Sample records for coregonus autumnalis pallas

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) (United States)

    Ramey, A.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.


    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis). (United States)

    Ramey, A; Graziano, S L; Nielsen, J L


    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco. © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd No claim to original US government works.

  3. Genetic stock assessment of spawning arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) populations by flow cytometric determination of DNA content. (United States)

    Lockwood, S F; Bickham, J W


    Intraspecific variation in cellular DNA content was measured in five Coregonus autumnalis spawning populations from the Mackenzie River drainage, Canada, using flow cytometry. The rivers assayed were the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, Carcajou, and Liard rivers. DNA content was determined from whole blood preparations of fish from all rivers except the Carcajou, for which kidney tissue was used. DNA content measurements of kidney and blood preparations of the same fish from the Mountain River revealed statistically indistinguishable results. Mosaicism was found in blood preparations from the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, and Liard rivers, but was not observed in kidney tissue preparations from the Mountain or Carcajou rivers. The Liard River sample had significantly elevated mean DNA content relative to the other four samples; all other samples were statistically indistinguishable. Significant differences in mean DNA content among spawning stocks of a single species reinforces the need for adequate sample sizes of both individuals and populations when reporting "C" values for a particular species.

  4. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.


    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  5. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences. (United States)

    von Biela, V R; Zimmerman, C E; Moulton, L L


    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r² = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r² = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r² = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  6. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Moulton, L. L.


    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r2 = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r2 = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r2 = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels.

  7. Arctic Cisco, Coregonus autumnalis, distribution, migration and spawning in the Mackenzie River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillinger, R.E. Jr.; Birt, T.P.; Green, J.M.


    Oil exploration along the Beaufort Sea coast of North America has raised interest in populations of Arctic Cisco. A synopsis is presented of research on Arctic Cisco distributions and spawning activities in the Mackenzie River system. The distribution, migration, and spawning activities of Arctic Cisco in the tributaries of the Mackenzie River system were found to be more extensive than previously reported. The Peel River population had the earliest migration time, mid-July; however, a small movement of mature males upriver also occurred there in mid-September. Major movements of mature males and females took place in both late July and early to mid-Spetember in the Arctic Red River. Migrations in the other river systems occurred in late August and early September. Arctic Ciscoes in the only river south of Great Bear Lake that has been found to contain this species, the Liard River, may show a mixed life history strategy. The apparently long distance the fish must swim, the lack of any known populations in any of the rivers between the Liard and the Great Bear rivers, and the lack of evidence of migrations past Fort Simpson suggest that this population may contain non-anadromous forms. No actual spawning was seen in any of the populations, but possible areas were noted, one in the Peel River and one in the Liard River. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Fatty Acid Composition and Contents of Seven Commercial Fish Species of Genus Coregonus from Russian Subarctic Water Bodies. (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Glushchenko, Larisa A; Rudchenko, Anastasia E; Makhrov, Alexander A; Borovikova, Elena A; Dgebuadze, Yury Y


    In several Russian northern lakes and rivers, Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis, least cisco C. sardinella, peled C. peled, tugun C. tugun, broad whitefish C. nasus, whitefish C. lavaretus and vendace C. albula were sampled in periods of officially permitted commercial fishery. Special attention was paid to contents (mg g -1 of wet weight) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in muscle tissues (filets), which are essential for human nutrition. The highest values of EPA + DHA content in semi-anadromous fish and freshwater fish were recorded for C. autumnalis from the Yenisei River, 17.60 mg g -1 wet weight, and for C. lavaretus from the Sobachye Lake, 16.61 mg g -1 wet weight, respectively. Intra-genus variations of EPA + DHA contents of Coregonus species were from 1.87 to 17.60 mg g -1 wet weight. Since the congeneric species were genetically close to each other, the variations in EPA and DHA contents were thought to be caused primarily by ecological factors: migrational capability, type of feeding and trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. In general, the majority of studied species appeared to be of a high nutritive value for humans, although unfavorable environmental conditions could considerably diminish this value.

  9. Micropropagation and vasorelaxant activity of Laelia autumnalis (Orchidaceae). (United States)

    Vergara-Galicia, Jorge; Aguirre-Crespo, Francisco; Castillo-España, Patricia; Arroyo-Mora, Aurora; López-Escamilla, Ana Laura; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Estrada-Soto, Samuel


    A simple and efficient protocol has been developed in order to obtain healthy seedlings by asymbiotic germination of seeds from Laelia autumnalis. Seeds from mature capsules were germinated asymbiotically after being cultured on full- or half-strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium, without plant growth regulators and with 3.0% or 1.5% of sucrose. The percentage of germinated seeds (% GS) was recorded during 6 weeks using three different conditions of incubation: light (80% GS, p < 0.05), darkness (30% GS) and white light photoperiod (100% GS, p < 0.05). The best seed germination percentages were found on the light and white light photoperiod conditions. Moreover, we also investigated the vasorelaxant action of the methanolic extracts from wild L. autumnalis (roots, pseudobulbs and leaves) and plantlets generated in vitro. Results showed that the methanolic extract of roots and pseudobulbs produced a significant vasodilator effect, in a concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent manner on norepinephrine (NE) and potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions in rat aortic thoracic rings. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract of leaves and plantlets showed no relevant vasorelaxant activity. Therefore, the results suggest that pseudobulbs and roots were the main tissues of the plant where vasorelaxant compounds are stored.

  10. The Pallas business case between dreams and reality; De Pallas business case tussen droom en werkelijkheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.


    This report provides an overview of government policies in Canada and the Netherlands and international policies for securing the supply of medical isotopes. LAKA comments these policies with findings from own research. LAKA also identifies production methods - accelerators or research reactor - for the short and longer term that show the most benefit for recovery and ensure continuity in the supply of medical isotopes. This report also is an attempt to restart the debate on the future of medical isotope production in the Netherlands. According to LAKA the business case for the Pallas reactor is based on unrealistic positive assumptions and concludes that the Pallas reactor should not secure the supply of medical isotopes but the future of nuclear energy in the Netherlands [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van zowel het overheidsbeleid in Canada als in Nederland, en het internationale beleid voor het veiligstellen van de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Het voorziet deze van commentaar met bevindingen uit eigen onderzoek en stelt vast welke productiemethode - versnellers of onderzoeksreactor - op de korte en de langere termijn het meeste profijt biedt voor herstel en waarborging van de continuïteit in de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Met dit rapport wil de stichting Laka een poging doen om alsnog een debat op gang te brengen over de toekomst van medische isotopenproductie in Nederland. Volgens Laka is de business case voor de Pallas reactor gebaseerd op onrealistische positieve aannames en concludeert dan ook dat de Pallas reactor niet de aanvoer van medische isotopen maar de toekomst van kernenergie in Nederland veilig moet stellen.

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats. (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The PALLAS research and isotope reactor project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Schaaf, B.; De Jong, P.


    In the European Union the first generation research reactors is nearing their end of life condition. Several committees recommend a comprehensive set of reactors in the EU, amongst them the replacement for the HFR research and isotope reactor in Petten: PALLAS. The business case for PALLAS supports a future for a research and isotope reactor in Petten as a perfect fit for the future EU set of test reactors. The tender for PALLAS started in 2007, following the EU rules for tendering complex objects with the competitive dialogue. This procedure involved an extensive consultation phase between individual tendering companies and NRG, resulting in definitive specifications in summer 2008. The evaluation of offers, including conceptual designs, took place in summer 2009. At present NRG is still active in the acquisition of the funding for the project. The licensing path has been started in autumn 2009 with a initiation note on the environmental impact assessment, EIA. The public hearings held in the lead to the advice from the national EIA committee for the approach of the assessment. The PALLAS project team in Petten will guide the design and build processes. It is also responsible for the licensing of the building and operation of PALLAS. The team also manages the design and construction for the infrastructure, such as cooling devices, including remnant heat utilization, and utility provisions. A particular responsibility for the team is the design and construction of experimental and isotope capsules, based on launch customer requirements. (author)

  13. Trombicula autumnalis (isangos en un jardín de niños de la selva peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán


    Full Text Available Los isangos (Trombicula autumnalis son conocidos popularmente en la selva peruana pero no se ha documentado su frecuencia. Se realizó un estudio transversal en un caserío de Lamas, región San Martín, se evaluó a 18 menores de cinco años los cuales todos tenían lesiones producidas por isangos, estos ejemplares fueron remitidos al Instituto Nacional de Salud los cuales fueron identificados como T. autumnalis. Se evaluó también a escolares y población adulta de esa localidad encontrando que 56/70 niños y 85/130 adultos tenían lesiones compatibles por infestación con T. autumnalis. Las zonas más afectadas fueron las piernas, ingle y nalg

  14. Purification of a N-acetyl-D-galactosamine specific lectin from the orchid Laelia autumnalis. (United States)

    Zenteno, R; Chávez, R; Portugal, D; Páez, A; Lascurain, R; Zenteno, E


    From the pseudobulbs of the orchid L. autumnalis a lectin was purified on immobilized porcine mucin with A + H blood group substance. This lectin is a dimeric glycoprotein of M(r) 12,000 with an Sw,20 of 2.2, showing haemagglutinating activity directed mainly to human A1 desialylated erythrocytes. The lectin possesses sugar specificity for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and also shows high specificity for glycoproteins containing the T (galactose beta 1,3GA1NAc alpha 1,0 Ser/Thr) or the Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha 1,0 Ser/Thr).

  15. Enhancing Growth in Eucomis autumnalis (Mill. Chitt. Seedlings with Exogenous Application of Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salachna Piotr


    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a molecule that regulates biological processes in plants and may be used in horticultural practice as a potential plant growth regulator. Eucomis autumnalis (Mill. Chitt., also known as pineapple lily, is a member of the Asparagaceae and native to South Africa. Pineapple lily are well suited for production as pot plants, cut flowers, and garden plants. The potential also exists for this species to be used as a medicinal plant. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the NO donor of sodium nitroprusside (SNP on morphological features of E. autumnalis seedlings. The plants grown in a greenhouse were drenched four times, at weekly intervals, with SNP solutions of the following concentration: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μM. The study revealed that the application of SNP significantly improved greenness index of leaves, leaf length, and leaf fresh weight, as compared to the control at all levels. This treatment also showed a significant increase in bulb and root fresh weight, root number, and root length. Application of SNP at 200 μM increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent.

  16. Gamma irradiation of the face fly Musca autumnalis DeGeer (Diptera: Muscidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.J.


    Pupae of the face fly were irradiated at 5 days of age using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of radiation dose on the fertility and longevity of the resulting adults. An irradiation dose of 2.5 krad induced permanent sterility in both males and females without affecting their longevity significantly. Competitive and mating tests indicated that males irradiated at 2.5 krad were as competitive as normal males. A colony of flies was infected with the nematode parasite, Heterotylenchus autumnalis Nickle. Irradiation of parasitized, 5-day-old pupae, indicated that the parasite was not adversely affected by radiation doses of 1.0 and 2.5 krad. (author)

  17. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope. (United States)

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A


    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska. (United States)

    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A


    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed Φ ST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Prima segnalazione di Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) per la Toscana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)


    Vergari, Sebastiano; Vergari, Simone; Dondini, Gianna; Carotti, Giovanni


    First record of Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) for Tuscany (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). The presence in Tuscany of the katydid Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) is recorded for the first time. Saga pedo is considered a vulnerable species in the EU and it is included in Annex IV of Council Directive 92/43/EEC.

  20. Dividing the pie: differential dung pat size utilization by sympatric Haematobia irritans and Musca autumnalis. (United States)

    Fowler, F E; Mullens, B A


    Horn flies [Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) (L.)] and face flies [Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) De Geer] use the same larval resource, but their interactions are poorly studied. Dung pats (n = 350) were core sampled in the summers of 2012 and 2013 from irrigated pastures in Pomona, California, U.S.A. (34°03'N, 117°48'W) and held for face fly and horn fly emergence. Surface areas and estimated weights were recorded for each whole pat. Almost half (42.0%) of the pat cores yielded neither fly, 29.7% yielded horn flies only, 12.9% yielded face flies only and 15.4% yielded both flies. Of the fly-positive pats, surface area and mass were larger for face fly-occupied pats, whereas horn fly-occupied pats were smaller. Pats shared by the two species were intermediate. Horn flies per positive core were unaffected by the absence/presence of face flies, but half as many face flies emerged when pats were co-inhabited by horn flies. Face flies inhabited larger pats, which might better resist heating and drying, to which they are susceptible; horn flies inhabited a broad pat size range. Horn fly tolerance of lower dung moisture probably allows horn flies to colonize and survive in a wide range of pats in dry areas like southern California. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.


    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  2. Cycle-characteristic odour of cow urine can be detected by the female face fly (Musca autumnalis). (United States)

    Nordéus, K; Webster, B; Söderquist, L; Båge, R; Glinwood, R


    Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus-specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two-choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1-hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1-hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1-hexadecanol concentration. © 2014 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Genetic structure of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Michigan (United States)

    VanDeHey, J.A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Peeters, Paul J.; Sutton, T.M.


    Genetic relationships among lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) spawning aggregates in Lake Michigan were assessed and used to predict a stock or management unit (MU) model for the resource. We hypothesized that distinct spawning aggregates represented potential MUs and that differences at molecular markers underlie population differentiation. Genetic stock identification using 11 microsatellite loci indicated the presence of six genetic MUs. Resolved MUs corresponded to geographically proximate spawning aggregates clustering into genetic groups. Within MUs, analyses suggested that all but one delineated MU was a stable grouping (i.e., no between-population differences), with the exception being the Hog Island - Traverse Bay grouping. Elk Rapids was the most genetically divergent population within Lake Michigan. However, low F st values suggested that moderate to high levels of gene flow occur or have occurred in the past between MUs. Significant tests of isolation by distance and low pairwise Fst values potentially led to conflicting results between traditional analyses and a Bayesian approach. This data set could provide baseline data from which a comprehensive mixed-stock analysis could be performed, allowing for more efficient and effective management of this economically and socially important resource.

  4. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America (United States)

    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.


    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  5. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) (United States)

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.


    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  6. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activities of Laelia autumnalis are mainly through calcium channel blockade. (United States)

    Vergara-Galicia, Jorge; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Castillo-España, Patricia; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Gallardo-Ortiz, Itzell; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Estrada-Soto, Samuel


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant action of methanol extract from Laelia autumnalis (MELa) in isolated rat aortic rings, and to establish its antihypertensive activity in vivo. MELa (0.15-->50 microg/mL) induced relaxation in aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM), showing an IC50 value of 34.61+/-1.41 microg/mL and E max value of 85.0+/-4.38% (in endothelium-intact rings) and an IC50 value of 45.11+/-4.17 microg/mL and E max value of 80.0+/-12.1% (in endothelium-denuded rings). Serotonin (5-HT, 1 x 10(-4) M) provoked sustained contraction, which was markedly inhibited by MELa (0.15-->50 microg/mL) in a concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent manner. Pretreatment with MELa (15, 46, 150, 300 and 1500 microg/mL) also inhibited contractile responses to norepinephrine (NE 1 x 10(-11) M to 1 x 10(-5.5) M). In endothelium-denuded rings, the vasorelaxant effect of MELa was reduced partially by ODQ (1 microM), but not by tetraethylammonium (5 microM), glibenclamide (10 microM), and 2-aminopyridine (100 microM). The extract also reduced NE-induced transient contraction in Ca2+-free solution, and inhibited contraction induced by increasing external calcium in Ca2+-free medium plus high KCl (80 mM). The antihypertensive effect of MELa was determined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A single oral administration of the extract (100 mg/kg) exhibited a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (p<0.05) in SHR rats. Our results suggest that MELa induces relaxation in rat aortic rings through an endothelium-independent pathway, involving blockade of Ca2+ channels and a possible cGMP enhanced concentrations and also causes an antihypertensive effect.

  7. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.


    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  8. Apoptosis in Postovulatory Follicles of Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kaptaner


    Full Text Available İnci kefali Chalcalburnus tarichi, Pallas, 1811 postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptoz. Bu çalışmada, inci kefali (Chalcalburnus tarichi postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptoz, TUNEL boyama ve agaroz jel elektroforez metodları ile araştırıldı ve plazma 17β-estradiol (E2 seviyesi ovulasyondan sonra 1., 3. ve 5. günlerde belirlendi. Postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptotik hücreler, histolojik kesitlerde, ovulasyondan sonra 1. günde işaretlendi ve apoptozun çoğunlukla granuloza nadiren de teka hücrelerinde meydana geldiği belirlendi. Apoptozun işareti olan oligonükleozomal büyüklükteki DNA parçalanması ovulasyondan sonra 1., 3. ve 5. günlerde gözlendi. Ovulasyon anında oligonükleozomal DNA parçalanması gözlenmezken, 3. ve 5. günlerde bu parçalanmanın belirgin olduğu görüldü. Plazma E2 seviyesi ovulasyondan sonra dereceli olarak düştü. Bu düşüş 3. ve 5. günlerde önemliydi (P

  9. Ontogenetic differentiation of swimming performance and behaviour in relation to habitat availability in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Schulz, Carsten


    The survival of the highly endangered, anadromous fish species North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus) depends on the correct timing of downstream dispersal during its early ontogenetic stages. To date, however, no studies have investigated the ontogenetic differentiation of swimming performance...

  10. Comparative Genomics of Thalassobius Including the Description of Thalassobius activus sp. nov., and Thalassobius autumnalis sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pujalte


    Full Text Available A taxogenomic study was conducted to describe two new Thalassobius species and to analyze the internal consistency of the genus Thalassobius along with Shimia and Thalassococcus. Strains CECT 5113T, CECT 5114, CECT 5118T, and CECT 5120 were isolated from coastal Mediterranean seawater, Spain. Cells were Gram-negative, non- motile coccobacilli, aerobic chemoorganotrophs, with an optimum temperature of 26°C and salinity of 3.5–5%. Major cellular fatty acids of strains CECT 5113T and CECT 5114 were C18 : 1 ω7c/ω6c and C10 : 0 3OH, G+C content was 54.4–54.5 mol% and were able to utilize propionate, L-threonine, L- arginine, and L-aspartate as carbon sources. They exhibited 98.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 75.0–75.1 ANIb and 19.5–20.9 digital DDH to type strain of their closest species, Thalassobius maritimus. Based on these data, strains CECT 5113T and CECT 5114 are recognized as a new species, for which the name Thalassobius activus is proposed, with strain CECT 5113T (=LMG 29900T as type strain. Strains CECT 5118T and CECT 5120 were found to constitute another new species, with major cellular fatty acids C18 : 1 ω7c/ω6c and C18 : 1 ω7c 11-methyl and a G+C content of 59.8 mol%; they were not able to utilize propionate, L-threonine, L- arginine or L-aspartate. Their closest species was Thalassobius mediterraneus, with values of 99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 79.1% ANIb and 23.2% digital DDH compared to the type strain, CECT 5383T. The name Thalassobius autumnalis is proposed for this second new species, with strain CECT 5118T (=LMG 29904T as type strain. To better determine the phylogenetic relationship of the two new species, we submitted 12 genomes representing species of Thalassobius, Shimia, and Thalassoccocus, to a phylogenomic analysis based on 54 single protein-encoding genes (BCG54. The resulting phylogenomic tree did not agree with the current genera classification, as Thalassobius was divided in three clades

  11. Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America (United States)

    Robert L. Koch; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison


    The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, has recently been detected in South America after successfully invading North America and Europe. This coccinellid is a voracious predator; therefore, it is popular and effective in biological control. Unfortunately, H. axyridis also has associated...

  12. Pallas kuuvalgel ehk Lõpetamata peatükk eesti kunstis / Enn Lillemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemets, Enn, 1958-


    Pallase kunstikooli 90. aastapäeva tähistav näitus "Lõpetamata Pallas" Tartu Linnamuuseumis 31. oktoobrini. Loetletud 19 osalejat. Väljapaneku autoritel jäi Pallase kool lõpetamata, näituse aines on valitud peamiselt Teise maailmasõja aastaist 1940-1945. Pikemalt Varmo Pirgi ja Herman Aunapuu töödest

  13. Significance of Protected Areas for the Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul: Felidae conservation in Russia

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    Anna N. Barashkova


    Full Text Available The Pallas's cat, or Manul, Otocolobus manul, belongs to the small felines. In Russia this species is located at the northern periphery of its range. Potential habitats of this species within its Russian range's part have been highlighted on the base of remote sensing data, topographic maps and digital cartographic models. Maps of the Pallas's cat's records in Russia have been compiled using literature data, authors' own data and information provided by contributors of the online database «Small Wild Сats of Eurasia». We have shown the representation of potential habitats of the Pallas's cat and its actual registrations within Protected Areas of Russia. The total area of potential habitats for this species in Russia is assessed as 145,150 km2. The presence of Manul is confirmed for five regions of Russia: Republic of Altai, Republic of Tyva, Republic of Buryatia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Trans-Baikal Krai. The registration of the species' records mainly corresponds to the location of its potential habitats. The main categories of both federal and regional Russian Protected Areas cover 10.8% (13.5% taken with the buffer zones of the total area of potential habitats for the Pallas's cat. The significance of each Protected Area for Manul conservation has been considered in detail. We have discussed whether the representativeness of the existing Protected Areas is sufficient for conservation of this species. We have identified the main territorial gaps that reduce the Pallas's cat protection in some parts of the Russian range.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna


    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  15. Ontogenetic shifts in morphology and resource use of cisco Coregonus artedi. (United States)

    Muir, A M; Vecsei, P; Pratt, T C; Krueger, C C; Power, M; Reist, J D


    Two previously described lacustrine cisco Coregonus spp. morphs [i.e. a small (cisco Coregonus artedi. Geometric body shape did not differ between the two size classes nor could they be differentiated by 24 size-corrected linear measurements, indicating that the two groups had similar phenotypes. Strong, positive correlations between all linear characters and geometric centroid size (a composite variable of fish body length, mass and age) suggested that body morphology changed with age as fish grew. Total gillraker number (N(GR)) increased with L(F) according to: N(GR) = 36.3 + 0.034L(F). Differences in gillraker number and phenotype with age and size were explained by shifts in habitat and trophic resource use. Relative abundance within 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 and >90 m depth strata differed between size classes suggesting that morphology changed when fish shifted their habitat as they grew older. Large C. artedi had lower δ(13)C and slightly higher δ(15)N, indicating greater reliance on pelagic prey resources (i.e. more or larger zooplankton, such as Mysis spp.), compared to small C. artedi, which relied slightly more on benthic prey. Gillraker shape and number have always been used as key diagnostic characters in coregonine taxonomy; based on the findings presented here, ontogenetic shifts should be accounted for in resulting classifications. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Spawning migration and larval drift of anadromous North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus) in the River IJssel, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcherding, J.; Breukelaar, A.W.; Winter, H.V.; Koenig, U.


    Anadromous North Sea houting (NSH, Coregonus oxyrinchus) was historically distributed in the Wadden Sea extending from Jutland (Denmark) to the Schelde delta (Netherlands). The species has been considered extinct in the Rhine since the 1940s; however, a successful re-introduction programme

  17. Analysis of three cisco forms (Coregonus, Salmonidae) from Lake Saganaga and adjacent lakes near the Minnesota/Ontario border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etnier, DA; Skelton, CE


    Based on examination of 655 ciscoes from Lake Saganaga, a Minnesota/Ontario border lake, three forms, about 90% separable on gill raker counts, are present. Form L, with the lowest gill raker counts (26-40, mean = 31.9, n = 96) is tentatively identified as Coregonus zenithicus. Form M, with

  18. Update COSEWIC status report on the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, in Canada (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.


    Extirpated in most of the Great Lakes, the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, is currently found in Lakes Superior and Nipigon in addition to at least 22 Canadian lakes. The species exhibits morphological and genetic variability throughout its range and may consist of more than one distinct taxon. However, a common morph is widely distributed from the Great Lakes to the Northwest Territories, consistent with a hypothesis of preglacial origin for the species. Shortjaw ciscoes have declined because of excessive exploitation by food fisheries, habitat degradation, and predation and competition with introduced and exotic species such as alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, and rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax. The status of the species in most Canadian lakes is unknown, but continuing declines in those lakes that have been monitored suggest that the shortjaw cisco should be considered as threatened throughout its range.

  19. Temperature tolerance of young-of-the-year cisco, Coregonus artedii (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Colby, Peter J.


    Young-of-the-year ciscoes (Coregonus artedii) acclimated to 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 C and tested for tolerance to high and low temperatures provide the first detailed description of the thermal tolerance of coregonids in North America. The upper ultimate lethal temperature of the young ciscoes was 26 C (6 C higher than the maximum sustained temperature tolerated by adult ciscoes in nature) and the ultimate lower lethal temperature approached 0 C (near that commonly tolerated in nature by adult ciscoes). The temperature of 26 C is slightly higher than the lowest ultimate upper lethal temperature recorded for North American freshwater fishes; however, published information on the depth distributions of fishes in the Great Lakes suggests that some of the other coregonids may be less tolerant of high temperatures than the cisco.

  20. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes (United States)

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.


    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  1. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella). (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K


    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  2. Postglacial recolonization patterns and genetic relationships among whitefish ( Coregonus sp.) populations in Denmark, inferred from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Berg, Søren


    The genetic relationships among morphologically and geographically divergent populations of whitefish (genus: Coregonus) from Denmark and the Baltic Sea region were studied by analysis of microsatellites and polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis...... of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments, The endangered North Sea houting (classified as C. oxyrhynchus) differs morphologically and physiologically from other Danish whitefish (C. lavaretus). However, limited divergence of North Sea houting was observed both at the level of mtDNA and microsatellites...

  3. Branching patterns of the aortic arch in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771). (United States)

    Shin, Sangyun; Sim, Jeong-Ha; Kim, Jong-Teak; Oh, Hong-Shik; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon


    This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6, 25.7 and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB. These results suggest that the Siberian roe deer in the Korean peninsula has various AA branching patterns, which differs from other ruminants.

  4. Effects of temperature on embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, L.T.


    Embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) was observed in the laboratory at 13 constant temperatures from 0.0 to 12.1 C and in Pickerel Lake (Washtenaw County, Michigan) at natural temperature regimes. Rate of development during incubation was based on progression of the embryos through 20 identifiable stages. An equation was derived to predict development stage at constant temperatures, on the general assumption that development stage (DS) is a function of time (days, D) and temperature (T). The equation should also be useful in interpreting estimates from future regressions that include other environmental variables that affect egg development. A second regression model, derived primarily for fluctuating temperatures, related development rate for stage j (DRj), expressed as the reciprocal of time, to temperature (x). The generalized equation for a development stage is: DRj = abx cx2 dx3. In general, time required for embryos to reach each stage of development in Pickerel Lake agreed closely with the time predicted from this equation, derived from our laboratory observations. Hatching time was predicted within 1 day in 1969 and within 2 days in 1970. We used the equations derived with the second model to predict the effect of the superimposition of temperature increases of 1 and 2 C on the measured temperatures in Pickerel Lake. Conceivably, hatching dates could be affected sufficiently to jeopardize the first feeding of lake herring through loss of harmony between hatching date and seasonal food availability.

  5. Maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena larvae reveal enhanced growth during first feeding with live Artemia nauplii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochert Ralf


    Full Text Available Newly hatched Coregonus maraena (Bloch larvae reared in aquaria were observed during two trials in 2014 and 2015 for 42 and 34 days after hatching in order to determine the on-feeding effects of different feeding strategies on growth and survival. Feeds of commercial dry feed, live Artemia nauplii, frozen rotifers, and mixtures of these were compared. Larval whitefish were fed brine shrimp for up to 13 days beginning 4 days post hatch (dph. Whitefish larvae fed live Artemia for 8-9 h per day over a period of 10-12 days grew considerably larger (mean value of final total length (TL 27.3-33.0 mm and were heavier (mean value of final body weight (BW 112-165 mg than those fed dry feed, frozen rotifers, or Artemia for 3-6 days (TL= 22.6-30.2 mm; BW= 50-102 mg. The growth of larvae fed for 24 h solely on dry food was comparable (BW= 101 mg, TL= 26.6 mm at 42 dph. Survival differed among groups (31-63% and was highest for larvae fed dry food exclusively. Our results can improve the first feeding of Maraena whitefish larvae in small-scale fish farms.

  6. Genetic structure of lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, populations in the northern main basin of Lake Huron (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Schaeffer, Jeff; Roseman, Edward F.; Harford, William J.; Johnson, James E.; Fietsch, Cherie-Lee


    Genetic analysis of spawning lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from six sites in the main basin of Lake Huron was conducted to determine population structure. Samples from fisheryindependent assessment surveys in the northwest main basin were analyzed to determine the relative contributions of lake whitefish genetic populations. Genetic population structure was identified using data from seven microsatellite DNA loci. One population was identified at Manitoulin Island, one to two were observed in the east-central main basin (Fishing Island and Douglas Point), and one to two populations were found in the northwest (Thunder Bay and Duncan Bay). The genetic identity of collections from Duncan Bay and Thunder Bay was not consistent among methods used to analyze population structure. Low genetic distances suggested that they comprised one population, but genic differences indicated that they may constitute separate populations. Simulated data indicated that the genetic origins of samples from a mixed-fishery could be accurately identified, but accuracy could be improved by incorporating additional microsatellite loci. Mixture analysis and individual assignment tests performed on mixed-stock samples collected from the western main basin suggested that genetic populations from the east-central main basin contributed less than those from the western main basin and that the proportional contribution of each baseline population was similar in each assessment sample. Analysis of additional microsatellite DNA loci may be useful to help improve the precision of the estimates, thus increasing our ability to manage and protect this valuable resource.

  7. Evidence for migratory spawning behavior by morphologically distinct Cisco (Coregonus artedi) from a small inland lake (United States)

    Ross, Alexander J.; Weidel, Brian C.; Leneker, Mellisa; Solomon, Christopher T.


    Conservation and management of rare fishes relies on managers having the most informed understanding of the underlying ecology of the species under investigation. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a species of conservation concern, is a cold-water pelagic fish that is notoriously variable in morphometry and life history. Published reports indicate, at spawning time, Cisco in great lakes may migrate into or through large rivers, whereas those in small lakes move inshore. Nonetheless, during a sampling trip to Follensby Pond, a 393 ha lake in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, we observed gravid Cisco swimming over an outlet sill from a narrow shallow stream and into the lake. We opportunistically dip-netted a small subsample of 11 individuals entering the lake from the stream (three female, eight male) and compared them to fish captured between 2013 and 2015 with gillnets in the lake. Stream-captured Cisco were considerably larger than lake-captured individuals at a given age, had significantly larger asymptotic length, and were present only as mature individuals between age of 3 and age 5. These results could suggest either Cisco are migrating from a nearby lake to spawn in Follensby Pond, or that a distinct morphotype of Cisco from Follensby Pond migrates out to the stream and then back in at spawning time. Our results appear to complement a handful of other cases in which Cisco spawning migrations have been documented and to provide the first evidence for such behavior in a small inland lake.

  8. Seasonal changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations of cisco Coregonus artedi. (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, T D; Hrabik, T R


    The objectives of this study were to (1) document changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations (DVM) patterns of cisco Coregonus artedi in Ten Mile Lake, MN, U.S.A., throughout the year and (2) evaluate the mechanisms that may cause shifts in migration behaviour. Results indicated that C. artedi vertical distributions remained deep in the water column during the day and night of the spring and autumn, which was related to a low risk, low reward strategy. During summer, a partial migration occurred where a portion of the population remained deeper according to the low risk, low reward strategy, while the other portion performed a more extensive high risk, high reward reverse DVM. In winter, C. artedi did not migrate because there were only low risk, low reward conditions present at all depths. The extensive partial, reverse DVM during summer probably increased the growth potential of C. artedi, helping individuals survive in a lake with low zooplankton prey resources. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Mercury accumulation, and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction, in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.


    We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both the somatic tissue and ovaries (n=5), while methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was determined in whole fish (n=18). Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g) was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g). MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to a difference in Hg concentration between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  10. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian


    Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira


    Full Text Available The fowlpox, also known as contagiosum epithelioma, is caused by a poxvirus of the genus Avipoxvirus and affects both domestic and wild birds. The disease has two forms cutaneous and diphtheria. In March 2008 the sector of rehabilitation of wild birds from Mangual das Garças Park, located in Belém, Pará attended a duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis that had nodular lesions in regions of the wing devoid of feathers. The lesions consisted of two large cutaneous tumor-like nodules that measured 4,2 x 3,8 cm and 2,8 x 2,2 cm in length and width, respectively. The nodules were surgically removed, fixed in 10% formalin, processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histopathology showed acanthosis and expressive hyperkeratosis, some cells showed spongiosis. The confirmatory diagnosis of fowlpox was established by the pathognomonic sign of the presence of large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion corpuscles (Bollinger bodies in epithelial cells. This is the first report of poxvirus infection in a wild bird in the State of Pará, Brazil.

  12. DNA polymorphism among barley NILs of cv. Pallas, carrying genes for resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). (United States)

    Czembor, Paweł Cz; Czembor, Jerzy H


    Barley powdery mildew, caused by the pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is an important disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to detect DNA polymorphism among 7 Pallas near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying Mla3, Mla12, Mlk, Mlp, Mlat, Mlg and MlLa genes for resistance to B. graminis f. sp. hordei. From among 500 random 10-mer primers tested, 3 were specific for NIL P2 (Mla3), 1 for P10 (Mla12), 6 for P17 (Mlk), 46 for P19 (Mlp), 4 for P20 (Mlat), 6 for P21 (Mlg), and 4 for P23 (MlLa). The results of this study demonstrated that the RAPD technique is a useful tool for detecting DNA polymorphism among Pallas NILs.

  13. Verification of a model for predicting the effect of inconstant temperature on embryonic development of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) (United States)

    Berlin, William H.; Brooke, L.T.; Stone, Linda J.


    Eggs stripped from lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) spawning in Lake Michigan were incubated in the laboratory at temperatures similar to those on whitefish spawning grounds in Lake Michigan during December-April. Observed times from fertilization to attainment of each of 21 developmental stages were used to test a model that predicts the rate of development at daily fluctuating temperatures; the model relates rate of development for any given stage j, expressed as the reciprocal of time (Rj), to temperature (T). The generalized equation for a developmental stage is Rj = abTcT??.

  14. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior. (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J


    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (PPCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Tolerance of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) early life stages to manganese sulfate is affected by the parents. (United States)

    Arola, Hanna E; Karjalainen, Juha; Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Väisänen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Karjalainen, Anna K


    European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) embryos and larvae were exposed to 6 different manganese sulfate (MnSO 4 ) concentrations from fertilization to the 3-d-old larvae. The fertilization success, offspring survival, larval growth, yolk consumption, embryonic and larval Mn tissue concentrations, and transcript levels of detoxification-related genes were measured in the long-term incubation. A full factorial breeding design (4 females × 2 males) allowed examination of the significance of both female and male effects, as well as female-male interactions in conjunction with the MnSO 4 exposure in terms of the observed endpoints. The MnSO 4 exposure reduced the survival of the whitefish early life stages. The offspring MnSO 4 tolerance also was affected by the female parent, and the female-specific mean lethal concentrations (LC50s) varied from 42.0 mg MnSO 4 /L to 84.6 mg MnSO 4 /L. The larval yolk consumption seemed slightly inhibited at the exposure concentration of 41.8 mg MnSO 4 /L. The MnSO 4 exposure caused a significant induction of metallothionein-A (mt-a) and metallothionein-B (mt-b) in the 3-d-old larvae, and at the exposure concentration of 41.8 mg MnSO 4 /L the mean larval mt-a and mt-b expressions were 47.5% and 56.6% higher, respectively, than at the control treatment. These results illustrate that whitefish reproduction can be impaired in waterbodies that receive Mn and SO 4 in concentrations substantially above the typical levels in boreal freshwaters, but the offspring tolerance can be significantly affected by the parents and in particular the female parent. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1343-1353. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Evidence of cormorant-induced mortality, disparate migration strategies and repeatable circadian rhythm in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus ): A telemetry study mapping the postspawning migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Fast; Rognon, Paul; Aarestrup, Kim


    mortality and migration behaviour of the North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus), an anadromous salmonid endemic to the Wadden Sea. We used acoustic telemetry to map the migration of the only remaining indigenous population by applying stationary hydrophones combined with manual tracking. Data suggested...

  17. Seasonality and Diapause of Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) at its Southern Limits in North America, With Observations on Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae). (United States)

    Fowler, Fallon E; Chirico, Jan; Sandelin, Broc A; Mullens, Bradley A


    The face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans ([L.])) were studied at the southern edge of the face fly's North American range, examining southern California geographic distribution, seasonal activity on cattle and in dung, and diapause. Face flies were common only at Pomona (34°03'N, 117°48'W). Other irrigated pastures, even those only slightly inland from Pomona, were probably too warm for face flies, due to a steep west (cooler) to east (warmer) temperature gradient. Horn flies were abundant at all sites. Adult densities on cattle, adults emerging from dung pats, and prevalence of fly-positive pats were assessed for both fly species throughout a year at Pomona. Summer adult horn fly densities of 500-2,000 flies per cow, or face fly densities of 3-10 flies per face, were common. Summer prevalence of face fly-positive pats and horn fly-positive pats was about 20-40% and 30-70%, respectively. Face fly adults diapaused from late October until late March and early April. Horn flies probably diapaused as pupae from late October or early November to early-mid March, although some emerged in winter. Experimental cohorts of October-emerging adult face flies were held in a representative overwintering site. They exhibited hypertrophied fat body and undeveloped oocytes, which are characteristics of diapause, and survived until the following spring. The dominant diapause cues in face and horn flies are probably photoperiod and temperature. Despite warm winter temperatures that would permit activity of both species, and despite relatively long winter day lengths, face flies and most horn flies still diapaused at this latitude. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Dai, Sheng-Ming


    Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, also named Chinese Paeony, is a Chinese herb. A decoction of its root has been used to treat painful or inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. A water/ethanol extract of Radix Paeoniae is known as total glycosides of paeony (TGP), of which paeoniflorin is the major active component. Preclinical studies show that TGP/paeoniflorin is able to diminish pain, joint swelling, synovial hypertrophy, and the severity of bone erosion and cartilage degradation in experimental arthritis. TGP/paeoniflorin suppresses inflammatory process by reducing the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TGP/paeoniflorin also inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, the formation of new blood vessels, and the production of matrix metalloproteinases. Clinical data show that TGP is effective to relieve the symptoms and signs of rheumatoid arthritis without significant adverse effects. Recently, TGP is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.


    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  20. Larval morphology of the antlion Myrmecaelurus trigrammus (Pallas, 1771) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), with notes on larval biology. (United States)

    Devetak, Dušan; Klokočovnik, Vesna; Lipovšek, Saška; Bock, Elisabeth; Leitinger, Gerd


    Morphology and behaviour of third instar larvae of the Holomediterranean antlion species Myrmecaelurus trigranunus (Pallas) are described. Larvae are facultative pit-builders, they either ambush their prey at the surface, or dig pitfall traps that prey fall in to. Dark brown spots on dorsal and ventral sides of the head and on dorsal side of the thorax are characteristic of the larvae. Eye tubercles are not prominent. Jaws are equipped with long bristles, campaniform sensilla, sensilla coeloconica, and digitiform sensilla. A unique feature is the shape of the tips of all three teeth that is screw-like with a polyhedral surface. The body surface is covered with longitudinally grooved bristles and plumose hairs. On the tip of the antennae and on terminal and subterminal parts of labial palps sensilla basiconica occur. On the 9th abdominal segment there are two bulges, each of them bearing four digging bristles. Non-prominent eye tubercles and numerous mandibular bristles are morphological traits of pit-builders. Most of the behavioural traits are related to pit builders, whereas forward movement, waiting for prey without a pit and frequent changing of ambush location are traits of non-pit builders.

  1. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford


    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  2. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012. (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz


    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caire


    Full Text Available La specializzazione precoce non garantisce il successo nello sport d’élite, ma comporta numerosi rischi (Malina, 2010. Una delle strategie per contrastare questi rischi nell’allenamento giovanile è la proposta di un carico motorio che presenti carattere di polivalenza e multilateralità. La multilateralità nella metodologia dell’allenamento è considerata un aspetto chiave per la formazione giovanile (AA.VV., 1987; AA.VV., 1987; Sotgiu & Pellegrini, 1989; Starosta, 2006; Weinek, 2009. Proposte di lavoro multilaterale possono essere costruite ispirandosi a differenti discipline sportive che presentano similitudini quali, ad esempio, gesti ed attrezzi. Nella pratica sportiva alcuni allenatori, alla continua ricerca di idee innovative per ampliare le proprie proposte di lavoro sul campo, talvolta si ispirano ad altre discipline sportive. Ma due discipline sportive molto diverse tra loro possono realizzare proposte di lavoro traversali per una formazione multilaterale?Objectives: L’obiettivo dello studio è formulare proposte di lavoro con la palla adatte a due discipline molto diverse, quali la Ginnastica Ritmica e la Pallacanestro che possano contribuire all’allenamento multilaterale di entrambe nella fase di formazione sportiva giovanile.

  4. [Morphogenetic processes and seasonal changes in the anatomic and histological organization of the Barents Sea sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas)]. (United States)

    Ivanova, L V


    As a result of histological investigations of seasonal dynamics in the anatomical-tissue organization of the litoral sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas), morphogenetical processes during different periods of its life cycle are described in detail. Correlations between different phases of sexual reproduction and conditions of anatomical and tissue organization in the maternal organism are stated. It is noted that tissue reduction of the definitive sponge Halichondria panicea during autumn--winter season is a natural phenomenon, regularly repeating in the life of the litoral sponge investigated, as a result of the maternal organism's "exhaustion" in the period of sexual embryogenesis.



    Ronald Huarachi; Rosaura Gonzalez


    The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae) as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo...

  6. Thermal Emission Spectra of Phobos, Vesta, Ceres, and Pallas: A Comparison (United States)

    Roush, Ted; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    Ultraviolet, visual, and near-infrared spectra of Phobos, obtained by Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiters, were interpreted to suggest a compositional similarity with carbonaceous chrondrites. Such a composition would be inconsistent with the moon's origin in the proto-Mars region, as Mars is composed chiefly of differentiated silicates. This interpretation was used to suggest that the moons originated in the main-asteroid belt, with subsequent capture and orbital evolution into their current locations. Interpretations of more recent visual and near-infrared spectra, obtained by Phobos-2 and Mars Pathfinder, have demonstrated that the Phobos spectrum is more similar to spectra of other classes of asteroids and lunar soils. If lunar mare soil is the correct analogy, then such a composition suggests a formation of Phobos from materials similar to that on Mars, i.e. basalts, and would not require a dynamically difficult capture and orbital evolution. During the science phasing orbits of the Mars Global Surveyor mission Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of Phobos were acquired at each of four encounters. The spectral variability observed for localized surface regions on Phobos has been previously reported and is greatest near the northern wall of Stickney crater. Interpretation of the thermal infrared spectra of airless bodies, based upon most existing laboratory measurements, is complicated by the absence of interstitial gases on the celestial objects that would act to minimize potential thermal gradients in the upper layers of the surface. As an aid to interpretation of the TES Phobos spectra are compared to telescopic and airborne thermal infrared spectra of asteroids from several classes, including Ceres (G), Pallas (B), and Vesta (V). The asteroid spectra provide a direct analogy to the physical situation encountered at the surface of Phobos, albeit different thermal gradients may exist for each surface. This work is supported by NASA RTOP's 344

  7. How old are you—Evaluation of age reading methods for the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Hüssy, Karin; Blass, M.


    In the Baltic, the first observation of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) was made in 1990. Within the past decade the species became invasive and spread rapidly throughout the Baltic Sea. Studies about the fishes potential impacts on resident species promote the need for an in......In the Baltic, the first observation of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) was made in 1990. Within the past decade the species became invasive and spread rapidly throughout the Baltic Sea. Studies about the fishes potential impacts on resident species promote the need...... for an increasing knowledge of their basic stock structures such as growth rates, longevity and mortality, which all rely on accurate estimates of age. Former studies on the round goby have used several different age reading techniques. In this study, we compared three standard otolith preparation methods...... agreement was lowest when reading the whole otoliths while the best performance was achieved with sectioned and stained preparation method. Depending on method used the growth estimates also differed. The results question comparability between previous studies and highlight the importance of harmonised...


    Delaski, Kristina M; Gamble, Kathryn C


    Thyroid hormones regulate a variety of physiologic functions including metabolism, growth, and reproductive cycling, and these other hormones can impact the thyroid function via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For instance, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, used in nondomestic carnivores for contraception and behavioral control, down-regulates reproductive hormones through this mechanism and so may impact thyroid function. Due to clinical concerns of hypothyroidism in a bachelor group of adult male Pallas' cats (Otocolobus (Felis) manul) which also had deslorelin implants, serum samples from treated captive (n = 8) individuals, untreated captive (n = 25), and free-ranging (n = 9) individuals were analyzed for thyroid hormone concentrations. Total and free thyroxine (TT4 and FT4), total and free tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and FT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured although, due to sample volume limitations, not every hormone could be analyzed for every sample. Of these hormones, only FT4 was found statistically different between the deslorelin-treated and untreated groups. As samples were unevenly distributed across season, true comparison between seasons could not be made. The values reported for the untreated captive and free-ranging group, while representing a small sample size, can serve as a baseline assessment when evaluating the thyroid status of captive Pallas' cats.

  9. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan


    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  10. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  11. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej


    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  12. Effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard and active metabolic rate in vendace (Coregonus albula). (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Staaks, Georg; Hölker, Franz


    This study gives an integrated analysis of the effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard metabolism and aerobic swimming performance in vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). The metabolic rate was investigated at 4, 8 and 15 degrees C using one flow-through respirometer and two intermittent-flow swim tunnels. We found that the standard metabolic rate (SMR), which increased significantly with temperature, accounted for up to 2/3 of the total swimming costs at optimum speed (U (opt)), although mean U (opt) was high, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 body lengths per second. Net swimming costs increased with swimming speed, but showed no clear trend with temperature. The influence of body mass on the metabolic rate varied with temperature and activity level resulting in scaling exponents (b) of 0.71-0.94. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to integrate the effects of temperature, speed and mass (AMR = 0.82M (0.93) exp(0.07T) + 0.43M (0.93) U (2.03)). The regression analysis showed that temperature affects standard but not net active metabolic costs in this species. Further, we conclude that a low speed exponent, high optimum speeds and high ratios of standard to activity costs suggest a remarkably efficient swimming performance in vendace.

  13. Effect of different constant incubation temperatures on egg survival and embryonic development in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) (United States)

    Brooke, L.T.


    Eggs of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were incubated in a constant-flow incubator at constant temperatures of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 5.9, 7.8, and 10.0 C. The time from fertilization to median hatch was inversely related to temperature, and ranged from 41.7 days at 10.0 C to 182 days at 0.5 C. The percentage hatch was highest (70.9-73.3%) at 4.0, 5.9, and 7.8 C, and was greatly reduced (6.0-28.4%) at 0.5, 2.0, and 10.0 C. The mortality of embryos was greatest during the early stages of development. Abnormally developed fry were most frequent (85.9% of the hatch) at 10.0 C, and least frequent (2.8%) at 4.0 C. Mean lengths of fry at hatching were shorter at 7.8 and 10.0 C (12.4 and 8.8 mm, respectively) than at lower temperatures (13.1 to 13.5 mm). The optimum temperature range for incubation of lake whitefish eggs was 3.2 to 8.1 C. Equations were derived for predicting development time to 20 successive stages, and to hatching, at constant incubation temperatures and at fluctuating daily mean water temperatures.

  14. Assessing feeding competition between lake whitefish Core-gonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cyl-indraceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MACPHERSON, John A. HOLMES, Andrew M. MUIR,David L. G. NOAKES


    Full Text Available We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum from the main basin of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America to investigate details of diet and feeding tactics of these species in different seasons. Lake whitefish supports important commercial fisheries in Lake Huron and both species make use of habitats near the Bruce Nuclear Power Development, on the eastern shore of Lake Huron. Most fish of both species showed generalist feeding behavior, but some lake whitefish appeared to show specialist prey selection. The invasive spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus was an important component of the diet of both species. There was considerable dietary overlap between the whitefish species, but the ecological implications of these dietary overlaps are mitigated by the fact that dominant prey species differed in most seasons. We conclude that the potential for ecologically significant interactions between lake whitefish and round whitefish resulting from competition for similar benthic food resources in the main basin of Lake Huron is probably low [Current Zoology 56 (1: 109–117 2010].

  15. Life history characteristics of a recovering lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis stock in the Detroit River, North America (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Boase, James; McFee, James; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth


    The Detroit River is part of a channel connecting Lakes Huron and Erie and was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river to spawn where they were harvested by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. Prior to our study, the last lake whitefish was landed from the Detroit River in 1925. Loss of spawning habitat during shipping channel construction and over-fishing, likely reduced lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie, and spawning in the western basin, we suspected they may also be spawning in the Detroit River. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in October–December 2005–07 and for larvae during March–May 2006–08. A total of 15 spawning-ready lake whitefish from 4 to 18 years old, were collected. Viable eggs were collected during mid-November 2006–07; highest egg densities were found mid-river. Sac-fry whitefish larvae were collected in the river and near the river mouth. No whitefish larvae were retained in the river. Because high numbers of larvae were collected from mid- and downstream river sites, reproduction of lake whitefish in the Detroit River could contribute substantially to the Lake Erie lake whitefish metapopulation.

  16. Foraging and predation risk for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior: a modelling synthesis of empirical survey data (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Berglund, Eric K.


    The relative importance of predation and food availability as contributors to larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) mortality in Lake Superior were investigated using a visual foraging model to evaluate potential predation pressure by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and a bioenergetic model to evaluate potential starvation risk. The models were informed by observations of rainbow smelt, larval cisco, and zooplankton abundance at three Lake Superior locations during the period of spring larval cisco emergence and surface-oriented foraging. Predation risk was highest at Black Bay, ON, where average rainbow smelt densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column were >1000 ha−1. Turbid conditions at the Twin Ports, WI-MN, affected larval cisco predation risk because rainbow smelt remained suspended in the upper water column during daylight, placing them alongside larval cisco during both day and night hours. Predation risk was low at Cornucopia, WI, owing to low smelt densities (cisco survival at Black Bay and to a lesser extent at Twin Ports, and that starvation may be a major source of mortality at all three locations. The framework we describe has the potential to further our understanding of the relative importance of starvation and predation on larval fish survivorship, provided information on prey resources available to larvae are measured at sufficiently fine spatial scales and the models provide a realistic depiction of the dynamic processes that the larvae experience.

  17. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.


    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  18. Identifying designatable units for intraspecific conservation prioritization: a hierarchical approach applied to the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.). (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Bernatchez, Louis; Reist, Jim D; Rogers, Sean M; Taylor, Eric B


    The concept of the designatable unit (DU) affords a practical approach to identifying diversity below the species level for conservation prioritization. However, its suitability for defining conservation units in ecologically diverse, geographically widespread and taxonomically challenging species complexes has not been broadly evaluated. The lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.) is geographically widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains a great deal of variability in ecology and evolutionary legacy within and among populations, as well as a great deal of taxonomic ambiguity. Here, we employ a set of hierarchical criteria to identify DUs within the Canadian distribution of the lake whitefish species complex. We identified 36 DUs based on (i) reproductive isolation, (ii) phylogeographic groupings, (iii) local adaptation and (iv) biogeographic regions. The identification of DUs is required for clear discussion regarding the conservation prioritization of lake whitefish populations. We suggest conservation priorities among lake whitefish DUs based on biological consequences of extinction, risk of extinction and distinctiveness. Our results exemplify the need for extensive genetic and biogeographic analyses for any species with broad geographic distributions and the need for detailed evaluation of evolutionary history and adaptive ecological divergence when defining intraspecific conservation units.

  19. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814) in the City of Plovdiv


    Ivelin A. Mollov; Miglena V. Valkanova


    The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814)) from Nature Monument (NM) “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria). In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous fo...

  20. Identification of Candidate Genes and Physiological Pathways Involved in Gonad Deformation in Whitefish (Coregonus spp. from Lake Thun, Switzerland

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    David Bittner


    Full Text Available In 2000, fishermen reported the appearance of deformed reproductive organs in whitefish (Coregonus spp. from Lake Thun, Switzerland. Despite intensive investigations, the causes of these abnormalities remain unknown. Using gene expression profiling, we sought to identify candidate genes and physiological processes possibly associated with the observed gonadal deformations, in order to gain insights into potential causes. Using in situ-synthesized oligonucleotide arrays, we compared the expression levels at 21,492 unique transcript probes in liver and head kidney tissue of male whitefish with deformed and normally developed gonads, respectively. The fish had been collected on spawning sites of two genetically distinct whitefish forms of Lake Thun. We contrasted the gene expression profiles of 56 individuals, i.e., 14 individuals of each phenotype and of each population. Gene-by-gene analysis revealed weak expression differences between normal and deformed fish, and only one gene, ictacalcin, was found to be up-regulated in head kidney tissue of deformed fish from both whitefish forms, However, this difference could not be confirmed with quantitative real-time qPCR. Enrichment analysis on the level of physiological processes revealed (i the involvement of immune response genes in both tissues, particularly those linked to complement activation in the liver, (ii proteolysis in the liver and (iii GTPase activity and Ras protein signal transduction in the head kidney. In comparison with current literature, this gene expression pattern signals a chronic autoimmune disease in the testes. Based on the recent observations that gonad deformations are induced through feeding of zooplankton from Lake Thun we hypothesize that a xenobiotic accumulated in whitefish via the plankton triggering autoimmunity as the likely cause of gonad deformations. We propose several experimental strategies to verify or reject this hypothesis.

  1. Embryonic development of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis: a staging series, analysis of growth and effects of fixation. (United States)

    Sreetharan, S; Thome, C; Mitz, C; Eme, J; Mueller, C A; Hulley, E N; Manzon, R G; Somers, C M; Boreham, D R; Wilson, J Y


    A reference staging series of 18 morphological stages of laboratory reared lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis is provided. The developmental processes of blastulation, gastrulation, neurulation as well as development of the eye, circulatory system, chromatophores and mouth are included and accompanied by detailed descriptions and live imaging. Quantitative measurements of embryo size and mass were taken at each developmental stage. Eggs were 3·19 ± 0·16 mm (mean ± s.d.) in diameter at fertilization and embryos reached a total length (LT ) of 14·25 ± 0·41 mm at hatch. Separated yolk and embryo dry mass were 0·25 ± 0·08 mg and 1·39 ± 0·17 mg, respectively, at hatch. The effects of two common preservatives (formalin and ethanol) were examined throughout development and post hatch. Embryo LT significantly decreased following fixation at all points in development. A correction factor to estimate live LT from corresponding fixed LT was determined as live LT = (fixed LT )(1·025) . Eye diameter and yolk area measurements significantly increased in fixed compared with live embryos up to 85-90% development for both measurements. The described developmental stages can be generalized to teleost species, and is particularly relevant for the study of coregonid development due to additionally shared developmental characteristics. The results of this study and staging series are therefore applicable across various research streams encompassing numerous species that require accurate staging of embryos and descriptions of morphological development. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Characterizing seasonal and diel vertical movement and habitat use of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Clear Lake, Maine (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Gorsky, Dimitry; Balsey, David


    Seasonal and daily vertical activity of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis was studied in Clear Lake, Maine (253 ha), using acoustic telemetry from November 2004 to June 2009. Twenty adult lake whitefish were tagged with acoustic tags that had either a depth sensor or both depth and temperature sensors to assess vertical habitat use at a seasonal and daily resolution. Vertical habitat selection varied seasonally and was strongly influenced by temperature. Between December and April, when the lake was covered with ice, surface temperature was below 2°C and tagged individuals occupied deep areas of the lake (∼15 m). After ice-out, fish ascended into shallow waters (∼5 m), responding to increased water temperature and possibly to greater foraging opportunity. When surface water temperatures exceeded 20°C, fish descended below the developing thermocline (∼9 m), where they remained until surface temperatures fell below 20°C; fish then ascended into shallower depths, presumably for feeding and spawning. Through the winter, fish remained in thermal habitats that were warmer than the surface temperatures; in the summer, they selected depths with thermal habitats below 15°C. Though the amplitude varied greatly across seasons, lake whitefish displayed a strong diurnal pattern of activity as measured by vertical velocities. Fish were twofold more active during spring, summer, and fall than during winter. Lake whitefish exhibited diel vertical migrations, rising in the water column during nighttime and occupying deeper waters during the day. This pattern was more pronounced in the spring and fall and far less prominent during winter and summer. The strong linkage between temperature and habitat use may limit the current range of lake whitefish and may be directly impacted by climatic change.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of lake cisco (Coregonus artedi): evidence supporting extensive secondary contacts between two glacial races. (United States)

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L


    The comparative molecular phylogeography of regional fish fauna has revealed the wide distribution of young clades in freshwater fishes of formerly glaciated areas as well as interspecific incongruences in their refugial origins and recolonization routes. In this study, we employed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses to describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism among 27 populations of the lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) from its entire range of distribution in order to evaluate the hypothesis of dual glacial refuges proposed by Bernatchez & Dodson against the traditional view that this species is solely of Mississippian origin. Results indicate that this taxon is composed of two closely related groups that are widely distributed and intermixed over most of the sampled range. The estimated level of divergence (0.48%), the contrast in the geographical distribution of each group, as well as the general distribution of C. artedi in North America together support the hypothesis that one group dispersed from a Mississippian refuge via the proglacial lakes, while the other is of Atlantic origin and also took advantages of earlier dispersal routes towards eastern Hudson Bay drainages. However, the signal of past range fragmentation revealed by a nested clade analysis was weak, and did not allow to formally exclude the hypothesis of a single Mississippian origin for both lineages. Comparisons with the phylogeographic patterns of other Nearctic freshwater fishes suggest that the salinity tolerance and thermal sensitivity of lake cisco may have been determinant for its extensive postglacial dispersal. The presence or co-occurrence of sympatric or allopatric eco/morphotypes were not found to be necessarily associated with the presence of both haplotype groups.

  4. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.


    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic variables. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of the 13 management units evaluated, models including one or more climate variables (temperature, wind, ice cover) explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock–recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike's Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate–recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  5. Observations and first reports of saprolegniosis in Aanaakłiq, broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), from the Colville River near Nuiqsut, Alaska (United States)

    Sformo, Todd L.; Adams, Billy; Seigle, John C.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Welch, Joseph H.; Ellis, Leah M.; Leppi, Jason C.; George, John C.


    We report the first confirmed cases (2013-2016) of saprolegniosis caused by water mold from the genus Saprolegnia in Aanaakłiq, broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), from the Colville River near Nuiqsut, Alaska. While this mold is known to be worldwide, these instances represent the first cases in Nuiqsut and only the second instance on a single fish on the North Slope, occurring in 1980. We describe the collaborative work on monitoring this emerging disease. Because fish constitute a critical component of the diet in Nuiqsut and fishing is an integral part of Inupiaq nutritional and cultural subsistence activities overall, individual subsistence fishers, local governmental entities, and Alaska Native organizations representing Nuiqsut requested an examination of affected fish and information on possible drivers of this emerging disease. The collaborative work described here ranges from recording fishermen observations, acquiring fish and mold specimens, histopathology, and molecular identification of the mold. This work, not currently grant-funded, begins with Native observation that incorporates western scientific methods and involves local, state, and federal departments as well as for-profit and non-profit organizations. Additionally, we report the more recent (2016) observation of this disease in a second species of whitefish, Pikuktuuq, humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschain).

  6. Can pelagic forage fish and spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) biomass in the western arm of Lake Superior be assessed with a single summer survey? (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schreiner, D.R.; Evrard, L.M.; Balge, M.; Hrabik, T.R.


    Management efforts to rehabilitate lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior have been successful and the recent increase in their numbers has led to interest in measuring biomass of pelagic prey fish species important to these predators. Lake Superior cisco Coregonus artedi currently support roe fisheries and determining the sustainability of these fisheries is an important management issue. We conducted acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of the western arm of Lake Superior during three periods: summer (July-August), October, and November 2006 to determine if a single survey can be timed to estimate biomass of both prey fish and spawning cisco. We evaluated our methods by comparing observed trawl catches of small (cisco increased substantially in November, while small bloater Coregonus hoyi biomass was lower. We compared our summer 2006 estimates of total fish biomass to the results of a summer survey in 1997 and obtained similar results. We conclude that the temporal window for obtaining biomass estimates of pelagic prey species in the western arm of Lake Superior is wide (July through October), but estimating spawning cisco abundance is best done with a November survey.

  7. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

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    Vandereycken, A.


    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species and have identified 89 plant-prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis.

  8. [Effect of locomotion and feeding on metabolic mode of juvenile lenok, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas) under different water temperatures]. (United States)

    Xu, Ge-Feng; Wang, Yu-Yu; Han, Ying; Li, Xiang; Ma, Bo; Liu, Yang; Mou, Zhen-Bo


    To investigate the effect of locomotion and feeding on the metabolic mode of juvenile lenok, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas) under different water temperatures, the pre-exercise oxygen consumption rate (MO2p), active oxygen consumption rate (MO2a), metabolic scope (MS), critical swimming speed (Uc) and swimming metabolic rate of both fasting and fed fish were measured at five temperature levels (4 degrees C, 8 degrees C, 12 degrees C, 16 degrees C and 20 degrees C) and ten flow velocities with saturated dissolved oxygen (> 8.0 mg x L(-1)). The results showed that the MO2p and MO2a of the feeding group were significantly higher (P 0.05), but the MS showed a trend of decline with increase in water temperature. Swimming metabolic rate of fish was increased with increasing the flow velocity, and further increase of flow velocity resulted in a decline in swimming metabolic rate, and the swimming metabolic rate of the feeding group was significantly higher than that of the fasting group (P swimming speed up to 70% Uc, and then decreased with increasing the swimming speed up to Uc. It was concluded that, under certain temperature, the maximum metabolic rate was induced by exercise and feeding; the metabolic rate exhibited the additive metabolic mode before increasing to the maximum and thereafter, the metabolic rate induced by feeding reduced with decreasing the swimming metabolic rate, exhibiting the locomotion prioritized mode.

  9. Learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina). (United States)

    Rose, Andreas; Kolar, Miriam; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam


    Social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. The use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. In this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstrator-observer paradigm to investigate whether flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina) are able to socially learn novel flower positions via observation of, or interaction with, knowledgeable conspecifics. The results demonstrate that flower-visiting G. soricina are able to use social information for the location of novel flower positions and can thereby reduce energy-costly search efforts. This social transmission is explainable as a result of local enhancement; learning bats might rely on both visual and echo-acoustical perception and are likely to eavesdrop on auditory cues that are emitted by feeding conspecifics. We additionally tested the spatial memory capacity of former demonstrator bats when retrieving a learned flower position, and the results indicate that flower-visiting bats remember a learned flower position after several weeks.

  10. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin


    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  11. Revisiting caryophyllidean type of spermiogenesis in the Eucestoda based on spermatozoon differentiation and ultrastructure of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781). (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Kostič, Borislav


    Spermiogenesis of the monozoic cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), a parasite of Abramis brama (Pisces: Cyprinidae), has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. The process of spermatozoon formation corresponds in the basic pattern to that of Khawia armeniaca as described by Bruňanská and Poddubnaya (Parasitol Res 99:449-454, 2006). The dense material at the early stages of spermiogenesis, an intercentriolar body, the formation of a free flagellum and flagellar bud, the penetration of the nucleus into the spermatid body when the fusion of the free flagellum with the median cytoplasmic process has started, and a complete proximodistal fusion have been determined. In contrast to previous data on the caryophyllidean type spermiogenesis, the latter more recent observations show the presence and the rotation of a free flagellum and a flagellar bud. This pattern indicates clearly a derived stage of spermiogenesis in the Caryophyllidea, when the second shorter flagellum is greatly reduced comparing with that in the Spathebothriidea, Diphyllobothriidea, or Bothriocephalidea, thus forming a flagellar bud. The flagellar bud occurs in all stages of spermiogenesis and represents an evolved character in the Caryophyllidea. The mature spermatozoon of C. laticeps consists of one axoneme of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan structure, parallel cortical microtubules, and a nucleus. Cell components are situated in a moderately electrondense cytoplasm, containing glycogen in the principal regions (II, III, and IV) of the spermatozoon. A crested body is absent. Similarities and differences between spermatozoa of caryophyllideans as well as other Eucestoda are discussed.

  12. Population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) during the initial invasion of the Upper Mississippi River, USA (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hightower, J.E.


    The aim of this study was to document and model the population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), USA, for five consecutive years (1992-1996) following their initial discovery in September 1991. Artificial substrates (concrete blocks, 0.49 m2 surface area) were deployed on or around the first of May at two sites within each of two habitat types (main channel border and contiguous backwater). Blocks were removed monthly (30 ?? 10 d) from the end of May to the end of October to obtain density and growth information. Some blocks deployed in May 1995 were retrieved in April 1996 to obtain information about overwinter growth and survival. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. The average May-October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. Model estimates of the average survival rate varied from 21 to 100% per month. Estimated recruitment varied substantially among months, with highest levels occurring in September-October of 1994 and 1996, and in July of 1995. Recruitment and density in both habitat types increased by two orders of magnitude in 1996. Follow-up studies will be necessary to assess the long-term stability of zebra mussel populations in the UMR; this study provides the critical baseline information needed for those future comparisons. ?? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London 2006.

  13. The Ash Content of the Main Muscle Groups and Edible Offal Collected From Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

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    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză


    Full Text Available Abstract. The availability of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, unlike that of domestic rabbits, is restricted by hunting seasons. Rabbit meat, according to research from Spain, is a rich source of K, P, Fe and Mg, but poor in Na, being recommended for people with hypertension. The largest quantity of macro minerals studied in rabbit meat was determined for K and P, and the most abundant micro minerals were Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. In hare meat, ash content is not sufficiently studied. The current low level of knowledge motivated the present study. The aim of this study was to establish the ash content for major muscle groups and edible offal of hares. The biological material used was collected from 49 hares with an average weight of 5.6 kg, at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months. Different muscle groups (the muscles Cervicalis, Intercostalis, Longissimus Dorsi, Psoas major, Triceps Brachi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and the main edible offal (heart, liver, kidney were sampled. The ash was determined by calcination (in Supertherm C311 oven calcination at 5500C. The results obtained were interpreted statistically (arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (s, variance (s2 and coefficient of variation (V% and the statistical significance of differences was tested using the ANOVA Single Factor algorithm (p>0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001. Ash content for the main muscle groups analysed varied from the lowest average values of 1.095% for the Intercostalis muscles, to the highest average values of 1.256%, for Triceps brachii muscles.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an acidic phospholipase A2 with vasoconstrictor activity from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Zhisong; Zeng, Fuxing; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu


    A vasoconstrictor PLA 2 was purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom and the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis had been described. Phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 s) are the major component of snake venoms and exert a variety of relevant toxic actions such as neurotoxicity and myotoxicity, amongst others. An acidic PLA 2 , here named AhV-aPA, was purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom by means of a three-step chromatographic procedure. AhV-aPA migrated as a single band on SDS–PAGE gels, with a molecular weight of about 14 kDa. Like other acidic aPLA 2 s, AhV-aPA has high enzymatic activity. Tension measurements of mouse thoracic aortic rings remarkably indicated that AhV-aPA could induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K + -induced contraction, with an EC 50 of 369 nmol l −1 . Rod-shaped crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.30 Å. The crystals belonged to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.27, b = 68.39, c = 81.54 Å


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    V. P. Onoprienko


    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of ​​Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of ​​Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86


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    Onoprienko V.


    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6

  17. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae). (United States)

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta


    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  18. Slight genetic differentiation between western and eastern limits of Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1776 (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae distribution inferred from COI and ITS sequences

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    Merino-Serrais, P.


    Full Text Available Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation among populations is useful for the elaboration of management and conservation plans of threatened species. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial markers (internal transcribed spacers -ITS and cytochrome oxidase subunit one -COI for phylogenetics and nested clade analyses (NCA, thus providing the first assessment of the genetic structure of the threatened Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, based on samples from 12 localities along its geographic distribution range. Overall, we found no population differentiation in the westernmost region of the Mediterranean; however, a slight differentiation was observed when comparing this region with the Tyrrhenian and Algerian basins.

    El estudio de la estructura de las poblaciones y su diferenciación a nivel genético es de gran utilidad para la elaboración de planes de manejo y conservación de especies amenazadas. En este estudio, utilizamos marcadores nucleares y mitocondriales (espaciadores internos de genes ribosomales -ITS y citocromo oxidasa, subunidad I -COI y métodos de análisis filogenéticos y de clados anidados (NCA, para realizar la primera valoración de la estructura genética del coral naranja Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, una especie amenazada del Mediterráneo, a partir de muestras de 12 localidades a lo largo de su área de distribución. En las localidades situadas en la región más occidental del Mediterráneo se encontró cierta homogeneidad genética, mientras que al comparar estas localidades con las de las cuencas argelina y del mar Tirreno se observó una ligera diferenciación.

  19. Cytogenetic biomarkers for the assessment of the influence of pollution on natural fish populations. (United States)

    Pak, I V; Moiseenko, T I; Sergienko, L L; Chitaeva, E A


    Cytogenetic analysis methods were used to study the developing embryos of the following four Coregonidae species: Coregonus peled (Gmelin), Coregonus lavaretus (Gmelin), Coregonus nasus (Pallas) and Coregonus muksun (Pallas). Spawners of these species were selected from rivers and lakes of the Tyumen region (Russia) with different levels of pollution. The variability of the chromosomal aberration rate was analyzed during a monitoring period of more than 20 years. The level of chromosomal mutability in the embryonic cells of these fishes was found to have steadily increased during the observation period (1989-2011). The higher frequency of chromosomal mutations at different stages of embryogenesis in broad whitefish, C. nasus (Pallas), was noted in comparison with other species. The possible use of chromosomal mutation frequency as an indicator (biomarker) to characterize the state of a population is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) health indicators: linking individual-based indicators to a management-relevant endpoint (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jones, Michael L.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.; Brenden, Travis O.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Wright, Gregory M.; Faisal, Mohamed


    We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of health indicators in four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks located in northern lakes Michigan and Huron from 2003 to 2006. The specific objectives were to (1) quantify spatial and temporal variability in health indicators; (2) examine relationships among nutritional indicators and stock-specific spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogen prevalence and intensity of infection; and (3) examine relationships between indicators measured on individual fish and stock-specific estimates of natural mortality. The percent of the total variation attributed to spatial and temporal sources varied greatly depending on the health indicator examined. The most notable pattern was a downward trend in the concentration of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), observed in all stocks, in the polar lipid fraction of lake whitefish dorsal muscle tissue over the three study years. Variation among stocks and years for some indicators were correlated with the prevalence and intensity of the swimbladder nematode Cystidicola farionis, suggesting that our measures of fish health were related, at some level, with disease dynamics. We did not find relationships between spatial patterns in fish health indicators and estimates of natural mortality rates for the stocks. Our research highlights the complexity of the interactions between fish nutritional status, disease dynamics, and natural mortality in wild fish populations. Additional research that identifies thresholds of health indicators, below (or above) which survival may be reduced, will greatly help in understanding the relationship between indicators measured on individual fish and potential population-level effects.

  1. Parasites of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior, with special reference to use of parasites as markers of stock structure (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Baldanova, Darima R.


    We examined parasites of 152 lake herring (Coregonus artedi) collected from three locations in Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior in 1994, four locations in Wisconsin waters in 1996, and one location in Minnesota waters in 1996 to determine; 1) the species composition and relative abundances of parasites in lake herring, 2) the differences in parasite relative abundances across locations sampled, and 3) the utility of parasite relative abundances as markers of stock structure. Parasites from 19 taxa infected lake herring collected in 1994 and 1996; Henneguya zschokkei, Chloromyxumsp., and Cyatho-cephalus truncatus were reported in fishes from Lake Superior for the first time, and Clinostomum mar-ginatum was reported in lake herring for the first time. Significant differences in abundances of eight parasite taxa were found across locations sampled in 1996, with most of the differences occurring between fish from Minnesota and Wisconsin waters. Nonparametric discriminant function analyses correctly classified 105 of the 108 fish (97%) from Wisconsin waters in 1994 and 1996 and also correctly classified 9 of the 13 fish (69%) from the one location in Minnesota waters. This indicated that little mixing of lake herring from those regions occurred and that the potential exists to use parasite abundances as a marker of lake herring stock structure. This was the first time that multivariate analysis of parasites have been used in the Great Lakes to assess stock structure of fishes. Because the technique was highly successful at classifying locations of our samples, we recommend that parasite abundances in lake herring from all areas of the lake be analyzed as part of a larger study to determine whether lake herring from populations throughout the lake can be as accurately classified as were fish in our study.

  2. Shifts in the diets of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Ontario following the collapse of the burrowing amphipod Diporeia (United States)

    Owens, Randall W.; Dittman, Dawn E.


    In Lake Ontario, the diets of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis shifted from a diet dominated by the burrowing amphipod, Diporeia, and to a lesser extent, Mysis, to a more diverse diet, after Diporeia collapsed, to one dominated by Mysis and prey that were formerly less important or uncommon such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, and Ostracoda. Additionally, lake whitefish still preyed on native mollusks like Sphaeriidae and Gastropoda, but also preyed on exotic mollusks, Dreissena spp., which are swallowed intact and subsequently crushed in its muscular stomach. Whether Diporeia was abundant (1992) or scarce (1999), selection indices for Diporeia by slimy sculpins was positive, suggesting that Diporeia was a preferred prey. Unlike lake whitefish, slimy sculpins avoided Dreissena; therefore, energy diverted to Dreissena production was a real loss for slimy sculpins. The shifts in the diet of these benthic fishes corresponded with drastic changes in the benthic community between 1992 and 1999. The collapse of Diporeia, formerly the most abundant macroinvertebrate in the benthic community, along with sharp declines in the abundance of Oligochaeta and Sphaeriidae, coincided with the establishment and rapid expansion of Dreissena bugensis, the quagga mussel, and to a lesser degree Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. It appears that the Diporeia population first collapsed at depths >70 m in southeastern Lake Ontario by autumn 1992, at shallower depths in the eastern Lake Ontario by 1995, and along the entire south shore line at depths 100 m by 1999. In response to the disappearance of Diporeia, populations of two native benthivores, slimy sculpin and lake whitefish, collapsed in eastern Lake Ontario, perhaps due in part to starvation, because Diporeia was their principal prey. Presently, alternative food resources do not appear sufficient to sustain these two benthivores at their former levels of abundance. We do not expect slimy

  3. Evolutionary history of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex as inferred from mtDNA phylogeography and gill-raker numbers. (United States)

    Østbye, K; Bernatchez, L; Naesje, T F; Himberg, K-J M; Hindar, K


    We compared mitochondrial DNA and gill-raker number variation in populations of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex to illuminate their evolutionary history, and discuss mechanisms behind diversification. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing 528 bp of combined parts of the cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) mithochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, we documented phylogeographic relationships among populations and phylogeny of mtDNA haplotypes. Demographic events behind geographical distribution of haplotypes were inferred using nested clade analysis (NCA) and mismatch distribution. Concordance between operational taxonomical groups, based on gill-raker numbers, and mtDNA patterns was tested. Three major mtDNA clades were resolved in Europe: a North European clade from northwest Russia to Denmark, a Siberian clade from the Arctic Sea to southwest Norway, and a South European clade from Denmark to the European Alps, reflecting occupation in different glacial refugia. Demographic events inferred from NCA were isolation by distance, range expansion, and fragmentation. Mismatch analysis suggested that clades which colonized Fennoscandia and the Alps expanded in population size 24 500-5800 years before present, with minute female effective population sizes, implying small founder populations during colonization. Gill-raker counts did not commensurate with hierarchical mtDNA clades, and poorly with haplotypes, suggesting recent origin of gill-raker variation. Whitefish designations based on gill-raker numbers were not associated with ancient clades. Lack of congruence in morphology and evolutionary lineages implies that the taxonomy of this species complex should be reconsidered.

  4. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake. (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N


    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution.

  5. In vitro determination of 6PGD enzyme activity purified from Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas, 1811) liver exposed to pesticides. (United States)

    Guler, Muhammet; Kivanc, M Riza; Turkoglu, Vedat; Basi, Zehra; Kivrak, Hilal


    In the present study, the effect of methidathion, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin pesticides on Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas, 1811) liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was investigated due to the fact that these pesticides are extensively used to improve agricultural productivity in the Van region. 2',5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography was used to purify 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase enzyme from fish liver and SDS-PAGE technique was used to control the purity of this enzyme. The in vitro effect of methidathion, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin pesticides on the enzyme activity was investigated. The enzyme was purified 1,050-fold with specific activity of 27.04 EU/mg protein. Moreover, Ki constants of methidathion, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin were to be 3.294 ± 0.215, 0.718 ± 0.095, and 0.084 ± 0.009 mM respectively. The IC50 value were estimated as 9.95 × 10(-5) ± 0.1844 × 10(-5) mM for methidathion, 1.01 × 10(-4) ± 0.01413 × 10(-4) mM for cypermethrin, and 4.43 × 10(-6) ± 0.05653 × 10(-6) mM for deltamethrin. In conclusion, deltamethrin inhibits the enzyme activity more than methidathion and cypermethrin.

  6. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park. (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka


    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera). (United States)

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun


    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia.

  8. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L{sup −1} CaCO{sub 3}) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U{sub crit}) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U{sub crit} of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U{sub crit}. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U{sub crit} and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure

  9. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

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    Ivelin A. Mollov


    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  10. Seasonal fluctuation in the population of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and co-occurrence with other Coccinellids in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza


    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773, was first recorded in Brazil in 2002 in Paraná state and subsequently observed in Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. This species can spread to new areas and become dominant in the local community, reducing the density and diversity of native species, mainly Coccinellidae. The objective of this work was to record for the first time the occurrence of H. axyridis in the Federal District and its co-occurrence with other Coccinellidae species. The individuals were collected directly from plants at an organic farm in Taguatinga and in experimental fields of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in the Federal District, from August 2008 to January 2010. We collected 881 Coccinelids, and of these, 110 belong to the species H. axyridis. These were found exclusively on the following plants of the succinea group: maize, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cucumber, cotton, tomato and coriander. We also observed its co-occurrence with the following lady beetle species: Cycloneda sanguine (Linnaeus, 1763, Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville 1842, Eriopis connexa (German, 1824, Scymnus sp., Nephaspis sp., Azya luteipes (Mulsant, 1850, Hyperaspis festiva (Mulsant, 1850, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, Psyllobora sp. and Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, 1775. So far, we have not found any negative interactions between H. axyridis and these species. This is the northernmost H. axyridis record in Brazil. Moreover, the region was previously considered to have a low probability of occurrence for this species. Therefore, this record confirms that H. axyridis presents great adaptive plasticity to new habitats.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in prophase I of meiosis in the Northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pallas, 1770 with isomorphic (XX chromosomes in males and females

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    O Kolomiets


    Full Text Available The synaptonemal complex (SC surface-spreading technique was used to visualize the process of chromosome synapsis in spermatocytes and oocytes of E. talpinus Pallas, 1770, a species with the XX sex chromosome system in both males and females. We used electron microscopy and immunofluorescent localization of synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3 and centromeric proteins to analyze the structure and behaviour of synaptonemal complexes in prophase I of meiosis, aiming to reveal signs of meiotic sexual dimorphism in this species. We present evidence of considerable differences in the structure and behaviour of the axial structures of sex bivalents in male and female meiosis, despite the isomorphic G- and C-banding patterns of mitotic sex chromosomes. During meiotic prophase I, the sex bivalent in females behaved as autosomal bivalents, but it was not involved in the formation of the bouquet configuration or it was the first to leave it. The XX chromosomes of males formed closed sex bivalents. Only short tracts of SC were formed at both ends of the sex bivalent, while large middle segments of the lateral elements remained unpaired. The male sex chromosomes also formed characteristic “sex bodies”. In fact, electron microscopy revealed dense nucleolus-like bodies associated with unpaired parts of the axial elements. These regions of the sex chromosomes were poorly immunostained, because the distribution of SCP3 had a peculiar powder-like pattern, but SCP3 was not associated with the nucleolus-like bodies. We also revealed signs of sexual dimorphism in the dynamics of formation and destruction of autosomal SCs. In males, the total SC length was shorter than in females. The chromosome bouquet configuration was preserved up to the stage of early pachytene in females. The bouquet configuration in males was not expressed. At late pachytene, gaps were revealed in the structure of autosomal SCs in spermatocytes immunostained with antibodies to SCP3. The

  12. Monitoramento do maçarico-branco, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, através de recuperações de anilhas coloridas, na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Monitoring of the sanderling, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, across recuperations of color band, in the Coroa do Avião, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves


    Full Text Available Programas de marcação de espécies migratórias vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde a década de 1980, dentre eles o PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs, o qual, consistia na marcação de aves migratórias neárticas com anéis e bandeirolas coloridas possibilitando formação de códigos individuais permitindo a observação das aves marcadas sem que necessitasse capturar. Esta pesquisa objetivou a recuperação de códigos do PASP de indivíduos de Calidris alba (Pallas 1764 entre os anos de 1993 a 1995 na Coroa do Avião. Essas recuperações visuais demonstraram a fidelidade de Calidris alba ao seu sítio de invernada, a Coroa do Avião. O alto percentual de recuperações de Calidris alba, bem como, as recuperações de indivíduos anilhados na Lagoa do Peixe e em algumas áreas de invernada nos Estados Unidos, demonstram a utilização da rota do Atlântico e reforça a idéia de que bandos provenientes da costa leste do Alaska migram por esta rota. A idade máxima estimada para Calidris alba durante esta pesquisa foi de 11 anos, nada se tem sobre a idade desta espécie em bibliografias específicas no estudo de Scolopacidae.Marking programs for migratory species have been developed since the 1980 decade, among them the PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs which consisted in the marking of nearctic migratory birds with color bands and flags, enabling the development of individual codes, allowing the observation of the marked birds without the need of capture. The purpose of this study was the recuperation of PASP codes of individuals of Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 between 1993 and 1995 in the Coroa do Avião. These visual recuperations demonstrated the fidelity of this specie to its winter site, the Coroa do Avião. The high percentual of recuperations of Calidris alba, as well as the recuperations of marked individuals in the Lagoa do Peixe and in some wintering areas in the United States, demonstrated the use of the Atlantic route and

  13. Alcelaphus buselaphus major Pallas, 1766

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Université de Cocody, UFR Biosciences, département de Zoologie et Biologie Animale. 2Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Axe Milieu Naturel et Biodiversité, 01 BP 1303 Abidjan 01 (Côte d'Ivoire). *Auteur pour les correspondances (E-mail: Reçu le 09-11-2006, accepté le ...

  14. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

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    Mahari S.


    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  15. Une réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade ? Hypothèse d’une allusion à l’épigramme sur la Lydé d’Antimaque (AP IX, 63 dans le certamen de Pallas et Arachné (Met. VI

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    Florence Klein


    Full Text Available La compétition artistique entre Pallas et Arachné au livre VI des Métamorphoses oppose une déesse, qui représente l’auguste noblesse divine (augusta grauitas, à une tisserande d’origine sociale fort modeste – précise Ovide – mais que son art a rendue célèbre dans toute la Lydie. Cette valorisation de son ars a d’ailleurs valu à cette dernière d’être apparentée par la critique à une figure callimachéenne. Cet article propose d’aller plus loin en ce sens, en suggérant que le passage contient une allusion à l’épigramme AP IX, 63 qui semble avoir été au cœur de la querelle opposant Callimaque aux « Telchines » : Asclépiade y faisait l’éloge de la σεµνότης de Lydé en jouant sur le double sens du terme, entre noblesse stylistique et noblesse sociale. L’hypothèse d’une « réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade » apporte alors un nouvel éclairage sur l’opposition esthétique qui est en jeu dans le certamen et, en particulier, sur son issue.  

  16. Patrones de colonización y ecología de poblaciones de dos bivalvos invasores (mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 y almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 en un tramo lótico del Ebro medio (Castejón, Navarra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Los bivalvos dulceacuícolas son un componente importante de la ecología fluvial, fundamentalmente por el papel que desempeñan como organismos filtradores y de remoción del sedimento. Además son un grupo zoológico diverso y amenazado a escala global, en el que se incluyen algunas de las especies invasoras más dañinas. El estudio de sus poblaciones es imprescindible para conocer el estado de conservación de las comunidades bentónicas. Para esto se prospectaron 17 parcelas vadeables y 7 escolleras a lo largo de 7,38 km de meandros del río Ebro en Castejón (Navarra, tanto el cauce principal como en brazos secundarios de corriente permanente y/o temporal. El mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 se encontró en 7 escolleras y 6 parcelas. El sustrato preferente fueron rocas (85%, donde la densidad resultó 0,31-5,45 mejillones/m2; el 2,6% se hallaron sobre plásticos agrícolas abandonados. En las escolleras sólo el 3,6% de los ejemplares eran juveniles y un 33% tenían una edad > 4 años. La almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 se encontró en todas las parcelas. La densidad resultó muy diferente en los tres tipos de ambientes fluviales con valores máximos de 15.100 almejas/m2, lo que constituye un nuevo máximo fluvial en Europa. Se encontraron subpoblaciones de almeja asiática con diferentes estructuras de edad según los ambientes fluviales, además de poblaciones menos numerosas en el brazo principal del río que en los otros tipos. Los resultados muestran que junto a estas especies alóctonas en expansión, con altas tasas de reclutamiento, se encuentra una estructura poblacional muy precaria para las autóctonas, de las cuales únicamente se localizaron 12 náyades vivas y ningún esférido.

  17. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (Pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for the age determination of highveld eland in Natal were investigated. Tooth eruption and replacement sequence, and growth in horn length, were suitable criteria for the age determination of young eland with deciduous dentition. The most accurate technique for the age determination of post mortem adult ...

  18. Stress evaluation in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for traslocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lavazza


    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the capturing techniques some haematic and physiological parameters were studied to discrim- inate stressed hares from non stressed hares. A total of 66 wild hares (experimental group were sampled in 14 different non-hunting areas, where hares are usually captured for later release in low-density areas. In the same season a total of 30 hares (about 1 year old, reared in cages and thus showing a reduced fear of man, were sampled (control group. In each area the hares were captured by cours- ing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurches. The dogs were released by the different hunter teams to find and drive into trammel nets any hare that was seen running. After capture, the hares remained inside darkened, wooden capture-boxes for a variable period of time before blood drawing. For blood sample collection all the hares were physically restrained and their eyes immediately covered. Blood, always collected within 1-2 minutes, was drawn from the auricular vein. Blood samples (plasma were analysed for glucose, AST, ALT, CPK and cortisol concentrations. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, sex, and age were evaluated in each hare. The effect of origin, sex and age on haematic and physiolog- ical parameters was analysed by ANOVA. Every measured parameter of the hares bearing to the capture group or the control group (reared was then subjected to stepwise and to discriminant analysis, in order to select the groups of stressed (discriminated by the controls and non-stressed hares. CPK, AST and glucose were found to be the best parameters for distinguishing stressed from non-stressed hares. The intensive exercise suffered by the wild hares induced a depletion of energetic reserves, so that most of the captured hares showed lower glucose and higher CPK activity in the plasma, probably due to muscle damage (P< 0.05. After reclassi- fying the hares in the two groups of stressed and non stressed hares, the reference values (means ± SE resulted as fol- lows: estimated non-stressed hares, glucose 234 ± 9 .4 mg/dl, AST 112 ± 22.2 U/l, CPK 1334 ± 734 U/l; estimated stressed hares, glucose 128 ± 7 mg/dl, AST 164 ± 13 U/l, CPK 4658 ± 454 U/l. These three cheap and quickly analysable analytes can be useful to the game manager in detecting stressed and non stressed hares, in order to improve the capturing techniques by the evaluation of the following relationship: (number of stressed hares + number of the dead hares during the capture/number of total captured hares.

  19. [The annual cycle in the Djungarian Hamster Phodopus sungorus Pallas]. (United States)

    Figala, J; Hoffmann, K; Goldau, G


    Seasonal variations in several functions were observed in a strain of Phodopus s. sungorus bred and kept in the laboratory at Erling-Andechs (47° 58'N, 11° 11'E) under natural illumination: 1. During their first winter most hamsters changed into a whitish winter coat (Figs. 2, 5, and 14). The change in fur coloration is described (Fig. 1). In most animals molt into the winter coat started in October or November, and was completed in December. Molt into the summer coat started in January or February, and was completed in March or early April. Hamsters kept at outdoor temperatures started molt into winter pelt earlier, and finished molt into summer pelt later, than animals kept indoors (Figs. 3 and 4). Winter coloration was more extreme in animals kept at outdoor temperatures. 2. Molt into the winter coat was induced in summer by exposing hamsters to short photoperiods (Fig. 6). However, these animals spontaneously changed back into summer fur while remaining under short-day conditions. 3. The animals had a marked annual cycle in body weight with maximum weight in July and August, and minimum weight in December and January, while they were in winter pelage (Figs. 7 and 8). 4. Reproduction was observed only between February and November (Fig. 9). Young were born within 18 days (2 cases) or 19 days (27 cases) after the breeding pairs were established. Mean litter size was 5 (range 1-9) (Fig. 10). Average litter size was smaller in the first litter of a ♀ than in the second, but was smaller again in subsequent litters (Fig. 11). 5. Growth curves of young hamsters were compared with data from the literature (Fig. 12). In the mean ♂ ♂ were heavier than ♀ ♀ (Table 1). 6. The majority of ♂ ♂ showed testis involution during the first winter. The weight of winter testes was about 1/9th that of summer testes (Fig. 13). The cauda epididymidis contained no spermatozoa in winter animals, and many in summer animals. 7. Daily torpor was observed in many animals, but only during the winter, and only in those animals that had changed into winter coloration. Body temperature dropped to about 20°C in hamsters kept at 6°C ambient temperature. 8. More than 10% of the animals remained in summer colour during the first winter (Figs. 2, 3, and 14). In these animals, testicular state and body weight corresponded to those of summer animals (Fig. 15), and torpor was not observed. 9. During their second winter, only a small percentage of animals changed into the winter coat, and even in these animals winter coloration was poorly expressed (Fig. 2). Testicular regression was also rare in the second winter, and less marked than in first-year animals (Fig. 16). The two individual testes in an animal often differed considerably in size and activity.-Reproduction almost ceased after the hamsters had lived through their second winter. 10. Phodopus has a midventral sebaceous gland, which is much larger in ♂ ♂ than in ♀ ♀. An annual cycle in its activity was indicated, but was not studied quantitatively. A discussion of the observations is presented which includes aspects of the situation in free-living populations.-The annual cycles of all the individual functions observed in the laboratory (body weight, testis activity, reproduction, colour change, torpidity) were strictly synchronized with each other, which suggests that these functions are regulated by a single complex of coupled factors, or even by one single factor, within the organism. The annual cycle was influenced by photoperiod, but it was not exclusively caused by external factors and their changes; an internal component of the annual cycle has to be potulated.

  20. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals without distinctive cementum annuli may be assigned ages from measurements of M3 crown height. The ages of live restrained eland could be derived from measurements of 11 occlusal width or 11 crown height. Horn morphology was adequate for age and sex classification of free-ranging eland up to adult status.

  1. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems

  2. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail:


    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems.

  3. Pseudodiarrhoea in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) exposed to microcystins. (United States)

    Juhel, Guillaume; Davenport, John; O'Halloran, John; Culloty, Sarah; Ramsay, Ruth; James, Kevin; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla


    Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. In this study we show that zebra mussels respond differently to different strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, and that a highly toxic strain causes zebra mussels to produce large quantities of mucous pseudofaeces, 'pseudodiarrhoea', that are periodically expelled hydraulically through the pedal gape by shell valve adductions rather than by the normal ciliary tracts. Analysis of the pseudofaecal ejecta showed that the proportion of Microcystis aeruginosa relative to Asterionella formosa was high in the pseudofaeces and even higher in the 'pseudodiarrhoea' when a mixed diet was given to the mussels. This confirms that very toxic Microcystis aeruginosa were preferentially being rejected by comparison with the non-toxic diatom in the pseudofaeces and even more so in the 'pseudodiarrhoea'. Such selective rejection was not observed with low or non-toxic strains and would therefore tend to enhance the presence of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in mixed Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterial blooms, as well as transferring toxins from the water column to the benthos. The observed acute irritant response to the toxin represents the first demonstration of an adverse sublethal effect of microcystins on invertebrate ecophysiology. Our results also suggest that it could be a specific response to microcystin-LF, a little studied toxin variant.

  4. The earliest figures of the Blaauwbok, Hippotragus Leucophaeus (Pallas, 1766) and of the Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus Strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.


    INTRODUCTION A recent study of the lectotype specimen of the Blaauwbok (Husson & Holthuis, 1969) had awakened our interest in this South African Antilope, which became extinct around 1800. One of us got the chance to procure a copy of the 1727 Dutch edition of Peter Kolb's account of Cape of Good

  5. Cytokinin profiles in ex vitro acclimatized Eucomis autumnalis plants pre-treated with smoke-derived karrikinolide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Stirk, W. A.; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.


    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 227-238 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Acclimatization * Asparagaceae * Conservation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  6. Seaweed-Derived Biostimulant (Kelpak (R)) Influences Endogenous Cytokinins and Bioactive Compounds in Hydroponically Grown Eucomis autumnalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Grúz, Jiří; Bíba, Ondřej; Novák, Ondřej; Stirk, W. A.; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.


    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 151-162 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Asparagaceae * Conservation * Medicinal plants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2016

  7. Quality and production trait genetics of farmed European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kause, A.; Quinton, C.D.; Airaksinen, S.; Ruohonen, K.; Koskela, J.


    We present here phenotypic and genetic parameters for the major quality and production traits of farmed European whitefish. A total of 70 families were produced by mating each of 45 sires to an average of 1.6 dams and each of the 52 dams to an average of 1.3 sires. A total of 2100 individuals were

  8. The age, growth, and feeding habits of the whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchell), of Lake Champlain (United States)

    Van Oosten, John; Deason, Hilary J.


    This study is based on 120 whitefish collected in northern Lake Champlain (Missisquoi Bay) in 1930 and on 175 whitefish taken in southern Lake Champlain in 1931. Since the whitefish population had not been exploited commercially after 1912 in United States waters and after 1915 in Canadian waters, its study should be of interest in showing the characteristics of a population practically untouched by man. Data have been presented on length frequencies, age composition, growth, coefficient of condition, sex ratio, standard length-total length relationship, and feeding habits. The data indicated that the Missisquoi Bay population was disturbed (probably by the early fall seining of 1930) before our samples were taken so that the original length distributions no longer existed. The southern Lake Champlain material, however, showed a consistency which indicated that the population had not been exploited to any extensive degree, if at all. When the northern population was compared with the southern the former was found to differ from the latter in the following respects, which differences pointed to some disturbance of the northern stock in the lake 1. By possession of lower modes and smaller grand averages of length. 2. By absence of very old individuals. 3. By absence of a series of equally abundant age groups or, in other words, by the presence of a decided dominance of one or two age groups. 4. By a radical disagreement between the sexes in their age-frequency distribution. 5. By a disagreement between the sexes with respect to maximum lengths attained. All of the differences between the two collections could, however, not be attributed to exploitation. The following characteristics indicated the presence of two distinct populations in the lake 1. Presence of a spawning ground at each end of the lake. 2. Differences in calculated lengths and increments of length (growth rates). 3. Differences in the actual lengths and weights of corresponding age groups at capture. 4. Differences in the coefficient of condition and the length-weight relationship. The discovery of the presence of apparently two separate populations of whitefish in Lake Champlain was wholly unexpected by us.

  9. Cisco (Coregonus artedii) mortalities in a southern Michigan lake, July 1968 (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, Larry T.


    Cisco die-offs are common in the summer in certain lakes of northern Indiana and southern Michigan, along the southern boundary of the national distribution of coregonine fishes. Although numerous cisco die-offs have been reported, few, if any, have been accompanied by environmental information at the time of the die-off. On 31 July and 1 August 1968, we investigated a cisco die-off on Halfmoon Lake, on the border of Washtenaw and Livingston Counties, Michigan.

  10. [Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)]. (United States)

    Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M


    Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  12. Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin (United States)

    Shcherbina, G. Kh; Buckler, D.R.


    This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

  13. The rumen ciliates of greater kudu Trage/aphus strepsiceros (pallas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Kofoid & MacLennan (1932). The presence of only one contractile vacuole in this species is in contrast with other Dip/odinium species in which two or more contractile vacuoles are found (Dogiel. 1927). This species can, nevertheless, be placed under the subgenus Dip/odinium because of the absence of skeletal plates.

  14. Potential semiochemicals in urine from free ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo Pallas, 1780) (United States)

    William F. Wood; Jeffrey P. Copeland; Richard E. Yates; Iman K. Horsey; Lynne R. McGreevy


    Urine deposition has been observed as an important scent-marking behaviour among wolverines (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of headspace volatiles of the urine from free ranging wolverines were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine samples were collected directly from the bladder of live-trapped animals...

  15. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J


    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  16. The potential of different fruit species as food for Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fediuk de Castro Guedes


    Full Text Available Harmonia axyridis was detected for the first time in Brazil in 2002. Since then, it has been recorded from the South to the Midwest of the country. Until now, almost all the registered cases were associated with the presence of aphids, its preferred source of food. Due to the occurrence of this species in areas of fruit growing in the South and Southeast of Brazil, the aim of this study was to analyze the preference and use of three different cultivars of fruit. The tests were set at 25ºC ± 1ºC, RH 70% ± 10%, and in a photophase of 12 h and with apples (Gala and Fuji, grapes (Niágara and Rubi, and pears (Williams and Asian. In the undamaged fruit experiment, the insects did not cause any noticeable damage. In the damaged and undamaged fruit experiment, a higher and statistically significant percentage of H. axyridis adults were found in the three damaged fruits. In the different cultivar experiment the Niágara grape, the Gala apple, and the Williams pear were significantly preferred by H. axyridis adults. These results may help in the management of this insect, preventing damage, which have been observed in other places where H. axyridis was introduced.

  17. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Costa

    Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  18. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Kun Shi


    Full Text Available Trehalose plays an important role in energy storage, metabolism, and protection from extreme environmental conditions in insects. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, and it can be rapidly used as an energy source in times of need. To elucidate the mechanisms of the starvation response, we observed the effects of starvation on trehalose and glycogen, trehalase activity, and the relative gene expression of genes in the trehalose and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis. Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8 h of starvation, while the relative expression of HaTreh1-1 increased. While trehalose remained nearly constant at a relatively high level from 8 to 24 h, glycogen levels decreased significantly from 8 h to 24 h of starvation. Likewise, glycogen phosphorylase (HaGP expression was significantly higher at 12 to 24 h starvation than the first 8 h, while the expression of glycogen synthase (HaGS was relatively stable. Furthermore, trehalose decreased significantly from 24 h starvation to 72 h starvation, while trehalase activities and the relative expression of some HaTreh genes generally increased toward the end of the starvation period. The expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (HaTPS increased significantly, supporting the increase in trehalose synthesis. These results show that trehalose plays a key role in the energy provided during the starvation process through the molecular and biochemical regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism.

  19. A Concept Design of Reactor Protection System for PALLAS Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Young Rok; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, Jung Seon [Control Tech. Research Inst., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Geun Ok; Koo, In Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Seok; Cho, Gi Ho [OPENCULTURE Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Reactor Protection System (RPS) is classified as a Safety Category 1 (SC1) I and C systems and complies with IEEE standards for Class 1E equipment. The RPS consists of First Reactor Protection System (FRPS) and Second Reactor Protection System (SRPS). There are two independent and diverse RPS to safely shutdown the reactor under all circumstances. The FRPS generates signals to actuate reactor trip by using CEA Bank1 automatically whenever monitored process variables reach predefined limits. The SRPS generates signals to actuate reactor trip by using Second Shutdown System (SSS) absorber assemblies automatically whenever monitored process variables reach predefined limits. The SRPS is an analogue system while the FRPS is a digital system.

  20. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766). (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares


    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183 T (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475 T (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103 T (=NRRL B-65309 T  = CMAA 1378 T ) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  1. Kärdla VIII b kangutas lahti kultuuriukse Leisi / Anu Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-


    Kärdla Keskkooli kaheksas b klass sõitis Leisi, et mängida kooliteatrite peapreemia saanud etendust "Oleme viieteistaastased ehk üks päev kaheksandas bees". Merle Karusoo lavaloo "Oleme kolmeteistkümne aastased" ja Kärdla kooli 8b klassi esseede põhjal oli tüki kokku ja lavale seadnud Koit Randus

  2. Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) Kessler, 1868 (Cestoda: Spathebothridea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš; dezfuli, B. S.; Poddubnaya, L. G.


    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2006), s. 884-892 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-04-48250; Grantová agentura SR VEGA2/4177/04(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : spermiogenesis * sperm * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  3. Endel Palla : hing ei luba Harju Elektrist eemale jääda / Mariliis Pinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pinn, Mariliis


    Harju Elektri nõukogu esimees on ettevõttes töötanud pea 40 aastat. Kauaaegne juht kiidab ettevõtte töötajaid, kuid kritiseerib valitsuse tegevust. Vt. samas: CV; Diagramm: Harju Elektri käive

  4. Simulating Brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas dispersion: a tool for wildlife management of wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici


    Full Text Available The second half of the 20th century was characterised by intense processes of urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation, leading to a fragmentation of the agricultural and forest landscape. This, in turn, reduced the bio-permeability of the territory and affected the dispersion of many wild species. Brown hare (Lepus europeus dispersion is dramatically affected by habitat fragmentation, presence of predators, intense tillage and elevated hunting pressure. Consequently, the only stable populations of hare are often in no-hunting areas where wildlife management is efficient. It is necessary, therefore, to identify not only additional areas suitable for reproduction, but also the most suitable dispersion pathways for hares, in order to optimise management. In the present study, by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS, a deterministic hare suitability model was developed on the basis of a multicriterial approach and fuzzy logic. Subsequently, a friction surface was derived from the suitability map in order to describe the land bio-permeability. Finally, on the basis of species potential, the spread of hares from stable population areas (source areas to the remaining territory was simulated. The area of study was the province of Viterbo (central Italy. The suitability map showed good discrimination ability (ROC=0.705. The hare dispersion simulation map allowed the potential spreading of this species throughout the provincial territory to be analysed. Isolated or less connected zones were highlighted, allowing the distribution of habitat enhancements, and/or the institution of new no-hunting areas devoted to the reproduction and consequent spread of hares throughout the territory, to be localised. The presented flexible and reiterable methodology could prove useful for wildlife management and hunting planning over a wide area. It would thus provide an important contribution to reducing the importance of animal translocation and favouring an increase in native resources spontaneously spreading throughout a territory. In a more general sense, this study is in accordance with the sustainable land management perspective, meeting the requirements of environmental protection, without compromising the anthropic development of non-urban areas.

  5. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). (United States)

    Costa, L M; Lourenço, E C; Esbérard, C E L; Silva, R M


    Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area), type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof), sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  6. Ultrastructural characteristics of spermatogenesis in Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana


    Despite the large number of species, their wide distribution, and unique reproductive characteristics, Neotropical bats have been poorly studied, and important aspects of the reproduction of these animals have not been elucidated. We made an ultrastructural analysis of spermatogenesis in Molossus molossus (Molossidae). The process of spermatogonial differentiation is similar to that found in other bats and is also relatively similar to that of Primates, with three main spermatogonia types: A(d), A(p), and B. Meiotic divisions proceed similarly to those of most mammals, and spermiogenesis is clearly divided into 12 steps, in the middle of the range known for bats (9-16 steps). Formation of the acrosome is similar to that known from other mammals; however, the ultrastructure of spermatozoa was found to have unique characteristics, including many wavy acrosomal projections on its surface, which seems to be specific for the family Molossidae. Comparing the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of M. molossus with other bats already study, we observed that three characters vary: morphology of the outer dense fibers, of the perforatorium, and of the spermatozoon head. The great similarity of morphological characters between M. molossus and Platyrrhinus lineatus suggests that M. molossus is more closely related to the Phyllostomidae than to the Rhinolophidae and the Vespertilionidae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [The etiology of liver dystrophy in the field hare (Lepus europaeus pallas)]. (United States)

    Eskens, U; Volmer, K


    The liver dystrophy of the European Brown Hare is widely distributed in Europe and predominantly called European Brown Hare Syndrome (EBHS) or Hemorrhagic Septicemia Syndrome. The disease could be reproduced by injection of sterile filtered organ material of two field cases in two hares held in captivity. The clinical symptoms and the pathologic alterations are described.

  8. Resource allocation and post-reproductive degeneration in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra oligactis (Pallas, 1766). (United States)

    Tökölyi, Jácint; Ősz, Zsófia; Sebestyén, Flóra; Barta, Zoltán


    Freshwater hydra are among the few animal groups that show negligible senescence and can maintain high survival and reproduction rates when kept under stable conditions in the laboratory. Yet, one species of Hydra (H. oligactis) undergoes a senescence-like process in which polyps degenerate and die after sexual reproduction. The ultimate factors responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. High mortality in reproducing animals could be the consequence of increased allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of somatic maintenance. This hypothesis predicts that patterns of reproduction and survival are influenced by resource availability. To test this prediction we investigated survival and reproduction at different levels of food availability in 10 lineages of H. oligactis derived from a single Hungarian population. Sexual reproduction was accompanied by reduced survival, but a substantial proportion of animals regenerated after sexual reproduction and continued reproducing asexually. Polyps belonging to different lineages showed differences in their propensity to initiate sexual reproduction, gonad number and survival rate. Food availability significantly affected fecundity (number of eggs or testes produced), with the largest number of gonads being produced by animals kept on a high food regime. On the other hand, survival rate was not affected by the amount of food. These results show that survival is conserved at the expense of reproduction in this population when food is low. It remains a question still to be answered why survival is prioritized over reproduction in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Gustomi


    Full Text Available The knowledge of fish reproduction is the most important in freshwater management continously. The research was done from February-July 2013, was aiming to describe information on reproductive aspects of belida fishes (Notopterus notopterus,i.e. sex ratio, gonado somatic stages, gonado somatic index, first size of maturity, fecundity, and spawning type. The fish Samples was taken by gill net which had many sizes such as 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 cm. Each gill net has length 30 m and width 2 m. Belida fishes have caught during research amounted 497 ind, which consisted of: 237 male and 260 female. Sex ratio male and female fish were relatively balance. The maturity gonad of male fish is faster than female fish. Featherback do spawn every month for each observation during the research. The spawning type of Featherback is partial pattern (step by step. The first size of maturity gonad from male fish was in length 135 mm and female fish was in length 162 mm. Fecundity of Featherback was in range 1.051-6.057 eggs. Fecundity is not influenced by length or weight body. For the sake to keep Featherback population needed a regulation, such as: the mesh size regulation of gillnet have to 30 mm or equal with 1.5 inci.

  10. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić G.


    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  11. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro


    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green ® analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  12. Reducing visual stimulations in european hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ferretti


    Full Text Available Stress may be an important variable affecting the survival of the captured hares, for this reason the Authors studied the effect of the use of a blindfolding hood applied to the hares immediately after net trapping. A total of 119 hares were captured by coursing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurchers in no hunting areas of Tuscany. Immediately after net trapping 38 hares were blindfolded with a hood and 81 were normally handled to the wooden darkened capture- boxes without blinding their eyes (control. From all the hares a sample of blood was collected within 1-2 min by the auricular vein. Blood samples were analyzed for haemocromocytometry and metabolic profile determination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Sub-clinically stressed hares were discriminated from nonstressed hares by the use of the discriminant function based on CK, AST and glucose and the differences were tested by chi2c Results showed that body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, glucose, cholesterol, CK, AST, ALT, BUN, total protein and some haemocromo-cytometric parameters were significantly higher in captured hares without blindfold. The incidence of subclinically stressed hares was 26% in the hares equipped with the blindfold and 81% in the hares without blindfold (chi2c=32.98, P<0.0001 (presence of subclinical stress discriminated by the use of a discriminant function based on CPK, AST and glucose. For this reason the procedures designed for the translocation of the hares could take advantage by the use of a blindfold which should be applied to the hares immediately after their trapping.

  13. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan


    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  14. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC. Massaro

    Full Text Available Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 ± 2 °C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week. The individual growth-rate (k of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 ± 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 ± 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  15. Eco-physiology, mass production and larvaebreeding potentialities of the fresh water rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaïss, A.


    Full Text Available In veterinary medicine of african tradition in Kivu and Kibali-lturi (Zaire, we have identified 32 medicinal plants used alone or in association at the time of verminosis, diarrhea, coprostasis and meteorism. The parts of the plant intervene in the following proportions : leaves (59 %, fruits and seeds (12 %, whole plant (12 %, stems barks (9 %, roots, rhizoms and tubers (5 %, roots'barks (3 %. After maceration (51 % of cases, decoction (25 % or without modification (20 %, the way of administration is oral in 90 % of cases and anal in 10 % of cases. Our data led us to suggest that plants previously submitted to a pharmacological screening could be introduced and maintained by management technics of paturages before pharmacotechnical studies or industrial production of medicaments.

  16. Biogeochemical alteration of the benthic environment by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas

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    Alina Krevš


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether the biogeochemicalfeatures (e.g. concentration of nutrients, oxygen consumption,mineralization rate, Eh of sediments changed by the zebra musselor its shell deposits differ from those in the ambient soft bottom,and how these differences are related to the structure of benthicmacroinvertebrates. In 2006 three sampling sessions were carriedout in the Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea, at three pre-definedsites, corresponding to different bottom types: zebra musselbed, zebra mussel shell deposits and bare soft sediments. Similarityanalysis of biogeochemical parameters indicated that bottom sedimentscovered with zebra mussel shell deposits were rather distinctfrom the other bottom types because of the lowest total organicmatter mineralization rate and highest organic carbon, totalphosphorus and total nitrogen content. The parameters measuredin the zebra mussel bed did not deviate conspicuously from thevalues observed in bare bottoms, except for the higher rate ofoxygen consumption in the upper sediment layer. Unsuitable anoxicconditions on the one hand and the "attractive" shelters providedby zebra mussels on the other hand may promote the epifaunallife style in the habitats formed by dense zebra mussel clumps.

  17. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). (United States)

    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A


    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis.

  18. Effects of removing symbiotic green algae on the response of Hydra viridissima (Pallas 1776) to metals. (United States)

    Karntanut, W; Pascoe, D


    Hydra viridissima is distinctively green due to symbiotic algae within the endodermal cells. The current investigation was designed to see if these algae influenced the response of Hydra to pollutants, by comparing the toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc to both symbiotic and aposymbiotic (free of their endosymbiotic algae) H. viridissima. The results demonstrated that the toxicity of the metals was generally similar for both groups of Hydra. However, at the lowest copper concentrations there was a difference between the two group of polyps, with aposymbiotic animals dying at concentrations where symbiotic Hydra survived. The lowest observed effect concentrations were 0.0068 and 0.016 mg/L for aposymbiotic and symbiotic Hydra, respectively. It is suggested that the symbiotic Hydra derive benefits from the association that enable them to better tolerate the toxicant. This work demonstrated that experimental manipulation of symbionts can help to explain their complex interactions and the ways in which they respond to pollutants.

  19. Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of the pseudophyllidean cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Marchand, B.


    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2005), s. 26-33 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA206/03/1317 Grant - others:Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Triaenophorus nodulosus * spermiogenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2005

  20. Environmental regulation of mitochondria-rich cells in Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas, 1811) during reproductive migration. (United States)

    Oğuz, Ahmet R


    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an anadromous cyprinid fish that has adapted to extreme conditions (salinity 22 ‰, pH 9.8 and alkalinity 153 mEq × l⁻¹) in Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Changes in immunoreactivity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in gill tissue and osmolarity and ion levels in plasma were investigated in C. tarichi during reproductive migration. Physicochemical characteristics and ion levels in Lake Van were high compared freshwater. Plasma osmolality and plasma ion concentrations ([Na⁺], [K⁺] and [Cl⁻]) increased after transfer from freshwater to Lake Van. The mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gill were stained in both filament and lamellar epithelia of C. tarichi by immunocytochemistry with a specific antiserum for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in river fish samples. Density and area of MR cells were decreased in lake-adapted fishes. These results indicated that freshwater acclimation capacity is correlated with the size and distribution of MR cells in C. tarichi, in contrast to many teleost fishes.

  1. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesus, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Ventura-Juarez, Javier, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Silva-Briano, Marcelo, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Biologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro, E-mail: [Instituto de Servicios de Salud del Estado de Aguascalientes, Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Av. Siglo XXI 105, Ciudad Satelite Morelos, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)


    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green{sup Registered-Sign} analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  2. [Factors responsible for spatial population genetic Structure in white-spotted char Salvelinus leucomaensis (Pallas)]. (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A; Omelchenko, V T


    Using personal data obtained earlier on the spatial population genetic structure of white-spotted char at ten microsatellite loci, an analysis of factors shaping the interpopulation divergence was performed. The primary role of genetic drift in population differentiation over the distribution range was demonstrated, compared to the practically absent role of stepwise mutation process. This result points to the common origin and relative connections between southern and northern population groups. In the majority of populations, no bottleneck effect was detected. Exclusion of the genetically peculiar Primorye population from the analysis resulted in the identification of the isolation by distance signatures among the examined populations. Such an association can be determined by the migratory exchange between the populations, or it could have formed during the historical post-Pleistocene colonization of the range.

  3. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.


    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  4. [Genome similarity of Baikal omul and sig]. (United States)

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Ukolova, S S; Skvortsov, T A; Potapov, V K; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D


    Two members of the Baikal sig family, a lake sig (Coregonus lavaretus baicalensis Dybovsky) and omul (C. autumnalis migratorius Georgi), are close relatives that diverged from the same ancestor 10-20 thousand years ago. In this work, we studied genomic polymorphism of these two fish species. The method of subtraction hybridization (SH) did not reveal the presence of extended sequences in the sig genome and their absence in the omul genome. All the fragments found by SH corresponded to polymorphous noncoding genome regions varying in mononucleotide substitutions and short deletions. Many of them are mapped close to genes of the immune system and have regions identical to the Tc-1-like transposons abundant among fish, whose transcription activity may affect the expression of adjacent genes. Thus, we showed for the first time that genetic differences between Baikal sig family members are extremely small and cannot be revealed by the SH method. This is another endorsement of the hypothesis on the close relationship between Baikal sig and omul and their evolutionarily recent divergence from a common ancestor.

  5. The age, growth, sexual maturity, and sex ratio of the common whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill), of Lake Huron (United States)

    Van Oosten, John


    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  6. Mitogenome sequencing reveals shallow evolutionary histories and recent divergence time between morphologically and ecologically distinct European whitefish (Coregonus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Orlando, Ludovic


    the evolutionary history of the endangered Danish North Sea houting (NSH) and other closely related Danish and Baltic European lake whitefish (ELW). Two well-supported clades were found within both ELW and NSH, probably reflecting historical introgression via Baltic migrants. Although ELW and NSH...... colonized Denmark following the last glacial maximum, Bayesian Serial SimCoal analysis showed consistency with a scenario of long-term stability, resulting from a rapid initial sixfold population expansion. The findings illustrate the utility of mitogenome data for resolving recent intraspecific divergence...

  7. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the level tide zero. In the field, A. monodon actively foraged at night preying mainly on mussels (95 % and barnacles (5 %. Temporal variation in diet composition of A. monodon was caused mostly by changes in the cover of different mussel species during the two years of sampling. In the laboratory, individual of A. monodon showed significant preference for the mussel Semimytilus algosus. In these experiments, A. monodon's foraging behavior maximized the net gain of energy by selecting species and sizes of prey that provided the greatest energy profitability

  8. Fine structure of the female reproductive ducts of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea), from salmonid fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš


    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 323-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342 Grant - others:Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04; Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-04-48250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * ultrastructure * female reproductive system Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  9. The use of Bacillus probiotics in-feed improved stress resistance of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas, 1770 larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Jafariyan


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis and Bacillus circulance (B. circulance (1 × 104 , 2 × 104 , 3 × 104 and 4 × 104 CFU/g on growth and resistance of three spot gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus for a period of 30 days. Methods: During this study, experimental fish were fed with supplemented diets. Bacillus probiotics with concentrations of 1 × 104 to 4 × 104 CFU/g were administered to improve the growth performance and larval resistance to challenge tests containing acidic pH and basic pH, ammonia and salinity tests. Results: The addition of B. subtilis and B. circulance to the diet did not increase larval growth rate, but increased larval resistance against the challenge tests. Conclusions: The results of this study investigated the positive effects of B. subtilis and B. circulance on Trichopodus trichopterus resistance time to the challenge test.

  10. Reinvestigation of vitellogenesis in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), monozoic tapeworm of Abramis brama (Pisces, Teleostei)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Drobníková, P.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Nebesářová, Jana


    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-81 ISSN 0440-6605 Grant - others:ERDF(XE) 26220120022 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Caryophyllidea * Caryophyllaeus laticeps * vitellogenesis * vitellocyte * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2013

  11. Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Peters, J.L.; Cremers, G.; Moon- van der Staay, S.Y.; Alen, van T.; Eygensteyn, J.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Palau, A.; Vaate, de A.B.; Velde, van der G.


    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha is an aquatic nuisance invasive species originally native to the Ponto-Caspian region where it is found in lakes and delta areas of large rivers draining into the Black and Caspian seas. The dispersal of D. polymorpha began at the end of the 18th century, at a

  12. The parasite community of round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae) newly introduced into the upper Elbe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel


    Roč. 418, April (2017), č. článku 19. ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : enemy release hypothesis * Neogobius melanostomus * North Sea basin * parasite spillback * Pomphorhynchus tereticollis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology , freshwater biology , limnology Impact factor: 1.217, year: 2016

  13. Is web oscillation in the orb-web spider Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)(Araneidae) an anti-predatory behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Björklund, S.


    of the spider allow it to move the centre of gravity quickly, and thereby to oscillate. (2) The great elasticity and strength of its web allow the spider to control the oscillations so that slow movements are reduced to a minimum. (3) When it is oscillating. the eyes of a predator cannot accommodate to keep...

  14. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages to round (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) and tubenose (Proterorhinus semilunaris, Heckel 1837) goby predation pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel


    Roč. 785, č. 1 (2017), s. 219-232 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * Gobies * Macroinvertebrates * Impact * European rivers * Diet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  15. Migratory Pallas’s Gull Larus ichthyaetus (Pallas, 1773: a new record from Sikkim, the eastern Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Sharma


    Full Text Available The present study documents the first sightings of the migratory Pallas’s Gull at two different locations (Cholamu Lake and Singtam Valley in the eastern Himalayan state of Sikkim in India.  We recommend that long term surveys are required to determine and establish the distribution and status of the species in the state. 


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Se efectuaron muestreos de Molossus molossus en el área urbana de Sincelejo, en el período comprendido entre abril de 2004 y diciembre de 2005, utilizando redes de niebla de 12 x 2. La abundancia relativa calculada a partir del número de individuos que cayeron en las redes y el número de redes utilizadas, fue de 65.4 %. Se visitaron 487 viviendas y otras edificaciones humanas y se anotó su localización y estado físico (buena, regular o mala así como la presencia- ausencia de esta especie. La proporción de edificaciones con presencia de M. molossus fue de 42.3 %. Las casas más infestadas fueron las que se hallaban en regular y mal estado. El estado de los techos de muchas de esas edificaciones era deplorable, con presencia de excremento, orina y numerosos organismos como cucarachas, roedores y otros. También se determinó que M. molossus ingiere 1.5 g de insectos nocturnos en una noche como promedio, lo que, considerando su gran abundancia, implica una cantidad importante de insectos consumidos anualmente. Una encuesta realizada a la población cuyas viviendas fueron visitadas arrojó que la mayoría desconoce los daños y beneficios que puede ocasionar esta especie a la población humana. Las condiciones de clima cálido, relativamente estable todo el año y la abundancia de refugios y alimento, hace que M. molossus pueda reproducirse todo el año, lo que unido a que no tiene muchos depredadores, la convierte en una especie de mucho éxito ecológico. Se recomienda tomar las medidas pertinentes para reducir su convivencia con el hombre, pero sin dañar sus poblaciones, teniendo en cuenta los beneficios que aporta

  17. Indicators of reproduction of the tundra vole (microtus oeconomus pallas, 1776) in Palesse state radiation-ecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchmel', S.V.


    In 2003-2007 reproductive indicators of the tundra vole in territory of Palesse state radiation-ecological reserve have been caused by factors of an inhabitancy and are peculiar to this kind on other sites of dwelling. (authors)

  18. Isamaaline tundmus : Eesti ja Soome kirjamees Jüri Tilk ehk Yrjö Virula / Anu Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-


    Avaliku elu tegelasest, ajakirjanikust ja karskuskirjanduse rajajast Jüri Tilgast, kes 19. sajandi lõpul töötas aktiivselt üldtuntud rahvajuhtide kõrval, olles ka Ado Grenzsteini lähim aatekaaslane

  19. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva de Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Fabián


    Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.

  20. Selective effects of the extract from Angelica archangelica L. against Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)—An important predator of aphids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Kazda, J.


    Roč. 51, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 87-92 ISSN 0926-6690 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Angelica archangelica * Harmonia axyridis * furanocoumarins * botanical insecticides * aphids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  1. Ectoparasites of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) and local domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) in southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. (United States)

    Okaeme, A N


    The ectoparasites of poultry in a southern guinea savanna zone were investigated by the examination of guinea fowl and local domestic chickens in the range and guinea fowl under intensive management. The prevalent ectoparasites of range guinea fowl and local chickens include seven species of lice Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae, Lipeurus caponis, Numidilipeurus tropicalis, Damalinia bovis; three mites Bdellonyssus bursa, Megninia cubitalis, Dermanyssus gallinae; two fleas Echidnophaga gallinacea, Ctenocephalides felis and two ticks Argas persicus and Ambylomma variegatum. Under intensive management, infestation by G. gigas, L. caponis and M. gallinae led to clinical signs, feather damage, reduced food intake and death.

  2. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Markov


    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.

  3. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in an aquatic food web recently invaded by Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Mills, E.L.; Idrisi, N.; Michener, R.


    The carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of major abiotic and biotic constituents were determined in Oneida Lake, New York. This lake was invaded by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in 1990 and there have been concomitant changes in various biotic and abiotic lake properties. The C (46-49%) and N (12%) concentrations and C:N ratios (3.9-4) of zebra mussel flesh were similar to those reported for other lakes. Trophic positions were reflected in the δ 15 N values for which walleye > gizzard shad and yellow perch > Daphnia spp. and zebra mussel flesh > seston and sediment. There was an average increase of 3.6% 0 15 N per trophic transfer. Results from the δ 13 C analysis suggest that Daphnia spp. were using a distinct source of organic carbon whereas zebra mussel were using the entire seston resource. Only yellow perch showed a significant shift in δ 13 C values (1.1% 0 ), possibly reflecting a shift in a food source and diet from 1992 to 1993. (author). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  4. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems. (United States)

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J


    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems.

  5. Los rituales a los vestidos de Maria Titiqhawa, Juana Palla y otros fundadores de los ayllu de Coroma


    Bubba, Cristina


    Muchos grupos prehispánicos andinos han sido caracterizados como sociedades del tejido. Como lo ilustra Velarde, la civilización andina es: “Una extraordinaria civilización del tejido. Todo lo tejían y todo estaba envuelto por el espíritu del tejido... la tierra la labraban como quien teje una inmensa alfombra, escribía tejiendo,...el arma principal era un tejido que lanzaba piedras..., las huacas eran sepulturas de tejidos, tenían la paciencia y la filosofía del que teje y tejieron los ...

  6. Predation of Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae by Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae in the Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva


    Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

  7. Long-term effects of extreme weather events and eutrophication on the fish community of shallow Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia

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    Külli Kangur


    Full Text Available The fish kill in lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia during the extraordinarily hot summer of 2010 evoked an investigation into the effects of environmental extremes and long-term eutrophication on the fish community of the lake. Current data on lake Peipsi indicate that temperature extremes and synergistic interactions with eutrophication have led to a radical restructuring of the fish community. Commercial landings of lake smelt, Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus (Pallas, the previous dominant species of the fish community, have decreased dramatically since the 1930s, these declines being coupled with summer heat waves coinciding with low water levels. Gradual decline in smelt stock and catches was significantly related to a decline of near-bottom oxygen conditions and to a decrease in water transparency. The first documented fish kill in 1959 occurred only in the southern, most shallow and eutrophic lake (lake Pihkva. Recently, summer fish kill have become more frequent, involving larger areas of the lake. In addition to the cold-water species, e.g. smelt and vendace Coregonus albula (L., the abundance of bottom-dwelling fishes such as ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L. and juvenile fish have significantly decreased after the 2010 heat wave probably due to hypoxia and warm water temperatures. This study showed that fish community structure in large shallow lakes may be very vulnerable to water temperature increases, especially temperature extremes in combination with eutrophication.

  8. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) (United States)

    Zak, Megan A.; Regish, Amy M.; McCormick, Stephen; Manzon, Richard G.


    Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19 °C) or below (8 °C) the thermal optimum (13 °C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60 µg T4/g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart. Warm acclimation decreased citrate synthase activity in liver and elevated both citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in red muscle. In contrast, induction of hyperthyroidism in warm-acclimated fish stimulated a significant increase in liver citrate synthase and heart cytochrome c oxidase activities, and a decrease in the activity of both enzymes in red muscle. No change in citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase activities was observed following cold acclimation in either the presence or absence of exogenous thyroid hormones. Collectively, our results indicate that thyroid hormones influence the activity of oxidative enzymes more strongly in warm-acclimated than in cold-acclimated lake whitefish, and they may play a role in mediating metabolic adjustments observed during thermal acclimation.

  9. RAD-QTL Mapping Reveals Both Genome-Level Parallelism and Different Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of Body Shape in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Species Pairs. (United States)

    Laporte, Martin; Rogers, Sean M; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Normandeau, Eric; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Dalziel, Anne C; Chebib, Jobran; Bernatchez, Louis


    Parallel changes in body shape may evolve in response to similar environmental conditions, but whether such parallel phenotypic changes share a common genetic basis is still debated. The goal of this study was to assess whether parallel phenotypic changes could be explained by genetic parallelism, multiple genetic routes, or both. We first provide evidence for parallelism in fish shape by using geometric morphometrics among 300 fish representing five species pairs of Lake Whitefish. Using a genetic map comprising 3438 restriction site-associated DNA sequencing single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we then identified quantitative trait loci underlying body shape traits in a backcross family reared in the laboratory. A total of 138 body shape quantitative trait loci were identified in this cross, thus revealing a highly polygenic architecture of body shape in Lake Whitefish. Third, we tested for evidence of genetic parallelism among independent wild populations using both a single-locus method (outlier analysis) and a polygenic approach (analysis of covariation among markers). The single-locus approach provided limited evidence for genetic parallelism. However, the polygenic analysis revealed genetic parallelism for three of the five lakes, which differed from the two other lakes. These results provide evidence for both genetic parallelism and multiple genetic routes underlying parallel phenotypic evolution in fish shape among populations occupying similar ecological niches. Copyright © 2015 Laporte et al.

  10. Critical windows in embryonic development: Shifting incubation temperatures alter heart rate and oxygen consumption of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos and hatchlings. (United States)

    Eme, J; Mueller, C A; Manzon, R G; Somers, C M; Boreham, D R; Wilson, J Y


    Critical windows are periods of developmental susceptibility when the phenotype of an embryonic, juvenile or adult animal may be vulnerable to environmental fluctuations. Temperature has pervasive effects on poikilotherm physiology, and embryos are especially vulnerable to temperature shifts. To identify critical windows, we incubated whitefish embryos at control temperatures of 2°C, 5°C, or 8°C, and shifted treatments among temperatures at the end of gastrulation or organogenesis. Heart rate (fH) and oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) were measured across embryonic development, and [Formula: see text] was measured in 1-day old hatchlings. Thermal shifts, up or down, from initial incubation temperatures caused persistent changes in fH and [Formula: see text] compared to control embryos measured at the same temperature (2°C, 5°C, or 8°C). Most prominently, when embryos were measured at organogenesis, shifting incubation temperature after gastrulation significantly lowered [Formula: see text] or fH. Incubation at 2°C or 5°C through gastrulation significantly lowered [Formula: see text] (42% decrease) and fH (20% decrease) at 8°C, incubation at 2°C significantly lowered [Formula: see text] (40% decrease) and fH (30% decrease) at 5°C, and incubation at 5°C and 8°C significantly lowered [Formula: see text] at 2°C (27% decrease). Through the latter half of development, [Formula: see text] and fH in embryos were not different from control values for thermally shifted treatments. However, in hatchlings measured at 2°C, [Formula: see text] was higher in groups incubated at 5°C or 8°C through organogenesis, compared to 2°C controls (43 or 65% increase, respectively). Collectively, these data suggest that embryonic development through organogenesis represents a critical window of embryonic and hatchling phenotypic plasticity. This study presents an experimental design that identified thermally sensitive periods for fish embryos. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Coregonus Populations in the Zone of Intergradation between the Vendace and Least Cisco: the Role of the Environment in Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovikova Elena


    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers showed that the Least Cisco gradually spread from Siberia to Europe until the last glaciation. This was accompanied by gradual replacement of "typically Siberian" gene variants with "typically European" ones. Morphological traits also changed as the species expanded, the changes in the body proportions being apparently adaptive. They are likely to reflect the transition of the cisco from the semi-anadromous life history type to the lacustrine type, which is more characteristic of the European form. Thus, the speciation of the vendace is clearly adaptive, at least with respect to some traits. It should be noted, however, that the results of this study raise doubt as to whether the vendace has entirely diverged from the Least Cisco, and the speciation has completed.

  12. Investigation of wild caught whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), for infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and experimental challenge of whitefish with VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Kjær, Torben Egil; Olesen, Niels Jørgen


    into contact with farmed rainbow trout. All samples were examined on cell cultures. No viruses were isolated. Three viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of different origin were tested in infection trials by immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection, using 1.5 g farmed whitefish: an isolate...... from wild caught marine fish, a farmed rainbow trout isolate with a suspected marine origin and a classical freshwater isolate. The isolates were highly pathogenic by IP injection where 99-100% of the whitefish died. Using an immersion challenge the rainbow trout isolates were moderately pathogenic...

  13. Ribosomal genes in Coregonid fishes (Coregonus lavaretus, C-albula and C-peled) (Salmonidae): single and multiple nucleolus organizer regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankun, M.; Martinez, P.; Pardo, B. G.; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Sanchez, L.


    Roč. 87, - (2001), s. 672-679 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045011; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : AgNOR-polymorphism * chromomycin A(3) banding * fish cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2001

  14. Helminth parasites of stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771 and Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Pisces: Acipenseridae) from the South-East Caspian Sea. (United States)

    Rajabpour, M; Malek, M; MacKenzie, K; Aghlmandi, F


    A total of 182 specimens of two sturgeon species, stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus (N=112) and Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus (N=70), from three coastal stations in the South-East Caspian Sea were examined for endohelminth parasites. Four helminth species were recorded: Cucullanus sphaerocephala (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Skrjabinopsolus semiarmatus (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae), found in both host species, and Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) and Amphilina foliacea (Cestodaria: Amphilinidae), found only in A. stellatus. The most abundant parasites were C. sphaerocephala and S. semiarmatus in A. persicus and A. stellatus, respectively. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied for separating host species using parasite numbers data, Brillouin index of diversity, and species richness. By this means, 83% of the hosts were assigned to their correct a priori groups. The different feeding habits and habitat preferences of the two hosts are probably the major factors accounting for the difference in their parasite burdens.

  15. Ecologia alimentar de Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1776) (Polychaeta-Amphinomidae) em bancos de Carijoa riisei (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) (Anthozoa-Clavuralidae)


    Andrade Rodrigues, Hilquias


    Hermodice carunculata é considerado um importante predador de cnidários, alimentando-se de zooantideos, anêmonas, gorgônias, hidrocorais e corais escleractíneos. A predação é um importante agente estruturador das comunidades, podendo diminuir ou aumentar a diversidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar a dieta de H. carunculata nos bancos de Carijoa riisei na praia de Proto de Galinhas-PE e descrever o comportamento alimentar e estratégias de predação de H. carunculata. Foram coletado...

  16. A biosystematic study of new records of the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771 (Amphibia: Ranidae from the southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinolabedin Mohammadi


    Full Text Available The marsh frog, Pelophylax ridibundus, is reported from all over Iran except from the southeast and central deserts. This study provides records of 12 specimens of Pelophylax ridibundus from the easternmost extent of its range in Iran, Zabol, Sistan, and Baluchestan Province. Morphological, morphometric, and karyological characteristics of the specimens were investigated and compared with populations from other parts of Iran. Zabol specimens demonstrated 2n = 26, comprising one pair of metacentric, six pairs of submetacentric, and six pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Karyological results indicated Zabol specimens are the same as specimens from the central north of Iran. In addition, specimens from the southeast of Iran demonstrated a lower than average size except for tympanum and inter naris length compared with that of specimens from the north, and the northeast of Iran which may be the result of implications of Bergmann's rule due to the higher temperatures of the region.

  17. Toxicity and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the development and fecundity of a non-specific predator, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Cai, Wanlun; Jing, Zhao; Zhou, Xingmiao; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Hua, Hongxia


    In order to further develop integrated pest management (IPM) approaches for controlling insect pests, it is important to estimate the effects of pesticides. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effects of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole on a non-specific predator, the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis, were evaluated and life table parameter data were analyzed statistically using the age-stage, two-sex life table procedure. The results of this study show that the development time of second and fourth instar larvae as well as pupa was significantly prolonged in populations treated with LC10 (2.42 mg (a.i.) L -1 ) and LC30 (12.06 mg (a.i.) L -1 ), while adult longevity and fecundity were both significantly reduced and the preoviposition period (POP) was significantly prolonged following treatment compared to the control. In addition, the net reproductive rate (R 0 ), as well as the intrinsic (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly decreased in groups treated with the insecticide. These results reveal that because sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole impair the population growth of H. axyridis, more attention should be paid to the use of this chemical as a component of IPM strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas as an alternative to Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction. (United States)

    Martino, Emanuela; Ramaiola, Ilaria; Urbano, Mariangela; Bracco, Francesco; Collina, Simona


    Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and microwaves-assisted extraction (MAE) in closed system have been investigated to determine the content of coumarin, o-coumaric and melilotic acids in flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis. The extracts were analyzed with an appropriate HPLC procedure. The reproducibility of extraction and of chromatographic analysis was proved. Taking into account the extraction yield, the cost and the time, we studied the effects of extraction variables on the yield of the above-mentioned compounds. Better results were obtained with MAE (50% v/v aqueous ethanol, two heating cycles of 5 min, 50 degrees C). On the basis of the ratio extraction yield/extraction time, we therefore propose MAE as the most efficient method.

  19. Predação oportunística de Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae por Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae na Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva


    Full Text Available A presente comunicação relata um evento de predação oportunística do morcego Molossus molossus pelo sapo Rhinella jimi, ocorrido em 29 de maio de 2003 na Caatinga, município de Orocó, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil.

  20. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters. (United States)

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G


    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  1. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelová, V.; Oros, M.; Barčák, D.; Miklisová, D.; Kirin, D.; Scholz, Tomáš


    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 177-190 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : population dynamics * identification * cesroda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015

  2. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam


    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  3. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland (United States)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  4. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes suggests that relaxed purifying selection is driving high nonsynonymous evolutionary rate of the NADH2 gene in whitefish (Coregonus ssp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Bernatchez, Louis


    Several studies have recently reported evidence for positive selection acting on the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), emphasizing its potential role in adaptive divergence and speciation. In this study we searched 107 full mitogenomes of recently diverged species and lineages of whitefish...... evolution in ND2 by (i) mapping amino acid changes to a protein model structure which showed that they were located away from key functional residues of the protein, (ii) locating them in the sequences of other species of fish (Salmonidae, Anguillidae, Scombridae and Percidae) only to find pronounced...... overlap of nonsynonymous regions. We thus conclude that relaxed purifying selection is driving the evolution of ND2 by affecting mostly regions that have lower functional relevance....

  5. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)]. (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A


    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  6. The ecological role of overwintering fish in the food web of the Culbin Sands lagoon ecosystem, NE Scotland: Identifying major trophic links and testing effects of the fish Pomatoschistus microps (Pallas on benthic invertebrates

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    Vanda Mariyam Mendonça


    Full Text Available The Culbin Sands lagoon ecosystem in NE Scotland was studied during a three-year period (1994-1996 to identify the major trophic links from benthic invertebrates to epibenthic predators, and to assess impacts of overwintering fish on their prey communities. Every 2-4 weeks, samples of mobile fauna were collected to study their diets. The major trophic links identified between benthic invertebrates and epibenthic predators were from benthic invertebrates to the shrimp Crangon crangon, and to the common goby Pomatoschistus microps and the plaice Pleuronectes platessa. The energy flow from benthic invertebrates to overwintering fish was estimated at 133 kJ m–2 yr–1. A flow of 10 kJ m–2 yr–1 was also observed from eggs and larval stages of the overwintering shrimp Crangon crangon to the overwintering fish. Nevertheless, manipulative field experiments showed no significant impacts of the most abundant overwintering fish Pomatoschistus microps on prey community densities, despite an overall individual ingestion rate of 89 J day–1.

  7. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

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    Samira Mohamadian


    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  8. Increased presence of the thermophilic mosquitoes and potential vectors Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771) and Culex modestus Ficalbi 1889 in Central Europe’s lower Dyje River basin (South Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, O.; Gelbič, Ivan


    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2015), s. 272-280 ISSN 0037-9271 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anopheles hyrcanus * Culex modestus * vector Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2015

  9. The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr'akil, a palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.


    CONTENTS Introduction................... 4 Systematic part.................. 5 Pisces.................... 5 Amphibia................... 6 Hyla arborea (L.) subsp............... 6 Reptilia................... 6 Testudo spec.................. 6 Ophisaurus apodus (Pallas).............. 8 Chamaeleo


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Submillimeter lightcurves of large asteroids Ceres, Davida, Io, Juno, Pallas, Vesta, and Victoria, observed at the Heinrich-Hertz Submillimeter Telescope from...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological studies on the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Pallas): I. Effect of age, sex, and time of bleeding of the haematological values of Guinea Fowls Abstract · Vol 13, No 1 (1986) - Articles Haematological studies on the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Pallas): II. Effect of age, sex, and time of bleeding on protein ...

  12. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report. (United States)


    Microporellidae MiiSrorefla ciliata (Pallas 1766) SF X Phylum Echinodermata Class Echinoidea Order Diadematoida * Family Lchinrachnidae *Echinarachnius pdrma...Microporella ciliata (Pallas 1766) SF x Phylum Echinodermata Class Echinoidea Order Diadematoida Family Echinarachnidae Echinarachnius prina- (Lamark 1816...establishment of estuarine plant and animal communities. Fossil pollen samples, wood and peat species and extinct megafaunal remains (mammoth, mastodon

  13. Fatty acid composition of fish species with different feeding habits from an Arctic Lake. (United States)

    Gladyshev, M I; Sushchik, N N; Glushchenko, L A; Zadelenov, V A; Rudchenko, A E; Dgebuadze, Y Y


    We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass. The hypothesis on a higher content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the fish of higher trophic level (piscivores) when compared within the same taxonomic group (order Salmoniformes) was confirmed.

  14. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn


    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  15. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  16. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail / Merle Talvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvik, Merle, 1971-


    Kujundusgraafikute kahest koolkonnast: valdavalt Riigi Kunsttööstuskooli haridusega Tallinna kunstnikest ja Kõrgemas kunstikoolis Pallas hariduse saanud Tartu graafikutest. Koolkondade ühisjooneks kujunes art deco. Kunstnikud

  17. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, using the CLIMEX model - BioControl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, J.; Loomans, A.; Aukema, B.; Heijerman, Th.


    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird beetle native to temperate and subtropical parts of Asia. Since 1916 populations of this species have been introduced throughout the world, either deliberately, or by accident through international transport. Harmonia

  18. Lijst van de Nederlandsche visschen aanwezig in 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, tevens eene vermelding van de tot nu toe in en bij Nederland waargenomen visschen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.


    Afd.: CHORDATA. Groep III: CEPHALOCHORDATA. Fam.: BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE. Branchiostoma lanceolata (Pallas) — slakprik, niet aanwezig. Groep IV: CRANIATA. Klasse: Marsipobranchii. Fam.: PETROMYZONIDAE. Petromyzon marinus L. — zeeprik. 1 ex. beschadigd, Noordzee, uit het oude kabinet, in spir. no. 4277.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    puissent franchir un mur vertical, le pourcentage de passage et le taux de réussite est beaucoup plus faible que pour les autres pentes testées. Une pente à 50°, et une charge de l’ordre de 1-2 mm sont les deux conditions ayant permis sur le pilote d’obtenir les meilleurs résultats. Le revêtement de la rampe s’est révélé être un facteur secondaire, le béton lisse constituant cependant le meilleur support. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis de proposer des critères de dimensionnement pour des dispositifs de franchissement adaptés aux sites et à l’espèce. La passe consiste en une rampe en béton lisse installée à une pente de 50° alimentée par déversement. Une alimentation non uniforme sur la largeur de la rampe permet d’obtenir, quel que soit le niveau amont, une zone favorable à la remontée du poisson.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Antoni Ramczyk


    Full Text Available The econometric model can be a precise instrument for the analysis of the impact of the natural environment's degradation on fishing economy. This paper aims at analysing the influence of the water quality changes in lake Charzykowskie on the fishing economy. This dissertation present the results of a research on the lake water pollution's impact on fishing economy. The economic-ecological models have been constructed, explaining the changes of economic effects of the lake fishery in the conditions of an increasing water pollution in the epilimnion on the example of the catch of Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Coregonus albula, Coregonus lavaretus, Anguilla anguilla and Esox lucius in Lake Charzykowskie. Performed empirical research looked into the influence of the environmental factors on the size of fish catch. Calculations and analysis show clearly that though the habitat factors do influence the catch size of each studied fish species, they do it with different intensity and in various combinations. Both lake water quality and climate factors changes cause measurable effects on fishing industry of lake Charzykowskie. Among all the examined Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna the highest environmental requirements concerning water quality has Blicca bjoerkna. Whereas Abramis brama has slightly higher environmental requirements than Rutilus rutilus. Empirical calculations showed as well that Coregonus albula and Coregonus lavaretus have considerably higher water cleanness requirements than Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna. While when talking about Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna, most water characteristics still rather stimulated these species' development, when it comes to Coregonus albula and Coregonus lavaretus, in general they suppressed their development. The model has also proved quite high habitat requierements of Anquilla anquilla and correctness of the thesis that


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cutrim Bezerra


    Full Text Available With the objective of searching the presence of antileptospiras agglutinin in sanguine serum of donkeys used in animal traction vehicles and of the wagon’s conductors in the city of São Luis, MA, and of identifying serovars of higher occurrence, 60 serum samples of donkeys and 60 of conductors were tested regarding 30 serovars of Leptospira interrogans by using the microscopic seroagglutination test. Of the 60 blood serum samples of donkeys, 85% showed seropositivity, reacting to 21 serovars out of the 30 tested. Copenhageni, Pyrogenes, Autumnalis and Icterohaemorrhagiae were the most frequent ones, in decreasing sequence. Regarding the serum of the conductors, 38.34% presented seropositivity, reacting to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans and the most frequenty ones were Copenhageni, Pyrogenes, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Autumnalis. These results indicate a high incidence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in donkeys and humans, being serovars copenhageni and pyrogenes the most prevalent.

  3. Reproductive isolation in a nascent species pair is associated with aneuploidy in hybrid offspring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dion-Cote, A. M.; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Bernatchez, L.


    Roč. 282, č. 1802 (2015) ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Coregonus * salmonid * speciation * cytogenetics * genome stability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.823, year: 2015

  4. Standing chromosomal variation in Lake Whitefish species pairs: the role of historical contingency and relevance for speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dion-Cote, A. M.; Symonová, R.; Lamaze, F. C.; Pelikánová, Šárka; Ráb, Petr; Bernatchez, L.


    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2017), s. 178-192 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Coregonus * cytogenetics * polymorphism Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  5. A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.


    The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea

  6. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joany Mariño


    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.


    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  8. Diet composition and habitat use of the West African bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yukon Department of Renewable Resources,. Box 2703, Whitehorse, Y.T., Canada YIA 2C6. Received 14 June 1984; accepted 4 September 1985. Among African antelopes, relatively little is known about the feeding ecology of the West African bushbuck (Tra- gelaphus scriptus scriptus Pallas 1776). Most previous studies.

  9. Quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis burgensis (Andrusov, 1897) in the Main River (Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, G. van der; Platvoet, D.


    The first record of the quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) in Germany is described. This species has expanded its distribution area in Europe at a slower rate than the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). Recent records from the Danube in Romania and from an

  10. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Helen E.; Brown, Peter M.J.; Adriaens, Tim


    The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H...


    An analysis of black bear ( Ursus americanus Pallas) milk showed that the total solids, fat and protein were much higher and the lactose lower than...either cow or human milk. In comparison with polar bear (Thalarcotos maritimus ), the black bear milk was lower in fat, protein and total calories. (Author)

  12. Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Wielink, van P.; Jong, de P.W.; Gort, G.; Haelewaters, D.; Helder, J.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore,

  13. Het lieveheersbeestje Harmonia axyridis in Nederland: een aanwinst voor onze fauna of een ongewenste indringer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, J.; Heijerman, Th.; Wielink, van P.; Loomans, A.


    Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands: a gain for the fauna or an unwanted intruder (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)? The coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773), a well-known aphid predator originating from Asia, was found for the first time in the Netherlands (Heilige Landstichting near Nijmegen)

  14. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  15. Taxonomy of Mongolian Bulrushes (Cyperaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashzeveg Nyambayar


    Full Text Available The taxonomic position of Mongolian species belonging to the genus Scirpus L. is revised here. Five species are included in this genus. In this paper, three of them are transferred to the genus Schoenoplectus (H.G.L. Reichenb. Palla. Keys for the identification of these two genera and species, species descriptions and data on their distribution in Mongolia are given.

  16. Die Konusspinne Cyclosa conica (Araneae: Araneidae ist die Europäische Spinne des Jahres 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörweg, Christoph


    Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2016, Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772, is presented. Its appearance and characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.

  17. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 13, No 1 (1986)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological studies on the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Pallas): I. Effect of age, sex, and time of bleeding of the haematological values of Guinea Fowls · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BI Orji, GC Okeke, AO Akunyiba, 94-99 ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 781 ... Vol 18, No 1 (1991), Seasonal variations in haematological indices in the Grey Breasted Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris Galeata Pallas), Abstract. PA Onyeyelli, GO Egwu, GI Jibike, DJ Pepple, JO Ohaegbulam. Vol 8, No 1 (1981), Selection in Hereford Cattle: I. Selection intensity, generation interval ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects Of Pre-Slaughter Withholding Of Feed And Water On Carcass Yield And Meat Quality Of Indigenous Guineafowl (Numida mefeagris galeata Pallas). Abstract · Vol 25, No 1 (1998) - Articles The Effects Of Internal End-Point Temperatures On Meat Quality Attributes Of Selected Nigerian Wildlife Meat Sources

  20. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul


    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  1. Food-Based Newcastle Disease V 4 Vaccine In Guinea Fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy trial of the feed-based Newcastle disease V4 (NDV4HR) vaccine was carried out on guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) in Maiduguri, Nigeria between December 2000 and March 2001. Eighty-five guinea fowls divided into 17 experimental groups of 5 birds per group were used in the study. The trial ...

  2. Revision of the Indo-Pacific species of the genus Distichopora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.


    Twenty-one species of Distichopora have been described after specimens from various localities in the Indo-Pacific region, viz., D. violacea (Pallas, 1766) from “Mare Indicum”, D. cinnabarina Nardo, 1844, from the Red Sea (?), D. gracilis Dana, 1848, from the Tuamotu Islands, D. coccinea Gray, 1860,

  3. Tagasi looduse ja inimese juurde / Tiina Abel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abel, Tiina, 1951-


    Kunstipoliitika ja ametlik kunst. Heroiline alastuse motiiv. 1937. aasta Pariisi maailmanäitus. Väitlused kunsti rahvuslikkuse ja eesti stiili üle. Kunstikool ja kunstiühing Pallas. Prantsuse orientatsiooni süvenemine. Kaks Prantsuse kunstikultuuri manifestatsiooni

  4. Zoologist (The) - Vol 5 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of disturbance on laying pattern and hatchability of feral helmet guinea fowl (numida meleagris galleata pallas) egg. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O A Jaiyeola, K O Ademolu, A A Ogunjinmi, A J Meduna, 54-59. ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meduna, A J. Vol 5 (2007) - Articles Effect of disturbance on laying pattern and hatchability of feral helmet guinea fowl (numida meleagris galleata pallas) egg. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-972X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  6. The Distribution of gull Larus species on the Red Sea coast of Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our sightings confirmed Pallas's Gull as a winter visitor to this coast, and showed that Slender-billed Gull is widespread here. White-eyed L. leucophthalmus, Steppe L. (cachinnans) barabensis, Baltic L. fuscus fuscus, and Black-headed L. ridibundus Gulls were also encountered, but only around the harbours of Port Sudan ...

  7. The Distribution of gull Larus species on the Red Sea coast of Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pallas's Gull as a winter visitor to this coast, and showed that Slender-billed Gull is widespread here. White-eyed L. leucophthalmus, Steppe L. (cachinnans) barabensis,. Baltic L. fuscus fuscus, and Black-headed L. ridibundus Gulls were also encountered, but only around the harbours of Port Sudan and Suakin. Introduction.

  8. Five new additions to the flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rasingam


    Full Text Available Fioria vitifolia (L. Mattei (Malvaceae, Combretum acuminatum Roxb. (Combretaceae, Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae Phoebe lanceolata (Nees Nees (Lauraceae and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L. Palla (Cyperaceae collected from Little Andaman Island are reported to be new additions to the flora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.   

  9. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 25, No 1 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth And Some Carcass Characteristics Of Growing Pigs Fed Full-Fat Soybean-Based Diets (Containing Three Protein Supplements · EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The Effects Of Pre-Slaughter Withholding Of Feed And Water On Carcass Yield And Meat Quality Of Indigenous Guineafowl (Numida mefeagris galeata Pallas).

  10. A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus Strepsiceros Pallas and a Description of an Inter-Sex. JD Skinner, BJ Huntley. Abstract. Although Ansell (1960) reported that there was no seasonal calving pattern in kudu in Zambia, many workers in southern. Africa have since reported that there is a definite ...

  11. The Dutch rush: history and myth of the Equisetum trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de W.P.


    In England in the early 19th century at least two products went by the commercial name Dutch Rush, viz. the Rough Horsetail Equisetum hyemale L. used in cabinet making and similar crafts, and the Common Club-rush/Bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla used in matting and chair manufacturing.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communication: Physical and chemical characteristics of the eggs of four indigenous guinea fowls (Numida meleagris galeata, pallas) in Nigeria. Abstract · Vol 14, No 1 (1987) - Articles Performance of guinea fowl breeders fed varying levels of Cyperus bulb. Abstract · Vol 16, No 1 (1989) - Articles External ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Andrew S. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Thomas, Cristina A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Howell, Ellen S. [Arecibo Observatory, USRA (Puerto Rico); Emery, Joshua P. [University of Tennessee (United States)


    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3 μm region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H{sub 2}O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3 μm band shapes in the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the “Pallas-type” spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2 to 4 μm spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3 μm band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch class is defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, this demonstrates that the 0.7 μm band serves not only as a proxy for the presence of a band in the 3 μm region, but specifically for the presence of Pallas-type bands. There is some evidence for a correlation between band depth at 2.95 μm and absolute magnitude and/or albedo. However, we find only weak correlations between 2.95 μm band depth and semimajor axis. The connection between band depths in the 0.7 and 3 μm regions is complex and in need of further investigation.

  14. Seasonal prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in Antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in Tabasco, Mexico. (United States)

    Aragón-Martínez, Arianna; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Jiménez-Domínguez, Darwin


    Factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. At the southern Gulf of Mexico, Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal environment for manatees. We tested for changes in prevalence and titers of antibodies to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans in manatees between dry and rainy seasons. We determined titers for L. interrogans through microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 10 manatees, six during the dry season (DS), and six during the rainy season (RS) in Laguna de las Ilusiones, a landlocked lake hosting a population of about 20 manatees. All individuals were antibody positive (titers ≥ 100) to at least one serovar. The serovars bataviae, bratislava, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae had overall prevalences ≥ 50%; bataviae, bratislava, and canicola had prevalences ≥ 50% during both seasons. Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes had prevalences ≥ 50% during DS and pomona, tarassovi, wolfii, and autumnalis during RS. Significant differences in prevalence between seasons were found for pomona, tarassovi, and autumnalis. Titers of tarassovi, wolfii, autumnalis, and bataviae were significantly higher during RS. There was a high prevalence of L. interrogans during the RS independent of high availability of plant foods, coinciding with the epizootiology of the bacteria that are endemic to tropical regions. Another factor possibly influencing prevalence is high anthropogenic pressure at the lake, causing an increase in potential sources of infection. Because of possible cross-reaction in MAT, further research is needed on the molecular discrimination of serovars in animals in the

  15. Caracterización molecular de Laelia halbingeriana y su propagación in vitro.


    Raya Montaño, Yurixhi Atenea


    Laelia halbingeriana pertenece a la familia Orchidaceae y debido a su descubrimiento relativamente reciente, no se ha caracterizado morfológica, cromosómica ni molecularmente. Con la finalidad de conocer la diversidad de esta especie y su posible relación con L. anceps, L. superbiens y L. autumnalis, la caracterización molecular mediante el análisis de RAPDs se utilizaron 16 iniciadores, cuatro iniciadores mostraron productos de amplificación aceptable. Se observó 60.97 % de polimorfismo que...

  16. [Ecology of Thelazia spp. in cattle and their vectors in Italy]. (United States)

    Giangaspero, A; Traversa, D; Otranto, D


    The genus Thelazia (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) includes a cosmopolitan group of eyeworm spirurids responsible for ocular infections in domestic and wild animals and transmitted by different species of muscids. Bovine thelaziosis is caused by Thelazia rhodesi Desmarest 1828, Thelazia gulosa Railliet & Henry 1910, and Thelazia skrjabini Erschow 1928, which occur in many countries; T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been reported mainly in the New World, while T. rhodesi is particularly common in the Old World. In Italy, T. rhodesi was reported in southern regions a long time ago and, recently, T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been identified in autochthonous cattle first in Apulia and then in Sardinia. Thirteen species of Musca are listed as intermediate hosts of eyeworms, but only Musca autumnalis and Musca larvipara have been demonstrated to act as vectors of Thelazia in the ex-URSS, North America, ex-Czechoslovakia and more recently in Sweden. In Italy, after the reports of T. gulosa and T. skrjabini in southern regions, the intermediate hosts of bovine eyeworms were initially only suspected as the predominant secretophagous Muscidae collected from the periocular region of cattle with thelaziosis were the face flies, M. autumnalis and M. larvipara, followed by Musca osiris, Musca tempestiva and Musca domestica. The well-known constraints in the identification of immature eyeworms to species by fly dissection and also the time-consuming techniques used constitute important obstacles to epidemiological field studies (i.e. vector identification and/or role, prevalence and pattern of infection in flies, etc.). Molecular studies have recently permitted to further investigations into this area. A PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal ITS-1 sequence was developed to differentiate the 3 species of Thelazia (i.e. T. gulosa, T. rhodesi and T. skrjabini) found in Italy, then a molecular epidemiological survey has recently been carried out in field conditions throughout five seasons of

  17. Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of some South African medicinal plants. (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Hattori, Toshio; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Li, Shenwei; Kambizi, Learnmore; Eloff, Jacobus N; Vasaikar, Sandeep D


    Several herbs are traditionally used in the treatment of a variety of ailments particularly in the rural areas of South Africa where herbal medicine is mainly the source of health care system. Many of these herbs have not been assessed for safety or toxicity to tissue or organs of the mammalian recipients. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of some medicinal plants used, inter alia, in the treatment of diarrhoea, and stomach disorders. Six selected medicinal plants were assessed for their antibacterial activities against ampicillin-resistant and kanamycin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli by the broth micro-dilution methods. The cytotoxicities of methanol extracts and fractions of the six selected plants were determined using a modified tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay). The average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the plants extracts ranged from 0.027 mg/mℓ to 2.5 mg/mℓ after 24 h of incubation. Eucomis autumnalis and Cyathula uncinulata had the most significant biological activity with the least MIC values. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay on human hepatocarcinoma cell line (Huh-7) revealed that the methanol extract of E. autumnalis had the strongest cytotoxicity with IC(50) of 7.8 μg/mℓ. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of C. uncinulata, Hypoxis latifolia, E. autumnalis and Lantana camara had lower cytotoxic effects on the cancer cell lines tested with IC(50) values ranging from 24.8 to 44.1 μg/mℓ; while all the fractions of Aloe arborescens and A. striatula had insignificant or no cytotoxic effects after 72 h of treatment. Our results indicate that the methanol fraction of E. autumnalis had a profound cytotoxic effect even though it possessed very significant antibacterial activity. This puts a query on its safety and hence a call for caution in its usage, thus a product being natural is not tantamount to being entirely safe. However, the antibacterial

  18. Infection of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, of western Lake Erie with Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cooper) (United States)

    Wolfert, David R.; Applegate, Vernon C.; Allison, Leonard N.


    In recent years appreciable changes have taken place in the biota and physiochemical conditions in Lake Erie. The accelerated eutrophication of the lake has been accompanied by the near disappearance of several fish species, e.g., blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum), lake herring (Coregonus artedi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Interest in the biology of the remaining species has increased as means have been sought to preserve their numbers in the lake. This report, which describes the caecal and intestinal parasites of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, is a contribution to the natural history of this fish in western Lake Erie. This study concerns: the type and degree of intestinal parasitic infestations in a single year class of walleyes during their first 3 years of life; seasonal changes in the incidence and maturity of the dominant parasite Bothriocephalus cuspidatus; and the effects of the infestations on the physical condition of the host.

  19. Invader population speeds up life history during colonization


    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Salonen, Erno; Niva, Teuvo; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Præbel, Kim; Sandlund, Odd Terje; Knudsen, Rune; Bøhn, Thomas


    We explore the long-term developments in population biology and life history during the invasion and establishment of the fish species vendace Coregonus albula in a subarctic watercourse by comparing life-history traits and molecular genetic estimates between the source and the colonist population. The two populations exhibited highly contrasting life-history strategies. Relative to the source population, the colonist population was characterized by slower somatic growth rates, earlier sexual...

  20. Empirical evaluation of predator-driven diel vertical migration in Lake Superior (United States)

    Stockwell, J.D.; Hrabik, T.R.; Jensen, O.P.; Yule, D.L.; Balge, M.


    Recent studies on Lake Superior suggest that diel vertical migration (DVM) of prey (generalized Coregonus spp.) may be influenced by the density of predatory siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush). We empirically evaluated this hypothesis using data from acoustic, midwater trawl, and bottom trawl sampling at eight Lake Superior sites during three seasons in 2005 and a subset of sites in 2006. We expected the larger-bodied cisco (Coregonus artedi) to exhibit a shallower DVM compared with the smaller-bodied kiyi (Coregonus kiyi). Although DVM of kiyi and cisco were consistent with expectations of DVM as a size-dependent, predator-mediated process, we found no relationship between siscowet density and the magnitude of DVM of either coregonid. Cisco appear to have a size refuge from siscowet predation. Kiyi and siscowet co-occur in demersal habitat > 150 m during the day, where visual predation is unlikely, suggesting predator avoidance is not a factor in the daytime distribution of kiyi. Seasonal patterns of kiyi DVM were consistent with reported DVM of their primary prey Mysis relicta. Our results suggest that consideration of nonvisual foraging, rather than lightbased foraging theory (i.e., the antipredation window), is necessary to understand the processes driving DVM in deepwater systems.

  1. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dogs. (United States)

    Ribotta, M J; Higgins, R; Gottschalk, M; Lallier, R


    Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Few laboratories have the resources, expertise, or facilities to perform the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Thus, there is a need for a rapid and simple serological test that could be used in any diagnostic laboratory. In this study, a genus-specific, heat-stable antigenic preparation from Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dog sera. This antigenic preparation reacted with rabbit antisera against L. interrogans serovars bratislava, autumnalis, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona and with rabbit antiserum against L. kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. The ELISA showed a relative specificity of 95.6% with 158 dog sera which were negative at a dilution of 1:100 in the MAT for serovars pomona, bratislava, icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, and grippotyphosa. The relative sensitivity of this assay with 21 dog sera that revealed serovars MAT titres of > or =100 to different serovars was 100%. This assay is easily standardized, technically more advantageous than MAT, and uses an antigenic preparation that can be routinely prepared in large amounts. It was concluded that this ELISA is sufficiently sensitive test to be used as an initial screening test for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in canine sera, with subsequent confirmation of positive test results with the MAT.

  2. The quest for crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Habs, D


    The phase transition of an ion beam into its crystalline state has long been expected to dramatically influence beam dynamics beyond the limitations of standard accelerator physics. Yet, although considerable improvement in beam cooling techniques has been made, strong heating mechanisms inherent to existing high-energy storage rings have prohibited the formation of the crystalline state in these machines up to now. Only recently, laser cooling of low-energy beams in the table-top rf quadrupole storage ring PAaul Laser cooLing Acceleration System (PALLAS) has lead to the experimental realization of crystalline beams. In this article, the quest for crystalline beams as well as their unique properties as experienced in PALLAS will be reviewed.


    Cunningham, Clifford J.


    In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

  4. Die kirchenslavische Zeile in den Petersburger Vocabularia comparativa (1787-1789

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Keipert


    Full Text Available The Church Slavonic Line in the St. Petersburg Comparative Dictionaries by P. S. Pallas (1787-89For 285 Russian head-words the Pallas dictionaries contain equivalents in 200 languages, including Church Slavonic among the 12 Slavonic entries at the very beginning. Translating the Russian head-word into Church Slavonic must have been very difficult, because it was a language without native speakers and without bilingual dictionaries. As no informations seem to be available about the compiler of the Church Slavonic word-list and his working instructions, the article tries to give a formal classification of the more or less convincing equivalents and discusses some obvious inconsistencies in the Church Slavonic lines.

  5. Quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis burgensis (Andrusov, 1897) in the Main River (Germany)


    Velde, G. van der; Platvoet, D.


    The first record of the quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) in Germany is described. This species has expanded its distribution area in Europe at a slower rate than the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). Recent records from the Danube in Romania and from an enclosed Rhine-Meuse estuary in The Netherlands, suggest that the Main-Danube canal and River Rhine have functioned as the dispersal pathway of the quagga mussel to The Netherlands. The record of t...

  6. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska (United States)


    Utricularia vulgaris L. ssp. macrorhiza (Le Conte) R.T. Clausen Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. ssp. minus (Lodd.) Hulten Valeriana ...minimum (Hartman F.) Fries Valerianaceae Valeriana capitata Pallas ex Link Violaceae Viola biflora L. Viola epipsila Ledeb. Viola selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie...Urtica dioica L. Valeriana sitchensis Bong. Woodsia alpina (Bolton) S.F. Gray 44 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES

  7. Attitudes about inclusion by educators and physical educators: effects of participation in an inclusive adapted physical education program


    Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Paiva, Ana Clara de Souza; Figueiredo, Gabriela Andreeta; Costa, Thais Delamuta Ayres da; Castro, Marcela Rodrigues de; Campbell, Debra Frances


    This study assessed the attitudes about the inclusion of students with disability by professionals in education and health, relative to their experience and training. We compared three groups: 20 teachers and trainees who worked in an adapted physical education program (GI); 75 professionals from the municipal education system of Rio Claro subdivided according to their experience-CGyes e CGno, respectively, with and without experience. We used the inventory adapted by Palla (2001) to assess p...

  8. Learning to Predict Social Influence in Complex Networks (United States)


    derived from the Enron Email Dataset by extracting the senders and the recipients and linking those that had bidirectional communications. It has 4,254...Kimura et al. (2008), which has 9, 481 nodes and 245, 044 directed links (the Wikipedia network). The third one is a network derived from the Enron ...It contains 4, 254 nodes and 44, 314 directed links (the Enron network). The last one is a coauthorship network employed in Palla et al. (2005). It

  9. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples


    Peñarrubia Lozano, Luis; Alcaraz Cazorla, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz Ball-llosera, Núria; Pla Zanuy, Carles; Vidal Fàbrega, Oriol; Viñas de Puig, Jordi


    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebr...

  10. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Pallas, Jean-Luc


    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  11. Visits of bats to flowers of Lafoensia glyptocarpa KOEHNE (LYTHRACEAE)


    SILVA, S. S. P.; PERACCHI, A. L.


    In the present study visits of phyllostomid bats to the Lafoensia glyptocarpa Kohne flowers were observed at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Itaguaí municipality, Rio de Janeiro state. This tree species present floral characteristics to fit the "chiropterophilous syndrome", encouraging the visit of four species of bats which showed different behavior patterns, according to their size, weight and access to the food resources. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) showed hovering beha...

  12. Inimene Pallases

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    22. okt.-st Tartu Kunstimajas kõrgema kunstikooli 'Pallas' 80. aastapäevale pühendatud ideenäitus 'Inimene on inimene'. Väljas on 20 maali, 43 graafilist lehte, üks skulptuur Ferdi Sannamehelt. Kuraator Kaire Nurk. 4. XI Tartu Kunstimajas toimuva 'Pallase' kooli aastapäevale pühendatud vabakunsti õpetamise potensiaale ja probleeme käsitleva konverentsi kava, esinejad

  13. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco (VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizpuru, I., Aperribay, J.A., Garin, I., Garmendia, J., Olariaga, I.


    Full Text Available Nueva entrega con datos de interés acerca de la distribución de 18 taxones de plantas raras en el País Vasco. A destacar el hallazgo de dos nuevas especies de árboles - Prunus padus L. y Ulmus laevis Pallas- para Gipuzkoa y la ampliación de área de Woodwardia radicans (L. Sm. hasta Navarra

  14. Revision of the genus Angaracris Bey-Bienko, 1930 (Orthoptera: Acrididae, Oedipodinae) with notes on the tribe Bryodemini. (United States)

    Storozhenko, Sergey Yu; Benediktov, Alexander A; Huang, Jianhua


    Anagaracris is considered as a monotypic genus in the tribe Bryodemini (Acrididae: Oedipodinae). New synonymy is proposed: Angaracris barabensis (Pallas, 1773) = Angaracris morulimarginis Huang, 1981, syn. nov.; = Angaracris ulashanicus Li, 1981, syn. nov.; Angaracris acrohylina Bi, 1986, syn. nov.; = Angaracris nigrimarginis Zheng et Ren, 1993, syn. nov.; = Angaracris morulipennis Zheng et Ren, 1994, syn. nov.; = Angaracris neimongolensis Zeng et Han, 1998, syn. nov. The diagnosis of the tribe Bryodemini is clarified and a key to the genera and subgenera is provided.

  15. Competitive relationship between members of the Gobiidae family and other fish species of waters of Pridneprovye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khobot


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the species’ composition of Gobiidae, their quantitative and qualitative parameters in the coastal zone of the Pridneproovye water bodies. The structural and functional features of organization of coastal Gobies groups in the explored territory have been investigated, as well as characteristics of spatial arrangement of Gobiidae family representatives in water bodies and rivers and their role in the coastal groups of fishes. In the waters of Dnipropetrovsk region there were recorded 8 species of the Gobies family: round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814, big-headed goby N. kessleri (Gunter, 1861, monkey goby N. fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, goad goby N. gymnotrachelus (Kessler, 1857, toad goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Pallas, 1814, tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas, 1814, starry goby Benthophilus stellatus (Sauvage, 1874, Brauner’s tadpole goby Benthophiloides brauneri (Beling et Iljin, 1927. The gobies are quickly settled in various water bodies. The highest numbers of Gobiidae were registered in Dneprovsky water basin – 113.8 specimens/100 m2. The dominant among the Gobiidae is monkey goby, and subdominant is round goby. The main food competitor of monkey goby are juveniles of commercial fish. In Samara river the index of trophic niche overlap between goby and roach reaches 0.95, between goby and silver bream – 0.91, between goby and crucian carp – 0.88, between goby and rudd – 0.87, between goby and common bream – 0.62. The number and biomass indicators in Samara river have fallen due to trophic competition between new aggressive fish species – pumpkinseed and Gobiidae. In the Ingulets river the total overlap of trophic niches is observed between N. fluviatilis and black-striped pipefish (1.0, almost complete overlap is recorded between monkey goby and pumpkinseed (0.97. It is found that native species of Dnipropetrovsk region (including commercial species undergo intense trophic

  16. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus. (United States)

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo


    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided.

  17. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system (United States)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.


    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  18. Distribution of Trematodes Cryptokotyle (Trematoda, Heterophyidae, in Fish of the Family Gobiidae in the Estuary Waters and the Black Sea in Southern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov S. L.


    Full Text Available The article describes occurrence and distribution of Cryptocotyle trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Region. Study was conducted in 2015-2016. Two trematode species were found in natural waters of these regions: Cryptocotyle cancavum Crepli, 1825 and Cryptocotyle jejuna Nicoll, 1907. Th e latter species has not been previously registered in this region in southern Ukraine. Varying intensity of infection with Cryptocotyle metacercariae was observed in fish of Gobiidae family: Mesogobius batrachocephalus Pallas, 1814, Neogobius melanostomum Pallas, 1814, N. fluviatialis Pallas, 1814. Th e most affected species was N. melanostomum, with the prevalence of infection 59.2 %. Less infected were N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalus, with the prevalence of infection 30.4 % and 17 % respectively. The intensity of infection was the highest in N. melanostomum - 211 metacercariae per fish, followed by N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalu - 124 and 89 metacercariae respectively. Cryptocotyle was the most prevalent in the Dnipro-Buh estuary (cape Adzhigol, Mykolaiv Region and much less prevalent in the waters of the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Regions. Mean prevalence of infection was 31.4 %.

  19. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston? (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne


    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  20. Clinical, serological and echocardiographic examination of healthy field dogs before and after vaccination with a commercial tetravalent leptospirosis vaccine. (United States)

    Spiri, Andrea M; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Matos, José M; Glaus, Tony M; Riond, Barbara; Reusch, Claudia E; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Willi, Barbara


    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Severe disease has been reported in dogs in Europe despite vaccination with bivalent Leptospira vaccines. Recently, a tetravalent canine Leptospira vaccine (Nobivac® L4) was licenced in Europe. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical signs, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titres, haematology, blood biochemistry, cardiac (c) Troponin I levels and echocardiography before and after vaccination with this tetravalent vaccine. Forty-eight healthy dogs were prospectively enrolled and vaccinated twice, 3-4 weeks apart (T0 and T1). Before vaccination (T0) and 16-31 days after the second vaccination (T2), MAT (n = 48), haematology (n = 48), blood biochemistry (n = 36) and cTroponin I measurements (n = 29) were performed, and MAT was repeated 347-413 days after the second vaccination (T3, n = 44). Echocardiography was performed before the first and second vaccination (T0 and T1, n = 24). Mild and transient clinical signs within 5 days following the first and second vaccination occurred in 23% and 10% of the dogs, respectively. Before the first vaccination (T0), all dogs showed negative MAT titres for the tested serovars except for Canicola (50% with titres 100-400). At T2, positive MAT titres to the serovars Canicola (100%), Australis (89%), Grippotyphosa (86%), Bratislava (60%), Autumnalis (58%), Copenhageni (42%), Pomona (12%), Pyrogenes (8%) and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2%) were found. Median to high titres (≥ 400) were most common to the serovar Canicola (92%) and less common to the serovars Australis (41%), Grippotyphosa (21%), Bratislava (12%), Autumnalis (4%), Pyrogenes (4%) and Pomona (2%). At T3, positive MAT titres (titre range: 100-400) were found in 2-18% of the dogs to serovars of the vaccine serogroups and in 2-18% of the dogs to the non-vaccine serovars Pomona, Autumnalis, Pyrogenes and Ballum. Haematology, blood biochemistry, c

  1. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  2. Presence of exotic birds in San Luis Potosi city, Mexican Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Albores, J.E.


    Full Text Available We recorded 12 exotic bird species in San Luis Potosi, Mexico and adjacent areas. Obtained data were collected during the period August 2012 to August 2013. From the total of recorded species, eight are confirmations (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Cairina moschata, Bubulcus ibis, Columba livia, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus rufopalliatus, Quiscalus mexicanus and Passer domesticus and four are new records (Aratinga canicularis, Amazona oratrix, A. autumnalis and Cyanocorax yncas. Although not all exotic species represent a risk because of the lack of the necessary resources for the establishment of abundant viable populations, it is important to publicize their status in the region. Therefore, knowing the presence of exotic species in a new distribution area is important for monitoring its establishment and colonization, and defining management, control and eradication programs of these species, along with environmental education programs that would lead to a better understanding of impacts that these species can cause.

  3. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.


    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), rat-tail maggot flies (Eristalis tenax) or yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) collected from MdSGHV-positive farms displayed characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). In laboratory transmission tests, SGH symptoms were not observed in stable flies, flesh...

  4. Contribution to the Tabanidae (Insecta: Diptera Fauna of Kayseri Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Altunsoy


    Full Text Available As a result of study in Kayseri province subfamily Pangonine depending 1 species, subfamily Chrysopsinae depending 3 species and subfamily Tabaninae depending 36 species. Totally 40 species, belonging Tabanidae were determined. The species Chrysops caecutiens, Atylotus fulvus, Atylotus loewianus, Hybomitra acuminata, Tabanus armeniacus, Tabanus atropathenicus, Tabanus autumnalis, Tabanus cordiger, Tabanus eggeri, Tabanus glaucopis, Tabanus holtzianus, Tabanus indrae, Tabanus prometheus, Tabanus quatuornatatus, Tabanus regularis, Tabanus rupium, Tabanus spodopterus, Tabanus tergestinus, Tabanus tinctus, Haematopota crassicornis, Haematopota grandis, Haematopota pallens, Haematopota subcylindrica, Dasyrhamphis carbonarius and Philipomyia aprica are the first records for this province. The total number of determined species in Kayseri province reaches to 42 with the result of this study and the previous studies.

  5. Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Leptospira spp em cães de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elís Rosélia Dutra de Freitas Siqueira Silva


    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a systemic disease caused by the species of bacteria Leptospira spp., which affects human beings, domestic and wild animals. The present study searched the presence of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in the canine population of the city Teresina, Piauí, and the most common serovars. Blood samples from 425 stray dogs were collected in the local zoonosis center in Teresina from July 2010 to January 2012 and submitted to the Microscopic Seroagglutination Test (MAT. This study found an average infection rate of 17.41% (IC 95%; 13,8 – 21,0 by 11 different serovars; the four most frequent were Canicola (18.9%, Autumnalis (16.2%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (12.1%, and Butembo (12.1%. The questions raised in this study indicated the occurrence of Leptospira spp infection in dogs of Terezina- Piaui, Brazil.

  6. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of some South African medicinal plants against multidrug resistant etiological agents of diarrhoea. (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N; Okoh, Anthony I


    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) van der Merwe were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Isangi, S. typhi, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri type 1b and Sh. sonnei phase II. A qualitative phytochemical screening of the plants extracts was by thin layer chromatography. Plants extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using serial dilution microplate technique and bioautography. The TLC fingerprint indicated the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids in the herbs. Most of the tested organisms were sensitive to the crude acetone extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.018-2.5 mg/mℓ. Extracts of A. striata, C. uncinulata, E. autumnalis and P. guajava were more active against enteropathogens. S. aureus and Sh. flexneri were the most sensitive isolates to the crude extracts but of significance is the antibacterial activity of A. arborescens and P. guajava against a confirmed extended spectrum betalactamase positive S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The presence of bioactive compounds and the antibacterial activity of some of the selected herbs against multidrug resistant enteric agents corroborate assertions by traditional healers on their efficacies.

  7. Detection of Leptospira DNA in urine and presence of specific antibodies in outdoor cats in Germany. (United States)

    Weis, Sonia; Rettinger, Anna; Bergmann, Michele; Llewellyn, Julia R; Pantchev, Nikola; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin


    Objectives Clinical manifestation of infection with Leptospira species in cats is rare. Nevertheless, cats can develop specific antibodies against the spirochetes after infection. In Canada, Taiwan and the USA it was recently demonstrated that naturally infected cats can also shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine, but the zoonotic potential of infected cats is still unclear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate if outdoor cats in Germany shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine. As a second aim, antibody prevalence was determined. Methods Two hundred and fifteen outdoor cats were prospectively recruited. Urine samples were tested by real-time PCR targeting the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species. Antibody titres against eight serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Saxkoebing) belonging to seven serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe) were determined by microscopic agglutination test. Results Urine samples from 7/215 cats (3.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-5.7) were PCR-positive. Specific antibodies were detected in 35/195 cats (17.9%; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3) with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Australis, Bratislava and Grippotyphosa were the most common serovars. Conclusions and relevance Outdoor cats in Germany can shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species. Therefore, outdoor cats should be considered as a possible source of infection for dogs or humans. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Leptospira species as a cause of disease in cats.

  8. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.


    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  9. Report from the Workshop on Coregonine Restoration Science (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Bunnell, David B.; David, Solomon R.; Gordon, Roger; Gorsky, Dimitry; Millard, Michael J.; Read, Jennifer; Stein, Roy A.; Vaccaro, Lynn


    SummaryGreat Lakes fishery managers have the opportunity and have expressed interest in reestablishing a native forage base in the Great Lakes consisting of various forms and species within the genus Coregonus. This report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop focused on a subset of the genus, and the term “coregonines” is used to refer to several species of deepwater ciscoes (also known as “chubs”) and the one more pelagic-oriented cisco species (Coregonus artedi, also known as “lake herring”). As the principal conservation agency for the United States Government, the Department of Interior has unique and significant authorities and capacities to support a coregonine reestablishment program in the Great Lakes. To identify and discuss key uncertainties associated with such a program and develop a coordinated approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the principal Department of the Interior bureaus to address Great Lakes fishery issues, held the first of a series of workshops on coregonine science in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on October 11–13, 2016. Workshop objectives were to identify (1) perceived key uncertainties associated with coregonine restoration in the Great Lakes and (2) DOI capacities for addressing these key uncertainties.

  10. Allelic variability in species and stocks of Lake Superior ciscoes (Coregoninae) (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.


    Starch gel electrophoresis was used as a means of recognizing species and stocks in Lake Superior Coregonus. Allelic variability at isocitrate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase loci was recorded for samples of lake herring (Coregonus artedii), bloater (C. hoyi), kiyi (C. kiyi), and shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus) from five Lake Superior localities. The observed frequencies of genotypes within each subsample did not differ significantly from those expected on the basis of random mating, and suggested that each subsample represented either a random sample from a larger randomly mating population or an independent and isolated subpopulation within which mating was random. Significant contingency X2 values for comparisons between both localities and species suggested that more than one randomly mating population occurred among the Lake Superior ciscoes, but did not reveal how many such populations there were. In contrast to the genetic results of this study, morphology seems to be a better descriptor of cisco stocks, and identification of cisco stocks and species will still have to be based on morphological criteria until more data are forthcoming. Where several species are sympatric, management should strive to preserve the least abundant. Failure to do so could result in the extinction or depletion of the rarer forms.

  11. Estimating the lipophilicity of a number of 2-amino-1-cyclohexanol derivatives exhibiting anticonvulsant activity. (United States)

    Pekala, Elzbieta; Marona, Henryk


    The lipophilicity of a number of N-acyl derivatives of trans- or cis-: racemic, (1R,2R)- or (1S,2S)-aminocyclohexanol (1-13) exhibiting anticonvulsant activity was investigated. Their lipophilicity (R(m0)) was determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) with mixtures of methanol and water as mobile phases. The partition coefficients of compounds 1-13 (log P) were also calculated using two computer programs (Pallas and Chem DU) and compared with R(m0).

  12. Photodegradation of selected organics on Mars (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Boosman, A.; Fornaro, T.; King, H. E.; Kopacz, K. A.; Wolthers, M.


    At least as much as 2.4 million kg of unaltered organic material is estimated to be delivered to the Martian surface each year. However, intense UV irradiation and the highly oxidizing and acidic nature of Martian soil cause degradation of organic compounds. Here we present first results obtained with the recently developed PALLAS facility at Utrecht University. This facility is specifically designed to simulate planetary and asteroid surface conditions to study the photocatalytic properties of relevant planetary minerals. Our results tentatively show degradation of several compounds and preservation of others.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Zakharov


    Full Text Available The Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, is one of the most invasive insects in the world. Originally introduced into the USA and Europe for the biological control of pest insects, it has recently gained the status of an invasive species. There is little data on the differences between invasive and non-invasive populations at the genetic level. In this research mtDNA sequences of the COI gene from specimens of native and non-native populations were compared. The results indicate that individuals from invasive populations are similar to those from Far Eastern native populations.

  14. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  15. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic, with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766. Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations alive, and on extensive underwater photography. A literature review of other brazilian records of Aplysina was undertaken, and an ammended species list is offered.

  16. Accumulation of cadmium associated with sewage sludge by a marine amphipod crustacean. (United States)

    Caparis, M E; Rainbow, P S


    Cadmium bound to sewage sludge (5% mixture with littoral mud) is available to the deposit-feeding marine amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator (Pallas). The amphipod accumulates labelled cadmium from sludge in proportion to both duration of exposure and cadmium concentration of the sludge. Newly accumulated cadmium is added onto the existing cadmium body load without significant excretion. Thus, cadmium in association with sewage sludge dumped at sea may be absorbed and accumulated by deposit-feeding invertebrates, with the potential of being transferred along marine food chains.

  17. Divergence of Populations of Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, and Citrine wagtaill, Motacilla citreola (Motacillidae, Passeriformes, in the Middle Volga of Russia

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    Artemieva E. A.


    Full Text Available Blood samples of “yellow” wagtails collected in the areas geographically representing the Middle Volga breeding populations of these species were investigated. After isolation of mtDNA barkoding of studied “yellow” wagtails species was conducted. Amplification of the subunit of cytochrome oxidase I gene used as a genetic marker for the comparison of the samples was carried out. After sequencing and sequence alignment of gene cytochrome c-oxidase I, based on the comparison of genetic distances between individuals of the studied species using Jalview phylogenetic trees of populations of species Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 and Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 were constructed.

  18. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

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    Maria I. Deserti


    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  19. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

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    M. Komppula


    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  20. Spreading of alien species and diversity of communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.


    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 397-407 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-26561S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : pallas coleoptera-coccinellidae * lady beetle coleoptera * harmonia-axyridis * harlequin ladybird * intraguild predation * geographical-distribution * generalist predators * biological-control * invasion history * native range * Alien species * Native species * Ladybirds * Aphid predators * Simulation model * Community Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2016

  1. Calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale using occultation diameters (United States)

    Brown, R. H.; Morrison, D.; Telesco, C. M.; Brunk, W. E.


    The paper describes a new approach to the calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale, which relies on recent accurate occultation measurements of the diameters of 2 Pallas (Wasserman et al., 1979) and 3 Juno (Millis et al., 1981), and the Voyager diameter of J4 Callisto, as well as IR photometry of these objects obtained with the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility. It is shown that this calibration is internally consistent to better than 5%, and probably has an absolute accuracy of + or - 5%. It is noted that a revision of the TRIAD radiometric diameters downward is required to bring them into agreement with the new calibration.

  2. An efficient protocol for copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling in aqueous media at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Marziale, Alexander N.


    A thorough study on copper-free Sonogashira cross-couplings in water was carried out using the palla-dacycle, [{Pd(μ-Cl){K2-P,C-P(iPr) 2(OC6H3-2-Ph)}}2] as pre-catalyst with different bases and palladium concentrations. The highly active pre-catalyst imparts good to near quantitative yields using a concentration of 0.25 mol % at 40 °C. This broadly applicable protocol exhibits high tolerance of functional groups and substitution patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly productive mutant genotypes in barley - direct use in practice and in successive recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Aa.; Lundqvist, U.


    Three special cases of induced mutations in barley are discussed in this paper. They are denoted here as the Gunilla, the Pallas and the Mari cases, after the three named varieties to which the original mutants gave rise. The original mutants described represent just a small sample of the induced mutants, many of which have been tested in practice and have been further studied in basic genetics and evolutionary research. The three approved varieties have given rise to further recombination families, which also to some extent have been fused. Two of the mutant cases - Pallas and Mari - were directly useful in practice and officially approved. The third case involved a mutant of special appearance - a ''bushy type'' with an intense blue wax coating and with a supreme lodging resistance. The mutant was used in developing the Gunilla variety, which arose by recombination breeding. This variety has been highly satisfactory in further gene recombination work. A similar situation has prevailed with regard to the Pallas and Mari families arising after gene recombination, too. Up to now, the Gunilla, Pallas and Mari families include a long series of released and officially approved varieties. Several of them represent valuable agricultural contributions with wide areas of cultivation. These three mutants - with their recombination families - led to greatly increased straw stiffness and high grain production. Their phenotypic expression often corresponds to a dwarf or semidwarf description. One of the mutants - the Mari genotype - represents a group of genes and alleles which give rise to profound changes in the photoperiod (and partially also in the thermoperiod) behaviour. In fact, often even such small changes have a fundamental influence on adaptation and distribution. Data are presented analysing the property of lodging resistance with the background of plant, tiller and internode structure. A method of partial back-mutation was worked out in separating traits generally

  4. Las ciperáceas (Cyperaceae de la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Gómez-Laurito


    Full Text Available La familia Cyperaceae es cosmopolita e incluye unos 115 géneros y 3600 especies. Costa Rica tiene 25 géneros y 210 especies. Aquí presento claves y descripciones para las 34 especies (10 géneros que ocurren en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica. El género Cyperus está representado por 12 especies, seguido por Rhynchospora (6, Scleria (5, Calyptocarya (2, Eleocharis (2, Kyllinga (2, Mapania (2, Hypolytrum (1 y Lipocarpha (1. Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth Palla, ha sido colectada en los alrededores y eventualmente podría ser encontrada en la Estación.The Cyperaceae of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The family Cyperaceae is cosmopolitan and includes some 115 genera and 3600 species. Costa Rica has 25 genera and 210 species. Here I present keys and descriptions for 34 species (10 genera that occur in La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The genus Cyperus is represented by 12 species, followed by Rhynchospora (6, Scleria (5, Calyptocarya (2, Eleocharis (2, Kyllinga (2, Mapania (2, Hypolytrum (1 and Lipocarpha (1. Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth Palla, has been collected in the vicinity and could eventually be found at the Station. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 93-110. Epub 2009 November 30.

  5. Infracommunities of Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera on bats in an ecotone area between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme D. P. Dornelles


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We described infracommunities, prevalence and mean intensity of infestation of ecotoparasite flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae on bats in an ecotone area of Cerrado as predominant vegetation, with influence of Atlantic Forest, in the southeast of Mato Grosso do Sul. In 36 sampling nights between April 2015 and August 2016 (23,328 m².h, we captured 17 bat species, of which ten were infested, and 14 species of fly. The most abundant bats were the phyllostomids Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1776 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and the most abundant flies were the streblids Trichobius longipes (Rudow, 1871, T. joblingi Wenzel, 1966 and Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899. Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 was the bat species that presented the highest infestation rate. Platyrrhinus lineatus (É. Geoffroy, 1810 and Desmodus rotundus (É. Geoffroy, 1810 were not infested. Besides that, the frequency of bats that were infested by a single species of fly was higher than the frequency of bats infested for two or more, and it may be a pattern.

  6. Seroprevalence and Genomic Divergence of Circulating Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae Species† (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J.


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today. PMID:15956574

  7. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation (United States)

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed


    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.1 The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).2 However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.3 The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. PMID:26779514

  8. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.


    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  9. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Daniela Dias


    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.


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    J. A. Herrera


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los parámetros hematológicos en 69 polluelos en cautiverio de origen silvestre, clínicamente sanos, menores de tres meses de edad, en cuatro especies de psitácidos: Pionus senilis (n = 18, Amazona albifrons (n = 15, Amazona autumnalis (n = 25 y Amazona oratrix (n = 11, procedentes de la región central de México. Para determinar dichos parámetros, de cada ejemplar se obtuvieron 500 μl de sangre por punción de la vena braquial. En las cuatro especies citadas, el porcentaje del hematocrito fue de 56,4 ± 3,36; 51 ± 6,52; 47,6 ± 6,47 y 53,8 ± 9,26; el VCM en fl fue de 184,6 ± 13,4; 142,0 ± 25,4; 106,3 ± 11,7 y 162,3 ± 71,9; la cuenta eritrocítica fue de 4,7 ± 2,1 x10 6 /μl; 6,1 ± 8,2 x10 6 /μl; 6,9 ± 1,2 x10 6 /μl y 5,4 ± 1,1 x10 6 /μl; y la cuenta leucocitaria de 3,06 ± 0,15 x10 3 /μl; 3,62 ± 0,24 x10 3 /μl; 4,48 ± 0,36 x10 3 /μl y 3,56 ± 0,71 x10 3 /μl respectivamente para P. senilis , A. albifrons , A. autumnalis y A. oratrix . Se constató tendencia a la heterofilia en A. albifrons y A. oratrix , lo cual puede ser de gran utilidad para un diagnóstico cada vez más preciso en la clínica de aves en cautiverio.

  11. Seroprevalencia de infección por Leptospira spp. en auxiliares y veterinarios de consultorios de pequeños animales de Villavicencio (Colombia

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    Helena Quitián


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar seroprevalencia por la prueba de MAT a seis serovares de Leptospira spp. en el grupo de riesgo: auxiliares y veterinarios de consultorios de pequeños animales de Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia, que previamente había sido serorreactor por Elisa-Pambio. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron 72 muestras de sueros de individuos pertenecientes al subgrupo de auxiliares y veterinarios, de una población mayor que incluía otros 7 grupos humanos a riesgo a Leptospira spp. y que había presentado reactividad serológica considerada como ¿positiva¿ (17 % a la prueba de Elisa para Leptospira spp. con un kit de Pambio. Los sueros, que se habían conservado a -70°C en el Laboratorio de Reproducción y Genética Animal de la Universidad de los Llanos, fueron evaluados para reactividad serológica a la prueba de microaglutinación-lisis (MAT con los serovares L. hardjoprajitno, L. copenhageni, L. canícola, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. autumnalis, L. bratislava, L. australis y L. pomona. Se utilizó el protocolo de laboratorio del Programa Nacional de Investigación en Salud Animal de corpoica-ceisa. Resultados: La seropositidad a MAT fue 26.4%. En los auxiliares 21% y los veterinarios 29%. La seropositidad por serovar fue L. bratislava 24%, L. australis 8%, L. copenhageni 6%, L. canícola 3%, L. autumnalis y L. hardjoprajitno 1%. No se encontraron reactores a icterohaemorrhagiae y pomona. Los títulos serológicos estuvieron en un rango entre 1:25 y 1:400. La copositividad entre MAT y ELISA IgM fue 42% y la conegatividad 77%. Conclusiones: La seropositidad en el grupo estudiado es alta y preocupante, por lo tanto, exige extremar las medidas de bioseguridad durante la práctica médico veterinaria.

  12. Isolation and cross-familial amplification of 41 microsatellites for the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) (United States)

    Perry, G.M.L.; King, T.L.; St. -Cyr, J.; Valcourt, M.; Bernatchez, L.


    The brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis; Osteichthyes: Salmonidae) is a phenotypically diverse fish species inhabiting much of North America. But relatively few genetic diagnostic resources are available for this fish species. We isolated 41 microsatellites from S. fontinalis polymorphic in one or more species of salmonid fish. Thirty-seven were polymorphic in brook charr, 15 in the congener Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and 14 in the lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). Polymorphism was also relatively high in Oncorhynchus, where 21 loci were polymorphic in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 16 in cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) but only seven and four microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the more distantly related lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), respectively. One duplicated locus (Sfo228Lav) was polymorphic at both duplicates in S. fontinalis. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Note technique : marquage des salmonidés de petite taille par ablation de l'adipeuse ou des nageoires pelviennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    chevalier (Salvelinus alpinus, truite fario (Salmo trutta et corégone (Coregonus Sp.. Le type de marquage décrit s'avère performant ( 500 à 600 juvéniles marqués/personne/heure comparativement à la technique d'ablation des deux pelviennes (300 à 350 ind/personne/heure testée sur des truitelles de 28 à 42 mm. Après un mois, en conditions d'élevage, les deux types de marquage ont peu affecté la croissance et la survie. Bien que réalisable à des tailles plus faibles, la technique de cautérisation est recommandée à partir de 33 mm de longueur totale.

  14. Combining next-generation sequencing and online databases for microsatellite development in non-model organisms. (United States)

    Rico, Ciro; Normandeau, Eric; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Rico, María Inés; Côté, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Louis


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionising marker development and the rapidly increasing amount of transcriptomes published across a wide variety of taxa is providing valuable sequence databases for the identification of genetic markers without the need to generate new sequences. Microsatellites are still the most important source of polymorphic markers in ecology and evolution. Motivated by our long-term interest in the adaptive radiation of a non-model species complex of whitefishes (Coregonus spp.), in this study, we focus on microsatellite characterisation and multiplex optimisation using transcriptome sequences generated by Illumina® and Roche-454, as well as online databases of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) for the study of whitefish evolution and demographic history. We identified and optimised 40 polymorphic loci in multiplex PCR reactions and validated the robustness of our analyses by testing several population genetics and phylogeographic predictions using 494 fish from five lakes and 2 distinct ecotypes.

  15. Confirmation of cisco spawning in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario using an egg pumping device (United States)

    George, Ellen M.; Stott, Wendylee; Young, Brian; Karboski, Curtis T.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Roseman, Edward; Rudstam, Lars G.


    Cisco Coregonus artedi, a historically abundant and commercially important fish in the Great Lakes, have declined drastically in the last century due to the impacts of invasive species, overfishing, and habitat degradation. Chaumont Bay, New York is believed to contain one of the last remaining spawning populations of cisco in Lake Ontario although direct evidence of spawning has remained elusive. We document cisco spawning in Chaumont Bay for the first time in decades through the use of an egg pumping device specifically developed to sample through lake ice. Forty-one eggs were identified as cisco using genetic barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Cisco eggs were associated with shallow, rocky shoals. Contemporary knowledge of spawning behavior is an important step toward the successful restoration of cisco in Lake Ontario and across the Great Lakes.

  16. Combining next-generation sequencing and online databases for microsatellite development in non-model organisms (United States)

    Rico, Ciro; Normandeau, Eric; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Rico, María Inés; Côté, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Louis


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionising marker development and the rapidly increasing amount of transcriptomes published across a wide variety of taxa is providing valuable sequence databases for the identification of genetic markers without the need to generate new sequences. Microsatellites are still the most important source of polymorphic markers in ecology and evolution. Motivated by our long-term interest in the adaptive radiation of a non-model species complex of whitefishes (Coregonus spp.), in this study, we focus on microsatellite characterisation and multiplex optimisation using transcriptome sequences generated by Illumina® and Roche-454, as well as online databases of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) for the study of whitefish evolution and demographic history. We identified and optimised 40 polymorphic loci in multiplex PCR reactions and validated the robustness of our analyses by testing several population genetics and phylogeographic predictions using 494 fish from five lakes and 2 distinct ecotypes. PMID:24296905

  17. Decline of the North Sea houting: protective measures for an endangered anadromous fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Deacon, Michael; Koed, Anders


    Once an abundant fish species in the rivers of the Wadden Sea in northwest Europe, the North Sea houting Coregonus oxyrinchus (NSH) was at the brink of extinction 25 yr ago. The very last stronghold for this species was in the small Danish River Vidaa. In an attempt to preserve this anadromous...... whitefish species, juveniles were hatchery-reared and stocked in 6 Danish rivers flowing into the Wadden Sea. These stocking efforts were fairly successful, and the houting established populations in at least 2 of the rivers, but the underlying problem of habitat degradation and migration obstacles...... they were initially PIT-tagged, indicating some exchange/straying between adjacent rivers. Overall there is a good chance that this unique species was saved in the 11th hour by intervention from managers and the EU...

  18. Changes in the Lake Michigan food web following dreissenid mussel invasions: A synthesis (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Tsehaye, Iyob; Claramunt, Randall M.; Clark, Richard D


    Using various available time series for Lake Michigan, we examined changes in the Lake Michigan food web following the dreissenid mussel invasions and identified those changes most likely attributable to these invasions, thereby providing a synthesis. Expansion of the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) population into deeper waters, which began around 2004, appeared to have a substantial predatory effect on both phytoplankton abundance and primary production, with annual primary production in offshore (> 50 m deep) waters being reduced by about 35% by 2007. Primary production likely decreased in nearshore waters as well, primarily due to predatory effects exerted by the quagga mussel expansion. The drastic decline inDiporeia abundance in Lake Michigan during the 1990s and 2000s has been attributed to dreissenid mussel effects, but the exact mechanism by which the mussels were negatively affecting Diporeia abundance remains unknown. In turn, decreased Diporeiaabundance was associated with reduced condition, growth, and/or energy density in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), and bloater (Coregonus hoyi). However, lake-wide biomass of salmonines, top predators in the food web, remained high during the 2000s, and consumption of alewives by salmonines actually increased between the 1980–1995 and 1996–2011 time periods. Moreover, abundance of the lake whitefish population, which supports Lake Michigan's most valuable commercial fishery, remained at historically high levels during the 2000s. Apparently, counterbalancing mechanisms operating within the complex Lake Michigan food web have enabled salmonines and lake whitefish to retain relatively high abundances despite reduced primary production.

  19. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival. (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore


    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  20. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild. (United States)

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McCracken, Carrie L; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue; Roelke, Melody; Sondgeroth, Kerry; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; O'Brien, Stephen J


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to the advancement of comparative

  1. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

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    Sondgeroth Kerry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  2. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild (United States)

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McCracken, Carrie L; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue; Roelke, Melody; Sondgeroth, Kerry; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; O'Brien, Stephen J


    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to

  3. Títulos de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp., en primates del zoológico Matecaña, Pereira, Colombia

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    Marlyn Romero P.


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar los serovares más frecuentes de Leptospira sp., por la técnica de Microaglutinación (MAT en una población de primates neotropicales, mantenida en condiciones de cautiverio, y evaluar por microscopía de campo oscuro la presencia de espiroquetas en aguas para el consumo de los animales. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de prevalencia de punto en 65 monos neotropicales, mediante la técnica de Microaglutinación Macroscópica (MAT usando un cepario de referencia conformado por 21 serovares de Leptospira sp., y la observación de espiroquetas en el agua mediante microscopía de campo oscuro. Resultados. La seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., en los monos neotropicales fue del 41.5% (27/65. Los serovares de Leptospira Autumnalis (25%, Ranarum (22.9%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (12.5%, Pomona (12.5% y Australis (10.4% fueron los más aglutinados por los sueros. Los monos ardilla (Saimiri sciureus, lanudo (Lagothrix lagotricha y tití pielroja (Saguinus oedipus fueron seronegativos. Se observaron espiroquetas en el agua evaluada. Conclusiones. Se evidencia la circulación de Leptospira sp., en el zoológico, siendo necesario la implementación de estrategias de vigilancia epidemiológica activa y programas de promoción.

  4. COII ”long fragment” reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

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    Sanaa M. Aly


    Full Text Available Introduction : Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII in identification of forensically important flies. Material and methods: Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species ( Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps , C. rufifacies , C. megacephala , Lucilia sericata , L. cuprina ; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria , S. dux , S. albiceps , Wohlfahrtia nuba ; Muscidae: Musca domestica , M. autumnalis were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results : All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. Conclusions : The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  5. COII "long fragment" reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa M; Mahmoud, Shereen M


    Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII) in identification of forensically important flies. Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps, C. rufifacies, C. megacephala, Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria, S. dux, S. albiceps, Wohlfahrtia nuba; Muscidae: Musca domestica, M. autumnalis) were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter) distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining) phylogenetic tree was constructed. All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  6. Use of a highly sensitive immunomarking system to characterize face fly (Diptera: Muscidae) dispersal from cow pats. (United States)

    Peck, George W; Ferguson, Holly J; Jones, Vincent P; O'Neal, Sally D; Walsh, Douglas B


    We tested an immunomarking system that used egg white as marker and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a detection assay to characterize face fly (Musca autumnalis DeGeer) dispersal from cow pats in a pastured beef cattle operation. In microcage assays, adult flies acquired marker after contact with cow pats that were treated with marker and field aged up to 11 d. In arena assays on sprayed full-size cow pats, 77% of eclosed face flies acquired the marker. In a field-marking study, four applications of egg white marker were applied on freshly deposited cow pats over a summer at two peripheral paddocks to a main grazing pasture of ≍50 head of beef cattle. Of the 663 face flies captured, 108 were positive for the egg white marker (16.3%). Of the marked flies, ≍ twofold more male than female flies were captured. Sex-specific dispersal distances were roughly equal up to 450 m, with 11% of female flies dispersing >450 m. Dispersal capability of face flies is discussed in relation to efficacy of rotational grazing and other IPM strategies.

  7. Leptospirosis in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil: a case-control seroepidemiologic study. (United States)

    Caldas, E M; Sampaio, M B


    From January 1 to December 31 of 1975, all patients admitted to Salvador's Infectious Disease Hospital were serologically tested for leptospirosis if their clinical and laboratory findings were compatible with this diagnosis. Of the 888 patients tested, 133 were positive. Among patients with an initial clinical impression of leptospirosis, the diagnosis was confirmed serologically in 36% and for the 133 leptospirosis patients, only 67 (50.4%) were initially suspected. Epidemiological aspects investigated covered: age, sex, place of residence and occupation for all cases and for fatal cases; distribution of cases by month of occurrence and by rainfall in that month; distribution of serotypes by month; and probable source of infection with emphasis of the occurrence and type of contact with dogs. For each case residing in Salvador, a control of the same age and sex was interviewed in the immediate neighborhood. Sewage, rats, water, dogs, mud and garbage were identified as the most likely source of infection in that order. Marked seasonal fluctuations were apparent with peak incidence during the months of maximum precipitation. In two-thirds of cases reporting contact with a dog, tests on the animal revealed the same serotype. The most frequent serotypes were: icterohemorrhagiae, autumnalis, castellonis, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and bataviae.

  8. Serosurvey of Leptospirainterrogans, Brucellaabortus and Chlamydophilaabortus infection in free-ranging giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla from Brazil

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    Flávia R. Miranda


    Full Text Available Abstract:A serological survey for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans, Brucella abortus, and Chlamydophila abortus was conducted in 21 clinically healthy, free-ranging giant ant- eaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla from Parque Nacional das Emas (Goiás State, Brazil; n=6, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (Minas Gerais State, Brazil; n=9, and RPPN SESC Pantanal (Mato Grosso State, Brazil; n=6 between July 2001 and September 2006. Sera were screened for antibodies against 22 serovars of Leptospira interrogans with a microscopic agglutination test. Twelve tested positive for L. interrogansserovars sentot (n=5 in PN Emas, n=2 in PN Serra da Canastra, butembo (n=2 in PN Serra da Canastra, autumnalis, bataviae, and shermani/icterohaemorrhagiae(n=1 each in SESC PantanalOne adult female tested positive for B. abortus with the buffered plate antigen test. All sera were negative for C. abortususing the complement fixation text. This is the first report of pathogens that may interfere with the reproduction and population dynamics of free-ranging giant anteaters.


    Moreno-Beas, Eduardo; Abalos, Pedro; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel


    Serum samples from 130 individuals representing 42 species of carnivores, ungulates, and primates from a population of captive mammals in Metropolitan Region in Chile were tested for antibodies against nine serovars of Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test. Ten percent of the animals were seropositive to one or more serovars. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in ungulates (20.4%) compared to carnivores (3.8%) and primates (3.4%). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence among sex and age ranges. The most frequent serovar detected was Autumnalis, present in 53.4% of antibody-positive animals. Most positive animals had titers of ≤1 : 200, except for a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) with titers of 1 : 400 against serovar Hardjo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira exposure detected in native endangered pudu ( Pudu puda ) and the first confirmation of exposure to L. interrogans in captive wild mammals in Chile. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in future disease presentation for hepatitis or abortions in captive mammals in Chile.

  10. Nota preliminar sobre leptospirosis en los cerdos del Perú

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    Arístides Herrer


    Full Text Available En relación con investigaciones que se llevan a cabo acerca de la leptospirosis en los cerdos que son sacrificados en el Frigorífico Nacional del Callao, de manera preliminar se da a conocer los siguientes resultados: 1. Entre junio y octubre, 1960, se obtuvo muestras de sangre y riñones de 500 cerdos, procedentes de diversas regiones del Perú, material con el que se realizaron reacciones de aglutinación-lisis y cultivos, respectivamente. 2. En las reacciones serológicas, efectuadas en 494 muestras, se verificó la presencia de anticuerpos en 99 (20 % de los cerdos estudiados, correspondiendo la mayoría de dichos anticuerpos a L. autumnalis, L. pomona, y L. hyos. 3. De los riñones se consiguió aislar en cultivo 8 cepas de leptospiras, 5 de las cuales fueron identificadas como L. hyos, dos como L. pomona y una como L. canicola.

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M


    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals.

  12. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

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    Wilawan Thipmontree


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40% and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1% were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3% was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%. Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001. In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death.

  13. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

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    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.


    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  14. Presence of Antibodies to Leptospira spp. in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) and Beavers ( Castor canadensis ) in Northwestern Mexico. (United States)

    López-Pérez, Andrés M; Carreón-Arroyo, Gerardo; Atilano, Daniel; Vigueras-Galván, Ana L; Valdez, Carlos; Toyos, Daniel; Mendizabal, Daniel; López-Islas, Jonathan; Suzán, Gerardo


    Leptospires are widespread spirochete bacteria that infect mammals, including rodents and humans. We investigated the presence of Leptospira antibodies in two species of rodents from San Pedro River Basin (SPRB) in northwestern Mexico as part of the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) monitoring plan and the North American beaver ( Castor canadensis ) reintroduction program. We sampled a total of 26 black-tailed prairie dogs and three beavers during October-November 2015. We detected antibodies against Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test in 12 (46%) prairie dogs and in two (67%) beavers. The antibody titers for seropositive rodents varied from 1:100 to 1:200, but none of the animals showed clinical signs of disease. We found seven Leptospira spp. serogroups (Autumnalis, Australis, Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Grippotyphosa, and Sejroe) circulating in rodent species in SPRB. We did not find any differences between sex and age concerning Leptospira-positive rodents. Our findings suggest the presence of endemic cycles and potential risks of Leptospira infection in both species from SPRB. Although the impact of this infection on threatened species remains unclear, human activities and environmental stress might facilitate the emergence or reemergence of leptospirosis disease as has been reported elsewhere.

  15. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland. (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin


    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.

  16. [Predominant Leptospira spp. serovars in serological diagnosis of canines and humans in the City of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil]. (United States)

    Castro, Jacqueline Ribeiro de; Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Souza, Mariana Assunção de; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna Monteiro Correia


    This study aimed to verify the occurrence of the principal Leptospira spp. serovars in domestic dogs and humans, notified in 2008, and the main risk factors in a geographic approach to the disease in the City of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canine blood serum samples (n=268) from different districts, belonging to the Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western and Central Sanitary Districts of Uberlandia, were collected during an animal vaccination campaign against rabies, in August 2008. A geographic approach to the city was conducted, including evaluation of locations in peripheral areas, waste landfills, garbage collection, rodent notification, human leptospirosis cases and overflow flood areas, during 2008. Leptospirosis was diagnosed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), the gold standard for animal and human leptospirosis diagnosis. Dogs mainly reacted to Autumnalis (34.2%) and Tarassovi (23.7%) serovars, while in humans, predominance of Tarassovi serovars occurred in the cases registered. The occurrence of these serovars could be related to an infection source common to both species, or dogs could be the infection source for humans. The Eastern Sanitary District showed a greater number of reactive dogs. Leptospirosis occurred in dogs and humans of the City of Uberlandia in 2008. This often neglected disease must be prevented because represents a public health risk and resembles other endemic illness like dengue.

  17. Arbitrarily primed PCR- A rapid and simple method for typing of leptospiral serovars

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    Ramadass P


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR for typing of leptospiral serovars. METHODS: AP-PCR was adopted for identification of laboratory strains of leptospires and leptospiral cultures at serovar level. A primer of 12 bp was used for amplifying DNA of 13 laboratory strains of leptospires as well as culture pellets of leptospires. RESULTS: Each serovar produced distinct DNA fingerprint which was characteristic for each serovar. These patterns were used for typing of 81 serum culture samples obtained from human leptospiral cases. Of these samples, 39 could be typed based on AP-PCR fingerprints belonging to serovars autumnalis, pomona, canicola, javanica, icterohaemorrhagiae, patoc and pyrogenes. These results were confirmed by RAPD fingerprinting of the DNA samples of the respective leptospiral serovars after culturing -FNx01them in EMJH media. One of the important findings of this work was that straight culture sample could be used for AP-PCR assay, without purification of DNA. By having more number of AP-PCR reference fingerprints, more serovars could be typed. CONCLUSIONS: AP-PCR technique provides great potential for simple and rapid identification of leptospires at serovar level, which could be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of leptospirosis.

  18. Faunistic spider collections in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin: The collection of Erich Hesse

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    Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich


    Full Text Available The ‘Hesse collection’ of spiders (Araneae and harvestmen (Opiliones in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin is documented. Biographical notes on Erich Hesse – a former arachnid curator at the museum (1921–1940 – are provided. The ‘Hesse collection’ was actually put together by other workers, and can be broadly divided into two parts. One comes from Bielinek (= Bellinchen on the Polish side of the Oder Valley (West Pommerania; now part of the ‘Unteres Odertal’ National Park. This Bielinek material includes notable records of Heriaeus oblongus Simon, 1918 and Gibbaranea ullrichi (Hahn, 1835. The other part of the collection comes from Colbitz-Letzlinger Heide in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Notable here are Pistius truncatus (Pallas, 1772 and Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004; the latter representing the first record of this species for Saxony-Anhalt.

  19. Auch eine Theorie der Moderne

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    Sabine Rohlf


    Full Text Available Barbara Hahn zeichnet die Wege schreibender Frauen durch 200 Jahre deutsch-jüdische Kulturgeschichte nach. Ausgehend von Paul Celans vieldeutiger Jüdin Pallas Athene, werden dabei stereotype Bilder der „Jüdin“, der „Intellektuellen“ und die scharfe Trennlinie zwischen humanistisch christlicher und jüdischer Tradition zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Celans Figur schreibt sich gleichzeitig die theoretische Herausforderung in diese Studie ein, nach Ambivalenzen und Dialogen zu fragen, deren Voraussetzungen mit beispielloser Gewalt zerstört wurden. Gestützt auf Archivmaterial und veröffentlichte Texte der von ihr vorgestellten Frauen, spannt Hahn den Bogen von frühen Strategien der Assimilierung bis in die Jahre nach 1945. Das Buch ist keine Überblicksdarstellung, sondern präsentiert einzelne, einander auch überschneidende Konstellationen – intellektuelle Netzwerke, Briefwechsel, intertextuellen Transfer.

  20. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman


    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  1. Las ciperáceas (Cyperaceae de la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Gómez-Laurito


    Full Text Available La familia Cyperaceae es cosmopolita e incluye unos 115 géneros y 3600 especies. Costa Rica tiene 25 géneros y 210 especies. Aquí presento claves y descripciones para las 34 especies (10 géneros que ocurren en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica. El género Cyperus está representado por 12 especies, seguido por Rhynchospora (6, Scleria (5, Calyptocarya (2, Eleocharis (2, Kyllinga (2, Mapania (2, Hypolytrum (1 y Lipocarpha (1. Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth Palla, ha sido colectada en los alrededores y eventualmente podría ser encontrada en la Estación.

  2. Upstream expansion of round goby (Neogobius Melanostomus – first record in the upper reaches of the Elbe river

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    Buřič M.


    Full Text Available The round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814 is one of the most problematic invasive fish species in recent years in Europe. It has proliferated from its native Ponto-Caspian region to several European river systems including their mouths and coastal brackish waters and was also introduced to and became widely established in the Great Lakes in North America. Despite recent reports about further invasions of round goby in the Odra and Vistula Rivers, including penetration of Baltic and North Seas, in the Elbe River this species was only recorded near its mouth close to Hamburg. Here we report the occurrence of round goby 622 km upstream from the previous record in Geesthacht (Germany in the upper part of the Elbe River in Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic. This report illustrates the fast spread of round goby through several possible pathways, but the most certain is an introduction in ballast water.

  3. Numerical simulation of crystalline ion beams in storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkov, I N; Katayama, T; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A Yu; Syresin, E M; Trubnikov, G; Tsutsui, H


    The use of crystalline ion beams can increase luminosity in the collider and in experiments with targets for investigation of rare radioactive isotopes. The ordered state of circulating ion beams was observed at several storage rings: NAP-M (Proceedings of the Fourth All Union Conference on Charged Particle Accelerators, Vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, 1975 (in Russian); Part. Accel. 7 (1976) 197; At. Energy 40 (1976) 49; Preprint CERN/PS/AA 79-41, Geneva, 1979) (Novosibirsk), ESR (Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3803) and SIS (Proceedings of EPAC'2000, 2000) (Darmstadt), CRYRING (Proceedings of PAC'2001, 2001) (Stockholm) and PALLAS (Proceedings of the Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry, AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 576, in preparation) (Munchen). New criteria of the beam orderliness are derived and verified with a new program code. Molecular dynamics technique is inserted in BETACOOL program (Proceedings of Beam Cooling and Related Topics, Bad Honnef, Germany, 2001) and used for numeric...

  4. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples. (United States)

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham Bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi


    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations.

  5. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar


    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns.

  6. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.


    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  8. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch


    Full Text Available Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator.

  9. An Analysis of Data on the Nutrition of American Officer Prisoners of War at the Zentsuji Prisoner of War Camp at Shikoku, Japan (United States)


    sympt"czIndic~ated classic beriberi, palla~ras scurvy or aprus. There w.- a littlo taincaitiori of deficoloncy of’ Vitaminas ~*~~ or k: of asseitial...442. DEPAS2V4RM ~FWID TEOMNOWG MASAkCIWSEI-TS tINSMUTE OF wŕCiOM CAmIulD4 39, ASO&U9T Samuel A . Goldblith MwY 1948 Underwood-Prescott Professor of Food...Science and Director of Industrial Liaison,* MIT, 6/24/75 -- i AbstrOt Ths a •ounte ot various aArt’ents an a maly per irn aor day basis obtained froa

  10. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.


    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  11. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers. (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S


    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  12. [Seasonal changes in tumor necrosis factor production in hibernating animals in normal conditions and under the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation]. (United States)

    Ogaĭ, V B; Novoselova, E G; Makar, V R; Kolaeva, S G


    Production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been investigated in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T cells of Arctic Yakutian ground squirrel (Citellus Undulatus Pallas) upon in vitro action of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation during annual cycle. The significant activation of TNF production in the cells of awaken ground squirrels in winter and increasing level of the lymphokine production at spring-summer period has been indicated. The level of TNF production in splenic T cells was not changed during whole year. The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of low intensity (8.15-18 GHz, 1 microW/cm2) induced an augmentation of both secretory and proliferative activity in TNF-producing cells. Ionizing radiation suppressed T cell proliferation, but the doses 2 and 5 Gy resulted in a significant stimulation of TNF production in T cells and macrophages.

  13. Attitudes about inclusion by educators and physical educators: effects of participation in an inclusive adapted physical education program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro


    Full Text Available This study assessed the attitudes about the inclusion of students with disability by professionals in education and health, relative to their experience and training. We compared three groups: 20 teachers and trainees who worked in an adapted physical education program (GI; 75 professionals from the municipal education system of Rio Claro subdivided according to their experience-CGyes e CGno, respectively, with and without experience. We used the inventory adapted by Palla (2001 to assess participants' attitudes and self-concepts. Overall, individuals in the group that participated in the intervention maintained their tendency of being favorable toward inclusion. Teachers in regular school settings in the municipal school system of Rio Claro (São Paulo, Brazil, regardless of their experience with inclusive settings, remain mostly indecisive about the benefits of inclusion.

  14. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju


    to be considered for post-invasion management. Priority should be given to the establishment of a coordinated pan-Baltic monitoring programme and associated data storage and exchange, as well as the compilation of landing statistics of the round goby in commercial and recreational fisheries. While eradication......, and hull fouling of inland and sea-going vessels, including recreational boats. Extensive involvement of stakeholders is crucial at all phases of the management process.......The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions...

  15. [Study on preferred food of adult Mylabris phalerata in different geographical populations]. (United States)

    Mo, Rang-yu; Sun, Nian-xi; Peng, Rui


    With the deterioration of environment, and the excessive collection of wild resources, the wild populations of Myla- bris phalerata Pallas are less and less, almost extincted in many traditional distribution areas. It is necessary to breed M. phalerata artificially for sustainable utilization. Food preference of adult M. phalerata is the key to its provenance screening and domestication in the artificial breeding. In this paper, the food preference of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata was studied. The results showed that the food preferences of adult M. phalerata in different geographical populations were different. The adult M. phalerata in Wuming preferred cucumber flowers, gourd flowers and melon flowers. The adult M. phalerata in Tianlin preferred cowpea flowers. And the adult M. phalerata in Guangzhou preferred cowpea flowers and gourd flowers. Gourd flowers were the most attractive food for the adult M. phalerata of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata.

  16. Christophers’ stage durations and effect of interrupted blood meal in the mosquito Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carron A.


    Full Text Available Christophers’ stages durations and effect of interrupted blood meal were investigated in laboratory to study the gonotrophic cycle of Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771. A first experiment was done with replete females (full blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal. Females were then regularly dissected, the durations of Christophers’ stages I, II, III, IV, V were up to 8, 8, 32, 8, 48 h, respectively. A second experiment was done with replete females, females with an interrupted blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal completed 24 h later. Interrupted females matured 21 ± 5 follicles, interrupted-completed females 92 ± 11, and replete females 120 ± 8 follicles.

  17. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott. (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali


    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. Beetles (Coleoptera of selected families of the slopes of Macošská and Vilémovická stráň (Moravský kras Protected landscape area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Niedobová


    Full Text Available Two xerothermic localities in Moravský kras were investigated from March to November 2008. Altogether 183 species of beetles from 13 families (except Carabidae published separately were collected in Macošská and Vilémovická stráň slopes using several collecting methods: pitfall traps, sweeping of vegetation and Möricke traps. Both slopes are located in the northern part of the Moravský kras and are influenced by pasture management. Altogether we found 21 species listed under Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic, it is approximately 11.5% of all collected species. The most important species (two critically endangered – CR: Eumolpus asclepiadeus (Pallas, 1776, Sphaeroderma rubidium (Graëlls, 1853 and six endangered – EN belong to family Chrysomelidae. Another endangered collected species belong to families Curculionidae and Staphylinidae.

  19. Spatial distribution of sponge-associated bacteria in the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium. (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Neulinger, Sven C; Staufenberger, Tim; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F


    The local distribution of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium Pallas 1766 was studied. Distinct bacterial communities were found to inhabit the endosome and cortex. Clear differences in the associated bacterial populations were demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Specifically associated phylotypes were identified for both regions: a new phylotype of Flexibacteria was recovered only from the sponge cortex, while Synechococcus species were present mainly in the sponge endosome. Light conduction via radiate spicule bundles conceivably facilitates the unusual association of Cyanobacteria with the sponge endosome. Furthermore, a new monophyletic cluster of sponge-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the Betaproteobacteria was identified using analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Members of this cluster were specifically associated with both cortex and endosome of T. aurantium.

  20. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Adosomus roridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae). (United States)

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří


    Mature larva and pupa of Adosomus (s. str.) roridus (Pallas, 1781) (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Cleonini) are described and compared with ten other taxa of Cleonini with known larvae. This weevil is an oligophagous species on the Asteraceae family. From our observations in Slovakia, we found active adults from April to September in dry sunny places within extensively used or fallow vineyards and in ruderal vegetation with host plants. The weevil is a root borer--larvae, pupae and fresh adults were collected from the root necks and roots of Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and rarely from Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.). Each plant was usually occupied by one larva, or more rarely with two or three larvae. The new generation of adult individuals appeared from early summer to autumn. Both larvae and some of the adults overwinter, which is quite unique within Cleonini.

  1. New chromosome characteristics of the monozoic tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombarová M.


    Full Text Available The karyotype of a caryophyllidean tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781 from the freshwater bream Abramis brama (L. caught in the Slovak part of the River Tisa, was described and originally inspected for amount of heterochromatin and its chromosome localization. The chromosome set comprised nine metacentric and one submetacentric (No. 3 pairs (2n = 20. The chromosomes were up to 12.0 ± 2.5 μm long and the mean total length of haploid genome (TLC reached 80.6 μm that represents one of the highest yet recorded values among tapeworms. C-banding and staining with fl uorescent dyes DAPI and YOYO1 revealed a distinct banding pattern explicitly on chromosomes with centromeric bright heterochromatin bands present on all 10 chromosome pairs; no pair showed any interstitial heterochromatin. A complete course of spermatocyte meiosis and dynamics of nucleolus formation and degradation during meiotic division was described.

  2. Detection of virus in connection with "European brown hare syndrome" in Hesse, F.R.G. (United States)

    Biermann, U; Krauss, H


    Materials from the liver of a wild-living hare (Lepus europeus pallas) which had died from "European Brown Hare Syndrome" (EBHS) and of two hares kept in captivity which had been experimentally infected with the same material and died after two days with the classical signs of EBHS (Eskens and Volmer, 1989) were investigated for the presence of virus particles by electron microscopy using the negative contrast technique. Virus particles of 32 nm in diameter were found in all three samples investigated. The same particles were detected in the filtered inoculum used for experimental infection and in the supernatant of the first three passages of feline embryonic cell cultures. Haemagglutination or haemadsorption could not be achieved with the material investigated.

  3. Review of the Distribution of the Family Gobiidae (Pisces in the Bulgarian Danube Tributaries

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    Velislav Y. Zarev


    Full Text Available The current study aims to give in detailed information on the actual distribution of the species from family Gobiidae in the Bulgarian Danube tributaries. All known literature has been revised and with the new data collected is given complete and actual information on their distribution. In the period 2010-2012 were sampled a total of 41 sites alongside each one of the Bulgarian Danube tributaries. The sampling started from the river mouths to upstream in order to discover what is the southern (upstream distribution of each one goby species. Four goby species were recorded from the tributaries – the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814, the monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis, the racer goby (Neogobius gymnotrachelus and the tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus. Further analysis showed preference of mixed substrates and silt in addition of homogenous ones. The occurrence of gobies in the studied tributaries decreased inversely proportional to distance from Danube.

  4. Interspecific Interactions between the Invasive Beetle Harmonia axyridis, Native Anthocorids and Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon

    The Earth’s biodiversity encompasses dynamic arrangements of ecosystems, species and their inherent genetic diversity. Biodiversity is an integral component underlying functional ecosystems. Human well-being is dependent on a variety of services provided by ecosystems, e.g. climate regulation, pest....... The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was introduced to North America from Asia in the early 20th century as a biological control agent against insect agricultural pests. In the late 20th century a specific population in eastern North America became invasive. Invasive H...... light on the role of insect behaviour in biological invasions, a supplementary dataset compared behavioural 8 traits (tendency to fly/mate and activity) relevant to successful invasion between five native/invasive H. axyridis populations. Findings from laboratory assays strongly suggested interspecific...

  5. Effects of plant gross morphology on predator consumption rates. (United States)

    Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim


    We find that spatial structure, and in particular, differences in gross plant morphology, can alter the consumption rates of generalist insect predators. We compared Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and green lacewing larvae, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, consumption rates of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, in homogeneous environments (petri dishes) and heterogeneous environments (whole plants). Spatial complexity is often described as reducing predator success, and we did find that predators consumed significantly more aphids on leaf tissue in petri dishes than on whole plants with the same surface area. However, subtle differences in plant morphology may have more unexpected effects. A comparison of consumption rates on four different isogenic pea morphs (Pisum sativum L.) controlled for surface area indicated that both lady beetles and lacewings were more successful on morphologies that were highly branched. We speculate that predators move more easily over highly branched plants because there are more edges to grasp.

  6. Immunotherapy in Merkel cell carcinoma: role of Avelumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palla AR


    Full Text Available Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer. Keywords: Merkel cell carcinoma, T cell, PD-L1, Avelumab, immunotherapy, check point inhibitors, neuroendocrine tumor

  7. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo


    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration

  8. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo


    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  9. Infant stars behave like teenagers. Le difficoltàdelle stelle giovani (United States)

    Hillenbrand, L. A.

    Many of the research topics I have wandered into over the years directly intersected with Francesco Palla's interests, though my appreciation of the importance of these topics usually came many years after his. Here, I touch upon our crossing paths regarding: the spectral energy distributions of Herbig Ae/Be stars, the clusters of low mass stars surrounding the Herbig stars, the location of young pre-main sequence stars in the theoretical HR diagram, the evidence for luminosity/gravity/age spreads of young stars, the initial mass function and the age dispersion in the Orion Nebula Cluster, stellar pulsations in young low mass stars, and finally, young star variability. Francesco made insightful contributions in all of these areas.

  10. The potential of four woody species for the revegetation of fly ash deposits from the ‘Nikola Tesla-a’ thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

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    Kostić Olga


    Full Text Available Four woody species, Tamarix tentandra Pallas, Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (planted and Amorpha fruticosa L. (naturally colonized were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 3 (L1 and 11 years (L2. All species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content and the pH and EC of the ash. A reduced vitality of all populations growing on the ash was observed, except for the naturally colonized A. fruticosa. High vitality on all sites, except at L2, increased chlorophyll content and absence of damage symptoms indicates a tolerance in relation to the uptake of toxic elements from the ash. Therefore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for modeling future actions of biological restoration of fly ash deposits.

  11. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing. (United States)

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun


    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitric oxide contributes both to papilla-based resistance and the hypersensitive response in barley attacked by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. (United States)

    Prats, Elena; Mur, Luis A J; Sanderson, Ruth; Carver, Timothy L W


    SUMMARY Nonspecific penetration resistance due to papilla formation and race-specific hypersensitive response (HR) can both contribute to Blumeria graminis resistance in barley. Some effective papillae form even in the susceptible cv. Pallas and the isoline P01 carries the additional Mla1 allele conditioning HR. The NO-specific stain DAF-2DA (4,5-diaminofluorescein-2-diacetate) revealed a transient NO generation burst commencing 10 h after inoculation (h.a.i.) in close association with sites of papilla formation in both barley lines. In P01 a burst of NO production throughout some attacked cells was initiated around 10-12 h.a.i. and this preceded whole-cell autofluorescence indicative of HR. The specificity of DAF-2DA staining was demonstrated by the suppression of staining following application of the NO scavenger C-PTIO (1H-imidazol-1-yloxy-2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-oxide). In addition, C-PTIO application increased penetration frequencies in both barley lines, indicating a role for NO in papilla-based resistance. Furthermore, C-PTIO application slightly delayed HR in P01 whereas, conversely, application of an NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, slightly accelerated HR in P01 and increased cell death frequency in Pallas. Thus, NO generation is one of the earliest responses of barley epidermal cell defence against B. graminis attack and may be important in both the initiation and the development of effective papillae and cell death due to HR.

  13. Characterisation of early transcriptional changes involving multiple signalling pathways in the Mla13 barley interaction with powdery mildew ( Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). (United States)

    Hein, Ingo; Campbell, Edward I; Woodhead, Mary; Hedley, Peter E; Young, Vanessa; Morris, Wayne L; Ramsay, Luke; Stockhaus, Joerg; Lyon, Gary D; Newton, Adrian C; Birch, Paul R J


    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate 21 cDNAs ( bmi1- bmi21) up-regulated 1-5 h post-inoculation (hpi) in a barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Pallas) near-isogenic line (NIL) P11 ( Mla13) challenged with either avirulent or virulent isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Transcriptional changes at these time-points are crucial for the Mla-mediated hypersensitive response [W.R. Bushnell and Z. Liu (1994) Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 44:389-402]. Seven sequences were up-regulated by 1 hpi, when the pathogen has formed only the primary germ tube. Some transcripts were similar to genes with a role in regulating programmed cell death in animals, including NF kappaB and oxysterol-binding protein. Moreover, bmi7, similar to rice resistance gene Xa21, was rapidly up-regulated in both compatible and incompatible interactions, but was then down-regulated by 5 hpi in the virulent interaction. Only nine of the transcripts were up-regulated in mlo5 resistance in cv. Pallas NIL P22, confirming differential pathway induction between Mla13 and mlo5. However, eight sequences up-regulated in the Mla13 response in P11 were already highly elevated in uninoculated mlo5 mutant P22, suggesting that they may be negatively regulated by wild-type Mlo. Regulation of bmi sequences was investigated using salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethylene, H(2)O(2), abscisic acid, wounding and a glucan elicitor. No single stimulus up-regulated all genes, suggesting either combinations of these stimuli, or additional stimuli, are involved in early Mla13 and mlo5 resistances. Whereas H(2)O(2) up- or down-regulated 17 of the transcripts detected in Northern analyses, salicylic acid stimulated only down-regulation of 5 transcripts.

  14. Auch eine Theorie der Moderne Another Theory of Modernity

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    Sabine Rohlf


    Full Text Available Barbara Hahn zeichnet die Wege schreibender Frauen durch 200 Jahre deutsch-jüdische Kulturgeschichte nach. Ausgehend von Paul Celans vieldeutiger Jüdin Pallas Athene, werden dabei stereotype Bilder der „Jüdin“, der „Intellektuellen“ und die scharfe Trennlinie zwischen humanistisch christlicher und jüdischer Tradition zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Celans Figur schreibt sich gleichzeitig die theoretische Herausforderung in diese Studie ein, nach Ambivalenzen und Dialogen zu fragen, deren Voraussetzungen mit beispielloser Gewalt zerstört wurden. Gestützt auf Archivmaterial und veröffentlichte Texte der von ihr vorgestellten Frauen, spannt Hahn den Bogen von frühen Strategien der Assimilierung bis in die Jahre nach 1945. Das Buch ist keine Überblicksdarstellung, sondern präsentiert einzelne, einander auch überschneidende Konstellationen – intellektuelle Netzwerke, Briefwechsel, intertextuellen Transfer.Hahn traces the paths of women writers through two hundred years of German-Jewish cultural history. Using Celan’s plurivalent “Pallas Athene” as a starting point, Hahn discusses stereotypical images of “the Jew,” “the Intellectual,” and the sharp division between the humanistic Christian and the Jewish tradition. The character created by Celan functions as a theoretical challenge in this text, asking about feelings of ambivalence and dialogues which could not take place as their premises were destroyed with an unprecedented violence. Based on archival material and biographical texts about the women she uses, Hahn completes the circle between early strategies and assimilation until the post-WWII years. This book does not offer a general overview, but offers individual, overlapping constellations-intellectual networks, letters, and intertextual transfers.

  15. New host records for Anenterotrematidae, Lecithodendriidae and Urotrematidae trematodes in bats from Argentina, with redescription of Anenterotrema liliputianum Nuevos registros de trematodos Anenterotrematidae, Lecitodendriidae y Urotrematidae en murciélagos de Argentina y redescripción de Anenterotrema liliputianum

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    Lía I. Lunaschi


    Full Text Available Anenterotrema liliputianum (Travassos, 1928 (Anenterotrematidae is redescribed based on the type specimens fromMolossus molossus (Pallas and Phyllostomus elongatus (Geoffroy from Brazil, and also on new specimens collected from the Dwarf Dog-faced Bat, Molossops temminckii (Burmeister (Molossidae in Argentina. In addition, we report the finding of Gymnoacetabulum talaveraensis (Lunaschi, 2002, Ochoterenatrema labda Caballero, 1943 (Lecithodendriidae, and Urotrema scabridum Braum, 1900 (Urotrematidae parasitizing Vespertilionidae and Molossidae bats from Buenos Aires and Misiones provinces, and measurements, prevalence, and mean intensity for these trematodes are provided. In addition, the host spectrum and distribution for A. liliputianum and O. labda is increased, and U. scabridum is recorded for the first time parasitizing bats in Argentina.Se re-describe Anenterotrema liliputianum (Travassos, 1928 (Anenterotrematidae a partir de ejemplares tipo depositados en el Instituto Oswaldo Cruz recolectados de Molossus molossus (Pallas y Phyllostomus elongatus (Geoffroy de Brasil y de ejemplares hallados parasitando al moloso pigmeo Molossops temminckii (Burmeister (Molossidae en Argentina. Se registra además, el hallazgo de Gymnoacetabulum talaveraensis (Lunaschi, 2002, Ochoterenatrema labda Caballero, 1943 (Lecithodendriidae y Urotrema scabridum Braum, 1900 (Urotrematidae parasitando a murciélagos Vespertilionidae y Molosidae de las provincias de Buenos Aires y Misiones. Se proporcionan las medidas, prevalencia e intensidad media para estos digéneos. Además, se amplía el registro de hospedadores y localidades para A. liliputianum y O. labda y se encuentra por primera vez U. scabridum como parásito de quirópteros en la Argentina.

  16. Past, present and future of the fish community of Lake Orta (Italy, one of the world’s largest acidified lakes

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    Pietro Volta


    Full Text Available Since 1926, the fishes in Lake Orta, one of Italy’s deepest natural lakes, were heavily damaged by profundal hypoxia and acidification linked to oxidation of ammonia from industrial effluents and by industrial metal pollution. Of the original 28 fish species, only perch survived the lake’s contamination. Recently, the water quality of the lake has been largely restored by reductions in pollutant inputs, and a massive liming intervention. These interventions restored fish habitat, but it is unclear whether the recent fish reintroductions were successful, and the present status of the fish community is unknown.  Here we reviewed the history of the Lake Orta fish assemblage. Using an extensive 2014 sampling campaign, we compared the present fish community to both its pre-pollution composition and to the assemblages of nearby un-polluted, but otherwise similar lakes, Lake Mergozzo and Lake Maggiore. While nearshore fish density now appears normal in lake Orta, the open water community remains impoverished both in numbers and in species. Epilimnetic and hypolimnetic benthic nets were dominated by perch and roach in all the three lakes, but the catch of pelagic nets differed among lakes. Perch (Perca fluviatilis, rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus and brown trout (Salmo trutta dominated in Lake Orta while shad (Alosa fallax lacustris and coregonids (Coregonus spp. were dominant in the open waters of the other two lakes, but missing from Lake Orta.  Many fully or partially migratory species, including marble trout (Salmo trutta marmoratus, eel (Anguilla Anguilla and barbel (Barbus plebejus were also missing from Lake Orta, a consequence of their initial extirpation and blocked re-colonization routes along the River Strona. In comparison with both pre-pollution and contemporary reference data, the fish community of Lake Orta has not been rehabilitated. The recovery of the littoral community is complete, but cold water species such as burbot (Lota

  17. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008 (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.


    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  18. Lake Michigan: Man's effects on native fish stocks and other biota (United States)

    Wells, LaRue; McLain, Alberton L.


    Man's activities have caused great changes in Lake Michigan in the past 120 years. Although changes in water chemistry and lower biota have been generally modest (except locally), those in native fish stocks have been vast. Exploitation, exotic fish species, and eutrophication and other forms of pollution all have played a role in bringing about the changes (mostly declines in abundance) in fish populations. Exploitation resulted in a noticeable reduction in abundance of certain native species (especially whitefish) soon after the establishment of the commercial fishery in the 1840's. By the 1930's the sturgeon and the two largest deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus nigripinnis and C. johannae) became severely depleted. Other species- whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and lake herring (C. artedii)- remained important commercially, but at a lower level of production than originally; greatly increased fishing effort and efficiency were required to maintain even these decreased catches. The catch of intermediate-size ciscoes held relatively stable, but again only through sharply increased fishing effort and efficiency. The earliest serious effects of exotic fish species on native fish stocks may have been during the 1930's, when smelt (Osmerus mordax), first became abundant. Powerful influences by exotics were not obvious, however, until the 1940's, when the sea lamprey's (Petromyzon marinus) predation on several species, particularly the lake trout, became critical. In the 1950's the sea lamprey was joined by the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), another exotic strongly deleterious to several native fish. The alewife apparently inhibited reproduction of deepwater ciscoes, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides), and perhaps others (through competing with young, or feeding on them). At the same time, however, the alewife as a prolific forage fish has made

  19. Assessment of exposure to Leptospira serovars in veterinary staff and dog owners in contact with infected dogs. (United States)

    Barmettler, Reto; Schweighauser, Ariane; Bigler, Susanne; Grooters, Amy M; Francey, Thierry


    To assess patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars in veterinary professional staff and dog owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis and to contrast these patterns in people with those observed in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Human subjects consisted of 91 people (50 veterinarians, 19 technical staff, 9 administrative personnel, and 13 dog owners) exposed to dogs with leptospirosis. Canine subjects consisted of 52 dogs with naturally occurring leptospirosis admitted to the University of Bern Vetsuisse Faculty Small Animal Clinic in 2007 and 2008. People were tested for seroreactivity to regionally prevalent Leptospira serovars by use of a complement fixation test. A questionnaire designed to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity was used to collect demographic information from each study participant. Dogs were tested for seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars by use of a microscopic agglutination test. On the basis of microscopic agglutination test results, infected dogs were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars as follows (in descending order): Bratislava (43/52 [83%]), Australis (43/52 [83%]), Grippotyphosa (18/52 [35%]), Pomona (12/52 [23%]), Autumnalis (6/52 [12%]), Icterohemorrhagiae (4/52 [8%]), Tarassovi (2/52 [4%]), and Canicola (1/52 [2%]). All 91 people were seronegative for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. Therefore, statistical evaluation of risk factors and comparison of patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars between human and canine subjects were limited to theoretical risks. Seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars among veterinary staff adhering to standard hygiene protocols and pet owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis was uncommon.

  20. Development of a novel walk-through fly trap for the control of horn flies and other pests on pastured dairy cows. (United States)

    Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Watson, D W


    A prototype walk-through fly vacuum system, designed to remove horn flies Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from cattle, was developed and tested for efficacy. The study was conducted during 4 fly seasons over 17 consecutive weeks each year within the months of May through September at 1 dairy research herd in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Additional data on horn flies, as well as face flies (Musca autumnalis) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), were collected during 1 yr from 7 commercial pasture-based and organic dairy farms in the piedmont region of North Carolina. The number of flies observed on animals in the pasture was compared with the number of flies collected in the trap. Studies were initiated after horn fly densities had met or exceeded a threshold of 200 flies per animal. The vacuum trap removed between 1.3 and 2.5 million flies annually from the research station cattle. Most fly removal occurred during the first few weeks of operation and maintained densities below threshold thereafter. Cattle using the fly trap at the research farm had only about 28% the number of horn flies as untreated cattle, and reductions ranged from 67.5 to 74.5% across the 4-yr study. In addition to large numbers of horn flies, traps placed on commercial dairies during 1 yr collected stable flies, face flies, and house flies, all species with differing behavior and larger in size than horn flies. The estimated cost of running the trap is $72 per season at commercial rates of $0.12 per hour and an expected 4h of daily operation during the time of milking. Use of a vacuum system as described herein has potential as a cost-effective method in reducing populations of parasitic flies in pasture-based dairy production systems without the use of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase I in identification of forensically important flies (Diptera) from China and Egypt. (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa Mohamed; Wen, Jifang


    Precise species identification of every insect sample collected from criminal scenes play an essential role in the accurate estimation of postmortem interval. The morphological similarity poses a great challenge for forensic entomologists. DNA-based method can be used as a supplemental means of morphological method. In the present study, we demonstrate the applicability of the 304-bp cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment in molecular identification of forensically important Diptera. We analyzed 75 specimens belonging to 19 species of 3 families originating from China (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Aldrichina grahami; Lucilia bazini, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia porphyrina; Muscidae: Musca autumnalis, Musca domestica, Fannia canicularis, Stomoxys calcitrans; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga albiceps, Sarcophaga dux, Helicophagella melanura) and Egypt (Calliphoridae: C. megacephala, C. albiceps, L. sericata; Muscidae: M. domestica, F. canicularis, S. calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga argyrostoma). This region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing of the amplification products. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura two-parameter distance model and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree generated. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0-0.8 % and interspecific variation occurred between 1-19 %. Although all examined specimens were assigned to the correct species and formed distinct monophyletic clades, the data of the phylogenetic analysis were not completely in accordance with the traditional morphological classification. As both C. nigripes and A. grahami unexpectedly joined with Muscidae and Sarcophagidae groups respectively. Moreover, both Calliphorinae and Luciliinae clades failed to represent Calliphoridae as a separate group. Therefore, although molecular methods are beneficial

  2. Reproductive Disorders and Leptospirosis: A Case Study in a Mixed-Species Farm (Cattle and Swine). (United States)

    Mori, Marcella; Bakinahe, Raïssa; Vannoorenberghe, Philippe; Maris, Jo; de Jong, Ellen; Tignon, Marylène; Marin, Martine; Desqueper, Damien; Fretin, David; Behaeghel, Isabelle


    Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or absent. Mild clinical symptoms encompass reproductive failure in production animals for host-adapted Leptospira sp. serovars. This work presents a study on Leptospira sp. infection in a mixed-species (bovine and swine) farm with documented reproductive disorders in the cattle unit. A long calving interval (above 450 days) was the hallmark observed in cows. Some cows (2/26 tested) presented a high titre of antibodies against Leptospira sp. serogroup Sejroe, but the overall within-herd prevalence was low (11.5% and 7.7% for cut-off titres of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively). The in-herd prevalence of leptospirosis in the sow unit (determined for 113/140 animals) was high when using a lowered cut-off threshold (32.7% vs. 1.8% for cut-off titre of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively). In this unit, the most prevalent serogroup was Autumnalis. The final diagnostic confirmation of Leptospira sp. maintenance within the farm was obtained through detection by PCR of Leptospira sp. DNA in an aborted swine litter. Despite the fact that a common causative infective agent was diagnosed in both species, the direct link between the two animal units was not found. Factors such as drinking from the same water source and the use of manure prepared with the swine slurry might raise suspicion of a possible cross-contamination between the two units. In conclusion, this work suggests that leptospirosis be included in the differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders and spontaneous abortions in production animals and provides data that justify the use of a lowered threshold cut-off for herd diagnosis.

  3. Diagnosis of canine leptospirosis by a highly sensitive FRET-PCR targeting the lig genes.

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    Chuanling Xu

    Full Text Available Canine leptospirosis is underdiagnosed due to its wide spectrum of clinical presentations and the lack of a rapid and sensitive test for the accurate diagnosis of acute and chronic infections. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-PCR to detect common pathogenic leptospires in dogs, including Leptospira interrogans serovars Autumnalis, Canicola, Copenhageni (Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup and Pomona, and Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa. This PCR targets the lig genes, exclusively found in the pathogenic Leptospira species but not in saprophytic species (L. biflexa. A robust, high-stringency step-down real-time platform was coupled to the highly specific detection of leptospiral DNA by fluorescently labeled FRET probes. This enabled the detection of a single copy of the lig gene in a PCR containing DNA from up to 50 µL canine blood or 400 µL urine. Sensitivity determination by use of limiting serial dilutions of extracted leptospiral DNA indicated that the lig FRET-PCR we established was almost 100-fold more sensitive than the widely accepted lipL32 SYBR assay and 10-fold more sensitive than a 16S rRNA TaqMan assay. Application of this method to 207 dogs with potential leptospiral infection enabled us to diagnose three cases of canine leptospirosis characterized by low amounts of leptospiral DNA in body fluids. Detection of canine leptospirosis with the lig FRET-PCR was more sensitive with the lig FRET-PCR than with the 16S rRNA TaqMan PCR, which detected only 2 of the 3 cases, and the lipL32 SYBR PCR, which detected none of the 3 dogs with leptospirosis.

  4. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012). (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina


    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  5. Serologic survey for Leptospira spp. in captive neotropical felids in Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. (United States)

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Hoffmann, Juliano L; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Camossi, Lucilene Granuzzio; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander W


    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of worldwide distribution and is endemic in tropical countries, where rodents and other wild mammals are abundant and may act as reservoirs. Leptospirosis has become a concern in captive wild animals, due mostly to their exposure to contaminated urine or environment. Although domestic cats (Felis catus) have been reported refractory to leptospirosis, serology and disease in captive wild felids is still unclear. In this study 57 adult, clinically healthy felids, including 1 Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi), 3 jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi), 17 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 22 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), and 14 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) kept in captivity at the Sanctuary at the Itaipu Binacional hydroelectric power plant (Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary), Foz do Iguacu City, Paraná State, Brazil, were serologically surveyed for the presence of antibodies against 28 serovars of Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT). Two animals (3.5%) were seropositive: one male ocelot to the serovar Cynopteri (titer 100) and one female margay to Autumnalis (100) and Butembo (200). The captive-born, 5-yr-old ocelot had been solitary housed in an individual cage. The approximately 21-yr-old wild-caught margay was also kept individually. None of the tested animals showed signs ofleptospirosis. During a study conducted 4 yr previously in the same facility, this particular margay also tested positive for the same two serovars, among others. The present study indicates that the felids tested for Leptospira spp. by MAT were exposed to serovars, but did not demonstrate clinical signs of disease. Comparison with a previous study suggests that serovar titers may vary over time and that leptospirosis dynamics remains unclear in wild felids.

  6. Climate Extremes, Vegetation Change, and Decoupling of Interactive Fire-Grazing Processes Exacerbate Fly Parasitism of Cattle. (United States)

    Scasta, John D; Talley, Justin L; Engle, David M; Debinski, Diane M


    We assessed local horn fly (Haematobia irritans L.) and face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) communities on cattle in 2012 and 2013 relative to vegetation and climate data to understand how parasitism of cattle is influenced by change in climate and vegetation structure. We compared heterogeneity management using spatially and temporally discrete fires (i.e., patch-burning one-third of a pasture annually) to homogeneity management (i.e., burning entire pasture in 2012 then no burning in 2013), with cattle grazing all years in both treatments. Predicted emergence of horn flies and face flies was 24 and 34 d earlier in 2012 associated with earlier spring warming, a significant deviation from the five-year mean. Intraannual horn fly dynamics were explained by concurrent high ambient air temperature the day of observations, but face flies were explained by low ambient air temperatures and dry conditions 3 wk before observations. Importance values of information for the theoretic models including fire treatments ranged from 0.89 to 1, indicating that both horn flies and face flies are sensitive to habitat alterations and fire-driven animal movements. Ordination indicates herds on unburned pastures were dissimilar to herds on pastures burned with patchy fires or pastures burned completely and species-specific fly responses to different vegetation structure metrics. For example, horn flies were correlated with vegetation visual obstruction, and face flies were correlated with woody plant cover. Vegetation structure may be as important as climate in driving the dynamics of fly parasites of cattle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia. (United States)

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto


    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. New and noteworthy waterfowl records at artificial wetlands from Baja California Sur, Mexico Registros nuevos y sobresalientes de anátidos en humedales artificiales de Baja California Sur, México

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    Roberto Carmona


    Full Text Available We present 9 recent records of rare waterfowls in Baja California Sur, all of them in artificial wetlands: 3 freshwater sites and 1 concentration area for a saltworks. We present the first records of the Ross's Goose in the state. The remaining 8 species are: Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (breeding, Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Greater White-fronted Goose, Snow Goose, Cackling Goose, Tundra Swan, Mallard and Hooded Merganser. To this list we added an historical compilation of the records of these species in artificial sites of the state. The artificial wetlands are no replacement for their natural counterparts, they are nevertheless an important part of the region's landscape mosaic. As the records of the present work exemplify, this man-made habitat increases the regional species richness, and should be considered as important areas that need to be protected.Presentamos registros recientes de 9 especies de anátidos raros en Baja California Sur, todos ellos realizados en humedales creados por el hombre: 3 sitios dulceacuícolas y 1 área de concentración para la producción de sal. Se incluyen los primeros registros del ganso de Ross (Chen rossii para el estado. Las 8 especies restantes son: Dendrocygna autumnalis (anidación, D. bicolor, Anser albifrons, Chen caerulesens, Branta hutchinsii, Cygnus columbianus, Anas platyrhynchos y Lophodytes cucullatus. A la lista, agregamos una recopilación histórica de los registros de estas especies en humedales artificiales del estado. Aunque estos sitios no deben sustituir a sus contrapartes naturales, actualmente forman parte del mosaico paisajístico que ofrece la región; adicionalmente, incrementan la riqueza de especies de la región, por lo que es necesario brindarles protección.

  9. Reproductive Disorders and Leptospirosis: A Case Study in a Mixed-Species Farm (Cattle and Swine

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    Marcella Mori


    Full Text Available Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or absent. Mild clinical symptoms encompass reproductive failure in production animals for host-adapted Leptospira sp. serovars. This work presents a study on Leptospira sp. infection in a mixed-species (bovine and swine farm with documented reproductive disorders in the cattle unit. A long calving interval (above 450 days was the hallmark observed in cows. Some cows (2/26 tested presented a high titre of antibodies against Leptospira sp. serogroup Sejroe, but the overall within-herd prevalence was low (11.5% and 7.7% for cut-off titres of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. The in-herd prevalence of leptospirosis in the sow unit (determined for 113/140 animals was high when using a lowered cut-off threshold (32.7% vs. 1.8% for cut-off titre of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. In this unit, the most prevalent serogroup was Autumnalis. The final diagnostic confirmation of Leptospira sp. maintenance within the farm was obtained through detection by PCR of Leptospira sp. DNA in an aborted swine litter. Despite the fact that a common causative infective agent was diagnosed in both species, the direct link between the two animal units was not found. Factors such as drinking from the same water source and the use of manure prepared with the swine slurry might raise suspicion of a possible cross-contamination between the two units. In conclusion, this work suggests that leptospirosis be included in the differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders and spontaneous abortions in production animals and provides data that justify the use of a lowered threshold cut-off for herd diagnosis.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Specific Immunochromatography Based Lateral Flow Assay for Serogroup Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in India.

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    Shanmugam Vanithamani

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that is under-recognized due to low-sensitivity and cumbersome serological tests. MAT is the gold standard test and it is the only serogroup specific test used till date. Rapid reliable alternative serogroup specific tests are needed for surveillance studies to identify locally circulating serogroups in the study area.In the present investigation the serological specificity of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, dot blot assay and rapid immunochromatography based lateral flow assay (ICG-LFA. Sera samples from 120 MAT positive cases, 174 cases with febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 121 seronegative healthy controls were evaluated for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays. LPS was extracted from five locally predominant circulating serogroups including: Australis (27.5%, Autumnalis (11.7%, Ballum (25.8%, Grippotyphosa (12.5%, Pomona (10% and were used as antigens in the diagnostics to detect IgM antibodies in patients' sera. The sensitivity observed by IgM ELISA and dot blot assay using various leptospiral LPS was >90% for homologous sera. Except for Ballum LPS, no other LPS showed cross-reactivity to heterologous sera. An attempt was made to develop LPS based ICG-LFA for rapid and sensitive serogroup specific diagnostics of leptospirosis. The developed ICG-LFA showed sensitivity in the range between 93 and 100% for homologous sera. The Wilcoxon analysis showed LPS based ICG-LFA did not differ significantly from the gold standard MAT (P>0.05.The application of single array of LPS for serogroup specific diagnosis is first of its kind. The developed assay could potentially be evaluated and employed for as MAT alternative.

  11. Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact. (United States)

    de Freitas, Tatiana P Tavares; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; de Freitas, Emanuel Barbosa; Figueiredo, Aline; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Jacqueline M; Miranda, Flávia; Paes, Rita Cassia S; Monteiro, Leticia A R Carneiro; Lima, José Vergílio B; da C Neto, Aparecida A; Dutra, Valéria; de Freitas, Julio Cesar


    We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ≥ 1:100 were considered seropositive). Seventy percent of captured animals tested positive for leptospirosis antibodies. Antibodies against icterohaemorrhagiae and autumnalis serovars were the most prevalent. We used log-linear analyses to test for associations among seropositivity, age class, and sex of captured animals. Seropositivity was strongly associated with animal age class, but independent of sex. Forty-six percent of animals less than 2 years old, 63% of adults during peak reproductive years, and 100% of the oldest age class were seropositive. A nonparametric multivariate procedure (MRPP) showed that the composition of serovar antibody types changed with age, and ANOVA models demonstrated that antibody titers increased with age, suggesting long-term exposure to a greater number and variety (i.e., serovar types) of L. interrogans infections. This study presents the first quantitative survey of antibodies against L. interrogans serovars in a T. pecari population of the Pantanal. The high prevalence of leptospirosis antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries and the potential impacts on reproduction and population dynamics emphasize the need for further studies investigating the roles of Pantanal wildlife and livestock in the transmission and maintenance of L. interrogans in the environment.

  12. In situ experimental assessment of lake whitefish development following a freshwater oil spill. (United States)

    Debruyn, Adrian M H; Wernick, Barbara G; Stefura, Corey; McDonald, Blair G; Rudolph, Barri-Lynn; Patterson, Luanne; Chapman, Peter M


    Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) has been subject to ongoing contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from multiple sources for decades and in August 2005 was exposed to ca. 149 500 L of bunker C oil following a train derailment. We compared the pattern, frequency, and severity of deformity in larvae of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) incubated in situ in areas of Wabamun Lake exposed only to "background" PAH contamination and in areas additionally exposed to PAHs from the oil. All sites in the lake (including reference areas) showed incidences of deformity higher than are typically observed in laboratory studies. A small number of oil-exposed sites showed higher incidences of some teratogenic deformities and a tendency to exhibit deformities of higher severity than sites not exposed to oil. The frequency of moderate to severe deformities in 8 of 16 classes was correlated with PAH exposure. Nonmetric multivariate ordination of deformity data revealed a general pattern of increasing incidence and severity of several skeletal (lordosis, scoliosis) and craniofacial (ocular, jaw) deformities at sites with relatively high exposure to oil-derived PAHs. A simultaneous consideration of incidence, severity, and pattern of deformity enabled us to detect a consistent (overall approximately 5% above background) response to the oil despite high variability and high background deformity rates in this historically contaminated environment.

  13. Comparison of genetic and visual identification of cisco and lake whitefish larvae from Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario (United States)

    George, Ellen M.; Hare, Matthew P.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Lantry, Brian F.; Rudstam, Lars G.


    Cisco Coregonus artedi are an important component of native food webs in the Great Lakes, and their restoration is instrumental to the recovery of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Difficulties with visual identification of larvae can confound early life history surveys, as cisco are often difficult to distinguish from lake whitefish C. clupeaformis. We compared traditional visual species identification methods to genetic identifications based on barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene for 726 coregonine larvae caught in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario. We found little agreement between the visual characteristics of cisco identified by genetic barcoding and the most widely used dichotomous key, and the considerable overlap in ranges of traditionally utilized metrics suggest that visual identification of coregonine larvae from Chaumont Bay is impractical. Coregonines are highly variable and plastic species, and often display wide variations in morphometric characteristics across their broad range. This study highlights the importance of developing accurate, geographically appropriate larval identification methods in order to best inform cisco restoration and management efforts.

  14. Stakeholder views of management and decision support tools to integrate climate change into Great Lakes Lake Whitefish management (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; McCright, Aaron M.


    Decision support tools can aid decision making by systematically incorporating information, accounting for uncertainties, and facilitating evaluation between alternatives. Without user buy-in, however, decision support tools can fail to influence decision-making processes. We surveyed fishery researchers, managers, and fishers affiliated with the Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis fishery in the 1836 Treaty Waters of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior to assess opinions of current and future management needs to identify barriers to, and opportunities for, developing a decision support tool based on Lake Whitefish recruitment projections with climate change. Approximately 64% of 39 respondents were satisfied with current management, and nearly 85% agreed that science was well integrated into management programs. Though decision support tools can facilitate science integration into management, respondents suggest that they face significant implementation barriers, including lack of political will to change management and perceived uncertainty in decision support outputs. Recommendations from this survey can inform development of decision support tools for fishery management in the Great Lakes and other regions.

  15. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.


    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  16. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish.

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    Jukka Kekäläinen

    Full Text Available Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L. by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate males (split-clutch breeding design. In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages.

  17. Both male and female sexual ornaments reflect offspring performance in a fish. (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Huuskonen, Hannu; Tuomaala, Maria; Kortet, Raine


    Secondary sexual characters are often expressed in both sexes (mutual ornamentation), but are less often studied simultaneously. We studied the adaptive signaling function of male and female ornamentation in a mutually ornamented fish, the whitefish Coregonus lavaretus. In an experimental design in which nongenetic environmental effects were minimized, we found that highly ornamented females, males, and their parental combinations had offspring with better swimming performance and predator-avoidance ability than less ornamented individuals or combinations. Furthermore, highly ornamented females had larger offspring that also had higher yolk volume than less ornamented individuals. Offspring swimming performance was not dependent on offspring size and was only weakly affected by yolk volume, which suggest that swimming performance and measured morphological traits are independent fitness measures. In conclusion, mutual ornamentation of whitefish may signal the quality of individuals in both sexes, which may indicate ongoing directional selection for these ornamental traits. However, offspring fitness traits were also dependent on parental combination, which suggests that genetic compatibility effects may weaken the directional selection and the indicator value of the ornamentation. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Monitoring mercury in freshwater fish in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta : spatial and temporal comparisons to regional mercury concentrations in fish

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    Keith, H.


    The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dioxins-Furans in Lake Trout and Whitefish Composite Samples from Commercial Fisheries in Lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior. (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Dowd, Michael; Scuby, Matthew J S; Pantazopoulos, Peter P; Feeley, Mark


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; sum of 36 congeners) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; sum of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners) were measured in 93 composite samples prepared from individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) samples collected from Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior. All samples had detectable concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs; maximum PCB concentrations in both trout (750 ng g -1 whole weight [ww]) and whitefish (210 ng g -1 ww) were found in composites from fish collected from Lake Huron. The maximum toxic equivalent concentration was found in a lake trout composite sample from Lake Huron (53 pg g -1 ww). PCB and PCDD/F congener profiles were comparable to patterns observed in fishes collected from other regions of Canada, although concentrations were above those found in other regions. A positive correlation was found between PCB concentrations determined using the historical Aroclor equivalency method and those determined using the sum of the congeners measured (r 2 = 0.871; Spearman correlation r = 0.917) or using the six indicator PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180; r 2 = 0.850; Spearman correlation r = 0.935). PCBs were the dominant contributor to the overall toxic equivalent concentrations in the fish composite samples tested. These findings provide insight into PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in two commercially important fish species over a discrete time period.

  20. The offshore benthic fish community (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael


    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  1. Seasonal Variations in the Use of Profundal Habitat among Freshwater Fishes in Lake Norsjø, Southern Norway, and Subsequent Effects on Fish Mercury Concentrations

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    Tom Robin Olk


    Full Text Available This study is based on monthly sampling of fish from grates mounted at an industrial water intake, located at a depth of 50 m in Lake Norsjø (Southern Norway during the year 2014, to investigate seasonal variations in the use of the profundal habitat and subsequent variations in total Hg-concentrations in profundal fish. Data on various fish present in a cold and dark hypolimnion of a large, deep, dimictic lake within the upper temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere are rare. While predominant species such as A. charr (Salvelinus alpinus and E. smelt (Osmerus eperlanus were continuously present in this habitat, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus occupied this habitat primarily during wintertime, while other common species like brown trout (Salmo trutta, perch (Perca fluviatilis and northern pike (Esox lucius were almost absent. Besides stomach analyses (diet and biometry, stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C and total mercury (Tot-Hg analyses were carried out on the caught fish. The δ13C signature and stomach analyses revealed a combined profundal-pelagic diet for all three species, A. charr with the most profundal-based diet. Length was the strongest predictor for Hg in whitefish and A. charr, while age was the strongest explanatory variable for Hg in E. smelt. A. charr was the only species exhibiting seasonal variation in Hg, highest during winter and spring.

  2. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

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    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  3. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.


    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  4. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.


    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  5. Estimation of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus diet composition in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lundström


    Full Text Available We examined the digestive tract contents from 145 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus collected between 2001 and 2004 in the Baltic Sea. We compensated for biases introduced by erosion of otoliths, both by using additional hard-part structures other than otoliths, and species-specific size and numerical correction factors. In the absence of numerical correction factors based on feeding experiments for some species, we used correction factors based on a relationship between otolith recoveryrate and otolith width. A total of 24 prey taxa were identified but only a few species contributed substantially to the diet. The estimated diet composition was, independently of the prey number estimation method and diet composition estimation model used, dominated by herring (Clupea harengus, both by numbers and biomass. In addition to herring, common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus and sprat (Sprattus sprattus were important prey, but cyprinids (Cyprinidae, eelpout (Zoarces viviparus, flounder (Platichtys flesus and salmon (Salmo salar also contributed significantly. Our results indicated dietary differences between grey seals of different age as well as between seals from the northern (Gulf of Bothnia and the southern (Baltic Proper Baltic Sea.

  6. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.


    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely

  7. Population-level effects of egg predation on a native planktivore in a large freshwater lake (United States)

    Bunnell, David B.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Madenjian, Charles P.


    Using a 37-year recruitment time series, we uncovered a field pattern revealing a strong, inverse relationship between bloater Coregonus hoyi recruitment success and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus biomass in Lake Michigan (United States), one of the largest freshwater lakes of the world. Given that slimy sculpins (and deepwater sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii) are known egg predators that spatiotemporally overlap with incubating bloater eggs, we used recently published data on sculpin diets and daily ration to model annual bloater egg consumption by sculpins for the 1973–2010 year-classes. Although several strong year-classes were produced in the late 1980s when the proportion of eggs consumed by slimy sculpins was extremely low (i.e., 0.10–1.0), egg predation failed to explain why recruitment was weak for the 1995–2005 year-classes when the proportion consumed was also low (i.e., important in many other years. Given that slimy sculpin densities are influenced by piscivorous lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, the restoration of which in Lake Michigan has lagged behind those in lakes Superior and Huron, our study highlights the importance of an ecosystem perspective when considering population dynamics of fishes.

  8. Cadmium-induced vertebral-column ankylosis in whitefish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henschke, E.; Pesch, H.J.; Wunder, W.


    In two healthy and two diseased whitefish (Coregonus Wartmanni) taken from Lake Constance (FRG), ankylosis of the vertebral column was investigated both roentgenologically and histologically. Subsequent to the collapse and necrosis of the 'residual' spinal cord within the intervertebral spaces, the outside edges of the vertebral bodies come into direct contact. The compression and tensile forces that occur to an increased extent as a result of the instability, lead not only to a remodelling of the vertebral bodies, but also to the formation of spondylotic osteophytes at the edges of the vertebrae and, as a result of periosteal stimulation, to the development of cellular hyaline cartilage, which fills the intervertebral spaces. Finally, as a result of perichondral ossification, a bony ankylosis develops. The humping of the spine of the fish due to the stiffening and shortening of the vertebral column, is accompanied by a restriction in the animal's freedom of movement. Muscular atrophic processes and disordered food uptake give rise of poor growth and a reduction in the weight of the diseased fish. These remodelling processes in the spine resulting from instability are specific to the periosteum and may be equated with the changes seen in man in spondylosis deformans. The possible cause of this vertebral column ankylosis is cadmium poisoning. The accumulation of this heavy metal obviously leads primarily to an irreversible toxic degeneration of the cells of the chorda dorsalis.

  9. Effects of dressing and cooking on DDT concentrations in certain fish from Lake Michigan (United States)

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stewart, Donald; Seagran, Harry L.


    Concentrations of DDT residues were highest in parts of the body with the highest oil content in four species of fish from Lake Michigan: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Dressing reduced the DDT residues and oil content by more than 90% in yellow perch but had little effect in the other three species. The concentration of DDT residues in bloaters was changed little by smoking but was reduced 64–72% by other methods of cooking: from 8.0 ppm (raw) to 2.2 ppm after frying in corn oil; from 10.7 to 3.9 ppm after frying in lard; and from 9.1 to 3.2 ppm after broiling. The concentration of DDT residues in fillets of yellow perch changed only from 0.3 ppm (raw) to 0.4 or 0.5 ppm after baking, frying, or broiling.

  10. Double-digest RAD sequencing using Ion Proton semiconductor platform (ddRADseq-ion) with nonmodel organisms. (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Jacobs, Arne; Herzyk, Pawel; Elmer, Kathryn R


    Research in evolutionary biology involving nonmodel organisms is rapidly shifting from using traditional molecular markers such as mtDNA and microsatellites to higher throughput SNP genotyping methodologies to address questions in population genetics, phylogenetics and genetic mapping. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD sequencing or RADseq) has become an established method for SNP genotyping on Illumina sequencing platforms. Here, we developed a protocol and adapters for double-digest RAD sequencing for Ion Torrent (Life Technologies; Ion Proton, Ion PGM) semiconductor sequencing. We sequenced thirteen genomic libraries of three different nonmodel vertebrate species on Ion Proton with PI chips: Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and common lizard Zootoca vivipara. This resulted in ~962 million single-end reads overall and a mean of ~74 million reads per library. We filtered the genomic data using Stacks, a bioinformatic tool to process RAD sequencing data. On average, we obtained ~11,000 polymorphic loci per library of 6-30 individuals. We validate our new method by technical and biological replication, by reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, and using a hybrid genetic cross to track genomic variants. Finally, we discuss the differences between using the different sequencing platforms in the context of RAD sequencing, assessing possible advantages and disadvantages. We show that our protocol can be used for Ion semiconductor sequencing platforms for the rapid and cost-effective generation of variable and reproducible genetic markers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Potential effects of climate change on the growth of fishes from different thermal guilds in Lakes Michigan and Huron (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Perroud, Marjorie


    We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043-2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964-1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.

  12. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.


    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Lake whitefish and Diporeia spp. in the Great lakes: an overview (United States)

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Henderson, Bryan A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Schneeberger, Philip J.


    Because of growing concern in the Great Lakes over declines in abundance and growth of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and declines in abundance of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp., a workshop was held to examine past and current trends, to explore trophic links, and to discuss the latest research results and needs. The workshop was divided into sessions on the status of populations in each of the lakes, bioenergetics and trophic dynamics, and exploitation and management. Abundance, growth, and condition of whitefish populations in Lakes Superior and Erie are stable and within the range of historical means, but these variables are declining in Lakes Michigan and Ontario and parts of Lake Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp., a major food item of whitefish, has been a factor in observed declines, particularly in Lake Ontario, but density-dependent factors also likely played a role in Lakes Michigan and Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp. is temporally linked to the introduction and proliferation of dreissenid mussels, but a direct cause for the negative response of Diporeia spp. has not been established. Given changes in whitefish populations, age-structured models need to be re-evaluated. Other whitefish research needs to include a better understanding of what environmental conditions lead to strong year-classes, improved aging techniques, and better information on individual population (stock) structure. Further collaborations between assessment biologists and researchers studying the lower food web would enhance an understanding of links between trophic levels.

  14. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations. (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Magnuson, John J; Lyons, John


    Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on cisco (Coregonus artedii) population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  15. An ecological basis for future fish habitat restoration efforts in the Huron-Erie Corridor (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.


    This perspective describes the major natural and anthropogenic forces driving change in the abundance and quality of fish habitats in the Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), the Great Lakes connecting channel comprised of the St. Clair River, the Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. Channels connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes discharge large volumes of water equal to or greater than most other large rivers in the world that is of consistent high quality and volume, all year. Owing to creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway through the Great Lakes, the connecting channels have been modified by dredging over 200 km of deep-draft shipping lanes with a maintained depth of no less than 8.2 m. Combined with modification of their shorelines for housing and industries, use of the connecting channels for discharges of industrial and municipal wastes and shipping has resulted in numerous beneficial use impairments, such as restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and losses of fish and wildlife habitat. Various options for remediation of native fish populations and their habitats in the Great Lakes connecting channels, including construction of spawning habitat for threatened and high-value food fishes, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), have been implemented successfully in two of the channels, and form the basis for further recommended research described in this article.

  16. Impact of fishing and stocking practices on Coregonid diversity (United States)

    Anneville, Orlane; Lasne, Emilien; Guillard, Jean; Eckmann, Reiner; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gillet, Christian; Yule, Daniel


    Fish species diversity can be lost through interacting stressors including habitat loss, stocking and overfishing. Although a multitude of stressors have played a role in the global decline of coregonid (Coregonus spp.) diversity, a number of contemporary studies have identified habitat loss stemming from eutrophication as the primary cause. Unfortunately, reconstructing the role of fishing and stocking practices can be difficult, because these records are incomplete or appear only in hard-to-access historic grey literature. Based on an illustrative set of historic and contemporary studies, we describe how fisheries management practices may have contributed to coregonid diversity loss in European and North American lakes. We provide case studies examining how fishing and stocking may reduce coregonid diversity through demographic decline and introgressive hybridization. In some lakes, fisheries management practices may have led to a loss of coregonid diversity well before issues with habitat degradation manifested. Our review suggests that fish conservation policies could beneficially consider the relative importance of all stressors, including management practices, as potential drivers of diversity loss.

  17. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Sharma

    Full Text Available Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax on cisco (Coregonus artedii population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  18. Morcegos capturados no município de Belo Horizonte, 1999-2003 Bats found in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, 1999-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. De Knegt


    Full Text Available Entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, realizaram-se 18 capturas de morcegos em Belo Horizonte, sendo uma na estação seca e uma na estação chuvosa em cada regional administrativa. Foram capturados 316 exemplares, com predominância de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55,1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24,4% e Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10,1%, além de Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, totalizando oito espécies, pertencentes às famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Observou-se concentração de partos próximos à estação chuvosa, coincidindo com a maior disponibilidade de alimento para os períodos de prenhez e lactação. Partos esporádicos ocorreram durante todo o ano. Entre 2002 e 2003, foi feita uma busca em diversos tipos de abrigos nas mesmas regionais. Os abrigos foram registrados, e as espécies encontradas foram somadas às já observadas na primeira parte deste estudo, bem como às citadas em diversas fontes bibliográficas e disponíveis em coleções acadêmicas, gerando um relato atualizado das espécies de morcegos já encontrados no município.A total of 316 bats were trapped using mist nets during 18 nights at nine strategic locations in Belo Horizonte between 1999 and 2001. The most predominant species were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55.1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24.4%, and Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10.1%. Other trapped species were: Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, resulting in a total of eight species belonging the families Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. All species bred predominantly during the wet season, probably because of the need for food availability to support energetic

  19. Design of a multiple flyby mission to Phaethon, 2005UD and 1999YC (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno; Arai, Tomoko; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    3200 Phaethon is a B-type asteroid parent of the Geminid meteor shower and different from what is expected, Phaethon does not show any cometary features, unlike parent bodies (comets) for most of the meteor showers. The observed sodium depletion in the Geminid meteoroid suggests that Phaethon/Geminid can consist of primitive cometary materials and locally melted differentiated materials. The nature of Phaethon remains an open question and currently highly debated. Asteroids 2005UD and 1999YC are likely fragments originated from Phaethon due to their similar orbital properties, called PGC: Phaethon Geminid Complex. Also, a main-belt asteroid Pallas has been recently suggested to be genetically linked with Phaethon. Thus, making Phaethon a critical mission target to understand the chemical, physical and dynamic evolution of planetismals in the early solar system. A space mission to PGC can provide us with key information to understand the origins of Phaethon, PGC and possibly Pallas, and solve the fundamental issues in solar system sciences. Because of its scientific importance, Phaethon was a target candidate for NASA's Deep Impact mission and the OSIRIS-Rex mission. This study is developed assessing a multiple flyby mission for Phaethon, 2005UD and 1999YC. The objective is to design a simple multiple flyby mission based on ballistic transfers allied with gravity assisted maneuvers, identifying the global minimum energy trajectories taking into account the system design requirements, like an initial condition possible to be attained by the Epsilon rocket, Japan's latest launcher. Initial transfer results show periodical launch opportunities to all three asteroids with Phaethon been reached with less than 1 km/s. With a maximum of 3 km/s, several launch windows were obtained for Phaethon and 2005UD. However, 1999YC cannot be achieved with less than 4 km/s, unless a gravity assist maneuver is performed on Mars which allows an Earth-Mars-1999YC transfer with less than

  20. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gomes


    Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes

  1. The potential of GPI extreme AO system to image and characterize exoplanets and asteroids (United States)

    Marchis, Franck; Vega, David


    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation adaptive optics coronagraph designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, polarimetry of circumstellar disks and solar system planets. It is the first such facility-class instrument deployed on a 8-m telescope, designed to achieve contrast levels of up to 10^7.On the first commissioning observations (2013B), we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-sigma contrast of 10^6 at 0.75 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris (Macintosh et al. PNAS 2014) clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-second exposure with minimal post-processing. These observations were taken covering the H-band (1.65 μm). A H-band spectrum of Beta Pic b presented in Chilcote et al. (2014) with a resolving power of ~45 and demonstrates the distinctive triangular shape of a cool substellar object with low surface gravity leading to an effective temperature of 1650+/-50 K and a surface gravity of log(g) = 4.0 +/- 0.25 (cgs units).We will also present the analysis of observations of (2) Pallas observed in direct imaging (without coronagraph) on March 22 2014 in Y, J, H, and K1 filters (from 0.95 to 2.19 μm) spectroscopically with a resolution varying from 34 to 70. The 540-km asteroid is well resolved and irregular. An ellipse of 540±9 mas and 470±9 mas fits its silhouette. The surface of the asteroid is mostly featureless but small differences of colors is currently being analyzed. No moons with a diameter larger than 2 km and at least 480 km from Pallas were detected on these observations.These results show the power of a dedicated extreme AO with high-contrast imager, low resolution spectrograph and polarizer. A 600-star survey of young nearby stars led by B. Macintosh will begin in 2014B to produce a sample of directly imaged planets that spans a broad range of temperatures, ages, and masses and probes the range of semi-major-axes and stellar ages inaccessible to Doppler and

  2. Serpúlidos (Polychaeta: Serpulidae del Caribe noroccidental con claves para la región del Gran Caribe: Salmacina, Ficopomatus, Pomatoceros, Pomatostegus, Protula, Pseudovermilia, Spirobranchus y Vermiliopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rolando Bastida-Zavala


    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión de más de 1 250 ejemplares de serpúlidos, 15 especies de la región del Gran Caribe fueron identificadas y caracterizadas. Trece especies fueron recolectadas en las costas de la Península de Yucatán y ocho fueron encontradas en otras localidades en el Golfo de México, otras siete son de Cuba y se incluyeron comentarios sobre el material tipo de dos especies más. Se realizaron tres análisis morfométricos para evaluar algunos caracteres. El primero sobre Pomatostegus stellatus (Abildgaard y especies y subespecies relacionadas: P. brachysoma Schmarda, P. macrosoma Schmarda, P. s. fruticosa Mörch, P. s. pentapoma Mörch y P. s. tetrapoma Mörch, indicando que estas son con-específicas. Otro fue sobre las especies de Spirobranchus de Blainville: S. dendropoma Mörch, S. giganteus (Pallas, S. polycerus (Schmarda y S. polycerus augeneri ten Hove; se demostró que S. giganteus es diferente de los otros tres táxones. El tercer análisis fue realizado sobre Vermiliopsis annulata (Schmarda s.l., y permitió reconocer tres formas diferentes. Asimismo, varios ejemplares incompletos probablemente pertenecen a un género indescrito. Se incluye una clave de identificación para todas las especies registradas en la región del Gran Caribe.From the revision of more than 1 250 serpulids, 15 species from the Grand Caribbean Region were identified and characterized. Thirteen species were collected along the shores of the Yucatan Peninsula and eight were found in other localities in the Gulf of Mexico, seven others are from Cuba and comments on type specimens of two species are also included. Three morphometric analyses were made to evaluate some characters. The first on Pomatostegus stellatus (Abildgaard, and related species and subspecies: P. brachysoma Schmarda, P. macrosoma Schmarda, P. s. fruticosa Mörch, P. s. pentapoma Mörch and P. s. tetrapoma Mörch, indicated that they are conspecific. Another one on Spirobranchus de

  3. 13. wienervideo&filmtage. Unsichere Zeiten - kraftvolle Filme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Pöyskö


    Full Text Available Jugendeigene Kurzfilmproduktionen geben einen authentischen Einblick in das Heranwachsen in einer (überkomplexen Gesellschaft. An fünf Festivaltagen präsentierten die 13. videoundfilmtage im Oktober 50 Kurzfilme von Jugendlichen - nicht wenige davon feierten ihre Premiere im Rahmen des Festivalprogramms. Eröffnet wurde das Festival mit der Fake-Doku "Das Geheimnis der Pallas Athene. Hinter den Kulissen der Demokratie", die ein intelligentes Spiel mit den Sehgewohnheiten des Publikums trieb. Begleitet von einer Live-Kamera, die sowohl vorproduzierte (also "gefakte", als auch tatsächlich live aufgenommene Bilder auf die Kinoleinwand übertrug, stürmten die vier jungen FilmemacherInnen (Noemi Amadori, Benjamin Freundorfer, Jakob Nimmervoll und Rosalind Kriegl - scheinbar - gegen den Willen der Festivalleiterin die Bühne und setzten durch, dass ihre brisante politische Reportage - anscheinend auch gegen den Willen des gefesselten und geknebelten Filmvorführers - gezeigt wurde. Ihr Video macht bewusst, dass Politik nichts weiter als eine mehr oder minder geschickt gemachte Inszenierung sein könnte.....

  4. Data library of gamma-ray buildup factors for point isotropic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yukio; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Harima, Yoshiko.


    Gamma-ray buildup factors for a point isotropic source have been calculated as a function of atomic number of heavy elements and source energies over an energy range from 0.015 MeV to 15 MeV, for penetration depths up to 40 mfp, bu the PALLAS-PL,SP-Br code. These data include the contribution of bremsstrahlung, annihilation radiation and fluorescence X-ray. The calculated absorbed-dose, exposure and dose-equivalent buildup factors are tabulated for molybdenum, tin, tungsten, lead and uranium, which are practical interest shield materials, lanthanum and gadolinium which are important materials for obtaining buildup factors by interpolation with the atomic number. In the case of high atomic number materials, inclusion of brems-strahlung source has great influence on the buildup factors for high source energies and that of fluorescence X-ray gives spectracular effects on those for low energies close to the K edge of attenuation cross section. Furthermore, the geometrical-progression (G-P) parameters have been determined for these buildup factors in order to obtain the values of buildup factors at arbitrary distances and energies. (author)

  5. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Guidez, J.; Bignan, G.


    Due mainly to nuclear renaissance and its needs in material testing, but also to new needs in nano sciences and bio sciences, research reactors appear to be an essential tool for the future. There is also an increasing worldwide demand for radio-isotopes. The fleet of experimental reactors is dwindling in Europe. For instance, all the European experimental fast reactors have been shut down. To face these challenges, new projects have been launched: the RJH (Jules Horowitz reactor) that is being built in France and that will meet the industry and public needs related to safety, competitiveness and innovations for the existing generations and the future systems; the Pallas reactor for securing the production of radio-nuclides for medical applications; a fast spectrum project for addressing the next generation energy systems and actinides recycling; and ASTRID that is a prototype sodium cooled fast reactor. We have to pinpoint the fact that these research reactors are more and more international reactors used as international user's platform. For instance 10 countries are now members of the RJH consortium. (A.C.)

  6. Benthic communities on hard substrates covered by Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (Bivalvia, Mytilidae at an estuarine beach (Río de la Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Spaccesi


    Full Text Available The structure and composition of benthic communities on hard substrates covered by the nonindigenous bivalve Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, the golden mussel, were quantified in the middle zone of the Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina from April 2001 through March 2002. A total of 26 taxa were recorded. L. fortunei and Nematoda were the central and dominant groups, with a prodigious abundance of over 80%. The prevalence of L. fortunei, rather than the environmental variables, regulated the dynamics of the associated invertebrate fauna. The golden mussel alters both the structure and function of benthic native communities on hard substrates, allows a higher surface available for colonization and refuge, and provides food source to deposit-feeding organisms in the form of organic or residual material. The mussel also increases the abundance and diversity of taxa on hard substrata - such as Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Tardigrada, Chironomidae, Copepoda, Tanaidacea, and Hydrachnidia. Similarities and nonparametric multidimensional-scaling analyses indicated that the benthic composition had a seasonal variation. L. fortunei has an environmental impact, an ability to invade new freshwater ambiences worldwide and ecological characteristic comparable to those of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (the zebra mussel of North America and Europe.

  7. Characterization of a newly established aggregation of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis and current status of the invader in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, X.; Roca, M.; Lumbierres, B.; Lucas, E.


    The multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), an invasive biocontrol agent introduced in North and South America, as well as in Europe for aphid control, drastically affected assemblages of native coccinellid species, local communities and people. Although the insect is common in several European countries and it was released in Spain for aphid control in 1995, no evidence of population establishment has been reported until 2011. In the present paper, 1) we summarize the records of the invasive ladybeetle in Spain and provide numerous new mentions, and 2) we follow for the first time an overwintering aggregation from autumn to spring and characterize some individual features which allow us to determine its phenology of the establishment and spreading. The results establish clearly that: 1) H. axyridis is (until now) restricted to Catalonia (NE Spain) but the invading process is in progress and the insect is able to occupy different habitats; 2) the ladybeetle overwinters successfully in Spain without significant natural mortality or parasitism; 3) the form succinea represents 73-81% of the overwintering individuals, and 4) the invasion takes probably its origin from Southern France. The potential impact of the invasion by H. axyridis in Spain is discussed. (Author)

  8. Some metals inhibit the glutathione S-transferase from Van Lake fish gills. (United States)

    Özaslan, M Serhat; Demir, Yeliz; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Çiftci, Mehmet


    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of multifunctional detoxification isoenzymes and play important role cellular signaling. The present article focuses on the role of Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Ag + in vitro inhibition of GST. For this purpose, GST was purified from Van Lake fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas) gills with 110.664 EU mg -1 specific activity and 79.6% yield using GSH-agarose affinity chromatographic method. The metal ions were tested at various concentrations on in vitro GST activity. IC 50 values were found for Cd +2 , Cu +2 , Zn +2 , Ag + as 450.32, 320.25, 1510.13, and 16.43 μM, respectively. K i constants were calculated as 197.05 ± 105.23, 333.10 ± 152.76, 1670.21 ± 665.43, and 0.433 ± 0.251 μM, respectively. Ag + showed better inhibitory effect compared with the other metal ions. The inhibition mechanisms of Cd 2+ and Cu 2+ were non-competitive, whereas Zn 2+ and Ag + were competitive. Co 2+ , Cr 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Fe 3+ had no inhibitory activity on GST. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bode’s law and the discovery of Juno historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford J


    Johann Bode developed a so-called law of planetary distances best known as Bode’s Law. The story of the discovery of Juno in 1804 by Karl Harding tells how Juno fit into that scheme and is examined as it relates to the philosopher Georg Hegel’s 1801 thesis that there could be no planets between Mars and Jupiter. By 1804 that gap was not only filled but had three residents: Ceres, Pallas and Juno! When Juno was discovered no one could have imagined its study would call into question Newton’s law of gravity, or be the impetus for developing the mathematics of the fast Fourier transform by Carl Gauss. Clifford Cunningham, a dedicated scholar, opens to scrutiny this critical moment of astronomical discovery, continuing the story of asteroid begun in earlier volumes of this series. The fascinating issues raised by the discovery of Juno take us on an extraordinary journey. The revelation of the existence of this new class of celestial bodies transformed our understanding of the Solar System, the implications ...

  10. Tropospheric methane in northern Finland: seasonal variations, transport patterns and correlations with other trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Tuula; Hatakka, Juha; Lallo, Marko


    Methane mixing ratios have been continuously observed at Pallas, Finland since winter 2004. The seasonal variation in monthly means was ca. 40 ppb, showing largest mixing ratios in winter and also high values during late summer. Examination of back-trajectories showed that the air masses with elevated methane mixing ratios arrived from continental Eastern and Central Europe while low methane mixing ratios were connected with Atlantic and Arctic air masses. During summer, air masses with highest mixing ratios arrived from Northwestern Russia indicating wetland sources, while the influence of southern emissions became more significant in winter. Methane was positively correlated with carbon dioxide and negatively correlated with ozone in winter. The average slope of the selected wintertime background hourly mean mixing ratios was 7.0 ± 1.2 ppb(CH 4 )/ppm(CO 2 ). Nocturnal summertime low-altitude measurements above a local wetland source indicated slopes of about 10 ± 1 ppb(CH 4 )/ppm(CO 2 ). The different slopes reflect the differences in emission parameters

  11. The Influence of Exotic Lady Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Establishment on the Species Composition of the Native Lady Beetle Community in Missouri. (United States)

    Diepenbrock, Lauren M; Fothergill, Kent; Tindall, Kelly V; Losey, John E; Smyth, Rebecca R; Finke, Deborah L


    The diversity and abundance of native lady beetles (Coccinellidae) in North America has declined in recent decades. This decline is often correlated with the introduction and establishment of exotic lady beetle species, including Coccinella septempunctata L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, suggesting that exotic species precipitated the decline of native lady beetles. We examined species records of native coccinellids in Missouri over 118 yr and asked whether the species composition of the community experienced a shift following the establishment of the exotic species. We found that the contemporary native coccinellid community is different from the community that was present nearly a century ago. However, there was no evidence for a recent abrupt shift in composition triggered by the establishment of exotic species. Instead, our data suggest that the native lady beetle community has been undergoing consistent and gradual change over time, with some species decreasing in abundance and others increasing. While not excluding exotic species as a factor contributing to the decline of native lady beetle species, our findings suggest that other continuous factors, like land use change, may have played a more influential role in determining the composition of the native coccinellid communities within our region. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Effect of Lures and Colors on Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Tedders Pyramidal Traps. (United States)

    Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E


    Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Estimating Prey Consumption in Natural Populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Using Production of Feces. (United States)

    Honek, Alois; Martinkova, Zdenka; Evans, Edward W; Skuhrovec, Jirí


    Production of feces (PF) is a useful proxy indicating quantity of ingested food. Although influenced by many uncontrolled factors PF provides insight into food consumption under natural conditions. In Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) variation in PF was investigated in populations of various hostplants at localities of central Bohemia (50N, 14E), throughout the season of 2016. The adults collected from these hostplants were starved for 48 h at standard conditions, and dry mass of feces produced during this period was measured. Despite enormous differences in PF among individuals, significant variation over the season occurred in average PF of both males and females. PF increased with abundance of aphids and was significantly greater in females than males. Gravidity, as manifested through oviposition within 48 h after capture, was associated with increased PF, while hostplant and color morph did not affect variation in PF among individuals. From PF as measured in this study, it can be estimated that at sites hosting abundant aphid populations H. axyridis (as an adult male or female) may consume 19 (male) to 45 (female) aphids per day (assumed body length 1mm). In the absence of aphids, adults may consume one to nine individuals of alternative prey per day (body length 1-2 mm). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. The assembly of the disk shielding is finished.

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Hedberg

    At the end of March, the shielding project engineer, Jan Palla, could draw a sigh of relief when the fourth and final rotation of the disk shielding was carried out without incident. The two 80-ton heavy shielding assemblies were built in a horizontal position and they had to be first turned upside-down and then rotated to a vertical position during the assembly. The relatively thin disk plate with a diameter of 9 meters, made this operation quite delicate and a lot of calculation work and strengthening of the shielding was carried out before the rotations could take place. The disk shielding is being turned upside-down. The stainless steel cylinder in the centre supports the shielding as well as the small muon wheel. The two disk shielding assemblies consist of different materials such as bronze, gray steel, cast iron, stainless steel, boron doped polyethylene and lead. The project is multinational with the major pieces having been made by companies in Armenia, Serbia, Spain, Bulgaria, Italy, Slovaki...

  15. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. (United States)

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M


    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi.

  16. Mice as stowaways? Colonization history of Danish striped field mice. (United States)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Jacobsen, Magnus; Vedel-Smith, Christina; Jensen, Thomas Secher


    Species from the steppe region of Eastern Europe likely colonized northwestern Europe in connection with agriculture after 6500 BP. The striped field mouse ( Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1783), is a steppe-derived species often found in human crops. It is common on the southern Danish islands of Lolland and Falster, which have been isolated from mainland Europe since approximately 10 300-8000 BP. Thus, this species could have been brought in with humans in connection with agriculture, or it could be an earlier natural invader. We sequenced 86 full mitochondrial genomes from the northwestern range of the striped field mouse, analysed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence time. The results supported human-induced colonization of Denmark in the Subatlantic or Subboreal period. A newly discovered population from Central Jutland in Denmark diverged from Falster approximately 100-670 years ago, again favouring human introduction. One individual from Sweden turned out to be a recent introduction from Central Jutland. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.


    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  18. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (United States)

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.


    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  19. The Orthoptera species (Insecta from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Gabriel


    Full Text Available The investigations that were made in the last 10 years and the review of scientific literature who relived studies made on grasshoppers, cricket and bush cricket species from Romania and especially from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (D.D.B.R. territory indicate the presence of 80 taxa belonging to Orthoptera order (ClassInsecta, an important number from a total of 187 taxa at national level. In the same time D.D.B.R. is characterized by some interesting elements of orthoptera fauna – one endemic species [Isophya dobrogensis (Kis 1994] on Popina Island, one new species for this territory [Metrioptera (Zeuneriana amplipennis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882] and two species (Isophya dobrogensis (Kis, 1994 and Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771 from Red List of plant and animal species from D.D.B.R. Over 40% orthoptera species from Romania characterize through their presence Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve having a diverse geographical spreading, fact that is correlated with the diversity of dobroudjean climate. This is characterized by unique elements in Romania being an interface area between different types of climate.

  20. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in a highly endemic area of Poland. (United States)

    Karamon, Jacek; Samorek-Pierog, Malgorzata; Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Sroka, Jacek; Golab, Elzbieta; Umhang, Gerald; Cencek, Tomasz


    The aim of the investigation was to estimate the epizootic situation concerning infection by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus) from a Polish region where this parasite is highly prevalent in red foxes. Faecal samples (n = 148) were collected from rural dogs in Podkarpackie Province. Samples were examined through nested PCR (for E. multilocularis), multiplex PCR (E. multilocularis, species of Taenia Linnaeus, 1758) and PCR [E. granulosus (Batsch, 1786)]. Specific products were sequenced. Faeces were also examined coproscopically. In samples from two dogs (1.4%), there were positive PCR results for E. multilocularis. Taenia-specific PCR products were found in nine dogs (6.1%). Sequencing identified Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847), T. hydatigena Pallas, 1766, T. pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786). One sample (0.7%) was identified as Mesocestoides litteratus (Batsch, 1786). All samples were negative for E. granulosus with PCR. Taking into account coproscopic and PCR results, 28% of dogs were infected with helminths (8% with tapeworms). It should be stressed that one of the infected with E. multilocularis dogs shed eggs of the Taenia type and had a habit of preying on rodents. This investigation revealed the presence of E. multilocularis in dogs for the first time in Poland.

  1. Ticks infesting captive and free-roaming wild animal species at the São Paulo Zoo, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irys Hany Lima Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract Ticks are ectoparasites of worldwide distribution that affect vertebrates and can transmit pathogens to animals and humans. The Zoological Park Foundation of São Paulo (FPZSP is located in a Conservation Unit in one of the most important remaining fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in the suburbs of São Paulo, Brazil. The FPZSP houses more than 3,000 wild animals on exhibit, in breeding programs and in environmental education programs, and also attracts migratory birds and free-roaming wildlife. This study focused on identifying the diversity of tick species that infest captive and free-roaming animals at the FPZSP. The collection of ticks kept at the FPZSP contains 523 specimens that were collected from different host species between 1990 and 2017. Ten tick species were found. In addition, Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas was found on stray cats living in the Atlantic forest fragment in the FPZSP. This study reveals a low occurrence of parasitism in captive animals and a high diversity of tick species collected from hosts in this Atlantic forest fragment, contributing information about host-parasite relationships and potential vectors of zoonotic diseases, since the vectors of Brazilian spotted fever, A. aureolatum and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, were found in some hosts.

  2. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti


    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  3. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, James [Private address, 3210 Apache Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 (United States); Chesley, Steven R., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  4. Role of visual and olfactory cues from agricultural hedgerows in the orientation behavior of multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (United States)

    Bahlai, C A; Welsman, J A; Macleod, E C; Schaafsma, A W; Hallett, R H; Sears, M K


    Harmonia axyridis Pallas is an introduced lady beetle common in eastern North American agroecosystems. Two-choice behavioral bioassays were performed to determine whether visual and olfactory stimuli from prey and host habitats could elicit taxis in wild-collected H. axyridis adults and whether beetles exhibit a preference among stimuli. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) spends much of the year in agricultural hedgerows residing on buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L), and H. axyridis is frequently observed feeding on aphids in this habitat. Olfactory bioassays were performed in a Y-tube olfactometer and tested the response of beetles to the odor of buckthorn leaves, apple leaves (Malus domestica Borkh.), and buckthorn leaves both naturally and artificially infested with A. glycines. No differences were observed between the numbers of beetles moving toward the odor of buckthorn artificially infested with A. glycines and uninfested buckthorn, but more beetles preferred naturally infested buckthorn over uninfested buckthorn. Visual bioassays were performed in an acrylic tube arena,and tested beetle response to silhouettes and to apple and buckhorn leaves. Beetles were significantly more likely to choose silhouettes over blank space in visual trials. Significantly more beetles moved toward buckthorn leaves than blank space, but beetles did not discern between apple and buckthorn until olfactory cues were also included. This study lays the foundation for future work examining the response of H. axyridis to visual and olfactory cues in Ontario agroecosystems, which could help enhance effectiveness of H. axyridis as a biological control and mitigate its impacts as a pest species.

  5. Noi semnalări ale unor specii de insecte forestiere invazive în România [ New records of some invasive forest insect species in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenici N


    Full Text Available New records of ten invasive insect species in Romania are presented. The studied species are: Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic 1986, Parectopa robiniella Clemens 1863, Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clemens 1859, Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata 1963, Hyphantria cunea (Drury 1773, Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman 1847, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann 1910, Eopineus strobus (Hartig 1837, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl 1893 and Harmonia axyridis Pallas 1773. The native range of each species, the first report and the present distribution in Europe and in Romania are discussed. The new records suggest that all the analysed species have established populations in our country and a more widespread distribution than that previously known. Some of them attain sometimes locally or zonally high population levels and are regarded as important pests. For the most species, new observations are necessary, both concerning their presence in the areas where they were not found so far, but also to assess the impact of insect populations on their hosts and on the recipient biocoenoses. A particular attention should be paid to the species H. axyridis, whose swarms invade the houses of the people during the autumn and could cause annoyance and possibly allergy. Citizen participation in observing and reporting of these new ”guests” is encouraged.

  6. Determination of a new index of sexual maturity (ISM) in zebra mussel using flow cytometry: interest in ecotoxicology. (United States)

    Magniez, Gabrielle; Franco, Alban; Geffard, Alain; Rioult, Damien; Bonnard, Isabelle; Delahaut, Laurence; Joachim, Sandrine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Bonnard, Marc


    The global dynamic spread of chemical contamination through the aquatic environment calls for the development of biomarkers of interest. Reproduction is a key element to be considered because it is related to the sustainability of species. Spermatogenesis is a complex process that leads to the formation of mature germ cells, whose steps and impairments need to be finely described in ecotoxicological analyses. The physiological process has been commonly described by histological analyses of gonads in different taxa. In the present paper, we describe the development of a novel technique to characterize spermatogenesis based on the analysis of the DNA content of germ cells by flow cytometry, using a DNA-intercalating agent. This new biomarker, referred to as an index of sexual maturity, proved relevant to describe the seasonal reproductive cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), used as a sentinel species in the biomonitoring of continental waters and sensitive to highlight the reprotoxicity of carbamazepine (an anti-epileptic pharmaceutical) tested under ecosystemic conditions (mesocosms).

  7. Identifikasi Kelelawar Pemakan Buah Asal Sulawesi Berdasarkan Morfometri (THE MORPHOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF CELEBES FRUIT BATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiltje Andretha Ransaleleh


    Full Text Available The bat is very important for human life, because of their  role as pollinator of plants, as a producer oforganic fertilizer,  and as food.  In Northern Celebes fruit eating bats serve as exotic food, so the presenceof bats were threatened to be extinct due to uncontrolled hunting.  The changes of the forest for plantationlands, damage the habitats and the bats were forced to migrate out.   The aim of the study was to identifythe fruit eating bats of Celebes.  Morphometry of body size, skull,  and physical characteristics were usedin determining the types and distribution  of fruit eating bats in Celebes. The field survey was carried outat the hunting area, bat dealers, and bat sellers. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptivemethod and interpreted by narrating to describe the entire study. The result show that  there were fivetypes of fruit eating bats : i.e.  kalong sulawesi (Acerodon celebensis,  paniki pallas (Nyctimene cephalotes,codot wallet (Thoopterus nigrescens, nyap biasa (Rousettus amplexicaudatus, and  kalong hitam  (Pteropusalecto.

  8. Dominance of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in an undisturbed wild meadow ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Bélanger


    Full Text Available Fifteen years after its arrival in Quebec (Canada, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has become one of the dominant coccinellid species in agricultural, forested and urban areas. Several studies conducted in North American agricultural ecosystems show that the arrival of H. axyridis and other exotic coccinellid species was followed by decreases in the populations of native coccinellid species. In this study, the abundances of H. axyridis and other native and exotic species were determined in an undisturbed wild meadow located in a protected area. In 2009 and 2010, mainly Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae and Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae infested with aphids were surveyed. A total of 1522 individuals, belonging to seven different species, were recorded. In 2009, on all the plants monitored, H. axyridis was clearly the dominant species (69% of the coccinellid assemblage. In addition, this exotic species constituted 84% of the coccinellid assemblage, including Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. and Coccinella septempunctata (L. It is likely the dominance of the eurytopic Asian lady beetle in agricultural, forested, urban and undisturbed open ecosystems, poses a threat to native lady beetles. These results also provide evidence that undisturbed wild meadow ecosystems will not constitute a natural refuge from Harmonia axyridis for native species of lady beetles.

  9. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nélio Roberto dos Reis


    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  10. Four new records of mites (Acari: Astigmata phoretic on insects in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed W. Negm


    Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate astigmatid mites associated with four unrelated insect species, belonging to four families. The four insect species, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1785 (Diptera: Muscidae, Labidura riparia (Pallas, 1773 (Dermaptera: Labiduridae, Gryllus bimaculatus (DeGeer, 1773 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, and Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria: Blattidae, collected from different localities in Riyadh, were observed. Four astigmatid mites (Caloglyphus csibbii Eraky, Histiostoma camphori Eraky, Histiostoma pickaxei Eraky and Shoker, and Myianoetus lili Eraky belonging to two families, Acaridae and Histiostomatidae, were recorded on G. bimaculatus, L. riparia, P. americana, and M. domestica, respectively. All recorded mites are considered new to Saudi Arabian mite fauna. One individual of Copronomoia sphaerocerae (Vitzthum (Histiostomatidae mite, previously recorded in Saudi Arabia, was found on M. domestica. For each mite species found, notes on density and attachment sites are given. An identification key, based on deutonymphal stages, for the five mite species reported in this study and other phoretic astigmatid mites previously recorded on insects in Saudi Arabia is provided.

  11. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa. (United States)

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M


    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Ultrastructural features of the spermatozoon and its differentiation in Brandesia turgida (Brandes, 1888) (Digenea, Microphalloidea, Pleurogenidae). (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Brázová, Timea; Zhokhov, Alexander E; Poddubnaya, Larisa G


    Spermatological characters of the digenean Brandesia turgida (Brandes, 1888), an intestinal parasite of the frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771), have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone bordered by cortical microtubules and containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and with an intercentriolar body. The intercentriolar body is made up of seven distinct electron-dense plates, two less electron-dense, and four electron-lucent zones. The orthogonal development of the two flagella is followed by a flagellar rotation and their proximodistal fusion with the median cytoplasmic process. This process is accompanied by an extension of both the mitochondrion and nucleus into the median cytoplasmic process. The mature spermatozoon of B. turgida contains two parallel axonemes of unequal lengths with the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, mitochondrion, nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, four electron-dense attachment zones, an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and electron-dense glycogen granules. The anterior extremity of the male gamete contains one complete centriole, a small component of the central element of the second centriole, and peripheral cortical microtubules (up to 45). The posterior extremity of the mature spematozoon exhibits tubular elements of the disorganized axoneme. The present study provides the first data on spermiogenesis within the family Pleurogenidae. Variations of the spermatozoa ultrastructural characters within Digenea, in particular, between different families of the superfamily Microphalloidea, are discussed.

  13. The response of natural enemies to selective insecticides applied to soybean. (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E


    Natural enemies of the invasive pest Aphis glycines Matsumura can prevent its establishment and population growth. However, current A. glycines management practices include the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that affect pests and natural enemies that are present in the field at the time of application. An alternative is the use of selective insecticides that affect the targeted pest species, although having a reduced impact on the natural enemies. We tested the effects of esfenvalerate, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, and a combination of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on the natural enemies in soybean during the 2009 and 2010 field season. The natural enemy community that was tested differed significantly between 2009 and 2010 (F = 87.41; df = 1, 598; P natural enemy in 2009 was Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (56.0%) and in 2010 was Orius insidiosus (Say) (41.0%). During 2009, the abundance of natural enemies did not vary between the broad-spectrum and selective insecticides; however, the abundance of natural enemies was reduced by all insecticide treatments when compared with the untreated control. In 2010, the selective insecticide imidacloprid had more natural enemies than the broad-spectrum insecticide. Although we did not observe a difference in the abundance of the total natural enemy community in 2009, we did observe more H. axyridis in plots treated with spirotetramat. In 2010, we observed more O. insidiosus in plots treated with imidacloprid. We suggest a couple of mechanisms to explain how the varying insecticides have different impacts on separate components of the natural enemy community.

  14. Continuatori balcanico-danubiani del Veneto "balota"

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    Giovan Battista Pellegrini


    Full Text Available E' merito di László Hadrovics di avere impostato una numerosa serie di ricerche etimologiche con un metodo originale che ha dato ampi frutti, fondato sullo studio globale di tanti dati, ma in primo luogo saldamente ancorato al minuzioso esame delle fonti e dei motivi storici e culturali che hanno occasionato i prestiti. I suoi contributi alia storia e all'etimologia di varie parole ungheresi costituiscono autentiche piccole monografie concentrate nel settore del lessico giudicato di norma "di etimologia difficile" nei dizionari specializzati; essi sono ora in buona parte riuniti in due volumetti: Jövevényszók-vizsģalatok (Indagini sui prestiti del 1965 e Szavak és szólások (Parole ed espressioni] del 1975. In questa seconda miscellanea, nel capitolo quinto dedicato ai "prestiti italiani" (o­ lasz jövevényszók, alle pp. 78-94 l' A. ha l' occasione di occuparsi della voceungherese labda 'palla' (pp. 86-89 che presenta varie corrispondenze nelle lingue slave e balcaniche, oggetto di tante discussioni, come si può vedere anche dai piu recenti dizionari etimoiogici.

  15. Toxicity tests based on predator-prey and competitive interactions between freshwater macroinvertebrates

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    Taylor, E.J.; Blockwell, S.J.; Pascoe, D. [Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom)


    Simple multi-species toxicity tests based on the predation of Daphnia magna Straus by Hydra oligactis (Pallas) and competition between Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) were used to determine the effects of three reference chemicals. Criteria examined included functional responses; time to first captures; handling times (predator/prey systems) and co-existence and growth. The tests which proved most practicable and sensitive (lowest observed effects 0.1, 21, and 80 {micro}g/l for lindane, copper and 3,4 dichloroaniline, respectively) were: (1) predator-prey tests: determining changes in the size-structure of predated D. magna populations and (2) competition tests: measuring the feeding rate of G. pulex competing with A. aquaticus, using a bioassay based on the time-response analysis of the consumption of Artemia salina eggs. The concentration of a chemical which affected particular response criteria was fond to depend on the test system employed. Results of the tests indicated that effects were often not dose-related and that a given criterion could be variously affected by different test concentrations. The complex pattern of responses may be explained in terms of the differential sensitivity of the interacting species and perhaps subtle alteration in strategies. The sensitivity of the bioassay endpoints is compared to those of a range of single species tests, and their value for predicting the impact pollutants may have upon natural freshwater ecosystems is discussed.

  16. Abundance, population structure and production of macro-invertebrate shredders in a Mediterranean brackish lagoon, Lake Ichkeul, Tunisia (United States)

    Casagranda, Caterina; Dridi, Mohamed Sadok; Boudouresque, Charles François


    Abundance, population structure and production of the macro-invertebrates belonging to the functional feeding group of the shredders were studied in the Ichkeul wetland, northern Tunisia, from July 1993 to April 1994. Mean above-ground macrophyte biomass was at a maximum in September followed by a complete breakdown of the Potamogeton pectinatus L. meadow from October onward due to high salinity following an exceptionally dry winter. Only the meadow of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande at Tinja remained in place. Abundance of Gammarus aequicauda (Martynov 1931), Idotea chelipes (Pallas 1766) and Sphaeroma hookeri Leach 1814 was significantly related to the R. cirrhosa biomass. Gammarus aequicauda presented two recruitment periods in spring and autumn, and S. hookeri a third one in winter. The population of I. chelipes was renewed during winter by continued reproduction without any spring generation. Recruitment of all three species was not very successful during the study period. Life span of all three species was between 12 and 15 months. Despite their relatively low biomass and production rate, the shredders have a key function in processing macrophyte matter to different trophic levels through fragmentation and accelerating the decomposition of macrophyte biomass accumulated at the end of the growth season in the Ichkeul lagoon.

  17. Reexamining Two Mythological Ballads from Christine de Pizan’s Cent Balades

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    Liudmila V. Evdokimova


    Full Text Available The article analyzes two mythological ballads from Christine de Pizan’s early collection Cent Balades (1399–1411. I propose to interpret them against allegorical commentary on Ovid’s Metamorphoses, a poem Ovide moralise and two treatises — Pierre Bersuire’s Ovididius moralizatus and Boccaccio’s De genealogia deorum gentilium. These works help us understand the ballad XC that critics have traditionally considered mysterious. The ballad tells the story of Adonis and his early death. Christine was familiar with the commentary on Metamorphoses that rendered the poem allegorically. The ballad can be therefore read as a story of the struggle for the human soul where Adonis emblematizes youth, Vulcan — desire, Pallas — wisdom, Juno — will, Jupiter — Supreme Reason, and Mercury — eloquence. Adonis must overcome corporeal passion voluntarily — this is the moral lesson that Christine gives in the allegorical form to her reader. Her relation of human will to reason is similar to that of Thomas Aquinas. The poem Ovide moralisé and Bersuire’s Ovididius moralizatus shed light on the allegorical subtext of the ballad LXI that narrates the love story of Io and Jupiter. Io epitomizes a sinful human soul temporarily deprived of humanity that, however, returns to the beloved — Jupiter, or God. The analysed poems demonstrate Christine’s taste for allegorical and obscure poetry that Boccaccio defended in his De genealogia deorum gentilium.

  18. Energy metabolism and fasting in male and female insectivorous bats Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

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    MB. Freitas

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.

  19. Variation in the innate and acquired arms of the immune system among five shorebird species. (United States)

    Mendes, Luisa; Piersma, Theunis; Hasselquist, Dennis; Matson, Kevin D; Ricklefs, Robert E


    To contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape variation in immune responses, we compared several components of the innate and acquired arms of the immune system in five related, but ecologically diverse, migratory shorebirds (ruff Philomachus pugnax L., ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres L., bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica L., sanderling Calidris alba Pallas and red knot C. canutus L.). We used a hemolysis-hemagglutination assay in free-living shorebirds to assess two of the innate components (natural antibodies and complement-mediated lysis), and a modified quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in birds held in captivity to assess the acquired component (humoral antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoid) of immunity. Ruddy turnstones showed the highest levels of both innate and acquired immune responses. We suggest that turnstones could have evolved strong immune responses because they scavenge among rotting organic material on the seashore, where they might be exposed to a particularly broad range of pathogens. Although ruffs stand out among shorebirds in having a high prevalence of avian malaria, they do not exhibit higher immune response levels. Our results indicate that relationships between immune response and infection are not likely to follow a broad general pattern, but instead depend on type of parasite exposure, among other factors.

  20. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

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    Patrick W. Geier


    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  1. A new Heraclides swallowtail (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae from North America is recognized by the pattern on its neck

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    Kojiro Shiraiwa


    Full Text Available Heraclides rumiko Shiraiwa & Grishin, sp. n. is described from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America (type locality: USA, Texas, Duval County. It is closely allied to H. cresphontes (Cramer, 1777 and the two species are sympatric in central Texas. The new species is diagnosed by male genitalia and exhibits a nearly 3% difference from H. cresphontes in the COI DNA barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. The two Heraclides species can usually be told apart by the shape and size of yellow spots on the neck, by the wing shape, and the details of wing patterns. “Western Giant Swallowtail” is proposed as the English name for H. rumiko. To stabilize nomenclature, neotype for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, an eastern United States species, is designated from Brooklyn, New York, USA; and lectotype for Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771 is designated from Suriname. We sequenced DNA barcodes and ID tags of nearly 400 Papilionini specimens completing coverage of all Heraclides species. Comparative analyses of DNA barcodes, genitalia, and facies suggest that Heraclides oviedo (Gundlach, 1866, reinstated status, is a species-level taxon rather than a subspecies of H. thoas (Linnaeus, 1771; and H. pallas (G. Gray, [1853], reinstated status, with its subspecies H. P. bajaensis (J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992, comb. n., and Heraclides anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002, stat. n., are not conspecific with H. astyalus (Godart, 1819.

  2. Does Sense of Place Still Exist?

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    Helena Ruotsala


    Full Text Available In this article my aim is to discuss place, locality and their role and changed significance in the ethnological studies. I argue that although the meaning and role of place have been changed, place still is an important concept in ethnology. Researches are now paying more attention to the changed nature of the concept, e.g. for the multivocality of places. The anthropological literature on space and place forms my theoretical framework, with which I study some empiric cases from my familiar environment, from Finnish Lapland and from Kola Peninsula. ‘Place’, in my examples the sieidi of Taatsi, Lake Seidjavr, the Pallas fells or the tourist centre Levi, can have a unique reality for each inhabitant and visitor. While the meanings may be shared with others, the views of the place are often likely to be competing, and contested in practice. According to Margaret Rodman (2004: 207, researchers should empower place by returning control over meanings of place to the rightful producers, and empower their own analysis of place by attending to the multiplicity of local voices found about place.

  3. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna (United States)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas


    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  4. Trophic interactions between two herbivorous insects, Galerucella calmariensis and Myzus lythri, feeding on purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, and two insect predators, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla carnea. (United States)

    Matos, Bethzayda; Obrycki, John J


    The effects of two herbivorous insects, Galerucella calmariensis Duftschmid and Myzus lythri L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), feeding on purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Myrtiflorae: Lythraceae), were measured in the presence of two insect predators, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). A greenhouse cage experiment examined the direct effects of these predators on these herbivores, and indirect effects of predation on aboveground biomass, defoliation, number of leaves, and internode length. Eight treatment combinations with G. calmariensis, M. lythri, H. axyridis and C. carnea were applied to caged L. salicaria. The experiment ended when G. calmariensis adults were observed, 11 to 13 days after release of first instar G. calmariensis. G. calmariensis larvae alone removed significant amounts of leaf tissue and reduced the number of L. salicaria leaves. Predators did not reduce levels of defoliation by G. calmariensis. C. carnea had no effect on G. calmariensis survival, but H. axyridis reduced G. calmariensis survival in the presence of M. lythri. Both predators reduced the survival of M. lythri. This short duration greenhouse study did not demonstrate that predator-prey interactions altered herbivore effects on L. salicaria.

  5. Effects of plant gross morphology on predator searching behaviour. (United States)

    Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim


    Plant morphology influences insect predators' abilities to capture prey and control pest populations. Several mechanisms for this effect of plants on predator foraging have been proposed. In particular, it is often claimed that increased complexity of plant structures may increase search time and reduce foraging success. Using time-lapse photography we recorded search paths, and compared the total path lengths, percentages of plants searched, and path tortuosity of adult multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis Pallas) and green lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens) foraging for pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) on pea near-isolines (Pisum sativum L.) that differed in shape. We found that H. axyridis searched leafy morphologies less thoroughly than those with more branches, while C. carnea larvae search paths did not differ on any of the pea morphologies. In addition, the ability of H. axyridis to attach to plants and maneuver was increased on morphologies with many branches and edges, while C. carnea was able to attach to all morphologies. Both species, however, had significantly reduced predation success on inverted leaf surfaces. We conclude that undersides of leaves, far from the leaf margin, may serve as partial prey refugia. In addition, we find increased plant branching or an increase in other morphological features which provide predator attachment points may promote foraging success.

  6. Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in southern Brazil, with notes on their ecology. (United States)

    Arzua, Márcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mário Antonio; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes


    Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'.

  7. Discovery of the first asteroid, Ceres historical studies in asteroid research

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    Cunningham, Clifford


    Based on extensive primary sources, many never previously translated into English, this is the definitive account of the origins of Ceres as it went from being classified as a new planet to reclassification as the first of a previously unknown group of celestial objects. Cunningham opens this critical moment of astronomical discovery to full modern analysis for the first time. This book includes all the voluminous correspondence, translated into English, between the astronomers of Europe about the startling discovery of Ceres by Piazzi in 1801. It covers the period up to March 1802, at which time Pallas was discovered. Also included are Piazzi's two monographs about Ceres, and the sections of two books dealing with Ceres, one by Johann Bode, the other by Johann Schroeter. The origin of the word 'asteroid' is explained, along with several chapters on the antecedents of the story going back to ancient Greek times. The formulation of Bode's Law is given, as are the details on the efforts of Baron von Zach to org...

  8. Measurement of the radial velocity of the Sun as a star by means of a reflecting solar system body. The effect of the body rotation (United States)

    Lanza, A. F.; Molaro, P.


    Minor bodies of the solar system can be used to measure the spectrum of the Sun as a star by observing sunlight reflected by their surfaces. To perform an accurate measurement of the radial velocity of the Sun as a star by this method, it is necessary to take into account the Doppler shifts introduced by the motion of the reflecting body. Here we discuss the effect of its rotation. It gives a vanishing contribution only when the inclinations of the body rotation axis to the directions of the Sun and of the Earth observer are the same. When this is not the case, the perturbation of the radial velocity does not vanish and can reach up to ˜2.4 m/s for an asteroid such as 2 Pallas that has an inclination of the spin axis to the plane of the ecliptic of ˜30∘. We introduce a geometric model to compute the perturbation in the case of a uniformly reflecting body of spherical or triaxial ellipsoidal shape and provide general results to easily estimate the magnitude of the effect.

  9. Redescription of two species of cystidicolid nematodes (Spirurina: Cystidicolidae) from Notopterus notopterus (Osteichthyes) in Thailand. (United States)

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda


    Two nematode species, Pseudoproleptus notopteri (Karve et Naik, 1951) and Spinitectus notopteri Karve et Naik, 1951 (both Cystidicolidae), are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of specimens collected from the digestive tract of the freshwater fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) (Notopteridae, Osteoglossiformes) in Thailand. Some new important morphological features, such as a detailed structure of the cephalic end and the presence of bifurcate deirids and a ventral median caudal protuberance in male, are reported for the former species (P. notopteri), which is provisionally assigned to Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955; Notopteroides notopteri Chakravarty et Majumdar, 1962, Pseudoproleptus satendri Sahay, 1967, P. lamyi Le-Van-Hoa et Bui-Thi Lien-Huong, 1969, P. gomtii Gupta et Bakshi, 1984. P. sprenti Gupta et Masoodi, 1986 and P. thapari Gupta et Naiyer, 1992 are considered its junior synonyms. The first study of S. notopteri by SEM showed its morphological similarity with S. mastacembeli Karve et Naik, 1951, from which it clearly differs by the structure of eggs; Spinitectus alii Kalyankar, 1970, S. bengalensis Chakravarty, Sain et Majumdar, 1961, S. gomalensis Siddiqui et Kattak, 1984 and S. thapari Ali, 1957 are considered to be junior synonyms of S. notopteri. Pseudoproleptus notopteri and Spinitectus notopteri are reported from Thailand for the first time.

  10. Effects of microcystin-producing and microcystin-freeMicrocystis aeruginosa on enzyme activity and nutrient content in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. (United States)

    Liang, Ye; Su, Yuqi; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Xinglan; Yang, Jiaxin


    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms disrupt freshwater recreation and adversely affect zooplankton. The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa produces microcystins, which are compounds toxic to rotifers. This study evaluated the effects of M. aeruginosa on enzyme activity and nutrient content in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. The rotifers were fed on Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, microcystin-producing and microcystin-free M. aeruginosa alone, and mixtures of green algae combined with toxic and nontoxic cyanobacteria, respectively. Activities of amylase, pepsase, trypsin, cellulase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were assessed after rotifer exposure to an environmental stressor. Nutrients analyzed were glycogen, protein, and triglyceride (TG). Single cyanobacteria and mixtures combined with toxic M. aeruginosa inhibited SOD activity. CAT and GPx activities significantly increased in rotifers fed with the mixture of Chlorella and toxic cyanobacteria. The activity of digestive enzymes increased compared with the Chlorella group in single and mixed diets. Glycogen and protein decreased in Microcystis mixtures, whereas TG content increased. The grazing rate (G) of the rotifers decreased with grazing time. High G value was observed with green algae in every treatment group. Although the toxins released after grazing on Microcystis affected rotifer enzyme activity and nutrient content, B. calyciflorus changed its physiological performance and grazing intensity with food type in response to eutrophic conditions.

  11. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus in Felidae: implications for human health and wildlife ecology. (United States)

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J


    Genetic analyses of feline immunodeficiency viruses provide significant insights on the worldwide distribution and evolutionary history of this emerging pathogen. Large-scale screening of over 3000 samples from all species of Felidae indicates that at least some individuals from most species possess antibodies that cross react to FIV. Phylogenetic analyses of genetic variation in the pol-RT gene demonstrate that FIV lineages are species-specific and suggest that there has been a prolonged period of viral-host co-evolution. The clinical effects of FIV specific to species other than domestic cat are controversial. Comparative genomic analyses of all full-length FIV genomes confirmed that FIV is host specific. Recently sequenced lion subtype E is marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIV though env is more similar to that of domestic cat FIV, indicating a possible recombination between two divergent strains in the wild. Here we review global patterns of FIV seroprevalence and endemnicity, assess genetic differences within and between species-specific FIV strains, and interpret these with patterns of felid speciation to propose an ancestral origin of FIV in Africa followed by interspecies transmission and global dissemination to Eurasia and the Americas. Continued comparative genomic analyses of full-length FIV from all seropositive animals, along with whole genome sequence of host species, will greatly advance our understanding of the role of recombination, selection and adaptation in retroviral emergence.

  12. The secondary structure of the 5′ end of the FIV genome reveals a long-range interaction between R/U5 and gag sequences, and a large, stable stem–loop (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia C.; Ghazawi, Akela; Cheung, Winsome K.S.; Phillip, Pretty S.; Rizvi, Tahir A.; Lever, Andrew M.L.


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that infects cats and is related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although it is a common worldwide infection, and has potential uses as a human gene therapy vector and as a nonprimate model for HIV infection, little detail is known of the viral life cycle. Previous experiments have shown that its packaging signal includes two or more regions within the first 511 nucleotides of the genomic RNA. We have undertaken a secondary structural analysis of this RNA by minimal free-energy structural prediction, biochemical mapping, and phylogenetic analysis, and show that it contains five conserved stem–loops and a conserved long-range interaction between heptanucleotide sequences 5′-CCCUGUC-3′ in R/U5 and 5′-GACAGGG-3′ in gag. This long-range interaction is similar to that seen in primate lentiviruses where it is thought to be functionally important. Along with strains that infect domestic cats, this heptanucleotide interaction can also occur in species-specific FIV strains that infect pumas, lions, and Pallas' cats where the heptanucleotide sequences involved vary. We have analyzed spliced and genomic FIV RNAs and see little structural change or sequence conservation within single-stranded regions of the 5′ UTR that are important for viral packaging, suggesting that FIV may employ a cotranslational packaging mechanism. PMID:18974279

  13. Biomarkers of metabolism disturbance in bivalve molluscs induced by environmental pollution with processed by-products of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko


    Full Text Available Processed by-products of oil are the most common pollutants in all river and sea water. The increase in oxidative stress in bivalve molluscs was studied in both tissues of the hepatopancreas and the gill. The model for artificial treatment with processed by-products of oil was performed in a laboratory experiment with the river mollusc Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771. The exposure of the molluscs over 28 days to mazut 50 mg/l induced significant increase of both final product of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant enzime activity. A significant increase in LPO was observed in the hepatopancreas and gill of D. polymorpha treated with mazut compared to the control group. Antioxidant enzyme activity of cartalase, supeoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a greater increase (by almost 1.5 times in the hepatopancreas than in the gill of D. polymorpha. A similar LPO growth and modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity were determined in the hepatopancreas and gill of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1879 collected in an area polluted with resins, hydrocarbons and asphaltenes, Donuzlav lake in the Kerch gulf. Varied cellular reactivation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the hepatopancreas rather than the gill was observed in both kinds of mollusc Dreissena and Mytilus. The obtained results are evidence of the higher sensitivity of the hepatopancreas cells of bivalve molluscs to organic pollutants compared to the gill cells.

  14. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su


    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  15. Interactions between the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Harmonia axyridis and the Parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae (United States)

    Dindo, Maria Luisa; Francati, Santolo; Lanzoni, Alberto; di Vitantonio, Cinzia; Marchetti, Elisa; Burgio, Giovanni; Maini, Stefano


    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been introduced either intentionally or accidentally in different areas outside its native range, where it is often regarded as invasive. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) has been recorded to parasitize H. axyridis in the field, both in the native and introduced areas, Italy included. The percent of parasitism found in our field investigation was low (four percent). The effect of exposure time of H. axyridis to D. coccinellae and the impact of parasitization on host longevity, oviposition capacity and egg fertility were evaluated in the laboratory. The acceptance and suitability of H. axyridis as host for D. coccinellae were then studied, in comparison with the native coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (L.), which shares the same ecological niche. The effects of parasitization on female longevity and reproduction capacity in the exotic vs. the indigenous lady beetle were also investigated. The overall results showed that D. coccinellae negatively affected the fitness of H. axyridis, more than that of A. bipunctata. The parasitoid may thus play a marginal role in controlling the populations of the Asian lady beetle, without representing a threat to A. bipunctata. PMID:27886136

  16. Diversity and host specificity of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in native and introduced squirrel species. (United States)

    Hofmannová, Lada; Romeo, Claudia; Štohanzlová, Lucie; Jirsová, Dagmar; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Wauters, Lucas Armand; Ferrari, Nicola; Modrý, David


    Introduction of alien species into new areas can have detrimental effects on native ecosystems and impact the native species. The present study aims to identify coccidia infecting native and introduced squirrels in Italy, to gain insight into possible transmission patterns and role of monoxenous coccidia in mediating the competition between alien and native hosts. We collected 540 faecal samples of native red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, invasive alien grey squirrels, S. carolinensis, and introduced Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus. Total prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 95.6% in S. vulgaris, 95.7% in S. carolinensis and only 4.1% in C. erythraeus. Morphological examination revealed 3 Eimeria morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of Eimeria DNA based on 18S, ITS, cox I markers displayed fairly distinct monophyletic clades in the microscopically indistinguishable E2 morphotype, proving indisputable distinction between the isolates from red and grey squirrels. Grey squirrels successfully introduced E. lancasterensis from their native range, but this species does not spill over to native red squirrels. Similarly, there is no evidence for the transmission of E. sciurorum from red to grey squirrels. The possible transmission and the potential role of monoxenous coccidia in mediating the competition between native and invasive squirrels in Italy were not confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari


    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  18. An interactive survey panel regarding the effects of mice (Microtus spec.) on a young ecosystem (United States)

    Zaplata, Markus; Maurer, Thomas; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Hinz, Christoph


    Apparent disturbance caused by soil megafauna took place for the very first time in 2014, after nine years of spontaneous vegetative succession of the constructed watershed Chicken Creek catchment (6 ha). This watershed was designed to investigate the initial phase of soil and ecosystem development under natural conditions including the detailed study of hydrologic processes and water-substrate-plant-atmosphere interactions. In autumn 2014, we recorded the primarily common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas) activities (calamity), which altered the microtopography of the substrate surface: We counted mouse holes and diggings (for storage organs) at the same spatial units (permanent plots, >100 # of 5 m × 5 m) where we monitor the vegetation since the onset of the catchment. We are hence capable of analysing the effect of abundant vegetarian mice and biogenic macropores, e.g. on the occurrence and performance of the more than 150 vascular plant species present by comparing the respective coverage in 2013 (the pre-mice year) versus 2014, with or without accounting for the confounding effect of succession. Additionally elaborated insight on the 3-D architecture of the mice underground corridors and the nesting places (in situ) enables to extrapolate mass and volume of the moved substrate and the number of the nests of mice for the whole catchment. We report these results, anticipating a return service: Here, we ask for your expectation regarding the significance of the mice-made disturbance on the vegetation of the young ecosystem.

  19. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti


    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  20. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  1. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Carlos B. Kasper


    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  2. Investigation of 1-cm dose equivalent for photons behind shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Tanaka, Shun-ichi


    The ambient dose equivalent at 1-cm depth, assumed equivalent to the 1-cm dose equivalent in practical dose estimations behind shielding slabs of water, concrete, iron or lead for normally incident photons having various energies was calculated by using conversion factors for a slab phantom. It was compared with the 1-cm depth dose calculated with the Monte Carlo code EGS4. It was concluded from this comparison that the ambient dose equivalent calculated by using the conversion factors for the ICRU sphere could be used for the evaluation of the 1-cm dose equivalent for the sphere phantom within 20% errors. Average and practical conversion factors are defined as the conversion factors from exposure to ambient dose equivalent in a finite slab or an infinite one, respectively. They were calculated with EGS4 and the discrete ordinates code PALLAS. The exposure calculated with simple estimation procedures such as point kernel methods can be easily converted to ambient dose equivalent by using these conversion factors. The maximum value between 1 and 30 mfp can be adopted as the conversion factor which depends only on material and incident photon energy. This gives the ambient dose equivalent on the safe side. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W.


    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water

  4. Detours in long-distance migration across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: individual consistency and habitat associations. (United States)

    Liu, Dongping; Zhang, Guogang; Jiang, Hongxing; Lu, Jun


    Migratory birds often follow detours when confronted with ecological barriers, and understanding the extent and the underlying drivers of such detours can provide important insights into the associated cost to the annual energy budget and the migration strategies. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most daunting geographical barrier for migratory birds because the partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced and flight costs greatly increase. We analyzed the repeated migration detours and habitat associations of four Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over 22 migration seasons. Gulls exhibited notable detours, with the maximum distance being more than double that of the expected shortest route, that extended rather than reduced the passage across the plateau. The extent of longitudinal detours significantly increased with latitude, and detours were longer in autumn than in spring. Compared with the expected shortest routes, proximity to water bodies increased along autumn migration routes, but detour-habitat associations were weak along spring migration routes. Thus, habitat availability was likely one, but not the only, factor shaping the extent of detours, and migration routes were determined by different mechanisms between seasons. Significant between-individual variation but high individual consistency in migration timing and routes were revealed in both seasons, indicating a stronger influence of endogenous schedules than local environmental conditions. Gulls may benefit from repeated use of familiar routes and stopover sites, which may be particularly significant in the challenging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM


    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  6. Seasonal variations of rotifers from a high altitude urban shallow water body, La Cantera Oriente (Mexico City, Mexico) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio González; Sarma, S. S. S.; Nandini, S.


    La Cantera Oriente is a shallow freshwater volcanic water body located at an altitude of 2 270 m above sea level in the Ecological Reserve of San Angel Pedregal of Mexico City (Mexico). In order to ensure the conservation of its biological heritage including zooplankton, the present work was undertaken to quantify the seasonal changes in the diversity and density of rotifers and the selected physico-chemical variables during 2013-2014. Qualitative analysis of the zooplankton samples yielded 68 rotifer species which represented 24 genera in 15 families. B rachionus calyciflorus Pallas, 1766, B. quadridentatus Hermann, 1783, Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943, Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and Keratella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) were the most common species. Preston plots of species frequency-density revealed that as many as 30% of the rotifer taxa were dominant throughout the year. The species with high population densities were Brachionus quadridentatus, Lecane closterocerca, Keratella cochlearis, and Lepadella patella; their peak densities were 2 000, 1 000, 180 and 90 ind./L, all occurring in summer. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Platyias quadricornis was related to the concentration of phosphates available in the environment and the conductivity, while B. quadridentatus was positively correlated with chlorophyll- a. The trophic status of the lake was eutrophic based on Chl- a content but oligotrophic with relation to the Brachionus: Trichocerca ratio.

  7. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression? (United States)

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.


    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p bears in both active and hibernating states at the p hibernation with mild hypothermia, black bears do not show immunosuppression, but show an increased APP response similar to that in patients with major depression. This APP response is explained as an adaptive response to the underlying metabolic depression in both conditions. Metabolic depression in hibernating bears is suggested as a natural model for research to explain the neurobiology of depression.

  8. Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds. (United States)

    Suarez, R K; Welch, K C; Hanna, S K; Herrera M, L G


    Given their high metabolic rates, nectarivorous diet, and ability to directly fuel their energetically-expensive flight using recently-ingested sugar, we tested the hypothesis that Pallas long tongued nectar bats (Glossophaga soricina) possess flight muscles similar to those of hummingbirds with respect to enzymatic flux capacities in bioenergetic pathways. In addition, we compared these biochemical capacities with flux rates achieved in vivo during hovering flight. Rates of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) were measured during hover-feeding and used to estimate rates of ATP turnover, glucose and long-chain fatty acid oxidation per unit mass of flight muscle. Enzyme V(max) values at key steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation obtained in vitro from pectoralis muscle samples exceed those found in the locomotory muscles of other species of small mammals and resemble data obtained from hummingbird flight muscles. The ability of nectar bats and hummingbirds to hover in fed and fasted states, fueled almost exclusively by carbohydrate or fat, respectively, allowed the estimation of fractional velocities (v/V(max)) at both the hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation, respectively. The results further support the hypothesis of convergent evolution in biochemical and physiological traits in nectar bats and hummingbirds.

  9. Cytogenetic description of the Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Artiodactyla, Cervidae

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    Bruno Ferreto Fiorillo


    Full Text Available The Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Cuvier, 1817 is a small to medium-sized deer from the Amazon rainforest and ecotones. The first karyotype described was 2n=67 to 69 + 2-7 B and FN= 69-72, in which all chromosomes were acrocentric and the X chromosome was the only submetacentric chromosome. However, important aspects of the species chromosome evolution were not resolved because of the lack of information on chromosome banding. The G-banding pattern of M. nemorivaga karyotype showed the presence of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system as a product of an X-autosome tandem fusion, which results in a basic 2n=68, FN=70 in females and 2n= 69, FN=70 in males. The fact that this karyotype only differs from that of Capreolus capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771; 2n=70, FN=72+B by X-autosome tandem fusion may corroborate the basal condition of M. nemorivaga and its proximity to the ancestral karyotype of the American Odocoileini. A derived karyotype 2n=67, XY1Y2, FN=70 + 3B from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (the western Amazon may be evidence of differentiation between western and eastern populations.

  10. Cytogenetic description of the Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). (United States)

    Fiorillo, Bruno Ferreto; Sarria-Perea, Javier Adolfo; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti


    The Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Cuvier, 1817) is a small to medium-sized deer from the Amazon rainforest and ecotones. The first karyotype described was 2n=67 to 69 + 2-7 B and FN= 69-72, in which all chromosomes were acrocentric and the X chromosome was the only submetacentric chromosome. However, important aspects of the species chromosome evolution were not resolved because of the lack of information on chromosome banding. The G-banding pattern of Mazama nemorivaga karyotype showed the presence of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system as a product of an X-autosome tandem fusion, which results in a basic 2n=68, FN=70 in females and 2n= 69, FN=70 in males. The fact that this karyotype only differs from that of Capreolus capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771; 2n=70, FN=72+B) by X-autosome tandem fusion may corroborate the basal condition of Mazama nemorivaga and its proximity to the ancestral karyotype of the American Odocoileini. A derived karyotype 2n=67, XY1Y2, FN=70 + 3B from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (the western Amazon) may be evidence of differentiation between western and eastern populations.

  11. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of 241Am in the shell of the freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuykov, M.; Pelletier, E.; Rouleau, C.; Popov, L.; Fowler, S.W.; Orlova, M.


    Autoradiography was used to identify α-track distributions in a series of shell sections from live mussels Dreissena polymorpha Pallas and dissected shells of dead mussels obtained from laboratory experiments using relatively high concentrations of 241 Am in the exposure media, a required condition for successful use of this autoradiographic technique. A comparable distribution of α-tracks was recorded on autoradiographs from both live and dead shells suggesting that metabolism does not lead to any sizable changes in the process of 241 Am adsorption (present in the extrapallial fluid) onto the inner surface of shell. Autoradiographs showed a preferential accumulation of 241 Am in the organic periostracum, whereas the outer and inner shell layers were characterized by a relatively low α-tracks density. No α-tracks were observed in the central part of the shell in any of the samples. These observations will be useful for the development of a general model to explain bioaccumulation and biosorption processes of radionuclides into mollusk shells. (author)

  12. Treating Prey With Glyphosate Does Not Alter the Demographic Parameters and Predation of the Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (United States)

    Saska, Pavel; Skuhrovec, Jirí; Lukáš, Jan; Vlach, Miroslav; Chi, Hsin; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Honek, Alois


    Glyphosate is an herbicide that is used worldwide with potential environmental risks to nontarget organisms. We applied an age-stage, two-sex life table approach to assess the sublethal effects of short-term oral exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide on the life table parameters and biocontrol potential of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Aphids (Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)) treated with herbicide (an isopropylamine-salt of glyphosate) at low recommended, maximum recommended, and double the maximum recommended concentration for agricultural situations, and untreated controls were offered to the fourth instar of H. axyridis for 24 h. Development, consumption, and fecundity were measured daily until death. We detected minor differences in the hatching rate and mean generation time, whereas the longevity, fecundity, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and consumption were unaffected across treatments. We conclude that biocontrol potential of H. axyridis was not affected by acute oral intoxication by a glyphosate-based herbicide during the larval stage for 24 h under the study design. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Effect of microtrichia on the interlocking mechanism in the Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Liu, Chao; Bhushan, Bharat; Wu, Wei; Tong, Jin


    The hindwings of beetles are folded under the elytra when they are at rest but are extended during flight, which can provide bioinspiration for the design of deployable micro air vehicles (MAVs). Beetle hindwings must be able to be both securely locked under the elytra and freely extended for flight, depending on the required action. To investigate the locking mechanism, this study used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to examine the microstructures of the elytra, hindwings and abdomen of the Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773). On the ventral side (VS) of the elytra, the microtrichia show a transitional structure from the lateral edge to the medial edge. On the hindwing surface, the folded regions were observed on both the dorsal side (DS) and the VS. On the abdomen, the microtrichia between the abdominal segments show a cyclical change from sparse to dense in each segment in the middle of the abdomen. Furthermore, the different directions of microtrichia that lead to self-locking friction on the surfaces of the hindwing, elytron and abdomen appear to facilitate interlocking. A model for the interlocking of the hindwings of the H. axyridis was established, and its underlying mechanism is discussed.

  14. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This document gathers information from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant follows. The reactor 1 of the Kudankulam site has diverged and is expected to be connected to the grid soon. This reactor is a VVER-1000 reactor whose power output will reach 1000 MW, it is the most powerful of the 21 reactors operating in India. China and Pakistan have signed an agreement for the construction of 2 reactors ACP-1000 near Karachi for a cost of 9.6 billion dollars. Ukraine and Japan have launched a common project whose purpose is the satellite-based monitoring of damaged nuclear plants Chernobyl and Fukushima. 4 countries of central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) have created a common center for the research and development of reactors of 4. generation. The European Commission has decided to grant a loan for the construction of the Pallas high flux multi-purpose reactor on the Petten site (The Netherlands). It will replace the High Flux reactor as soon as 2023 particularly for the production of radio-isotopes. Jordan plans to build its first reactor, this reactor will be a 5 MW research reactor situated at Irbid in the promises of the Sciences and Technologies University. (A.C.)

  15. Purification of Alaskan Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus and New Zealand Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Liver Oil Using Short Path Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. M. Oliveira


    Full Text Available The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3. Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814 and New Zealand’s hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871 are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED standard for edible fish oils.

  16. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Fen Zhang

    Full Text Available In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover, on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas; however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis, but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey.

  17. Prevalência de anticorpos contra agentes virais e bacterianos em eqüídeos do Município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira: Brazilian Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moura Aguiar


    Full Text Available Foram examinados 176 eqüídeos (15 muares e 161 eqüinos do município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira, frente a agentes virais e bacterianos. A amostra correspondeu ao total de eqüídeos no município, considerando um nível de confiança de 99%, prevalência esperada de 50% e erro padrão de 10%. As infecções virais foram investigadas pelas provas de Imunodifusão em gel de Agar (Anemia Infecciosa Eqüina - AIE, Inibição da hemaglutinação (Influenza eqüina tipos 1 e 2 IE-1 e 2 e Soroneutralização em cultura celular (Arterite Viral Eqüina - AVE, Herpesvírus Eqüino tipo 1 HVE1, Estomatite Vesicular - EV e Encefalomielite Eqüina do Leste - EEE, do Oeste - WEE e Venezuela - VEE. Para o diagnóstico da leptospirose, foi utilizada a prova de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM; para o diagnóstico da brucelose, o teste do Antígeno Acidificado Tamponado (AAT foi utilizado como teste de triagem e as provas de Soroaglutinação Lenta em Tubos (SLT e 2-mercaptoetanol como testes diagnósticos. Foram constatados 9,6% dos eqüídeos reativos para AIE, 22,7% para HVE1, 19,9% para IE-1, 42,0% para IE-2, 21,0% para EEE, 11,3% para VEE, 3,4% para Brucella spp. e 91,4% para Leptospira spp. Os sorovares de leptospira mais freqüentes foram Bratislava (10,5%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (8,7% e Autumnalis (8,7% nos eqüinos e Patoc (26,6% nos muares. Não foram encontrados animais com anticorpos contra AVE, EV e WEE.

  18. Natural Besnoitia besnoiti infections in cattle: chronology of disease progression. (United States)

    Gollnick, Nicole S; Scharr, Julia C; Schares, Gereon; Langenmayer, Martin C


    Bovine besnoitiosis is an emerging protozoan disease in cattle. Neither vaccines nor chemotherapeutic drugs are currently available for prevention and treatment of Besnoitia besnoiti infections. Therefore the implementation of appropriate disease management strategies is of utmost importance. The aim of this longitudinal study was to complement current knowledge on the chronology of disease progression. This was realized by correlating clinical findings in early stages of naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis with results of real-time PCR of skin biopsies and of two western immunoblots and an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Animals for this study were obtained by i) closely monitoring a cow-calf operation with a high prevalence of bovine besnoitiosis for cases of acute disease, and by ii) conducting a 12-week cohabitation experiment on pasture with five healthy heifers, a healthy bull and five B. besnoiti infected cows. A control group of six healthy heifers was kept at a minimal distance of 20 m. Further, the spectrum of potential insect vectors was determined. Infected cattle were followed up to a maximum of 221 days after first detection of B. besnoiti antibodies. Two severely affected cows developed visible and palpable alterations of skin, a decrease in body condition despite good feed intake, and chronic bovine besnoitiosis-associated laminitis leading to non-healing sole ulcers. The cows also had high reciprocal IFAT titers and high loads of parasite DNA in skin samples. Two heifers developed a mild clinical course characterized by few parasitic cysts visible in the scleral conjunctivae and vestibula vaginae. Both heifers became infected during the time of high insect activity of the species Musca domestica, Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Stomoxys calcitrans. When a third heifer became subclinically infected, low insect activity was recorded. None of the six control heifers contracted a B. besnoiti infection. In chronic besnoitiosis

  19. Contrasting population and life history responses of a young morph-pair of European whitefish to the invasion of a specialised coregonid competitor, vendace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Terje Sandlund

    Full Text Available Invasions of non-native species represent a global problem of great scientific interest. Here we study in detail the response in population and life history characteristics of closely related native species, with divergent habitat preferences, that are impacted by an invading species over a sufficient time period to allow a new stable state to become established. A time series of 20 years starting at the first occurrence of the invader (vendace Coregonus albula (L. allows exploration of the long term population and life history response of two ecologically, morphologically, and genetically different native sympatric morphs (DR- and SR- of congeneric whitefish C. lavaretus (L.. The whitefish morphs are taxonomically equally related to the invading vendace, but only the planktivorous DR-whitefish share its pelagic niche. We would expect that the ecological differences between the whitefish morphs may be used as a predictor of competitive effects. Vendace exhibited an initial boom-and-bust development, and has continued to fluctuate in density. The responses of the pelagic DR-whitefish were: i an immediate habitat shift, ii a subsequent population decline caused by increased annual mortality, and iii a new stable state at a lower density and apparently relaxed competition. The ecologically more distant benthivorous SR-whitefish also showed significant, but a much more limited response during this process, indicating damped indirect interactions through the food-web. This long-term case-study found that in two native eco-species equally related to the invader, only one of the eco-species was highly affected. Direct competition for resources is obviously important for species interactions, whereas the taxonomic relatedness per se seems to offer little predictive power for invasion effects.

  20. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea’s potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather


    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state’s vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska’s first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish (Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040–2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.