、B 组相同。治疗后4周观察3组患者皮疹消退的时间及真菌学检查结果并总结疗效。结果 A 组皮损消退的时间为(18.56±2.25)d,有效率72.5%;B 组患者照射次数为(6.28土1.37)次,累积照射剂量为(3619±697)mJ/ cm2,皮损消退的时间为(10.32±2.19)d,有效率77.5%;C 组患者照射次数为(3.77土1.52)次,累积照射剂量为(2152±889)mJ/ cm2,皮损消退的时间为(6.46±2.14)d,有效率97.5%;C 组皮损消退时间及有效率明显高于 A 组和 B 组(P <0.05)。结论 NB-UVB 联合2%酮康唑洗剂治疗花斑糠疹具有起效快、疗效高等优点,值得临床推广、应用。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of the combined therapy of narrow-band ultraviolet B and 2% ketoconazole lotions for Pityriasis versicolor. Methods One hundred and twenty patients with Pity-riasis versicolor were involved in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups and treated by dif-ferent therapies,respectively. Group A(40 patients)was only treated with 2% ketoconazole lotions,Group B (40 patients)only with narrow-band ultraviolet B,Group C(40 patients)with the combined therapy of nar-row-band ultraviolet B and 2% ketoconazole lotions. The average deflorescence duration and the result of mycology examination were analyzed. Results The average deflorescence duration was 18. 56 ± 2. 25 days, 10. 32 ± 2. 19 days and 6. 46 ± 2. 14 days in Group A,B and C,respectively. The effective rate was 72. 5% , 77. 5% and 97. 5% in Group A,B and C,respectively. The results of group comparison showed that there

  15. 杨梅凋萎病菌异色拟盘多毛孢菌(Pestalotiopsis versicolor)的生物学特性研究%Biological characteristics of Pestalotiopsis versicolor,the agent of bayberry twig blight in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海英; 李岗; 戚行江; 韦继光; 梁森苗; 郑锡良; 颜丽菊; 朱潇婷

    2013-01-01

    为了明确杨梅凋萎病的病原菌之一异色拟盘多毛孢菌( Pestalotiopsis versicolor)的生物学特性,对其3个代表菌株XJ27、XJ42、RA2-1在不同培养基、碳源、氮源、温度、pH、光照条件下的生长以及产孢情况进行研究。研究结果表明,在7种培养基上25℃培养时,PDA和PSA最适合菌株气生菌丝生长,菌丝生长速度快而茂盛。杨梅汁(BFA)上菌丝生长较快,但是不茂盛。燕麦培养基(OMA)和查氏培养基(CDA)中等适合,杨梅叶煎汁( BLA)和杨梅枝干煎汁( BBA)不适合气生菌丝生长。10种不同碳源培养基以及硝酸钾、硝酸铵、尿素和8种测定的氨基酸作氮源的培养基上3个菌株都生长良好,但是木糖培养基上生长较差。菌株在25~28℃能很好地生长,20℃和30℃生长中等,但是在5℃和35℃不能生长。 pH 5~10菌丝生长较好,但是pH 11.0菌丝不能很好生长。光照条件下,XJ27和XJ42生长后10天,有光照的产孢量大大多于没有光照的,但是RA2-1产孢不受光照影响。总之,杨梅凋萎病菌异色拟盘多毛孢菌具有广泛的培养基、碳源、氮源、温度以及pH的适应性,光照对部分菌株产孢性能有促进作用。%To study the biological characters of Pestalotiopsis versicolor, one of the agents of bayberry twig blight dis-ease, the effects of media type, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sources, temperature, pH, and light on P.versicolor were examined to determine optimal conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation .Three independent isolates showed a similar trend of growth and sporulation with different C and N sources .However , the growth rates varied significantly among seven agar media .Fungal growth rates were the highest on potato dextrose agar ( PDA) and pota-to sucrose agar (PSA).The fungi grew fast on bayberry fruit extract agar (BFA) but sparsely.Growth rates were moderate on oatmeal agar ( OMA) and

  16. Electrochemical evaluation of electron transfer kinetics of high and low redox potential laccases on gold electrode surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasconi, Marco [Department of Chemistry and Drug Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 5 00185 Rome (Italy); Boer, Harry; Koivula, Anu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Mazzei, Franco, E-mail: franco.mazzei@uniroma1.i [Department of Chemistry and Drug Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 5 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    Laccases and other multicopper oxidases are reported to be able to carry out direct electron transfer reactions when immobilized onto electrode surface. This allows detailed research of their electron transfer mechanisms. We have recently characterized the kinetic properties of four laccases in homogenous solution and immobilized onto an electrode surface with respect to a set of different redox mediators. In this paper we report the direct electron transfer of four purified laccases from Trametes hirsuta (ThL), Trametes versicolor (TvL), Melanocarpus albomyces (r-MaL) and Rhus vernicifera (RvL), by trapping the proteins within an electrochemically inert polymer of tributylmethyl phosphonium chloride coating a gold electrode surface. In particular, we have characterized the steps involved in the laccases electron transfer mechanism as well as the factors limiting each step. During the voltammetric experiments, non-turnover Faradic signals with midpoint potential of about 790 and 400 mV were observed for high potential laccases, ThL and TvL, corresponding to redox transformations of the T1 site and the T2/T3 cluster of the enzyme, respectively, whereas low redox potential laccases r-MaL and RvL shown a redox couple with a midpoint potential around 400 mV. The electrocatalytic properties of these laccase modified electrodes for the reduction of oxygen have been evaluated demonstrating significative direct electron transfer kinetics. The biocatalytic activity of laccases was also monitored in the presence of a well known inhibitor, sodium azide. On the basis of the experimental results, a hypothesis about the electronic pathway for intramolecular electron transfer characterizing laccases has been proposed.

  17. EVALUATION OF ENDOGLUCANASE, EXOGLUCANASE, LACCASE, AND LIGNIN PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES ON TEN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montoya B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of tracking the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in ten species of white rot fungi: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus and Auricularia delicata. These species were first screened on solid culture media containing carboxymethyl cellulose, crystalline cellulose, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate and azure B, which showed the production of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, laccase and lignin peroxidase (LiP enzymes. Cellulolytic activities were detected after five days of incubation with congo red indicator, forming a clear-white halo in areas where cellulose was degraded. For ligninases, the tracking consisted of the monitoring in the formation of green halos due to ABTS oxidation for laccase, and decolorization halos on azure B for LiP during 14 days of incubation. From this qualitative screening, four strains were selected (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor and T. trogii as the best producers of cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. These four species were inoculated on a substrate of sawdust oak, yielding 51,8% of lignin degraded by L. edodes and 22% of cellulose degraded by C. versicolor.

  18. Degrading ability of eight species of wood rotting fungi on Salix matsudana var.pseudo-matsudana%八种城市旱垂柳林木材腐朽菌分解能力的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志显

    2009-01-01

    通过测定8种城市旱垂柳Salix matsudana var.pseudo-matsudana的木材腐朽菌,树舌Elfvingia applanata(Pers.)Karst.、香栓菌Trametes suaveolens(L.)Fr.、单色下皮黑Cerrena unicolor(Bull.:Fr.)Murr、桦革裥Lenzites betulina(L.:)Fr.、黑管菌Bjerkandera adusta(Willd.:Fr.)Karst、毛革盖Coriolus hirsutus(Wulf.:Fr.)Quél.、云芝Coriolus versicolor(L.:Fr.)Quél.、多毛盖菌Funalia gallica (Fr.)Pat.对旱垂柳木材的分解能力,研究其生物降解规律.结果表明:8种旱垂柳木材腐朽菌的降解能力排序为:毛革盖>云芝>香栓>多毛盖菌>单色下皮黑>树舌>桦革裥>黑管菌.其中毛革盖和云芝的分解能力最高,在100 d内即可将柳材样品分解解体,降解率超过50%.

  19. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. A study of overproduction and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashek, W.V.

    1993-09-01

    Wood decay within forests, a significant renewable photosynthetic energy resource, is caused primarily by Basidiomycetous fungi, e.g., white rot fungi. These organisms possess the ability to degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the main organic polymers of wood. In the case of the white rot fungi, e.g., Coriolus versicolor, the capacity results from the fungus` ability to elaborate extracellular cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. With regard to the latter, at least one of the enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) appears within a defined growth medium. This proposal focuses on the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. There are two major sections to the proposal: (1) overproduction of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electro microscopical techniques and (2) the biochemical/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO enzymes.

  1. Laboratory study of inocula production for composting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-García, M C; López, M J; Suárez, F; Moreno, J

    2005-05-01

    Six ligno-cellulolytic fungi were tested regarding to examine their capability to grow on agricultural wastes and produce inocula for composting. Two residues were used: pepper plant wastes and almond shell residues. Results showed the latter as the most adequate substrate for growth of fungi tested. On the contrary, Trichoderma koningii, as well as HLC1 and HLC3, both fungi isolated from almond shell wastes, were able to persist in pepper plant wastes. Modifications of aeration and pH significantly influenced growth of Coriolus versicolor, HLC1 and Phanerochaete. flavido alba and P. flavido alba and Phlebia radiata, respectively, while P. flavido alba was the only microorganism whose growth was not significantly altered by temperature. In competitive assays, where fungi were growth together with other species, growth of both microorganisms isolated from almond shell residues, HLC1 and HLC3, were stimulated while T. koningii showed the better results in sterile conditions.

  2. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhagwant Kaur; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Chan, Wing Keung; Fan, Kei; Li, George Qian; Moore, Douglas Edwin; Roubin, Rebecca Heidi

    2013-06-15

    Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, and has demonstrated anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects. However its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate how PSP affects immune populations, we compared PSP treatments both with and without prior incubation in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) - a process commonly used in immune population experimentation. We first standardised a capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting technique for PSP identification and characterisation. We then established the proliferative capability of PSP on various immune populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using flow cytometry, without prior PHA treatment. It was found that PSP significantly increased the number of monocytes (CD14(+)/CD16(-)) compared to controls without PHA. This increase in monocytes was confirmed using another antibody panel of CD14 and MHCII. In contrast, proliferations of T-cells, NK, and B-cells were not significantly changed by PSP. Thus, stimulating monocyte/macrophage function with PSP could be an effective therapeutic intervention in targeting tumors.

  3. Optimization and kinetics evaluation of biodegradation of synthetic azo reactive dye by fungal consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, V; Sivakumar, V

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation.

  4. BIODEGRADATION POTENTIALS OF AUTOMOBILE WORKSHOP SOIL MYCOFLORA ON FLOW STATION PETROLEUM SLUDGE WITH AN EXTRA CARBON SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosa Omoregbe Obayagbona

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation potentials of soil mycobiota isolated from six auto mechanic workshops and a farmland in Benin City on flow station crude oil sludge was investigated. Serial dilution and pour plate methods were utilized in the isolation and enumeration of the fungal bioload of the soil samples. The heterotrophic fungal counts ranged from 0.2×103 cfu/g to 3.2×103 cfu/g .Twenty (20 fungal species were identified from the soil samples; Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Moniliella sp., Pichia farinosa, Sporobolomyces sp., Candida sp., Rhodotorula sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium sp. , Penicillium sp.2, Penicillium italicum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. A. flavus and A. nidulans had the highest percentage prevalence (85.7%. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the soil samples were acidic (pH 5.81-6.40 and sandy (50.3%-64.8%. Turbidimeteric screening revealed that A. flavus, A. terrus, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., consortium of yeasts and the filamentous fungal consortium were able to maximally utilize the sludge as the sole source of carbon and energy. The growth profile results obtained for A. flavus revealed a decrease in pH (6.34 – 5.06 and an increase in turbidity (38 FAU – 625 FAU during the 20 day incubation period. Amongst the growth profile cultures, A. flavuscaused the highest percentage reduction in the residual TPH (DRO content of the inoculated sludge (96%. Soils within the premises of automobile workshops can serve as a source of hydrocarbonclastic fungi.

  5. Generalized Morse Potential Symmetry and Satellite Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sol-Mesa, A; Smirnov, Yu F; Smirnov, Yu. F.

    1998-01-01

    We study in detail the bound state spectrum of the generalized Morse potential~(GMP), which was proposed by Deng and Fan as a potential function for diatomic molecules. By connecting the corresponding Schrödinger equation with the Laplace equation on the hyperboloid and the Schrödinger equation for the an $so(2,2)$ symmetry algebra, and obtain an explicit realization of the latter as $su(1,1) \\oplus su(1,1)$. We prove that some of the $so(2,2)$ generators connect among themselves wave functions belonging to different GMP's (called satellite potentials). The conserved quantity is some combination of the potential parameters instead of the level energy, as for potential algebras. Hence, $so(2,2)$ belongs to a new class of symmetry algebras. We also stress the usefulness of our algebraic results for simplifying the calculation of Frank-Condon factors for electromagnetic transitions between rovibrational levels based on different electronic states.

  6. DECOLORIZATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY NEWLY ISOLATED TRAMETES VERSICOLOR STRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    PİLATİN, Sevil; Kunduhoğlu, Buket

    2011-01-01

    In this century, the amount of industrial produces and their consumption has increased tremendously.Along with this increase, accumulation of industrial waste and its effect on nature has caused serious problems. Because of including various chemicals and especially dye, textile waste water is one of the most hazardous industrial wastes. Color is the most important pollutant in waste water and it should be decolorized. Decolorization is more important than degradation of organic substances fr...

  7. DECOLORIZATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY NEWLY ISOLATED TRAMETES VERSICOLOR STRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    PİLATİN, Sevil; Kunduhoğlu, Buket

    2011-01-01

    In this century, the amount of industrial produces and their consumption has increased tremendously.Along with this increase, accumulation of industrial waste and its effect on nature has caused serious problems. Because of including various chemicals and especially dye, textile waste water is one of the most hazardous industrial wastes. Color is the most important pollutant in waste water and it should be decolorized. Decolorization is more important than degradation of organic substances fr...

  8. Degradation of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge by Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Carlos E.

    2013-01-01

    Dada la ineficiencia de las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales para eliminar completamente los contaminantes orgánicos, los lodos en ellas producidos constituyen una importante fuente de agentes tóxicos. Consecuentemente, la cada vez más popular práctica de aplicar lodos in tierras de uso agrícola resulta en la diseminación de estos microcontaminantes en el ambiente. El presente trabajo describe el desarrollo de una estrategia biotecnológica para la eliminación de contaminantes emerge...

  9. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  10. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  11. Composite absorbing potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Sala, P R

    1998-01-01

    The multiple scattering interferences due to the addition of several contiguous potential units are used to construct composite absorbing potentials that absorb at an arbitrary set of incident momenta or for a broad momentum interval.

  12. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  13. Graphical Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  14. Market Potential and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the long-term impact of market potential on economic development. It derives from the New Economic Geography literature a structural estimation where the level of factors' income of a country is related to its export capacity, labelled Market Access (MA) by Redding and Venables (2004), or Real Market Potential (RMP) by Head and Mayer (2004). The empirical part evaluates this market potential for all countries in the world with available trade data over the 1960...

  15. Human Potential Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Edna J.

    This paper describes the organization and implementation of 16 seminars on the subject of developing the potentials inherent in the individuals involved. The stated goals of this group project for teacher corps interns are: (1) identify and use personal strengths and potential in many areas; (2) understand achievement patterns and the way in which…

  16. Tapping Academic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamb, L. W.; Lant, Marsha

    1988-01-01

    Twelve low-achieving, high-potential junior high students were involved in a pullout program to improve their academic performance. The students were partially successful in applying strategies they learned for analyzing their potential, building self-esteem, managing time, managing stress, goal setting, and developing individual action plans.…

  17. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  18. Potential theory of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  19. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.gago@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Badia-Fabregat, Marina, E-mail: marina.badia@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Alba, E-mail: esalba.olivares@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: benjami.pina@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui, E-mail: paqui.blanquez@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.vicent@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.caminal@uab.cat [Unitat de Biocatalisi Aplicada associada al IQAC (CSIC-UAB). Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: silvia.diaz@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in endocrine activity

  20. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  1. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  2. Measuring the Managerial Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. Rosca; George Moldoveanu

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes the measurement of managerial and functional capabilities of the organization, as the dimensions of managerial potential, based on the configurative theory and not on the reductionist one. The components of the managerial potential are fulfilled by the capability of building organizational culture, managerial change and defining equity as the proximate type of social responsibility. The components are described in relation with the socio-economic model, useful in the proces...

  3. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity.

  4. Potential risks of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Totka; Louda, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is the design and manipulation of materials at the nanometer scale such that novel or enhanced properties emerge. It is a new area of knowledge that promises a dazzling array of opportunities in areas as diverse as manufacturing, energy, health care, and waste treatment. But while the ability to develop nanomaterials and incorporate them into products is advancing rapidly, our understanding of the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanomaterials — and of the most effective ways to manage such effects — has proceeded at a much slower pace. Because of the novel properties that emerge at the nano scale, nanomaterials may require more and different information than called for under traditional risk management systems. And given the enormous commercial and societal benefits that may potentially come from this technology, it is likely that nanomaterials, and the products and other applications containing them, will be widely produced and used. Therefore it is especially important to understand and minimize the potential risks.

  5. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  6. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  7. Integrable Cosmological Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The problem of classification of the Einstein--Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians $H$ with a single scalar inflaton field $\\varphi$ that possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint $H=0$ is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of first, second, and third degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential $V(\\varphi)$. In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in a parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.

  8. Integrable cosmological potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V. V.; Sorin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The problem of classification of the Einstein-Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians H with a single scalar inflaton field φ, which possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint H=0 , is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the first-, second- and third-degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential V(φ) . In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described, and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.

  9. Potentiation of latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Hall, Geoffrey

    2008-07-01

    Rats were given exposure either to an odor (almond) or a compound of odor plus taste (almond plus saline), prior to training in which the odor served as the conditioned stimulus. It was found, for both appetitive and aversive procedures, that conditioning was retarded by preexposure (a latent inhibition effect), and the extent of the retardation was greater in rats preexposed to the compound (i.e., latent inhibition to the odor was potentiated by the presence of the taste). In contrast, the presence of the taste during conditioning itself overshadowed learning about the odor. We argue that the presence of the salient taste in compound with the odor enhances the rate of associative learning, producing a rapid loss in the associability of the odor. This loss of associability will generate both overshadowing and the potentiation of latent inhibition that is observed after preexposure to the compound.

  10. Biomethanation and Its Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.;

    2011-01-01

    matter via cascades of biochemical conversions to methane and carbon dioxide. Syntrophic relationships between hydrogen producers (acetogens) and hydrogen scavengers (homoacetogens, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, etc.) are critical to the process. Determination of practical and theoretical methane...... potential is very important for design for optimal process design, configuration, and effective evaluation of economic feasibility. A wide variety of process applications for biomethanation of wastewaters, slurries, and solid waste have been developed. They utilize different reactor types (fully mixed......, plugflow, biofilm, UASB, etc.) and process conditions (retention times, loading rates, temperatures, etc.) in order to maximize the energy output from the waste and also to decrease retention time and enhance process stability. Biomethanation has strong potential for the production of energy from organic...

  11. Potentials Unbounded Below

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Continuous interpolates are described for classical dynamical systems defined by discrete time-steps. Functional conjugation methods play a central role in obtaining the interpolations. The interpolates corrrespond to particle motion in an underlying potential, V. Typically, V has no lower bound and can exhibit switchbacks wherein V changes form when turning points are encountered by the particle. The logistic map is used to illustrate these features.

  12. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  13. Cosmology With Negative Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Frolov, Andrei; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We investigate cosmological evolution in models where the effective potential V(\\phi) may become negative for some values of the field \\phi. Phase portraits of such theories in space of variables (\\phi,\\dot\\phi,H) have several qualitatively new features as compared with phase portraits in the theories with V(\\phi) > 0. Cosmological evolution in models with potentials with a "stable" minimum at V(\\phi)<0 is similar in some respects to the evolution in models with potentials unbounded from below. Instead of reaching an AdS regime dominated by the negative vacuum energy, the universe reaches a turning point where its energy density vanishes, and then it contracts to a singularity with properties that are practically independent of V(\\phi). We apply our methods to investigation of the recently proposed cyclic universe scenario. We show that in addition to the singularity problem there are other problems that need to be resolved in order to realize a cyclic regime in this scenario. We propose several modificati...

  14. Boron - A potential goiterogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elizaveta V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-07-01

    The iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) include a variety of disturbances such as decreased fertility, increased perinatal and infant mortality, impaired physical and intellectual development, mental retardation, cretinism, hypothyroidism, and endemic goiter (EG). The occurrence of the latter is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine status that is required for normal thyroid hormone synthesis. However, other factors like intake of micronutrients and goiterogens also have a significant impact. Essential and toxic trace elements both play a significant role in thyroid physiology. We hypothesize that in terms of overexposure boron may serve as a potential goiterogen. In particular, it is proposed that boron overload may impair thyroid physiology ultimately leading to goiter formation. Certain studies provide evidential support of the hypothesis. In particular, it has been demonstrated that serum and urinary B levels are characterized by a negative association with thyroid hormone levels in exposed subjects. Single indications on the potential efficiency of B in hypothyroidism also exist. Moreover, the levels of B were found to be interrelated with thyroid volume in children environmentally exposed to boron. Experimental studies also demonstrated a significant impact of boron on thyroid structure and hormone levels. Finally, the high rate of B cumulation in thyroid may also indicate that thyroid is the target for B activity. Chemical properties of iodine and boron also provide a background for certain competition. However, it is questionable whether these interactions may occur in the biological systems. Further clinical and experimental studies are required to support the hypothesis of the involvement of boron overexposure in goiter formation. If such association will be confirmed and the potential mechanisms elucidated, it will help to regulate the incidence of hypothyroidism and goiter in endemic

  15. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  16. Nanoparticle ζ -potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Tennyson L; Chuang, Chi-Hung; Hill, Reghan J; Burda, Clemens

    2012-03-20

    For over half a century, alternating electric fields have been used to induce particle transport, furnishing the ζ-potential of analytes with sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers. Concurrent advances in nanotechnology have provided new materials for catalysis, self-assembly, and biomedical applications, all of which benefit from a thorough understanding of particle surface charge. Therefore, the measurement of the ζ-potential via electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) has become essential for nanoparticle (NP) research. However, the interpretation of NP electrophoretic mobility, especially that of ligand-coated NPs, can be a complex undertaking. Despite the inherent intricacy of these data, key concepts from colloidal science can help to distill valuable information from ELS. In this Account, we adopt PEGylated Au NPs as an illustrative example to explore extensions of the classical theories of Smoluchowski, Hückel, and Henry to more contemporary theories for ligand-coated NP systems such as those from Ohshima, and Hill, Saville, and Russel. First, we review the basic experimental considerations necessary to understand NP electrophoretic mobility, identifying when O'Brien and White's numerical solution of the standard electrokinetic model should be adopted over Henry's closed-form analytical approximation. Next, we explore recent developments in the theory of ligand-coated particle electrophoresis, and how one can furnish accurate and meaningful relationships between measured NP mobility, ζ-potential, and surface charge. By identifying key ligand-coated NP parameters (e.g., coating thickness, permeability, molecular mass, and hydrodynamic segment size), we present a systematic method for quantitatively interpreting NP electrophoretic mobility. In addition to reviewing theoretical foundations, we describe our recent results that examine how the unique surface curvature of NPs alters and controls their properties. These data provide

  17. Thermodynamics extends economics potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Alexander V. [Kiev Technical Univ., Dept. of Marketing and Management, Kiev (Ukraine); Brodiansky, Victor M. [Moscow Energy Inst., Dept. of Cryogen Machines, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of exergy in economic valuation and its correlation with money. Exergy-based determination of production expenses provides a new base for 'natural' price determination. A new macroeconomic dynamics approach based on this correlation is proposed. This method is relatively general because it is not restricted by certain assumptions used in traditional economic analysis. The exergy model of macroeconomic dynamics was tested by utilizing data from the US economy. This test, covering a period of about 25 years, confirms this approach and opens new potentials in economic analysis. (Author)

  18. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  19. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  20. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R

    2011-10-01

    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  1. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  2. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  3. Biopharmaceutical potential of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambare, Vasudeo P; Christopher, Lew P

    2012-06-01

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the phytobiont), usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium. The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in culture. Lichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on the Earth and may be useful to scientists in many commercial applications. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a renewed and growing interest in lichens as a source of novel, pharmacologically active biomolecules. This review summarizes the past and current research and development trends in the characterization and use of lichens and their bioactive compounds in traditional medicine and other biopharmaceutical applications of commercial interest. The present review contains 10 illustrations and 188 references compiled from major databases including Science Direct, Chemical Abstracts, PubMed and Directory of Open Access Journals. Lichen morphology, symbiosis, diversity and bioactivities including enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anti-insecticidal and antioxidant actions were reviewed and summarized. Recent progress in lichens and lichen-forming fungi was discussed with emphasis on their potential to accelerate commercialization of lichen-based products. Lichens are an untapped source of biological activities of industrial importance and their potential is yet to be fully explored and utilized. Lichen-derived bioactive compounds hold great promise for biopharmaceutical applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents and in the development of new formulations or technologies for the benefit of human life.

  4. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  5. Are Advanced Potentials Anomalous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibison, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Advanced electromagnetic potentials are indigenous to the classical Maxwell theory. Generally however they are deemed undesirable and are forcibly excluded, destroying the theory's inherent time-symmetry. We investigate the reason for this, pointing out that it is not necessary and in some cases is counter-productive. We then focus on the direct-action theory in which the advanced and retarded contributions are present symmetrically, with no opportunity supplement the particular integral solution of the wave equation with an arbitrary complementary function. One then requires a plausible explanation for the observed broken symmetry that, commonly, is understood cannot be met by the Wheeler-Feynman mechanism because the necessary boundary condition cannot be satisfied in acceptable cosmologies. We take this opportunity to argue that the boundary condition is already met by all expanding cosmologies simply as a result of cosmological red-shift. A consequence is that the cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time can be equated, the direct action version of EM is preferred, and that advanced potentials are ubiquitous.

  6. Zoonotic potential of Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M

    2013-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection.

  7. On quantum potential dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Struyve, Ward

    2015-01-01

    Non-relativistic de Broglie-Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function—the quantum potential—together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint.

  8. Analytic QCD Binding Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the analytic forms of a recent non-perturbative, manifestly gauge- and Lorentz-invariant description (of the exchange of all possible virtual gluons between quarks ($Q$) and/or anti-quarks ($\\bar{Q}$) in a quenched, eikonal approximation) to extract analytic forms for the binding potentials generating a model $Q$-$\\bar{Q}$ "pion", and a model $QQQ$ "nucleon". Other, more complicated $Q$, $\\bar{Q}$ contributions to such color-singlet states may also be identified analytically. An elementary minimization technique, relevant to the ground states of such bound systems, is adopted to approximate the solutions to a more proper, but far more complicated Schroedinger/Dirac equation; the existence of possible contributions to the pion and nucleon masses due to spin, angular momentum, and "deformation" degrees of freedom is noted but not pursued. Neglecting electromagnetic and weak interactions, this analysis illustrates how the one new parameter making its appearance in this exact, realistic formali...

  9. CLIC Physics Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pandurovic, Mila

    2017-01-01

    The CLICdp is an international collaboration that investigates the physics potential of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and performs research and development of the CLIC detector. CLIC is a future multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider, designed to cover a physics program of the Standard model physics, with the emphasis on Higgs and top as well as to address the wide range of open questions of the phenomena beyond the Standard model with high precision. The CLIC is designed to be build and operated at three discrete energy stages, sort(s) = 380 GeV, 1.5 and 3.0 TeV, which are optimized for the foreseen physics program. In this talk the CLIC accelerator, detector and experimental environment of CLIC will be presented, as well as, the number of the full-simulation measurements in the Higgs, top and beyond Standard model sector, presenting the capabilities of CLIC for high precision measurements.

  10. Not utilized learning potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    -conscious disjuncture, in development of the concept pseudo-everyday life activities and in a categorizing mo­del for and a theory about student nurses' learning processes. The theory includes relations between 4 types of  disjuncture, 3 types of content in the learning processes, and factors that provoke......  When the Danish Nursing Education in 2002 became a Bachelor Degree the clinical part of the education was reduced. Therefore, it was necessary to optimize learning in practice.       I made a qualitative investigation to describe student nurses' learning processes in non-routine situations where...... transformation from one type of disjuncture to another.      Students and mentors are not aware that students are in potential learning situations when they interact on their own with patients, and that it is non-routine for students to act with patients in pseudo-everyday life activities. It may be possible...

  11. Memantine: Reality and Potentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo M. Antonello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Memantine protects cultured neurons from excitotoxin-induced cell-death; it attenuated loss of cholinergic neurons in the CNS induced by injection of NMDA into the basal forebrain of rats. It has been shown that memantine induced production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a substance shown to promote survival and differentiation of CNS neuron. Due to the preclinical effects of memantine owing to its anti-ischemic and anti-excitotoxic properties, recent clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in patients with advanced dementia of vascular origins. Therefore, it has been employed in different trials, in vascular dementia, showing a potential benefit and no unbearable side effects. Different studies under- line the possible role of memantine in Parkinson Disease.

  12. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  13. Effective potential for relativistic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elbistan, Mahmut; Balog, Janos

    2016-01-01

    We consider quantum inverse scattering with singular potentials and calculate the Sine-Gordon model effective potential in the laboratory and centre-of-mass frames. The effective potentials are frame dependent but closely resemble the zero-momentum potential of the equivalent Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.

  14. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  15. Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Phani Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is a major health problem in the 21st century, and many neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer′s Disease dementia, cerebrovascular impairment, seizure disorders, head injury and Parkinsonism, can be severly functionally debilitating in nature. In course of time, a number of neurotransmitters and signaling molecules have been identified which have been considered as therapeutic targets. Conventional as well newer molecules have been tried against these targets. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants play a vital role in maintaining the brain′s chemical balance by influencing the function of receptors for the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. In traditional practice of medicine, several plants have been reported to treat cognitive disorders. In this review paper, we attempt to throw some light on the use of medicinal herbs to treat cognitive disorders. In this review, we briefly deal with some medicinal herbs focusing on their neuroprotective active phytochemical substances like fatty acids, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes etc. The resistance of neurons to various stressors by activating specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors are also discussed. It was observed in the review that a number of herbal medicines used in Ayurvedic practices as well Chinese medicines contain multiple compounds and phytochemicals that may have a neuroprotective effect which may prove beneficial in different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Though the presence of receptors or transporters for polyphenols or other phytochemicals of the herbal preparations, in brain tissues remains to be ascertained, compounds with multiple targets appear as a potential and promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with a multifactorial etiology.

  16. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  17. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  18. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  19. BIOELECTRIC POTENTIALS IN HALICYSTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinks, L. R.; Darsie, M. L.; Skow, R. K.

    1938-01-01

    The potential difference across the protoplasm of impaled cells of Halicystis is not affected by increase of oxygen tension in equilibrium with the sea water, nor with decrease down to about 1/10 its tension in the air (2 per cent O2 in N2). When bubbling of 2 per cent O2 is stopped, the P.D. drifts downward, to be restored on stirring the sea water, or rebubbling the gas. Bubbling 0.2 per cent O2 causes the P.D. to drop to 20 mv. or less; 1.1 per cent O2 to about 50 mv. Restoration of 2 per cent or higher O2 causes recovery to 70 or 80 mv. often with a preliminary cusp which decreases the P.D. before it rises. Perfusion of aerated sea water through the vacuole is just as effective in restoring the P.D. as external aeration, indicating that the direction of the oxygen gradient is not significant. Low O2 tension also inhibits the reversed, negative P.D. produced by adding NH4Cl to sea water, 0.2 per cent O2 bringing this P.D. back to the same low positive values found without ammonia. Restoration of 2 per cent O2 or air, restores this latent negativity. At slightly below the threshold for ammonia reversal, low O2 may induce a temporary negativity when first bubbled, and a negative cusp may occur on aeration before positive P.D. is regained. This may be due to a decreased consumption of ammonia, or to intermediate pH changes. The locus of the P.D. alteration was tested by applying increased KCl concentrations to the cell exterior; the large cusps produced in aerated solutions become greatly decreased when the P.D. has fallen in 0.2 per cent O2. This indicates that the originally high relative mobility or concentration of K+ ion has approached that of Na+ in the external protoplasmic surface under reduced O2 tension. Results obtained with sulfate sea water indicate that Na+ mobility approaches that of SO4— in 0.2 per cent O2. P.D. measurements alone cannot tell whether this is due to an increase of the slower ion or a decrease of the faster ion. A decrease of all

  20. VT Act 174 Wind Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The statewide wind potential layer used in the Act 174 effort represents three combined wind resource layers: Potential Residential and Small and...

  1. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ∼62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

  2. Trypsin potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J V White

    Full Text Available Trypsin-containing topical treatments can be used to speed wound healing, although the mechanism of action is unknown. To help form granulation tissue and heal wounds, monocytes leave the circulation, enter the wound tissue, and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that 20 to 200 ng/ml trypsin (concentrations similar to those used in wound dressings potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes to fibrocytes in cell culture. Adding trypsin inhibitors increases the amount of trypsin needed to potentiate fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that the potentiating effect is dependent on trypsin proteolytic activity. Proteases with other site specificities such as pepsin, endoprotease GluC, and chymotrypsin do not potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. This potentiation requires the presence of albumin in the culture medium, and tryptic fragments of human or bovine albumin also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. These results suggest that topical trypsin speeds wound healing by generating tryptic fragments of albumin, which in turn potentiate fibrocyte differentiation.

  3. Trypsin potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Glenn, Melissa; Gomer, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Trypsin-containing topical treatments can be used to speed wound healing, although the mechanism of action is unknown. To help form granulation tissue and heal wounds, monocytes leave the circulation, enter the wound tissue, and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that 20 to 200 ng/ml trypsin (concentrations similar to those used in wound dressings) potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes to fibrocytes in cell culture. Adding trypsin inhibitors increases the amount of trypsin needed to potentiate fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that the potentiating effect is dependent on trypsin proteolytic activity. Proteases with other site specificities such as pepsin, endoprotease GluC, and chymotrypsin do not potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. This potentiation requires the presence of albumin in the culture medium, and tryptic fragments of human or bovine albumin also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. These results suggest that topical trypsin speeds wound healing by generating tryptic fragments of albumin, which in turn potentiate fibrocyte differentiation.

  4. Local Existence of Spinor Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, F

    1999-01-01

    We present a new, simple proof of existence for the Lanczos spinor potential in 3+1 dimensions that introduces a potential $T_{ABCD}= T_{(ABC)D}$ of the Lanczos potential together with several generalizations to other index configurations and metric signatures. The potential $T_{ABCD}$ can also be used to express, in a concise way, the gauge freedom left in the Lanczos potential after the differential gauge has been specified. We consider Einstein spacetimes and prove that in those spacetimes any symmetric (3,1)-spinor possesses a symmetric potential $H_{ABA'B'}$. Potentials of this type have earlier occurred in some special cases investigated e.g., by Torres del Castillo, Bergqvist and ourselves.

  5. Orbits in a logarithmic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooverman, R. H.

    2014-04-15

    The characteristics of charged particle orbits in the logarithmic electrostatic potential field surrounding a straight conducting wire at a fixed potential are investigated. The equations of motion of an electron in a logarithmic potential are derived, the limiting cases are considered, and the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion are presented along with sketches of a few representative orbits. (C.E.S.)

  6. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  7. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  8. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  9. Supermodular games and potential games.

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and two-person Cournot games.

  10. The erosive potential of lollipops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; Paap, A.; Bulthuis, M.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the erosive potential of several commercially available lollipops and the protective effect of saliva. Methods: The erosive potential of lollipops was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. Subsequently, 10 healthy volunteers tested different types of lo

  11. Potential Functions in Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Roger J.

    1998-11-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics are stated in equation form. The equation containing the combined laws is used to identify potential functions appropriate to various sets of constraints. An ion-exchange reaction and a redox reaction in a melt are considered as illustrations of the importance of using the potential function appropriate to the constraints.

  12. Potential theory—selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawwa, Hiroaki

    1996-01-01

    The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

  13. Evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, George H

    2013-11-01

    Before the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EPs)-visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brain stem auditory evoked responses-were commonly used to determine a second site of disease in patients being evaluated for possible multiple sclerosis (MS). The identification of an area of the central nervous system showing abnormal conduction was used to supplement the abnormal signs identified on the physical examination-thus identifying the "multiple" in MS. This article is a brief overview of additional ways in which central nervous system (CNS) physiology-as measured by EPs-can still contribute value in the management of MS in the era of MRIs.

  14. Generalized anti-centrifugal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandoloff, Rossen [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Jensen, Bjørn [Department of Micro and Nano Systems Technology, Vestfold University College, N-3103 Tønsberg (Norway); Saxena, Avadh, E-mail: avadh@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-01-24

    We generalize the quantum anti-centrifugal potential in the two-dimensional Euclidean plane to two-dimensional surfaces embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space. We consider the sphere with two caps removed in some detail. We show that quantum particles in this space are “pushed” towards either of the cap boundaries. We also consider the two-dimensional Euclidean plane with an elliptic area removed and compute the quantum anti-centrifugal potential on the elliptic boundary. It is argued that a sufficiently thin electrically conducting nano-wire shaped as an ellipse will exhibit an inhomogeneous charge distribution due to this quantum potential.

  15. Tachyon potential in KBc subalgebra

    CERN Document Server

    Zeze, Syoji

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the classical action and the effective tachyon potential of open string field theory within KBc subalgebra, which is extensively used in analytic solution for tachyon condensation recently found by Erler and Schnabl. It is found that the level expansion of the string field terminates at level 3. We find that the closed string vacuum is a saddle point of the classical action. We also evaluate the effective potential for tachyon field. The closed string vaccum becomes stable by integrationg out an auxiliary field. It is found that the effective potential is bounded below hence has no runaway direction. We also argue validity of simple identity based solution.

  16. Tachyon Potential in KBc Subalgebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeze, S.

    2010-10-01

    We evaluate the classical action and the effective tachyon potential of open string field theory within K B c subalgebra, which is extensively used in analytic solution for tachyon condensation recently found by Erler and Schnabl. It is found that the level expansion of the string field terminates at level 3. We find that the closed string vacuum is a saddle point of the classical action. We also evaluate the effective potential for tachyon field. The closed string vacuum becomes stable by integrating out an auxiliary field. It is found that the effective potential is bounded below hence has no runaway direction. We also argue validity of simple identity based solution.

  17. Potential Theory Surveys and Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.

  18. Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    We study the reverse triangle inequalities for suprema of logarithmic potentials on compact sets of the plane. This research is motivated by the inequalities for products of supremum norms of polynomials. We find sharp additive constants in the inequalities for potentials, and give applications of our results to the generalized polynomials. We also obtain sharp inequalities for products of norms of the weighted polynomials $w^nP_n, deg(P_n)\\le n,$ and for sums of suprema of potentials with ex...

  19. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7+y}, fluorite-type (Pu{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5})O{sub 2-x} and AmO{sub 2-x} have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  20. Isolamento e seleção de fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira em florestas de Eucalyptus spp. com potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes Isolation and screening of wood white rot fungi from Eucalyptus spp. forests with potential for use in degradation of stumps and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kunieda de Alonso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou isolar fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira, a partir de basidiocarpos e de fragmentos de madeira de eucalipto coletados em várias regiões do país, bem como testar seu potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes mortas em plantios comerciais de eucalipto, após o corte raso. Para o isolamento dos fungos foi desenvolvido um meio de cultura de serragem de eucalipto-ágar. Dentre 292 isolados obtidos e submetidos ao teste de Bavendamm, 144 foram classificados como causadores de podridão-branca, capazes de produzir fenoloxidases. Dentre as nove relações C/N testadas, observou-se uma tendência de ocorrer maior degradação de cavacos naquelas iguais a 60 : 1, 200 : 1 e 300 : 1. Utilizando a relação C/N igual a 60 : 1, realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a degradação de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna por isolados fúngicos de podridão-branca. No primeiro experimento, avaliado aos 90 dias de incubação, foram selecionados sete isolados, que causaram perda de peso em cavacos superior ou igual à causada por Trametes versicolor, usado para comparação. No segundo experimento foram testados 46 isolados fúngicos. Dentre os mais eficientes estavam os sete isolados selecionados no primeiro teste, além de outros quatro isolados. Baseado na análise de DNA, seis isolados foram identificados, sendo três pertencentes à espécie Pycnoporus sanguineus, um ao gênero Peniophora sp., um ao gênero Pestalotiopsis sp. e um ao gênero Ganoderma sp.The aim of this work was to isolate native wood white-rot fungi from fungal fruit-bodies and eucalyptus wood fragments from different regions of Brazil and to test their potential for degrading dead stumps and roots in Eucalyptus plantings after harvest. Fungi isolates were obtained in a culture medium composed by Eucalyptus sawdust and agar. Among 292 isolates submitted to the Banvedamm test, 144 were classified as phenoloxidases producing isolates. Among nine C

  1. Chemical Potential Dependence of Vertices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu; ZHANG Yan-Bin; SUN Wei-Min; ZONG Hong-Shi

    2008-01-01

    Based on the rainbow-ladder approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations and the assumption of the analyticity of the fermion-boson vertex in the neighborhood of zero chemical potential (μ = 0) and neglecting the μ-dependence of the dressed gluon propagator, we apply the method in [Phys. Rev. C 71 (2005) 015205] of studying the dressed quark propagator at finite chemical potential to prove that the general fermion-boson vertex at finite μ can also be obtained from the one at μ=0 by a simple shift of variables. Using this result we extend the results of [Phys. Lett. B 420 (1998) 267] to the situation of finite chemical potential and show that under the approximations we have taken, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation also holds at finite chemical potential.

  2. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines...

  3. Chirally motivated K - nuclear potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.

    2011-08-01

    In-medium subthreshold Kbar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K- atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K- nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold Kbar N amplitudes, with Re VK-chiral = - (85 ± 5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When Kbar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K- nuclear potential results, Re VK-chiral + phen . = - (180 ± 5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K--nuclear quasibound states generated by VK-chiral are reported and discussed.

  4. Static quark-antiquark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, B.B.; Barik, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    A heavy-quark--antiquark potential is suggested which connects asymptotic freedom and quark confinement in a unified manner by formal methods of field theory using some plausible assumptions. The potential has only one additional adjustable parameter B which is proportional to (M/sub q//m/sub q/), where M/sub q/ and m/sub q/ are the constituent and current quark masses, respectively.

  5. Central Nucleon-Nucleon Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robilotta, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    The outer region of the NN interactions is dominated by the one pion exchange potential (OPEP), followed by the two-pion exchange potential (TPEP). Chiral calculations of the TPEP have been performed using either heavy baryon1 (HB) or relativistic2 perturbation theories. We compare the predictions from these two approaches for the dominant central interaction and show that they fail to agree by 25% ...

  6. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  7. Non-local Optical Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  8. Sensitive Probe for Symmetry Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Ye; XIAO Guo-Qing; GUO Wen-Jun; REN ZhongZhou; ZUO Wei; LEE Xi-Guo

    2007-01-01

    Based on both very obvious isospin effect of the neutron-proton number ratio of nucleon emissions (n/p)nucl on symmetry potential and (n/p)nucl's sensitive dependence on symmetry potential in the nuclear reactions induced by halo-neutron projectiles, compared to the same mass stable projectile, probing symmetry potential is investigated within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics with isospin and momentum-dependent interactions for different symmetry potentials U1sym and U2sym. It is found that the neutron-halo projectile induces very obvious increase of (n/p)nucl and strengthens the dependence of (n/p)nucl on the symmetry potential for all the beam energies and impact parameters, compared to the same mass stable projectile under the same incident channel condition. Therefore (n/p)nucl induced by the neutron-halo projectile is a more favourable probe than the normal neutron-rich and neutron-poor projectiles for extracting the symmetry potential.

  9. Selected Wood Properties of Prunus Africana (Hook Grown in Kenya as Possible Reasons for its High Natural Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Mburu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the influence of Prunus africana heartwood extractives on the growth of selected wood decay fungi. Also, wood chemical and mineral content, dimensional stability and anatomical features of P. africana were studied. Heartwood extractives were tested in 100 ppm and 500 ppm concentrations on white, brown rot, and blue stain fungi and growth inhibition was determined as a factor of time. Dimensional stability was determined by computing the swelling coefficient after the blocks were saturated with moisture. Klason lignin, Kürschner cellulose, extractive and ash contents were determined by standard procedures. Infrared analyses were performed using Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrometer. Microscopic examination was performed using an environmental scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the wood is dimensionally stable, and contains 12.7 % extractives, 37.6 % cellulose and 30.4 % lignin. Extractives deposited in vessels are highly soluble in dichloromethane and mainly composed of terpenes. Extractives were able to inhibit the growth of white rot fungi Coriolus versicolor, brown rot fungi Poria placenta and blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans at different concentrations tested and could explain the high durability of Prunus africana wood species.

  10. Interactions between Xylotrophic Mushrooms and Mycoparasitic Fungi in Dual-Culture Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Badalyan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen wood-decaying mushroom species (Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma sp., Hypholoma fasciculare, H. sublateritium, Kühneromyces mutabilis, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus tigrinus, Pholiota alnicola, Ph. aurivella, Ph. destruens, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Pl. ostreatus, Polyporus subarcularius, Po. squamosus, Po. varius and Schizophyllum commune were paired with three Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, and T. viride and Clonostachys rosea in dual-culture experiments on an agar-based medium. Xylotrophic mushrooms and mycoparasitic fungi in general showed similar competitive ability; deadlock, or mutual inhibition after mycelial contact, was observed in 45.6% of pairings, while stable inhibition at a distance occurred in 4.4% of pairings. Replacement, or overgrowth of xylotrophic mushroom by a mycoparasitic fungus was observed in 29.4% of pairings; the opposite, overgrowth of the xylotrophic mushroom on the mycoparasitic fungus in 20.6%. of pairings. Of the xylotrophic mushrooms, Pl. ostreatus, Ganoderma sp., F. velutipes and H. fasciculare, showed the highest competitive ability against mycoparasitic fungi. Of the mycoparasitic fungi, T. harzianum showed the strongest competitive activity against xylotrophic mushrooms.

  11. Performance of SBR for the treatment of textile dye wastewater: Optimization and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sequential batch reactor (SBR was employed for the treatment of textile dye wastewater. The performance of four white rot fungi (WRF viz. Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was evaluated in pure and mixed combinations in terms of decolorization. From the results it was found that the combination of Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was best and they were used in the SBR. The process parameters like air flow rate, sludge retention time (SRT and cycle period were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. At these optimized conditions, treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried out at various initial dye wastewater concentration and hydraulic retention time. The performance of SBR was analyzed in terms of decolorization, COD reduction and sludge volume index (SVI. From the results it was found that a maximum decolorization and COD reduction of 71.3% and 79.4%, respectively, was achieved in the SBR at an organic loading rate of 0.165 KgCOD/m3 d. The sludge volume index (SVI was found to be low in the range of 90–103 mL/g. The kinetic study was carried out using a first order based model and the degradation follows the first order system.

  12. Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Using Forced-Aeration Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory simulation studies and a composting pilot study were conducted to evaluate the capacity of three strains of fungi, indigenous fungus Fusarium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus Versicolor, to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils. In laboratory, the fungi were inoculated into a liquid culture medium and the petroleum-contaminated soil samples for incubation of 40 and 50 days, respectively.In the 200-day pilot study, nutrient contents and moisture were adjusted and maintained under aerobic condition in composting units using concrete container (118.5 cm × 65.5 cm × 12.5 cm) designed specially for this study. The laboratory simulation results showed that all the three fungi were effective in degrading petroleum in the liquid culture medium and in the soil. At the end of both the laboratory incubations, the degradation rates by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 66% after incubation in liquid culture for 50 days. This was further demonstrated in the composting pilot study where the degradation rate by P. chrysosporium reached 79% within 200 days, higher than those of the other two fungi (53.1% and 46.1%), indicating that P. chrysosporium was the best fungus for bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum. Further research is required to increase degradation rate.Key Words: bioremediation, composting, fungi, petroleum, soil

  13. Chaetochromones A and B, Two New Polyketides from the Fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2, two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68 together with three known analogues PI-3(3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2 are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr., Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L. Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60% against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected.

  14. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa L; Sturrock, Craig J; Bird, Michael I

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry ((13)C and (15)N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same species produced at 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Both species of fungi colonise the surface and interior of wood and charcoals over time periods of less than 70 days; however, distinctly different growth forms are evident between the exterior and interior of the charcoal substrate, with hyphal penetration concentrated along lines of structural weakness. Although the fungi were able to degrade and metabolise the pine wood, charcoal does not form a readily available source of fungal nutrients at least for these species under the conditions used in this study.

  15. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Cimino Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality.

  16. [Immunomodulatory and antitumor properties of polysaccharide peptide (PSP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław

    2015-01-21

    Modern medicine successfully uses multiple immunomodulators of natural origin, that can affect biological reactions and support body's natural defense mechanisms including antitumor activities. Among them is a group of products derived from fungi, including schizophyllan, lentinan, polysaccharide Krestin (PSK), and polysaccharidepeptide (PSP). Present paper is focused on polysaccharidepeptide, which due to the negligible toxicity and numerous benefits for health, is increasingly used in China and Japan as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PSP is a protein-polisaccharide complex with a molecular weight 100 kDa derived from Coriolus versicolor mushroom. The results of numerous studies and clinical trials confirm that it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo settings as well as decreases cancer treatment-related adverse side effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and pain. PSP is able to restore weakened immune response observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Its anti-tumor effects seemed to be mediated through immunomodulatory regulation. PSP stimulates cells of the immune system, induces synthesis of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine, reactive oxygen species and nitrogen mediators. There is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms of PSP action. Because of its unique properties and safety, PSP may become a widely used therapeutic agent in the near future.

  17. Chemopreventive effect of PSP through targeting of prostate cancer stem cell-like population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Sze-Ue; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Liu, Ji; Lee, Davy Tak-Wing; Chiu, Yung-Tuen; Ma, Stephanie; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Chan, Franky Leung; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested that prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) are responsible for cancer initiation as well as disease progression. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are only effective in targeting the more differentiated cancer cells and spare the CSCs. Here, we report that PSP, an active component extracted from the mushroom Turkey tail (also known as Coriolus versicolor), is effective in targeting prostate CSCs. We found that treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with PSP led to the down-regulation of CSC markers (CD133 and CD44) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PSP treatment not only suppressed the ability of PC-3 cells to form prostaspheres under non-adherent culture conditions, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo, further proving that PSP can suppress prostate CSC properties. To investigate if the anti-CSC effect of PSP may lead to prostate cancer chemoprevention, transgenic mice (TgMAP) that spontaneously develop prostate tumors were orally fed with PSP for 20 weeks. Whereas 100% of the mice that fed with water only developed prostate tumors at the end of experiment, no tumors could be found in any of the mice fed with PSP, suggesting that PSP treatment can completely inhibit prostate tumor formation. Our results not only demonstrated the intriguing anti-CSC effect of PSP, but also revealed, for the first time, the surprising chemopreventive property of oral PSP consumption against prostate cancer.

  18. Effect of nitrogen sources and vitamins on ligninolytic enzyme production by some white-rot fungi. Dye decolorization by selected culture filtrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Laura; Melignani, Eliana; Ramos, Araceli Marcela

    2010-06-01

    The effect of amino acids, complex nitrogen sources and vitamin addition on Trametes trogii, Trametes villosa and Coriolus versicolor var. antarcticus ligninolytic enzyme production, was evaluated. Dye decolorization by their culture filtrates was compared. Glutamic acid followed by peptone, were the best N sources for laccase and manganese peroxidase production. The three fungi produced two laccase isoenzymes (molecular weights from 38 up to 150 kDa); their pattern of production was not affected by medium composition. Although the response was not uniform, vitamin addition sometimes stimulated ligninolytic enzyme production, but never inhibited it. Thiamine induced manganese peroxidase production. T. trogii grown in glutamic acid produced culture filtrates with the highest laccase (188.3 U/ml) and manganese peroxidase activities (4.5 U/ml), rendering the best results in decolorization. These crude filtrates were able to decolorize in half hour (at pH 4.5, 30 degrees C): 13%, 23%, 40%, 46%, 82%, 94% and 95% of Gentian Violet, Xylidine, Congo Red, Malachite Green, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Indigo Carmine and Anthraquinone Blue, respectively. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing anti-microbial properties of wood-plastic composites produced from timber and plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi Sun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface. All the agents showed excellent bactericidal rate (Escherichia coli), yet poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) and silver had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations. In terms of weight loss and strength reduction due to fungal decay (Coriolus versicolor), PolyDADMAC, silver and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) imparted the highest resistance on the WPCs. Moreover, PolyDADMAC and copper provided the most protection against algal growth (Chlorella vulgaris), and the former presented durable inhibitory effect. This study presents a value-added solution to wood/plastic waste recycling.

  20. Fungal pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse with supplements: improvement in lignin degradation, selectivity and enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vartika; Jana, Asim K; Jana, Mithu Maiti; Gupta, Antriksh

    2017-06-01

    Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) from food processing and agricultural industry has attracted the attention for uses in production of biofuel, enzymes and other products. The alteration in lignocellulolytic enzymes by use of supplements in fungal pretreatment of SSB to achieve higher lignin degradation, selectivity value and enzymatic hydrolysis to fermentable sugar was studied. Fungal strain Coriolus versicolor was selected for pretreatment due to high ligninolytic and low cellulolytic enzyme production resulting in high lignin degradation and selectivity value. SSB was pretreated with supplements of veratryl alcohol, syringic acid, catechol, gallic acid, vanillin, guaiacol, CuSO4 and MnSO4. The best results were obtained with CuSO4, gallic acid and syringic acid supplements. CuSO4 increased the activities of laccase (4.9-fold) and polyphenol oxidase (1.9-fold); gallic acid increased laccase (3.5-fold) and manganese peroxidase (2.5-fold); and syringic acid increased laccase (5.6-fold), lignin peroxidase (13-fold) and arylalcohol oxidase (2.8-fold) resulting in enhanced lignin degradations and selectivity values than the control. Reduced cellulolytic enzyme activities resulted in high cellulose recovery. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SSB yielded higher sugar due to degradation of lignin and reduced the crystallinity of cellulose. The study showed that supplements could be used to improve the pretreatment process. The results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis of SSB.

  1. Enhancement in multiple lignolytic enzymes production for optimized lignin degradation and selectivity in fungal pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vartika; Jana, Asim K; Jana, Mithu Maiti; Gupta, Antriksh

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the increase in multiple lignolytic enzyme productions through the use of supplements in combination in pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) by Coriolus versicolor such that enzymes act synergistically to maximize the lignin degradation and selectivity. Enzyme activities were enhanced by metallic salts and phenolic compound supplements in SSF. Supplement of syringic acid increased the activities of LiP, AAO and laccase; gallic acid increased MnP; CuSO4 increased laccase and PPO to improve the lignin degradations and selectivity individually, higher than control. Combination of supplements optimized by RSM increased the production of laccase, LiP, MnP, PPO and AAO by 17.2, 45.5, 3.5, 2.4 and 3.6 folds respectively for synergistic action leading to highest lignin degradation (2.3 folds) and selectivity (7.1 folds). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SSB yielded ∼2.43 times fermentable sugar. This technique could be widely applied for pretreatment and enzyme productions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  3. Effects of different fungal elicitors on growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Pengpeng

    2006-01-01

    Six fungal elicitors prepared from Rhodotorula rubra, Rhodotorula glutinis, Panus conchatus, Coriolus versicolor, Mucor mucedo, Mortieralla alpina M-23 were examined to determine their effects on the growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The results showed that different fungal elicitor could cause diversely stimulating effects. Among the fungal elicitors tested, the M. mucedo elicitor concentration of 30 mg l(-1) promoted the biomass and total carotenoids yield most remarkably, resulting in 69.81+/-6.00% and 78.87+/-4.15% higher than the control, respectively. At the concentration of 30 mg l(-1), R. glutinis elicitor stimulated the highest astaxanthin yield with a 90.60+/-5.98% increase compared to the control. The R. rubra elicitor concentration of 30 mg l(-1) resulted in the optimal total carotenoids and astaxanthin content to be 42.24+/-0.49% and 69.02+/-0.72% higher than the control, respectively. At the concentration of 30 mg l(-1), R. rubra elicitor gave the highest increase in the ratio of astaxanthin in total carotenoids by 18.85+/-0.11% of the control.

  4. Immunomodulatory and antitumor properties of polysaccharide peptide (PSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Piotrowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine successfully uses multiple immunomodulators of natural origin, that can affect biological reactions and support body’s natural defense mechanisms including antitumor activities. Among them is a group of products derived from fungi, including schizophyllan, lentinan, polysaccharide Krestin (PSK, and polysaccharidepeptide (PSP. Present paper is focused on polysaccharidepeptide, which due to the negligible toxicity and numerous benefits for health, is increasingly used in China and Japan as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PSP is a protein-polisaccharide complex with a molecular weight 100 kDa derived from Coriolus versicolor mushroom. The results of numerous studies and clinical trials confirm that it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo settings as well as decreases cancer treatment-related adverse side effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and pain. PSP is able to restore weakened immune response observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Its anti-tumor effects seemed to be mediated through immunomodulatory regulation. PSP stimulates cells of the immune system, induces synthesis of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, histamine, reactive oxygen species and nitrogen mediators. There is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms of PSP action. Because of its unique properties and safety, PSP may become a widely used therapeutic agent in the near future.

  5. Optical potential from first principles

    CERN Document Server

    Rotureau, J; Hagen, G; Nunes, F; Papenbrock, T

    2016-01-01

    We develop a method to construct a microscopic optical potential from chiral interactions for nucleon-nucleus scattering at arbitrary energies. The optical potential is constructed by combining the Green's function approach with the coupled-cluster method. Using this approach, we perform a proof-of-principle calculation of the optical potential for the elastic neutron scattering on $^{16}{\\rm O}$. We verify the convergence of the optical potential and scattering phase shifts with respect to the model-space size and we also investigate the absorptive component of the optical potential. We find an almost negligible absorption at low-energies. To shed light on this result, we computed excited states of $^{16}{\\rm O}$ using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles-and-doubles excitations and we found no low-lying excited states below 10~MeV. We conclude that the reduced absorption at low-energies can be attributed to a lack of correlations coming from the low-order cluster truncation in the employed couple...

  6. Spatiotemporal deformations of reflectionless potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Longhi, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reflectionless potentials for classical or matter waves represent an important class of scatteringless systems encountered in different areas of physics. Here we mathematically demonstrate that there is a family of non-Hermitian potentials that, in contrast to their Hermitian counterparts, remain reflectionless even when deformed in space or time. These are the profiles that satisfy the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations. We start by considering scattering of matter waves for the Schrödinger equation with an external field, where a moving potential is observed in the Kramers-Henneberger reference frame. We then generalize this result to the case of electromagnetic waves, by considering a slab of reflectionless material that both is scaled and has its center displaced as an arbitrary function of position. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that the backscattering from these profiles remains zero, even for extreme deformations. Our results indicate the supremacy of non-Hermitian Kramers-Kronig potentials over reflectionless Hermitian potentials in keeping their reflectionless property under deformation and could find applications to, e.g., reflectionless optical coatings of highly deformed surfaces based on perfect absorption.

  7. [Evoked potentials and inhalation anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Russ, W; Hempelmann, G

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials can be affected by various factors including volatile anaesthetics. These effects have to be considered in order to give correct interpretations of the obtained data. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) will show strong alterations under general anaesthesia whereas brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are slightly affected. The effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) after median nerve stimulation were studied in 35 healthy adult patients. pCO2 and tympanic membrane temperature were held constant. Simultaneous cervical and cortical SEP recording was performed using surface electrodes. After induction of anaesthesia SEP were recorded during normoventilation with 100% oxygen and after inhalation of 66.6% nitrous oxide. 10 patients received halothane at inspired concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. After nitrous oxide had been replaced by oxygen, halothane was reduced in steps of 0.5%. SEP were recorded at the end of each period (15 min). Equipotent doses of enflurane or isoflurane were administered to 15 and 10 patients, respectively. Nitrous oxide depressed early cortical SEP amplitude. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane caused dose dependent increases of latencies. Reduction of amplitude was most pronounced with isoflurane. Using high doses of enflurane in oxygen cortical SEP showed unusual high amplitudes associated with marked increases of latencies. Even under high concentrations of volatile anaesthetics cervical SEP were minimally affected. The effects of anaesthetic gases have to be considered when SEP are recorded intraoperatively.

  8. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  9. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  10. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  11. Pion-deuteron optical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    1981-02-01

    The three-body approach to the single-scattering optical potential proposed by Tandy, Redish, and Bollé is tested in the context of π-d scattering where the various approximations are compared with the exact solution of the Faddeev equations. For π-d scattering we find that the integral equations derived for the Kerman-McManus-Thaler form of the single-scattering optical potential are markedly superior to those of the Watson form. Our analysis includes a study of the convergence properties of the various multiple-scattering series encountered. NUCLEAR REACTIONS π-d optical potential; TRB, KMT, and Watson multiple-scattering series; Faddeev solution comparison.

  12. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  13. Generalized Stillinger--David Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Zhyganiuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved version of the Stillinger--David polarization potential of the intermolecular interaction in water. A clear algorithm of construction of a function describing the oxygen-hydrogen interaction in water molecules is formulated. A new approach to the modeling of a function screening the charge-dipole interaction on small distances is developed. To describe the long-range asymptotics of the intermolecular potential, the bare Stillinger--David potential is supplemented by a term related to the interaction of dipole moments of oxygen ions. In addition, we introduce a term involving a deformation of the electron shells of oxygen ions to the polarization component. These corrections allow us to successfully reproduce all essential results of quantum mechanical calculations of the interaction energy for water molecules obtained by Clementi. Analyzing the behavior of the dipole moment of a water molecule as a function of the intermolecular distance, we obtain the estimate of irreducible two-partic...

  14. Handbook methane potential; Handbok metanpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, Anna (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Before using a organic material for biogas production it is essential to evaluate the methane production potential. The methane potential is one important tool possible to use during planning of new plants but also when new materials are considered for already running biogas plants. The chemical composition of different organic material varies extensively and this will have an impact on both the degradability and the methane potential. Information about the methane potential of a specific material can sometimes be found in the literature or can be calculated after a chemical/ physical or biological characterization. Here, the BMP test (Biochemical Methane Potential) is a commonly used method. Today the BMP test is a commonly used method to determine the methane potential. Many national and international research groups, consultants as well as personal at biogas plants are using this method and there is a lot of data available in the literature from such tests. In addition there are several protocols giving guidelines on how to execute a BMP-test. The BMP-test is performed in many different ways, not always under optimized conditions, and there is a lack of information on how to interpret the obtained data. This report summarizes knowledge from the literature and the experience from a Swedish referee group, consisting of persons being active performers of BMP-tests. The report does not include a standardized protocol as the procedure can be performed in different ways depending on available equipment and on the type of material to be tested. Instead the report discusses different factors of great importance for a successful test giving reliable results. The report also summarizes important information concerning the interpretation and how to present results in order to allow comparison of data from different test.

  15. Antioxidant potential of Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Munish; Garg, Chanchal; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Suresh, B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study is based on the evaluation of antioxidant potential of a well known plant Lactuca sativa. Methanolic leaf extract was investigated for in vitro inhibition of oxidative damage induced by UV-radiations to the salmonella typhi bacteria and in vivo effect on the production of body enzymes i.e. catalase and superoxide dismutase. The lipid peroxidation masurement was also done in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and brain of male albino wistar rats. The plant extract has shown significant antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22557144

  16. Virtual materiality, potentiality and subjctivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2013-01-01

    -activity of such elements in children’s night dreams? These are some of the questions discussed in this text. I bring together Karen Barad’s agential realism and Giorgi Agamben’s concept of potentiality to enable and refine an analytical approach to real-virtual enactments, thereby questioning the potentialities of gaming......How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse and subjectivity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse and subjectivity in children’s everyday lives? How do we understand the intra...

  17. Pion-deuteron optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1981-02-01

    The three-body approach to the single-scattering optical potential proposed by Tandy, Redish, and Bolle is tested in the context of ..pi..-d scattering where the various approximations are compared with the exact solution of the Faddeev equations. For ..pi..-d scattering we find that the integral equations derived for the Kerman-McManus-Thaler form of the single-scattering optical potential are markedly superior to those of the Watson form. Our analysis includes a study of the convergence properties of the various multiple-scattering series encountered.

  18. Translating barriers into potential improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Hansen, Karina Birch; Valsdottir, Thora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by young adults and the parents of young children. Knowledge of these barriers will be used to assist the development of new...... to lead to practical input The present study combines qualitative methods to lead to practical input for NPD focusing on overcoming the barriers that keep consumers from choosing existing healthy seafood products. The importance of the consumers' confidence in their ability to successfully prepare...

  19. Field Analysis and Potential Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    T T T 430 FIELD ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL THEORY [Sec.5.7 But V2f [ dT - Z j V2 Jxdr T T hence V c2at 7- dT _- J2 (J2 dT T TT whence dalf [13 dT " 0 (5.7...8) at exterior points or dal pot [2] - O (5.7-8(a)) Similarly, dalf r dS - 0 (5.7-9) dal [y] ds - 0 (5.7-10) r Sec.5.7] RETARDED POTENTIAL THEORY 431

  20. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  1. Imagined Potentialities of Healthcare Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    lives. These complex and often conflicting imagined potentialities lead to inflicted burden on designers, policy makers and healthcare practitioners who are faced with different realities on the ground. The conflicting notions have real life effects as these impact our present understanding of...... improvement in care keeps people engaged in continuous efforts of reproducing the project instantiations. Gradually, what the EHR technologies actually do or do not do become to some degree less significant. In other words, that which is imagined can be transformed into real. Finally, imagined potentialities...

  2. Neurotechnology premises, potential, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, James

    2012-01-01

    New technologies that allow us to investigate mechanisms and functions of the brain have shown considerable promise in treating brain disease and injury. These emerging technologies also provide a means to assess and manipulate human consciousness, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, bringing with them the potential to transform society. Neurotechnology: Premises, Potential, and Problems explores the technical, moral, legal, and sociopolitical issues that arise in and from today,s applications of neuroscience and technology and discusses their implications for the future. Some of the issues r

  3. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    similar fertility potentials were found in adulthood. Five of the 65 patients (7.7%, 95% confidence limits 2.5 to 17%) may experience infertility, representing 33% of both groups with less than 1% of the age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (approximately no germ cells......) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility. Otherwise...

  4. Anisotropic Inflation with General Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jiaming; Qiu, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  5. Evoked Potentials and Human Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, John P.; Schafer, Edward W. P.

    Evidence of a relationship between the electrical responses of the human brain and psychometric measure of intelligence is presented. These involuntary cortical responses, known as average evoked potentials are considered to be the electrical signs of information processing by the brain. The time delays of these responses from presentation of a…

  6. LHC Physics Potential versus Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

  7. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic, soci

  8. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    ) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility. Otherwise...

  9. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2....

  10. Unleashing the Potential of SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption...

  11. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  12. Quantum mechanics without potential function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhaidari, A. D., E-mail: haidari@sctp.org.sa [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 32741, Jeddah 21438 (Saudi Arabia); Ismail, M. E. H. [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    In the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, one starts by proposing a potential function that models the physical system. The potential is then inserted into the Schrödinger equation, which is solved for the wavefunction, bound states energy spectrum, and/or scattering phase shift. In this work, however, we propose an alternative formulation in which the potential function does not appear. The aim is to obtain a set of analytically realizable systems, which is larger than in the standard formulation and may or may not be associated with any given or previously known potential functions. We start with the wavefunction, which is written as a bounded infinite sum of elements of a complete basis with polynomial coefficients that are orthogonal on an appropriate domain in the energy space. Using the asymptotic properties of these polynomials, we obtain the scattering phase shift, bound states, and resonances. This formulation enables one to handle not only the well-known quantum systems but also previously untreated ones. Illustrative examples are given for two- and three-parameter systems.

  13. Synthesis of potential mescaline antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, F; Nieforth, K A

    1976-10-01

    1-[2-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-pyrroline, 2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, N-n-propylmescaline, N-cyclopropylmethylmescaline, and N-allylmescaline were synthesized as potential mescaline antagonists. The ability of these compounds to antagonize mescaline-induced disruption of swim behavior is also given.

  14. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, György, E-mail: szabo@mfa.kfki.hu; Borsos, István, E-mail: borsos@mfa.kfki.hu

    2016-04-05

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  15. Assessment of triton potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L

    1996-01-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  16. Assessment of Triton Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, J. L.; Payne, G. L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  17. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2...

  18. Potential Theory for Directed Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii) We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation. PMID:23408979

  19. Das immunsuppressive Potential von Dopaminrezeptoragonisten

    OpenAIRE

    Gronen, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminagonisten (DA) werden als Therapie beim idiopathischen Parkinson Syndrom und auch bei anderen chronischen ZNS-Erkrankungen zunehmend eingesetzt. Wenig Aufmerksamkeit wurde bisher auf die klinische Auswirkung des bekannten, immunsuppressiven Potentials der DA verwand. In vitro Experimente, Untersuchungen an Tiermodellen und auch kleinere klinische Pilot-Untersuchungen bei immunvermittelten Erkrankungen, z.B. der rheumatoiden...

  20. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  1. Refined Factorizations of Solvable Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, J; Rosas-Ortiz, O

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the factorization technique is shown to be a powerful algebraic tool to discover further properties of a class of integrable systems in Quantum Mechanics. The method is applied in the study of radial oscillator, Morse and Coulomb potentials to obtain a wide set of raising and lowering operators, and to show clearly the connection that link these systems.

  2. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  3. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic,

  4. Geothermal heat. Potential, danger, efficiency; Erdwaerme. Potential, Gefahr, Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbuero Timmer Reichel GmbH, Haan (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the potential, danger and utilization of geothermal heat. Geothermal heat promises the solution of numerous energy problems. From the use of near-surface layers which substantially are affected by enviromental impacts such as solar radiation up to the depth use of the heat flow from the interior of the earth, there exist very different energy sources which are to be considered separately for each application.

  5. The hydrogeothermal potential of Southern Hesse; Das hydrogeothermische Potential Suedhessens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzer, C.; Fluhrer, S.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    The paper investigates rock series suited as storage media and the temperature distribution in the subsurface of Southern Hesse. It gives an idea of the possibilities for hydrogeothermal energy use in the area. The densily populated Rhein-Main-region provides a good demand potential for geothermal heat. A substantially elevated geothermal gradient of about 60 K/km as compared to the continental average of 30 K/km could be demonstrated in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben. Thermal anomalies could be localised. The Rotliegend-layers (Perm) provide the highest geothermal ressources in the region. In more shallow depth, the Hydrobia layers (Teritary) show reasonable values. To the north, the potential of these series decreases. Hence hydrogeothermal energy use should not be considered in the northern part of Southern Hesse. The highest potential can be expected from the Rotliegend layers in the area of Stockstadt and Biebesheim. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung geht auf die moeglichen Speichergesteine und die Temperaturverteilung im Untergrund Suedhessens ein und gibt einen ersten Eindruck von den Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie in der Region. Fuer geothermische Waerme besteht im dicht besiedelten Rhein-Main-Gebiet eine gute Abnehmerstruktur. Im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben konnte im Mittel ein deutlich erhoehter Temperaturgradient von etwa 60 K/km gegenueber dem kontinentalen Krustendurchschnittswert von 30 K/km nachgewiesen werden. Waemeanomalien wurden lokalisiert. Die Rotliegendschichten weisen im untersuchten Gebiet eindeutig die hoechsten Ressourcen auf. In geringerer Tiefenlage erzielen die Hydrobienschichten noch beachtliche Werte. Nach Norden nimmt das Potential der Schichten ab. Daher ist von einer Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie im noerdlichen Bereich Suedhessens eher abzuraten. Die hoechsten Ressourcen in Suedhessen sind im Bereich von Stockstadt und Biebesheim in den Rotliegenschichten zu erwarten. (orig.)

  6. Decoupling Action Potential Bias from Cortical Local Field Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiologists have recently become interested in studying neuronal population activity through local field potential (LFP recordings during experiments that also record the activity of single neurons. This experimental approach differs from early LFP studies because it uses high impendence electrodes that can also isolate single neuron activity. A possible complication for such studies is that the synaptic potentials and action potentials of the small subset of isolated neurons may contribute disproportionately to the LFP signal, biasing activity in the larger nearby neuronal population to appear synchronous and cotuned with these neurons. To address this problem, we used linear filtering techniques to remove features correlated with spike events from LFP recordings. This filtering procedure can be applied for well-isolated single units or multiunit activity. We illustrate the effects of this correction in simulation and on spike data recorded from primary auditory cortex. We find that local spiking activity can explain a significant portion of LFP power at most recording sites and demonstrate that removing the spike-correlated component can affect measurements of auditory tuning of the LFP.

  7. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  8. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  9. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  10. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL, etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.

  11. On the blackhole dynamic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kabe, Koustubh Ajit

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, certain blackhole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of blackhole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental blackhole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats and have been defined. For a blackhole, these quantities are negative. The equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the blackhole, the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function, and the surface gravity, has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in blackhole spacetimes that ....

  12. Dark Matter and Potential fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, I

    2004-01-01

    A general concept of potential field is introduced. The potential field that one puts in correspondence with dark matter, has fundamental geometrical interpretation (parallel transport) and has intrinsically inherent in local symmetry. The equations of dark matter field are derived that are invariant with respect to the local transformations. It is shown how to reduce these equations to the Maxwell equations. Thus, the dark matter field may be considered as generalized electromagnetic field and a simple solution is given of the old problem to connect electromagnetic field with geometrical properties of the physical manifold itself. It is shown that gauge fixing renders generalized electromagnetic field effectively massive while the Maxwell electromagnetic field remains massless. To learn more about interactions between matter and dark matter on the microscopical level (and to recognize the fundamental role of internal symmetry) the general covariant Dirac equation is derived in the Minkowski space--time which...

  13. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Emerging markets trigger great expectations. Many foreign multinationals are eager to exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities potentially related to less developed but fast growing markets. This is not a new phenomenon. Multinationals from more developed countries have for long searched...... potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks...... for opportunities in less developed markets and have dealt with the related challenges. Foreign environments with different needs and capabilities, unstable institutions and policies, stark fluctuations in the macroeconomic environment and unrealistic expectations are just some of the obstacles for ‘turning...

  14. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebatch, J G; Rosengren, S M; Welgampola, M S

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is a short-latency potential evoked through activation of vestibular receptors using sound or vibration. It is generated by modulated electromyographic signals either from the sternocleidomastoid muscle for the cervical VEMP (cVEMP) or the inferior oblique muscle for the ocular VEMP (oVEMP). These reflexes appear to originate from the otolith organs and thus complement existing methods of vestibular assessment, which are mainly based upon canal function. This review considers the basis, methodology, and current applications of the cVEMP and oVEMP in the assessment and diagnosis of vestibular disorders, both peripheral and central. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  16. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  17. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.

  18. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  19. Bioluminescence Potential Modeling and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    bioluminescence in the wakes of ships, breaking waves, around the bodies of rapidly moving fish and mammals , and from simple agitation of the water with one’s hand...history of brilliant displays of bioluminescence in the wakes of ships, breaking waves, around the bodies of rapidly moving fish and mammals , and from...during the earlier stages of upwelling development. Later, the observed deep offshore BL potential maximum disappeared and became a shallower and much

  20. Potential Theory in Classical Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In Maxwell's classical theory of electrodynamics the fields are frequently expressed by potentials in order to facilitate the solution of the first order system of equations. This method obscures, however, that there exists an inconsistency between Faraday's law of induction and Maxwell's flux law. As a consequence of this internal contradiction there is neither gauge invariance, nor exist unique solutions in general. It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous wave equations cannot be solved by retarded integrals.

  1. ADVERGAMES: CHARACTERISTICS, LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Advergames represent a new advertising concept that uses Internet technology to implement viral marketing campaigns. Despite the potential of this interactive advertising method, very few academic studies have been initiated to investigate the characteristics of advergames, and their influence on consumers’ perceptions and behaviour. Using secondary data, this paper attempts to evaluate the characteristics of effective advergames, and to analyse the effect of advergames on players’ perceptions and behaviour.

  2. Potential for domestic heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, K. T., Jr.; Tsai, G. J.

    1981-11-01

    The potential for reducing gas-fired heating costs by the use of waste heat is discussed. A heat recovery heat exchanger can be installed to recover waste heat from the hot exhaust gases going up the flue pipe from a furnace, water heater, or clothes dryer. Some specific designs are described for heat recovery equipment. Specific design and performance of the Hallofin heat exchanger and the heat pipe heat exchanger are evaluated.

  3. Time Perception and Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    ARI Research Note 88-69 0 MitnS.Ktohe U.0 ... Ann-r (. Time Perception and Evoked Potentials Paul FraisseDT ( Lfniversit6 Rene Descartes E LECTE...JOHNSON 00L, [N Technical Dicctojr Cmad Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army C. Universite Rene Descartes , Paris )r...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Labrato-ire de Psychologie Experimental AREA• WORK UNIT NUMBERS Universite Rene Descartes

  4. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  5. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  6. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    OpenAIRE

    La Bounty Paul M; Campbell Bill I; Roberts Mike

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1) its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2) its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3) its role in augmenting n...

  7. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  8. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  9. Potentiality, Actuality, and Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Koznjak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a possible interpretative value of Aristotle’s fundamental ontological doctrine of potentiality (δύναµις and actuality (ἐνέργεια is considered in the context of operationally undoubtedly the most successful but interpretatively still controversial theory of modern physics – quantum mechanics – especially regarding understanding the nature of the world, the phenomena of which it describes and predicts so successfully. In particular, beings of the atomic world are interpreted as real potential beings (δυνάµει ὄντα actualized by the measurement process in appropriate experimental arrangement, and the problem of actual beings (ἐνεργείᾳ ὄντα of the atomic world (better known as the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered in the context of Aristotle’s threefold requirement for the priority of actuality over potentiality – in time (χρόνος, definition or knowledge (λόγος, and substantiality (οὐσία.

  10. Amplitude recruitment of cochlear potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingqi; SUN Wei; SUN Jianhe; YU Ning; JIANG Sichang

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from outer hair cells (OHC) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were recorded from scala media (SM) in three turn of guinea pig cochlea,the compound action potential (CAP) were recorded at the round window (RW) before and after the animal were exposed to white noise. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties with “saduration” of Input/output (I/O) function of OHC AC recepter potential and CM were founded; the nonlinear properties with “Low”, “Platean” and “high” of CAP also were investigated. After explosion, the threshold shift of CAP has about 10 dB. The I/O of OHC responses and CM were changed in a linearizing (i.e., nonlinearity loss), the “platean” of I/O CAP disappeared and the growth rate of CAP amplitude were larger than before explosion. The response amplitude recruitment of OHC appears to result from reduction in gain (i.e., hearing loss); It was due to the nonlinear growth function of OHC receptor potentials was changed in linearzing that the basilar membrance motion was changed in linearizing. Since intensity coding in the inner ear depends on an interactions of nonlinear basilar membrance and nerve fibers. So that it must lead to a linearizing of CAP as input responses.

  11. Cannabinoids and their medicinal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Tikoo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L preparations have been used therapeutically since many years. Inspite of their medicinal value, the danger of its abusive potential led to the ban on its use in clinical practice in many countries. The recent research and in depth knowledge about the cannabinoid system which throw a light on their disease management potential has paved way for the cannabinoids to become a new therapeutic focus of attention. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors which include CB1, predominantly expressed in the brain and CB2 which is primarily found in the cells of the immune system. Despite the addictive properties of cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside. Numerous diseases such as anorexia, pain, inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, hepatic disorders, skin related diseases, respiratory disorders like asthma and eye diseases like glaucoma have suggested cannabinoid agonists/ antagonists/ cannabinoids related compounds as potential treatment options. Developments of new specific ligands for the cannabinoid receptors are now underway and it needs to be seen, if in future, they can prove to be a boon for the medical world. The paper reviews the current understanding of the cannabinoid receptors, their ligands and their possible role in various diseases supported by preclinical and clinical studies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 48-59

  12. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Momčilo

    2016-01-01

    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without "touching" them. Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: They can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop--absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid--we are free to ...

  13. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2016-12-09

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately.

  14. Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Bio-potential amplifier for potential gradient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Andrea N; Spinelli, Enrique M; Muravchik, Carlos H [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This work proposes a bio-potential amplifier suitable for measurements from an electric potential gradient sensor, in electro-encephalography (EEG). The sensor is an array made by three electrodes placed on the vertices of an equilateral triangle of reduced size. Measuring the gradient requires small separation between electrodes hence, very low amplitude signals, of a few {mu}V, are obtained. Therefore, it is important to minimize amplifier noise and electromagnetic interference effects. In the proposed scheme, the first stage is a passive and balanced ac-coupling network adapted to the gradient configuration and the second stage is an 80 dB gain amplifier. The implementation requires a reduced number of components. Therefore, the circuit can be mounted just above the electrodes (active electrodes). The proposed amplifier was built and tested. It achieves a CMRR of 125dB at 50 Hz and an equivalent input noise voltage of 0,3{mu}V RMS in the band 0.5 - 500 Hz. Finally, some preliminary results in the detection of occipital alpha rhythm are presented.

  16. The dynamic polarization potential and dynamical non-locality in nuclear potentials: Deuteron-nucleus potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mackintosh, R S

    2016-01-01

    The consequences for direct reactions of the dynamical non-locality generated by the excitation of the target and projectile are much less studied than the effects of non-locality arising from exchange processes. Here we are concerned with the dynamical non-locality due to projectile excitation in deuteron induced reactions. The consequences of this non-locality can be studied by the comparison of deuteron induced direct reactions calculated with alternative representations of the elastic channel wave functions: (i) the elastic channel wave functions from coupled channel (CC) calculations involving specific reaction processes, and, (ii) elastic channel wave functions calculated from local potentials that exactly reproduce the elastic scattering $S$-matrix from the same CC calculations. In this work we produce the local equivalent deuteron potentials required for the study of direct reactions involving deuterons. These will enable the study of the effects of dynamical non-locality following a method previously...

  17. Potential neuroprotective effects of cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Crews Stavinoha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases involves complex interactions between multiple mechanisms, including but not limited to oxidative stress, inflammation, and proteotoxicity, which have yet to be ameliorated by pharmaceutical drugs with single targets. Natural products have been recognized for their health promoting effects for thousands of years. Plants produce a vast collection of secondary products, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and terpenes that have shown health benefits in a variety of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the search for more effective and safe treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases, several dietary sources of phytochemicals have been investigated. Historical usage in traditional medicine, along with modern research has identified several key products with potential benefits in neurodegenerative diseases. Among the dietary sources, cinnamon shows particular merit as a therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggesting neuroprotective effects via modulation of various risk factors relevant to neurodegeneration has been reviewed here. Industrial relevance. Cinnamon has been cherished for its health-promoting effects for thousands of years. Today, while modern medicine provides critical pharmaceutical agents that have assisted in ameliorating many diseases and extended the average lifespan significantly in the past century, these agents are associated with many side effects and expenses. As such, the search for efficient therapies with limited side effects is a significant target of research. Cinnamon, as a rich source of phytochemicals and long history in traditional medicine, has been a popular spice in recent decades for investigations elucidating its health-promoting effects. This review evaluates the therapeutic potential of cinnamon in ameliorating the risk factors responsible for the development

  18. Ethnography: principles, practice and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Jan

    2015-05-06

    Ethnography is a methodology that is gaining popularity in nursing and healthcare research. It is concerned with studying people in their cultural context and how their behaviour, either as individuals or as part of a group, is influenced by this cultural context. Ethnography is a form of social research and has much in common with other forms of qualitative enquiry. While classical ethnography was characteristically concerned with describing 'other' cultures, contemporary ethnography has focused on settings nearer to home. This article outlines some of the underlying principles and practice of ethnography, and its potential for nursing and healthcare practice.

  19. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  20. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Bounty Paul M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1 its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2 its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3 its role in augmenting nitric oxide. These aspects of arginine supplementation will be discussed as well as a review of clinical investigations involving exercise performance and arginine ingestion.