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Sample records for core-shell nanostructures encapsulating

  1. Antibacterial efficacy of core-shell nanostructures encapsulating gentamicin against an in vivo intracellular  Salmonella model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Ranjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashish Ranjan1, Nikorn Pothayee2,3, Mohammed N Seleem2, Ronald D Tyler Jr4, Bonnie Brenseke4, Nammalwar Sriranganathan2,4, Judy S Riffle2,3, Ramanathan Kasimanickam11Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, 2Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 3Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VAAbstract: Pluronic based core-shell nanostructures encapsulating gentamicin were designed in this study. Block copolymers of (PAA–+Na-b-(PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO-b-PAA– +Na were blended with PAA– Na+ and complexed with the polycationic antibiotic gentamicin to form nanostructures. Synthesized nanostructures had a hydrodynamic diameter of 210 nm, zeta potentials of –0.7 (±0.2, and incorporated ~20% by weight of gentamicin. Nanostructures upon co-incubation with J774A.1 macrophage cells showed no adverse toxicity in vitro. Nanostructures administered in vivo either at multiple dosage of 5 µg g–1 or single dosage of 15 µg g–1 in AJ-646 mice infected with Salmonella resulted in significant reduction of viable bacteria in the liver and spleen. Histopathological evaluation for concentration-dependent toxicity at a dosage of 15 µg g–1 revealed mineralized deposits in 50% kidney tissues of free gentamicin-treated mice which in contrast was absent in nanostructure-treated mice. Thus, encapsulation of gentamicin in nanostructures may reduce toxicity and improve in vivo bacterial clearance.Keywords: gentamicin, core-shell nanostructures, Salmonella

  2. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  3. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Trevor David

    Porous core-shell nanostructures have recently received much attention for their enhanced thermal stability. They show great potential in the field of catalysis, as reactant gases can diffuse in and out of the porous shell while the core particle is protected from sintering, a process in which particles coalesce to form larger particles. Sintering is a large problem in industry and is the primary cause of irreversible deactivation. Despite the obvious advantages of high thermal stability, porous core-shell nanoparticles can be developed to have additional interactive properties from the combination of the core and shell together, rather than just the core particle alone. This dissertation focuses on developing new porous core-shell systems in which both the core and shell take part in catalysis. Two types of systems are explored; (1) yolk-shell nanostructures with reducible oxide shells formed using the Kirkendall effect and (2) ceramic-based porous oxide shells formed using sol-gel chemistry. Of the Kirkendall-based systems, Au FexOy and Cu CoO were synthesized and studied for catalytic applications. Additionally, ZnO was explored as a potential shelling material. Sol-gel work focused on optimizing synthetic methods to allow for coating of small gold particles, which remains a challenge today. Mixed metal oxides were explored as a shelling material to make dual catalysts in which the product of a reaction on the core particle becomes a reactant within the shell.

  4. Liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation synthesis of graphitized carbon-encapsulated palladium core-shell nanospheres for catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-jin; Ma, Rory; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Graphitized carbon-encapsulated palladium (Pd) core-shell nanospheres were produced via pulsed laser ablation of a solid Pd foil target submerged in acetonitrile. The microstructural features and optical properties of these nanospheres were characterized via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. Microstructural analysis indicated that the core-shell nanostructures consisted of single-crystalline cubic metallic Pd spheres that serve as the core material, over which graphitized carbon was anchored as a heterogeneous shell. The absorbance spectrum of the synthesized nanostructures exhibited a broad (absorption) band at ∼264 nm; this band corresponded to the typical inter-band transition of a metallic system and resulted possibly from the absorbance of the ionic Pd2+. The catalytic properties of the Pd and Pd@C core-shell nanostructures were investigated using the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline by an excess amount of NaBH4 in an aqueous solution at room temperature, as a model reaction. Owing to the graphitized carbon-layered structure and the high specific surface area, the resulting Pd@C nanostructures exhibited higher conversion efficiencies than their bare Pd counterparts. In fact, the layered structure provided access to the surface of the Pd nanostructures for the hydrogenation reaction, owing to the synergistic effect between graphitized carbon and the nanostructures. Their unique structure and excellent catalytic performance render Pd@C core-shell nanostructures highly promising candidates for catalysis applications.

  5. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-01-01

    A Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al 2 O 3 gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO 2 shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering

  6. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-09-03

    A Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al(2)O(3) gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO(2) shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering.

  7. Magnetic response of hybrid ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, U; Li, W J; Adeela, N; Irfan, M; Javed, K; Wan, C H; Riaz, S; Han, X F

    2016-03-21

    The synthesis of FeTiO3-Ni(Ni80Fe20) core-shell nanostructures by a two-step method (sol-gel and DC electrodeposition) has been demonstrated. XRD analysis confirms the rhombohedral crystal structure of FeTiO3(FTO) with space group R3[combining macron]. Transmission electron microscopy clearly depicts better morphology of nanostructures with shell thicknesses of ∼25 nm. Room temperature magnetic measurements showed significant enhancement of magnetic anisotropy for the permalloy (Ni80Fe20)-FTO over Ni-FTO core-shell nanostructures. Low temperature magnetic measurements of permalloy-FeTiO3 core-shell structure indicated a strong exchange bias mechanism with magnetic coercivity below the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature (TN = 59 K). The exchange bias is attributed to the alignment of magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic material at low temperature. Our scheme opens a path towards optimum automotive systems and wireless communications wherein broader bandwidths and smaller sizes are required.

  8. Physical property control in core/shell inorganic nanostructures for fluorescence and magnetic targeting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen K.

    Nanomaterials show immense promise for the future in numerous areas of application. Properties that are unique from the bulk material and are tunable allow for innovation in material design. This thesis will focus on controlling the physical properties of core/shell nanostructures to enhance the utility of the materials. The first focus is on the impact of different solvent mixtures during the shell growth phase of SILAR based core/shell quantum dot synthesis is studied. Gaining insight into the mechanism for SILAR growth of core/shell nanoparticles allows improved synthetic yields and precursor binding, providing enhanced control to synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles. The second focus of this thesis is exploring the use of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic drug targeting for cardiovascular conditions. Magnetic targeting for drug delivery enables increased local drug concentration, while minimizing non-specific interactions. In order to be effective for magnetic targeting, it must be shown that low magnetic strength is sufficient to capture flowing nanoparticles. By demonstrating the binding of a therapeutic agent to the surface at medicinal levels, the viability for use as a nanoparticle drug delivery system is improved.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of C@ZnO core-shell nanostructures and its photoluminescence property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tao; Yu, Shanwen; Fang, Xiaoxin; Huang, Honghong; Li, Lun [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Xiuyuan [College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Huihu, E-mail: wanghuihu@mail.hbut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Green Materials for Light Industry, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • C@ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal carbonization method. • Glucose content has a great influence on the microstructure of C@ZnO nanostructures. • An ultrathin amorphous carbon layer enhances the adsorption capacity of C@ZnO. • C@ZnO nanostructures exhibit the improved photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: An ultrathin layer of amorphous carbon coated C@ZnO core-shell nanostructures were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal carbonization process using glucose as precursor in this work. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS) were used for the characterization of as-prepared samples. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of C@ZnO samples were investigated using PL spectroscopy. The microstructure analysis results show that the glucose content has a great influence on the size, morphology, crystallinity and surface chemical states of C@ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the as-prepared C@ZnO core-shell nanostructures exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity and good photostability for methyl orange dye degradation due to its high adsorption ability and its improved optical characteristics.

  10. Design and optimization of Ag-dielectric core-shell nanostructures for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xiang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal-dielectric core-shell nanostructures have been proposed as a light trapping scheme for enhancing the optical absorption of silicon solar cells. As a potential application of such enhanced effects, the scattering efficiencies of three core-shell structures (Ag@SiO2, Ag@TiO2, and Ag@ZrO2 are discussed using the Mie Scattering theory. For compatibility with experiment results, the core diameter and shell thickness are limited to 100 and 30 nm, respectively, and a weighted scattering efficiency is introduced to evaluate the scattering abilities of different nanoparticles under the solar spectrum AM 1.5. The simulated results indicate that the shell material and thickness are two key parameters affecting the weighted scattering efficiency. The SiO2 is found to be an unsuitable shell medium because of its low refractive index. However, using the high refractive index mediumTiO2 in Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles, only the thicker shell (30 nm is more beneficial for light scattering. The ZrO2 is an intermediate refractive index material, so Ag@ZrO2 nanoparticles are the most effective core-shell nanostructures in these silicon solar cells applications.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell Fe3O4-gold-chitosan nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehizadeh Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fe3O4-gold-chitosan core-shell nanostructure can be used in biotechnological and biomedical applications such as magnetic bioseparation, water and wastewater treatment, biodetection and bioimaging, drug delivery, and cancer treatment. Results Magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 9.8 nm in diameter were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method. A gold-coated Fe3O4 monotonous core-shell nanostructure was produced with an average size of 15 nm in diameter by glucose reduction of Au3+ which is then stabilized with a chitosan cross linked by formaldehyde. The results of analyses with X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM indicated that the nanoparticles were regularly shaped, and agglomerate-free, with a narrow size distribution. Conclusions A rapid, mild method for synthesizing Fe3O4-gold nanoparticles using chitosan was investigated. A magnetic core-shell-chitosan nanocomposite, including both the supermagnetic properties of iron oxide and the optical characteristics of colloidal gold nanoparticles, was synthesized.

  12. Polarization effects on spectra of spherical core/shell nanostructures: Perturbation theory against finite difference approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibral, Asmaa; Zouitine, Asmaa; Assaid, El Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Poisson equation is solved analytically in the case of a point charge placed anywhere in a spherical core/shell nanostructure, immersed in aqueous or organic solution or embedded in semiconducting or insulating matrix. Conduction and valence band-edge alignments between core and shell are described by finite height barriers. Influence of polarization charges induced at the surfaces where two adjacent materials meet is taken into account. Original expressions of electrostatic potential created everywhere in the space by a source point charge are derived. Expressions of self-polarization potential describing the interaction of a point charge with its own image–charge are deduced. Contributions of double dielectric constant mismatch to electron and hole ground state energies as well as nanostructure effective gap are calculated via first order perturbation theory and also by finite difference approach. Dependencies of electron, hole and gap energies against core to shell radii ratio are determined in the case of ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure immersed in water or in toluene. It appears that finite difference approach is more efficient than first order perturbation method and that the effect of polarization charge may in no case be neglected as its contribution can reach a significant proportion of the value of nanostructure gap

  13. Polarization effects on spectra of spherical core/shell nanostructures: Perturbation theory against finite difference approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d' Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Laboratoire d' Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Zouitine, Asmaa [Département de Physique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Enseignement Technique, Université Mohammed V Souissi, B. P. 6207 Rabat-Instituts, Rabat, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Assaid, El Mahdi, E-mail: eassaid@yahoo.fr [Equipe d' Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Laboratoire d' Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); and others

    2015-02-01

    Poisson equation is solved analytically in the case of a point charge placed anywhere in a spherical core/shell nanostructure, immersed in aqueous or organic solution or embedded in semiconducting or insulating matrix. Conduction and valence band-edge alignments between core and shell are described by finite height barriers. Influence of polarization charges induced at the surfaces where two adjacent materials meet is taken into account. Original expressions of electrostatic potential created everywhere in the space by a source point charge are derived. Expressions of self-polarization potential describing the interaction of a point charge with its own image–charge are deduced. Contributions of double dielectric constant mismatch to electron and hole ground state energies as well as nanostructure effective gap are calculated via first order perturbation theory and also by finite difference approach. Dependencies of electron, hole and gap energies against core to shell radii ratio are determined in the case of ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure immersed in water or in toluene. It appears that finite difference approach is more efficient than first order perturbation method and that the effect of polarization charge may in no case be neglected as its contribution can reach a significant proportion of the value of nanostructure gap.

  14. Single-step generation of fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticle core-shell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, R; Shem, P M; Pecchia-Bekkum, C; Bjorge, N S; Shumaker-Parry, J S

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple route to produce fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a single step under aqueous conditions using the fluorophore 1-pyrenemethylamine (PMA). Different amounts of PMA were used and the resulting core-shell gold nanoparticles were analyzed using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis shows nanoparticles consisting of a gold nanoparticle core which is encapsulated with a lower contrast shell. In the UV-visible spectra, we observed a significant red shift (37 nm) of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maximum (λ max ) compared to citrate-stabilized AuNPs of a similar size. We attribute the prominent LSPR wavelength shift for PMA-AuNP conjugates to the increase in the local dielectric environment near the gold nanoparticles due to the shell formation. This simple, aqueous-based synthesis is a new approach to the production of fluorophore-encapsulated AuNPs that could be applicable in biological sensing systems and photonic device fabrication.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-chitosan-coated cobalt ferrite core/shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhua, Qin [Department of Physics, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li Fengsheng, E-mail: qinrunh@126.com [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wei, Jiang; Mingyue, Chen [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-08-01

    Special diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-chitosan-coated cobalt ferrite core/shell nanoparticles have been synthesized via a novel zero-length emulsion crosslinking process and characterized via crosslinking degree, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibration sample magnetometry. The experimental results showed that the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were really encapsulated with a DTPA-chitosan hybrid layer and the nanocomposites were proved to be nearly superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization of 26.6 emu g{sup -1}.

  16. SISGR - Design and Characterization of Novel Photocatalysts With Core-Shell Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaera, Francisco [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bardeen, Christopher J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yin, Yadong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-03-15

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop new a new and novel class of well-characterized nanostructured Metal@TiO2 core-shell and yolk-shell photocatalysts to address two fundamental issues presently limiting this field: (1) the fast recombination of electron-hole pairs once generated by light absorption, and (2) the recombination of H2 and O2 on the metal surface once produced. These model samples are also used to study the fundamentals of the photocatalytic processes.

  17. Material dimensionality effects on the nanoindentation behavior of Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Robert A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Center for Advanced Surface Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Goss, Josue A. [Center for Advanced Surface Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Zou, Min, E-mail: mzou@uark.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Center for Advanced Surface Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Nanoindentation behavior of Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures were studied. • 3D core confinement enables significant deformation recovery beyond elastic limit. • As the confinement is reduced, the deformation recovery is reduced or suppressed. • Atomistic simulations suggest core confinement affects dislocation dynamics. • 3D confinement has the highest percentage of dislocation removal after unloading. - Abstract: The nanoindentation behavior of hemispherical Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures (CSNs), horizontally-aligned Al/a-Si core-shell nanorods (CSRs) with various lengths, and an Al/a-Si layered thin film has been studied to understand the effects of geometrical confinement of the Al core on the CSN deformation behavior. When loaded beyond the elastic limit, the CSNs have an unconventional load-displacement behavior with no residual displacement after unloading, resulting in no net shape change after indentation. This behavior is enabled by dislocation activities within the confined Al core, as indicated by discontinuous indentation signatures (load-drops and load-jumps) observed in the load-displacement data. When the geometrical confinement of the core is slightly reduced, as in the case of CSRs with the shortest rod length, the discontinuous indentation signatures and deformation resistance are heavily reduced. Further decreases in core confinement result in conventional nanoindentation behavior, regardless of geometry. Supporting molecular dynamics simulations show that dislocations nucleated in the core of a CSN are more effectively removed during unloading compared to CSRs, which supports the hypothesis that the unique deformation resistance of Al/a-Si CSNs are enabled by 3-dimensional confinement of the Al core.

  18. Material dimensionality effects on the nanoindentation behavior of Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Robert A.; Goss, Josue A.; Zou, Min

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoindentation behavior of Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures were studied. • 3D core confinement enables significant deformation recovery beyond elastic limit. • As the confinement is reduced, the deformation recovery is reduced or suppressed. • Atomistic simulations suggest core confinement affects dislocation dynamics. • 3D confinement has the highest percentage of dislocation removal after unloading. - Abstract: The nanoindentation behavior of hemispherical Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures (CSNs), horizontally-aligned Al/a-Si core-shell nanorods (CSRs) with various lengths, and an Al/a-Si layered thin film has been studied to understand the effects of geometrical confinement of the Al core on the CSN deformation behavior. When loaded beyond the elastic limit, the CSNs have an unconventional load-displacement behavior with no residual displacement after unloading, resulting in no net shape change after indentation. This behavior is enabled by dislocation activities within the confined Al core, as indicated by discontinuous indentation signatures (load-drops and load-jumps) observed in the load-displacement data. When the geometrical confinement of the core is slightly reduced, as in the case of CSRs with the shortest rod length, the discontinuous indentation signatures and deformation resistance are heavily reduced. Further decreases in core confinement result in conventional nanoindentation behavior, regardless of geometry. Supporting molecular dynamics simulations show that dislocations nucleated in the core of a CSN are more effectively removed during unloading compared to CSRs, which supports the hypothesis that the unique deformation resistance of Al/a-Si CSNs are enabled by 3-dimensional confinement of the Al core.

  19. New method to evaluate optical properties of core-shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria-Tapia, V. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Ameca, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Centro Universitario de Los Valles (Mexico); Franco, A., E-mail: alfredofranco@fisica.unam.mx; Garcia-Macedo, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    A new method is presented to calculate, for metallic core-dielectric shell nanostructures, the local refractive index, resonance condition, maximum spectral shift, plasma wavelength, and the sensitivity of the wavelength maximum to variations in the refractive index of the environment. The equations that describe these properties are directly related to the surface plasmon peak position, refractive index of the shell, and to the surrounding medium. The method is based on the approach that a layered core dispersed in a dielectric environment (core-shell model) can be figured out as an uncoated sphere dispersed in a medium with a local refractive index (local refractive index model). Thus, in the Mie theory, the same spectral position of the surface plasmon resonance peak can be obtained by varying the volume fraction of the shell or by varying the local refractive index. The assumed equivalence between plasmon resonance wavelengths enable us to show that the local refractive index depends geometrically on the shell volume fraction. Hence, simple relationships between optical and geometrical properties of these core-shell nanostructures are obtained. Furthermore, good agreement is observed between the new relationships and experimental data corresponding to gold nanoparticles (radius = 7.5 nm) covered with silica shells (with thicknesses up to 29.19 nm), which insured that the equivalence hypothesis is correct.

  20. Metal oxide core shell nanostructures as building blocks for efficient light emission (SISGR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jane P [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dorman, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cheung, Cyrus [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The objective of this research is to synthesize core-shell nano-structured metal oxide materials and investigate their structural, electronic and optical properties to understand the microscopic pathways governing the energy conversion process, thereby controlling and improving their efficiency. Specifically, the goal is to use a single metal oxide core-shell nanostructure and a single excitation source to generate photons with long emission lifetime over the entire visible spectrum and when controlled at the right ratio, generating white light. In order to achieve this goal, we need to control the energy transfer between light emitting elements, which dictates the control of their interatomic spacing and spatial distribution. We developed an economical wet chemical process to form the nanostructured core and to control the thickness and composition of the shell layers. With the help from using DOE funded synchrotron radiation facility, we delineated the growth mechanism of the nano-structured core and the shell layers, thereby enhancing our understanding of structure-property relation in these materials. Using the upconversion luminescence and the lifetime measurements as effective feedback to materials sysnthes is and integration, we demonstrated improved luminescence lifetimes of the core-shell nano-structures and quantified the optimal core-multi-shell structure with optimum shell thickness and composition. We developed a rare-earths co-doped LaPO4 core-multishell structure in order to produce a single white light source. It was decided that the mutli-shell method would produce the largest increase in luminescence efficiency while limiting any energy transfer that may occur between the dopant ions. All samples resulted in emission spectra within the accepted range of white light generation based on the converted CIE color coordinates. The white light obtained varied between warm and cool white depending on the layering architecture, allowing for the

  1. Synthesis of Co 2SnO 4@C core-shell nanostructures with reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Yang, Deren

    This paper reports the synthesis of Co 2SnO 4@C core-shell nanostructures through a simple glucose hydrothermal and subsequent carbonization approach. The as-synthesized Co 2SnO 4@C core-shell nanostructures have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which exhibit improved cyclic performance compared to pure Co 2SnO 4 nanocrystals. The carbon matrix has good volume buffering effect and high electronic conductivity, which may be responsible for the improved cyclic performance.

  2. Hierarchical α-MnO2 nanowires@Ni1-x Mnx Oy nanoflakes core-shell nanostructures for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Yi; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yu, Le; Liu, Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-08-13

    A facile two-step solution-phase method has been developed for the preparation of hierarchical α-MnO2 nanowires@Ni1-x Mnx Oy nanoflakes core-shell nanostructures. Ultralong α-MnO2 nanowires were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in the first step. Subsequently, Ni1-x Mnx Oy nanoflakes were grown on α-MnO2 nanowires to form core-shell nanostructures using chemical bath deposition followed by thermal annealing. Both solution-phase methods can be easily scaled up for mass production. We have evaluated their application in supercapacitors. The ultralong one-dimensional (1D) α-MnO2 nanowires in hierarchical core-shell nanostructures offer a stable and efficient backbone for charge transport; while the two-dimensional (2D) Ni1-x Mnx Oy nanoflakes on α-MnO2 nanowires provide high accessible surface to ions in the electrolyte. These beneficial features enable the electrode with high capacitance and reliable stability. The capacitance of the core-shell α-MnO2 @Ni1-x Mnx Oy nanostructures (x = 0.75) is as high as 657 F g(-1) at a current density of 250 mA g(-1) , and stable charging-discharging cycling over 1000 times at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) has been realized. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Plasmon enhanced water splitting mediated by hybrid bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, William R; Coppola, Andrew; Zarick, Holly F; Arora, Poorva; Miller, Kevin J; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-11-07

    In this work, we employed wet chemically synthesized bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanostructures (Au-AgNSs) to enhance the photocurrent density of mesoporous TiO2 for water splitting and we compared the results with monometallic Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). While Au-AgNSs incorporated photoanodes give rise to 14× enhancement in incident photon to charge carrier efficiency, AuNPs embedded photoanodes result in 6× enhancement. By varying nanoparticle concentration in the photoanodes, we observed ∼245× less Au-AgNSs are required relative to AuNPs to generate similar photocurrent enhancement for solar fuel conversion. Power-dependent measurements of Au-AgNSs and AuNPs showed a first order dependence to incident light intensity, relative to half-order dependence for TiO2 only photoanodes. This indicated that plasmonic nanostructures enhance charge carriers formed on the surface of the TiO2 which effectively participate in photochemical reactions. Our experiments and simulations suggest the enhanced near-field, far-field, and multipolar resonances of Au-AgNSs facilitating broadband absorption of solar radiation collectively gives rise to their superior performance in water splitting.

  4. Investigation of magnetic and magneto-transport properties of ferromagnetic-charge ordered core-shell nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalipada

    2017-10-01

    In our present study, we address in detail the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of ferromagnetic-charge ordered core-shell nanostructures. In these core-shell nanostructures, well-known half metallic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 nanoparticles (average particle size, ˜20 nm) are wrapped by the charge ordered antiferromagnetic Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (PCMO) matrix. The intrinsic properties of PCMO markedly modify it into such a core-shell form. The robustness of the PCMO matrix becomes fragile and melts at an external magnetic field (H) of ˜20 kOe. The analysis of magneto-transport data indicates the systematic reduction of the electron-electron and electron-magnon interactions in the presence of an external magnetic field in these nanostructures. The pronounced training effect appears in this phase separated compound, which was analyzed by considering the second order tunneling through the grain boundaries of the nanostructures. Additionally, the analysis of low field magnetoconductance data supports the second order tunneling and shows the close value of the universal limit (˜1.33).

  5. Synthesis and Plasmonic Understanding of Core/Satellite and Core Shell Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qifeng

    Au nanospheres with molecular linkers. The plasmon resonances of the core/satellite nanostructures undergo red shifts in comparison to those of the sole Au cores, which is consistent with Mie theory analysis. As predicted by finite-difference time-domain simulations, the assembled core/satellite nanostructures exhibit large enhancements for Raman scattering. The facile growth of Au nanospheres and assembly of core/satellite nanostructures blaze a new way to the design of nanoarchitectures with desired plasmonic properties and functions. Coating semiconductors onto Au nanocrystals to form core shell configurations can increase the interactions between the two materials, benefiting from their large active interfacial area. The shell can also protect the Au nanocrystal core from aggregation, reshaping, and chemical corrosion. In this thesis, (Au nanocrystal core) (titania shell) nanostructures with tunable shell thicknesses were prepared by a facile wetchemistry method. Au nanocrystals with strong and tunable plasmon resonances in the visible and near-infrared regions can enhance and broaden the light utilization of TiO2 through the scattering/absorption enhancement, sensitization, and hot-electron injection. The integration of Au nanocrystals therefore hold the prospect of breaking the light-harvesting limit of TiO2 arising from its wide band gap. The resultant (Au core) (TiO2 shell) nanostructures were examined to be capable of efficiently generating reactive oxygen species under near-infrared resonant excitation. On the other hand, the transverse plasmon modes of Au nanorods, which are often too weak to be observed on scattering spectra, are enhanced by the TiO2 shell through energy transfer. With the increment of the shell thickness, the intensity of the transverse plasmon mode increases significantly and even becomes comparable with the longitudinal plasmon mode. Interestingly, both the transverse and longitudinal modes of the (Au core) (TiO2 shell) nanostructures

  6. Engineering of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for carrier multiplication: Core/shell, 1D, and 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianglu

    Near infrared emitting semiconductors have been used widely in industry especially in solar-cell fabrications. The efficiency of single junction solar-cell can reach the Shockley-Queisser limit by using optimum band gap material such as silicon and cadmium telluride. The theoretical efficiency can be further enhanced through carrier multiplication, in which a high energy photon is absorbed and more than one electron-hole pair can be generated, reaching more than 100% quantum efficiency in the high energy region of sunlight. The realization of more than unity external quantum efficiency in lead selenide quantum dots solar cell has motivated vast investigation on lowering the carrier multiplication threshold and further improving the efficiency. This dissertation focuses on synthesis of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for their optical spectroscopy studies. PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots were synthesized by cation exchange to obtain thick shells (up to 14 monolayers) for studies of visible and near infrared dual band emissions and carrier multiplication efficiency. By examining the reaction mechanism, a thermodynamic and a kinetic model are introduced to explain the vacancy driven cation exchange. As indicated by the effective mass model, PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots has quasi-type-II band alignment, possessing electron delocalized through the entire quantum dot and hole localized in the core, which breaks down the symmetry of energy levels in the conduction and valence band, leading to hot-hole-assisted efficient multi-exciton generation and a lower carrier multiplication threshold to the theoretical value. For further investigation of carrier multiplication study, PbTe, possessing the highest efficiency among lead chalcogenides due to slow intraband cooling, is synthesized in one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructures. By using dodecanethiol as the surfactant, PbTe NRs can be prepared with high uniformity in width and resulted in fine quantum

  7. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  8. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  9. Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adham; Skinley, Kevin; Herodotou, Stephanie; Zhang, Haifei

    2018-01-01

    The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Photoinduced Dynamics in Novel Donor-Acceptor Core-Shell Nanostructures for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Jacob; Jamhawi, Abdelqader; Abeywickrama, Thulitha M.; Loomis, Wendy; Rathnayake, Hemali; Liu, Jinjun

    2016-06-01

    Novel donor-acceptor nanostructures were synthesized via covalent synthesis and/or UV cross-linking method. Their photoinduced dynamics were investigated with ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. These new nanostructures are made with the strategy in mind to reduce manufacturing steps in the process of fabricating an organic photovoltaic cell. By imitating the heterojunction interface within a fixed particle domain, several fabrication steps can be bypassed reducing cost and giving more applicability to other film deposition methods. Such applications include aerosol deposition and ink-jet printing. The systems that were studied by TA spectroscopy include PDIB core, PDIB-P3HT core-shell, and PDIB-PANT core-shell which range in size from 60 to 130 nm. Within the experimentally accessible spectra range there resides a region of ground state bleaching, stimulated emission, and excited-state absorption of both neutrals and anions. Control experiments have been carried out to assign these features. At high pump fluences the TA spectra of PDIB core alone also indicate an intramolecular charge separation. The TA spectroscopy results thus far suggest that the core-shells resemble the photoinduced dynamics of a standard film although the particles are dispersed in solution, which indicates the desired outcome of the work.

  11. Stepwise synthesis of cubic Au-AgCdS core-shell nanostructures with tunable plasmon resonances and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Liang, Shan; Nan, Fan; Pan, Yue-Yue; Shi, Jun-Jun; Zhou, Li; Jia, Shuang-Feng; Wang, Jian-Bo; Yu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2013-10-21

    Cubic Au-AgCdS core-shell nanostructures were synthesized through cation exchange method assisted by tributylphosphine (TBP) as a phase-transfer agent. Among intermediate products, Au-Ag core-shell nanocubes exhibited many high-order plasmon resonance modes related to the special cubic shape, and these plasmon bands red-shifted along with the increasing of particle size. The plasmon band of Au core first red-shifted and broadened at the step of Au-Ag₂S and then blue-shifted and narrowed at the step of Au-AgCdS. Since TBP was very crucial for the efficient conversion from Ag₂S to CdS, we found that both absorption and fluorescence of the final products could be controlled by TBP.

  12. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Magnetic Iron Oxide@SiO₂-Au@C Particles with Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Li, Xiangcun; Qi, Xinhong; Luo, Fan; He, Gaohong

    2015-05-12

    The preparation of nonspherical magnetic core-shell nanostructures with uniform sizes still remains a challenge. In this study, magnetic iron oxide@SiO2-Au@C particles with different shapes, such as pseduocube, ellipsoid, and peanut, were synthesized using hematite as templates and precursors of magnetic iron oxide. The as-obtained magnetic particles demonstrated uniform sizes, shapes, and well-designed core-shell nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) of ∼6 nm were uniformly distributed between the silica and carbon layers. The embedding of the metal nanocrystals into the two different layers prevented the aggregation and reduced the loss of the metal nanocrystals during recycling. Catalytic performance of the peanut-like particles kept almost unchanged without a noticeable decrease in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in 8 min even after 7 cycles, indicating excellent reusability of the particles. Moreover, the catalyst could be readily recycled magnetically after each reduction by an external magnetic field.

  13. On the possibility of room temperature ferromagnetism on chunk-shape BaSnO3/ZnO core/shell nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Core/shell BaSnO3/ZnO (BS-ZO) nanostructures were prepared by oxalate precipitation method and wet-chemical method. BaSnO3 (BSO) cubic perovskite structure and ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite sizes is 23 nm, 29 nm and 27 nm for BSO, ZnO and BS-ZO, respectively. Chunk-shape and cuboids morphology observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by VSM for bare and core-shell nano systems and the room temperature ferromagnetism observed for core-shell nanostructures. The BSO/ZnO shows enhanced coercivity and saturated magnetization as compared with BSO and ZnO nanostructures.

  14. Tuning the field distribution and fabrication of an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure for a SPR-based fiber optic phenyl hydrazine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Kaur, Parvinder; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-05-27

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor that uses coatings of silver and aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanostructure (Al@ZnO) for the detection of phenyl hydrazine (Ph-Hyd). To optimize the volume fraction (f) of Al in ZnO and the thickness of the core-shell nanostructure layer (d), the electric field intensity along the normal to the multilayer system is simulated using the two-dimensional multilayer matrix method. The Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure is prepared using the laser ablation technique. Various probes are fabricated with different values of f and an optimized thickness of core-shell nanostructure for the characterization of the Ph-Hyd sensor. The performance of the Ph-Hyd sensor is evaluated in terms of sensitivity. It is found that the Ag/Al@ZnO nanostructure core-shell-coated SPR probe with f = 0.25 and d = 0.040 μm possesses the maximum sensitivity towards Ph-Hyd. These results are in agreement with the simulated ones obtained using electric field intensity. In addition, the performance of the proposed probe is compared with that of probes coated with (i) Al@ZnO nanocomposite, (ii) Al nanoparticles and (iii) ZnO nanoparticles. It is found that the probe coated with an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure shows the largest resonance wavelength shift. The detailed mechanism of the sensing (involving chemical reactions) is presented. The sensor also manifests optimum performance at pH 7.

  15. Novel of core-shell AlOOH/Cu nanostructures: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and in vitro toxicity in Neuro-2a cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakina, O. V., E-mail: ovbakina@ispms.tsc.ru; Fomenko, A. N., E-mail: alserova@ispms.tsc.ru; Korovin, M. S., E-mail: msk@ispms.tsc.ru; Glazkova, E. A., E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Svarovskaya, N. V., E-mail: nvsv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Sciences SB RAS, Akademicheskii Pr. 2/4, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Core-shell micro/nanostructures were fabricated by the reaction of Al/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles with water. Al/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of a pair of the corresponding metal wires in an argon atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C to form core-shell micro/nanostructures. The obtained products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering and the nitrogen adsorption method. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized structures was investigated against E. coli and St. aureus. The toxic effect of these nanostructures against the Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cell line was investigated. AlOOH/Cu nanostructures are shown to inhibit cell proliferation. The AlOOH/Cu nanostructures are good candidates for medical applications.

  16. Carrier states and optical response in core-shell-like semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, C. M.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    The charge carrier states in a GaAs/Al?Ga?As axially symmetric core-shell quantum wire are calculated in the effective mass approximation via a spectral method. The possible presence of externally applied electric and magnetic fields is taken into account, together with the variation in the characteristic in-plane dimensions of the structure. The obtained energy spectrum is used to evaluate the optical response through the coefficients of intersubband optical absorption and relative refractive index change. The particular geometry of the system also allows to use the same theoretical model in order to determine the photoluminescence peak energies associated to correlated electron-hole states in double GaAs/Al?Ga?As quantum rings, showing a good agreement when they are compared with recent experimental reports. This agreement may validate the use of both the calculation process and the approximate model of abrupt, circularly shaped cross section geometry for the system.

  17. Ground state energy and wave function of an off-centre donor in spherical core/shell nanostructures: Dielectric mismatch and impurity position effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida 24000 (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Zouitine, Asmae [Département de Physique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique, Université Mohammed V Souissi, B.P. 6207 Rabat-Instituts, Rabat (Morocco); Assaid, El Mahdi, E-mail: eassaid@yahoo.fr [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida 24000 (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Feddi, El Mustapha [Département de Physique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique, Université Mohammed V Souissi, B.P. 6207 Rabat-Instituts, Rabat (Morocco); and others

    2014-09-15

    Ground state energy and wave function of a hydrogen-like off-centre donor impurity, confined anywhere in a ZnS/CdSe spherical core/shell nanostructure are determined in the framework of the envelope function approximation. Conduction band-edge alignment between core and shell of nanostructure is described by a finite height barrier. Dielectric constant mismatch at the surface where core and shell materials meet is taken into account. Electron effective mass mismatch at the inner surface between core and shell is considered. A trial wave function where coulomb attraction between electron and off-centre ionized donor is used to calculate ground state energy via the Ritz variational principle. The numerical approach developed enables access to the dependence of binding energy, coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to core radius, shell radius and impurity position inside ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure.

  18. Ground state energy and wave function of an off-centre donor in spherical core/shell nanostructures: Dielectric mismatch and impurity position effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibral, Asmaa; Zouitine, Asmae; Assaid, El Mahdi; Feddi, El Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Ground state energy and wave function of a hydrogen-like off-centre donor impurity, confined anywhere in a ZnS/CdSe spherical core/shell nanostructure are determined in the framework of the envelope function approximation. Conduction band-edge alignment between core and shell of nanostructure is described by a finite height barrier. Dielectric constant mismatch at the surface where core and shell materials meet is taken into account. Electron effective mass mismatch at the inner surface between core and shell is considered. A trial wave function where coulomb attraction between electron and off-centre ionized donor is used to calculate ground state energy via the Ritz variational principle. The numerical approach developed enables access to the dependence of binding energy, coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to core radius, shell radius and impurity position inside ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure

  19. Interface engineered ferrite@ferroelectric core-shell nanostructures: A facile approach to impart superior magneto-electric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ann Rose; Raneesh, B.; Das, Dipankar; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi Samuel; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    The electric field control of magnetism in multiferroics is attractive for the realization of ultra-fast and miniaturized low power device applications like nonvolatile memories. Room temperature hybrid multiferroic heterostructures with core-shell (0-0) architecture (ferrite core and ferroelectric shell) were developed via a two-step method. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images confirm the core-shell structure. The temperature dependant magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectra reveal superparamagnetic nature of the core-shell sample. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops reveal leaky nature of the samples. The results indicate the promising applications of the samples for magneto-electric memories and spintronics.

  20. Fluorescence lifetime measurements to determine the core-shell nanostructure of FITC-doped silica nanoparticles: An optical approach to evaluate nanoparticle photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Swadeshmukul; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Bertolino, Chiara; Dutta, Debamitra; Cao Zehui; Tan Weihong; Moudgil, Brij M.; Mericle, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we described a novel fluorescence lifetime-based approach to determine the core-shell nanostructure of FITC-(fluorescein isothiocyanate, isomer I) doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). Because of phase homogeneity between the core and the shell, electron microscopic technique could not be used to characterize such core-shell nanostructure. Our optical approach not only revealed the core-shell nanostructure of FSNPs but also evaluated photobleaching of FSNPs both in the solvated and non-solvated (dry) states. The FSNPs were produced via Stoeber's method by hydrolysis and co-condensation reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and fluorescein linked (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (FITC-APTS conjugate) in the presence of ammonium hydroxide catalyst. To obtain a pure silica surface coating, FSNPs were then post-coated with TEOS. The average particle size was 135 nm as determined by TEM (transmission electron microscope) measurements. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectral data demonstrated successful doping of FITC dye molecules in FSNPs. Fluorescence lifetime data revealed that approximately 62% of dye molecules remained in the solvated silica shell, while 38% of dye molecules remained in the non-solvated (dry) silica core. Photobleaching experiments of FSNPs were conducted both in DI water (solution state) and in air (dry state). Severe photobleaching of FSNPs was observed in air. However, FSNPs were moderately photostable in the solution state. Photostability of FSNPs in both solution and dry states was explained on the basis of fluorescence lifetime data

  1. A general and high-yield galvanic displacement approach to Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells and enhanced electrocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Shaozhen; Sang, Yan

    2012-07-23

    In this work, we utilize the galvanic displacement synthesis and make it a general and efficient method for the preparation of Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells, which consist of multilayer nanoparticles. The method is generally applicable to the preparation of Au-Au, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt core-shell nanostructures with typical porous shells. Moreover, the Au-Au isomeric core-shell nanostructure is reported for the first time. The lower oxidation states of Au(I), Pd(II), and Pt(II) are supposed to contribute to the formation of porous core-shell nanostructures instead of yolk-shell nanostructures. The electrocatalytic ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of porous Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures are assessed as a typical example for the investigation of the advantages of the obtained core-shell nanostructures. As expected, the Au-Pd core-shell nanostructure indeed exhibits a significantly reduced overpotential (the peak potential is shifted in the positive direction by 44 mV and 32 mV), a much improved CO tolerance (I(f)/I(b) is 3.6 and 1.63 times higher), and an enhanced catalytic stability in comparison with Pd nanoparticles and Pt/C catalysts. Thus, porous Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures may provide many opportunities in the fields of organic catalysis, direct alcohol fuel cells, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and so forth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nanocrystalline p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol) and gold core-shell structure as a model drug deliverable organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhojit; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2013-09-01

    We report on the generation of core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) having an organic nanocrystal (NC) core coated with an inorganic metallic shell, being dispersed in aqueous medium. First, NCs of p-hydroxyacetanilide (pHA)--known also as paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH < 3), the Au shell could be dissolved, subsequently releasing pHA molecules. The dissolution of Au shell was marked by a gradual diminishing of its SPR band, while the release of pHA molecules in the solution was confirmed from TEM and FTIR studies. The findings suggest that the core-shell NP could be hypothesized to be a model for encapsulating drug molecules, in their crystalline forms, for slow as well as targeted release. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03566b

  3. Spinel Ferrite Core-Shell Nanostructures by a Versatile Solvothermal Seed-Mediated Growth Approach and Study of Their Nanointerfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angotzi, M. S.; Musinu, A.; Mameli, V.; Ardu, A.; Cara, C.; Nižňanský, Daniel; Xin, H. L.; Cannas, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2017), s. 7889-7900 ISSN 1936-0851 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : ferrite * core-shell nanoparticles * cofe2o4/nife2o4 * EELS * EDX Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  4. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-03-01

    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO 2 to TiO 2 @C and TiO 2 @MnO 2 to TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO 2 shells in TiO 2 @C and organic shells of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C. The TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s -1 ), while the absence of MnO 2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO 2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO 2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controllable synthesis and field emission enhancement of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} core-shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yang; Li Yawei; Yu Ke; Zhu Ziqiang, E-mail: yk5188@263.net [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2011-03-16

    Four types of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures were synthesized on Au-catalysed silicon substrate via a VLS method. A rod-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructure was chosen to fabricate In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core-shell nanostructures with different shell thicknesses via a two-step method. Core-shell nanostructures with shell thickness of 30 nm are reprocessed by annealing and H{sub 2} plasma treating. Field emission (FE) properties of all the samples were measured and compared. It is found that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings remarkably decrease the effective work function and improve the FE capabilities of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures (turn-on field decreases from 1.34 to 1.26 V {mu}m{sup -1}, threshold field decreases from 3.60 to 2.64 V {mu}m{sup -1}). Annealing and H{sub 2} plasma treating can promote the improvement even further (turn-on field 1.23 V {mu}m{sup -1}, 1.21 V {mu}m{sup -1} and threshold field 2.50 V {mu}m{sup -1}, 2.14 V {mu}m{sup -1}, respectively). The FE enhancement is attributed to the electron accumulation in the insulating Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructure and the electron redistribution at the heterojunction.

  7. Hydrogenated CoOx nanowire@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiao; Huang, Lei; Xiao, Yuxiu; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2014-05-01

    We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g-1 (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm-2), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (~45.3 W h kg-1 at 1010 W kg-1), high power density (~7080 W kg-1 at 23.4 W h kg-1) and high cycling stability. Furthermore, after charging for ~1 min, one such 22 cm2 ASC device demonstrated to be able to drive a small windmill (0.8 V, 0.1 W) for 20 min. Two such ASCs connected in series can power up a seven-color LED (3.2 V) efficiently.We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g-1 (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm-2), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (~45.3 W h kg-1 at

  8. Self-assembly of star micelle into vesicle in solvents of variable quality: the star micelle retains its core-shell nanostructure in the vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nijuan; He, Qun; Bu, Weifeng

    2015-03-03

    Intra- and intermolecular interactions of star polymers in dilute solutions are of fundamental importance for both theoretical interest and hierarchical self-assembly into functional nanostructures. Here, star micelles with a polystyrene corona and a small ionic core bearing platinum(II) complexes have been regarded as a model of star polymers to mimic their intra- and interstar interactions and self-assembled behaviors in solvents of weakening quality. In the chloroform/methanol mixture solvents, the star micelles can self-assemble to form vesicles, in which the star micelles shrink significantly and are homogeneously distributed on the vesicle surface. Unlike the morphological evolution of conventional amphiphiles from micellar to vesicular, during which the amphiphilic molecules are commonly reorganized, the star micelles still retain their core-shell nanostructures in the vesicles and the coronal chains of the star micelle between the ionic cores are fully interpenetrated.

  9. Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanostructures for surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.A.; Adams, S.A.; Zhang, J.Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lopez-Luke, T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cento de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948 Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Torres-Castro, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, A.P. 126-F, Monterrey, NL, 66450 (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    The synthesis, structural and optical characterization, and application of superparamagnetic and water-dispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reported. The structure of the nanoparticles was determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). STEM images of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles reveal an average diameter of 120 nm and a high degree of surface roughness. The nanoparticles, which display superparamagnetic properties due to the core Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material, exhibit a visible surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaked at 580 nm due to the outer gold shell. The nanoparticles are used as a substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a Raman reporter molecule. The SERS enhancement factor is estimated to be on the order of 10{sup 6}, which is {proportional_to} 2 times larger than that of conventional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) under similar conditions. Significantly, magnetically-induced aggregation of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles substantially enhanced SERS activity compared to non-magnetically-aggregated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles. This is attributed to both increased scattering from the aggregates as well as ''hot spots'' due to more junction sites in the magnetically-induced aggregates. The magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core, coupled with the optical properties of the Au shell, make the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles unique for various potential applications including biological sensing and therapy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in core-shell silica: A structured hydrogenation catalyst with enhanced activity for reduction of oxyanion water pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Jinyong; Wang, Peng; Werth, Charles; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been applied to mediate catalytic removal of toxic oxyanions and halogenated hydrocarbons in contaminated water using H2 as a clean and sustainable reductant. However, activity loss by nanoparticle aggregation and difficulty of nanoparticle recovery are two major challenges to widespread technology adoption. Herein, we report the synthesis of a core-shell-structured catalyst with encapsulated Pd nanoparticles and its enhanced catalytic activity in reduction of bromate (BrO3-), a regulated carcinogenic oxyanion produced during drinking water disinfection process, using 1 atm H2 at room temperature. The catalyst material consists of a nonporous silica core decorated with preformed octahedral Pd nanoparticles that were further encapsulated within an ordered mesoporous silica shell (i.e., SiO2@Pd@mSiO2). Well-defined mesopores (2.3 nm) provide a physical barrier to prevent Pd nanoparticle (6 nm) movement, aggregation, and detachment from the support into water. Compared to freely suspended Pd nanoparticles and SiO2@Pd, encapsulation in the mesoporous silica shell significantly enhanced Pd catalytic activity (by a factor of 10) under circumneutral pH conditions that are most relevant to water purification applications. Mechanistic investigation of material surface properties combined with Langmuir-Hinshelwood modeling of kinetic data suggest that mesoporous silica shell enhances activity by promoting BrO3- adsorption near the Pd active sites. The dual function of the mesoporous shell, enhancing Pd catalyst activity and preventing aggregation of active nanoparticles, suggests a promising general strategy of using metal nanoparticle catalysts for water purification and related aqueous-phase applications.

  11. Palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in core-shell silica: A structured hydrogenation catalyst with enhanced activity for reduction of oxyanion water pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yin

    2014-10-03

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been applied to mediate catalytic removal of toxic oxyanions and halogenated hydrocarbons in contaminated water using H2 as a clean and sustainable reductant. However, activity loss by nanoparticle aggregation and difficulty of nanoparticle recovery are two major challenges to widespread technology adoption. Herein, we report the synthesis of a core-shell-structured catalyst with encapsulated Pd nanoparticles and its enhanced catalytic activity in reduction of bromate (BrO3-), a regulated carcinogenic oxyanion produced during drinking water disinfection process, using 1 atm H2 at room temperature. The catalyst material consists of a nonporous silica core decorated with preformed octahedral Pd nanoparticles that were further encapsulated within an ordered mesoporous silica shell (i.e., SiO2@Pd@mSiO2). Well-defined mesopores (2.3 nm) provide a physical barrier to prevent Pd nanoparticle (6 nm) movement, aggregation, and detachment from the support into water. Compared to freely suspended Pd nanoparticles and SiO2@Pd, encapsulation in the mesoporous silica shell significantly enhanced Pd catalytic activity (by a factor of 10) under circumneutral pH conditions that are most relevant to water purification applications. Mechanistic investigation of material surface properties combined with Langmuir-Hinshelwood modeling of kinetic data suggest that mesoporous silica shell enhances activity by promoting BrO3- adsorption near the Pd active sites. The dual function of the mesoporous shell, enhancing Pd catalyst activity and preventing aggregation of active nanoparticles, suggests a promising general strategy of using metal nanoparticle catalysts for water purification and related aqueous-phase applications.

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Mechanism of Unusual Zigzag Ag2Te and Ag2Te/C Core-Shell Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single step surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route has been developed for the synthesis of zigzag silver telluride nanowires with diameter of 50–60 nm and length of several tens of micrometers. Silver nitrate (AgNO3 and sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3, are the precursors and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP is used as surfactant in the presence of the reducing agent, that is, hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O. In addition to the zigzag nanowires a facile hydrothermal reduction-carbonization route is proposed for the preparation of uniform core-shell Ag2Te/C nanowires. In case of Ag2Te/C synthesis process the same precursors are employed for Ag and Te along with the ethylene glycol used as reducing agent and glucose as the carbonizing agent. Morphological and compositional properties of the prepared products are analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The detailed formation mechanism of the zigzag morphology and reduction-carbonization growth mechanism for core-shell nanowires are illustrated on the bases of experimental results.

  13. Dynamics study of green AuNP formation and their basis for Au-Pt core-shell nanostructure synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Seselj, Nedjeljko; Ulstrup, Jens

    The SAMENS method (saccharide - based approach to metallic nanostructure synthesis) is a synthesis platform for metallic nanostructures. The method has been developed since 2008 and can produce nanostructures of various sizes, shapes and compositions. Recently, a new methodology for studying the ...

  14. Optically enhanced SnO{sub 2}/CdSe core/shell nanostructures grown by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijaynadda83@gmail.com; Goswami, Y. C. [School of Physical Sciences, ITM University, Turari, Gwalior, MP 474001 (India); Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior MP 474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/CdSe metal oxide/ chalcogenide nanostructures on glass micro slides using ultrasonic sol-gel process followed by spin coating has been reported. Stannous chloride, cadmium chloride and selenium dioxide compounds were used for Sn, Cd and Se precursors respectively. Ethylene glycol was used as complexing agent. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and UV-spectrophotometer. All the peaks shown in diffractograms are identified for SnO{sub 2}. Peak broadening observed in core shell due to stress behavior of CdSe lattice. Scanning electron microscope and AFM exhibits the conversion of cluster in to nanorods structures forms. Atomic force microscope shows the structures in nanorods form and a roughness reduced 1.5194 nm by the deposition of CdSe. Uv Visible spectra shows a new absorption edge in the visible region make them useful for optoelectronic applications.

  15. Preparation of tetrapod-like ZnO/TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanostructures as photocatalytic powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, A.; Visentin, F.; De Zorzi, C.; Natali, M.; Gerbasi, R.; Rossetto, G. [ICIS-DPM-CNR, Padova (Italy); El Habra, N. [ICIS-DPM-CNR, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova (Italy); Garoli, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova (Italy); LANN, Padova (Italy); Casarin, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    The coupling of zinc oxide tetrapods (t-ZnO) with anatase TiO{sub 2} in the form of CVD coatings on ZnO nanotetrapods was investigated. t-ZnO/TiO{sub 2} core-shell structures, consisting of uniformly and completely TiO{sub 2} covered ZnO nanotetrapods, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectra. Photocatalytic activity, determined by degradation of a sodium methyl red solution, was found to be comparable to pure t-ZnO, while improved separation easiness was verified that makes the presented powders promising for wastewater treatment. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Dual Functional Core-Shell Fluorescent Ag2S@Carbon Nanostructure for Selective Assay of E. coli O157:H7 and Bactericidal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wei, Xing; Zheng, An-Qi; Yang, Ting; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2017-03-24

    A dual functional fluorescent core-shell Ag 2 S@Carbon nanostructure is prepared by a hydrothermally assisted multi-amino synthesis approach with folic acid (FA), polyethylenimine (PEI), and mannoses (Mans) as carbon and nitrogen sources (FA-PEI-Mans-Ag 2 S nanocomposite shortly as Ag 2 S@C). The nanostructure exhibits strong fluorescent emission at λ ex /λ em = 340/450 nm with a quantum yield of 12.57 ± 0.52%. Ag 2 S@C is bound to E. coli O157:H7 via strong interaction with the Mans moiety in Ag 2 S@C with FimH proteins on the fimbriae tip in E. coli O157:H7. Fluorescence emission from Ag 2 S@C/E. coli conjugate is closely related to the content of E. coli O157:H7. Thus, a novel procedure for fluorescence assay of E. coli O157:H7 is developed, offering a detection limit of 330 cfu mL -1 . Meanwhile, the Ag 2 S@C nanostructure exhibits excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli O157:H7. A 99.9% sterilization rate can be readily achieved for E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 10 6 -10 7 cfu mL -1 with 3.3 or 10 μg mL -1 of Ag 2 S@C with an interaction time of 5 or 0.5 min, respectively.

  17. Novel synthesis and characterization of Ag@TiO2 core shell nanostructure for non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Dayakar; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Vinodkumar, M.; Bikshalu, K.; Chakradhar, B.; Ramachandra Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Ag@TiO2 core-shell nano composite (ATCSNC) were synthesized by using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves extract through a simple one-step hydrothermal route for Non-enzymatic glucose sensing material. The prepared NCs were characterized and found high crystallinity, red shift absorbance, interface-bonding parameters, rough surface and network like microstructure through XRD, Uv-vis, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. The prepared ATCSNC have been used for fabrication of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the same was applied to test its electro catalytic activity of glucose in 0.1 M NaOH. The promising results were recorded for ATCSNC/GCE with a high sensitivity (1968.72 μAm M-1cm-2), wide linear range (1 μM-8.1 mM), good response time (3 s), and excellent low detection limit (0.19 μM, S/N = 3). Furthermore, the designed sensor exhibits admirable stability and reproducibility, as well as attractive achievability for real sample analysis. As such, the proposed ATCSNC could be highly beneficial in the development of sustainable and eco-friendly glucose sensing devices.

  18. Importance of polypyrrole in constructing 3D hierarchical carbon nanotube@MnO2 perfect core-shell nanostructures for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhao, Hao; Mu, Xuemei; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yaling; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the preparation of 3D hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) @MnO2 core-shell nanostructures under the assistance of polypyrrole (PPy). The as-prepared CNT@PPy@MnO2 core-shell structures show a perfect coating of MnO2 on each CNT and, more importantly, a robust bush-like pseudocapacitive shell to effectively increase the specific surface area and enhance the ion accessibility. As expected, a high specific capacity of 490-530 F g-1 has been achieved from CNT@PPy@MnO2 single electrodes. And about 98.5% of the capacity is retained after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A g-1. Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric CNT@PPy@MnO2//AC capacitors show the maximum energy density of 38.42 W h kg-1 (2.24 mW h cm-3) at a power density of 100 W kg-1 (5.83 mW cm-3), and they maintain 59.52% of the initial value at 10 000 W kg-1 (0.583 W cm-3). In addition, the assembled devices show high cycling stabilities (89.7% after 2000 cycles for asymmetric and 87.2% for symmetric), and a high bending stability (64.74% after 200 bending tests). This ability to obtain high energy densities at high power rates while maintaining high cycling stability demonstrates that this well-designed structure could be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.This study reports the preparation of 3D hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) @MnO2 core-shell nanostructures under the assistance of polypyrrole (PPy). The as-prepared CNT@PPy@MnO2 core-shell structures show a perfect coating of MnO2 on each CNT and, more importantly, a robust bush-like pseudocapacitive shell to effectively increase the specific surface area and enhance the ion accessibility. As expected, a high specific capacity of 490-530 F g-1 has been achieved from CNT@PPy@MnO2 single electrodes. And about 98.5% of the capacity is retained after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A g-1. Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric CNT@PPy@MnO2//AC capacitors show the

  19. Characterisation of 3D-GaN/InGaN core-shell nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Ian; Cherns, David [School of Physics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Xue; Wehman, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Mandl, Martin; Strassburg, Martin [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstrasse 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterise GaN/InGaN 3D nanostructures grown on patterned GaN/sapphire substrates by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). It has been found that the growth of well ordered arrays of such nanostructures, containing multiple quantum wells on non-polar side-facets, can be achieved with a low density of defects. Growth changes and surface morphology play a major role in the nucleation of any defects present. The nanostructure morphology has been investigated and differing growth rates on adjacent facets studied. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Photo-physical properties enhancement of bare and core-shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumin, Md Abdul, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Akhter, Kazi Farida, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Charpentier, Paul A., E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) (also known as quantum dots, QDs) have attracted immense attention for their size-tunable optical properties that makes them impressive candidates for solar cells, light emitting devices, lasers, as well as biomedical imaging. However monodispersity, high and consistent photoluminescence, photostability, and biocompatibility are still major challenges. This work focuses on optimizing the photophysical properties and biocompatibility of QDs by forming core-shell nanostructures and their encapsulation by a carrier. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm sizes were synthesized using a facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single molecule precursors. After capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS to reduce toxicity, the photoluminescence and photostability of the core-shell QDs was significantly enhanced. To make both the bare and core/shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interaction. This encapsulation enhanced the quantum yield and photostability compared to the bare QDs by providing much stronger resistance to oxidation and Oswald ripening of QDs. Encapsulation also improved biocompatibility of QDs that was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVEC)

  1. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmao Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium (Ce corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0×10−14 m2s for Ce3+ compared to 2.5×10−13 m2s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.

  2. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nano porous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Rathod, Sh.; Shah, P.; Brinker, C.J.; Jiang, X.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, N.; Xu, H.; Brinker, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0x10-14 m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5x10-13 m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.

  3. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  4. Synthesis of parallel and antiparallel core-shell triangular nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Satpati, Biswarup

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell triangular nanoparticles were synthesized by seed mediated growth. Using triangular gold (Au) nanoparticle as template, we have grown silver (Ag) shellto get core-shell nanoparticle. Here by changing the chemistry we have grown two types of core-shell structures where core and shell is having same symmetry and also having opposite symmetry. Both core and core-shell nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to know the crystal structure and composition of these synthesized core-shell nanoparticles. From diffraction pattern analysis and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) we have confirmed the crystal facet in core is responsible for such two dimensional growth of core-shell nanostructures.

  5. Facile and controllable construction of vanadium pentoxide@conducting polymer core/shell nanostructures and their thickness-dependent synergistic energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Ding, Yanbo; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Here, we report a novel approach to prepare metal oxide@conducting polymer core/shell hybrids with controlled shell thickness and morphology, and the influence of PANI shell thickness on the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5 @PANI core/shell hybrids is systematically investigated. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distance, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Highlights: • Thickness- and morphology-controlled V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated. • The enhancement of energy storage performance of core/shell hybrids varies with the shell thickness. • Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Abstract: Thickness- and morphology-controlled vanadium pentoxide/polyaniline (V 2 O 5 /PANI) core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated by electropolymerization of PANI on V 2 O 5 nanofibers for enhanced energy storage. By simply adjusting the electrodeposition time, the thickness of the PANI shells can be controlled from 5 nm to 47 nm, and the morphology can be changed from coaxial to branched. The influence of shell thickness on the improved Li-ion storage performance of the V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell nanofibers is systematically investigated, and this enhancement of charge capability and cycling stability strongly varies with the shell thickness. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are also proposed. These results provide meaningful references for developing new functional core/shell materials and high-performance energy storage composite materials.

  6. Synthesis of basalt fiber@Zn1-xMgxO core/shell nanostructures for selective photoreduction of CO2 to CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Byeong Sub; Kim, Kang Min; Park, Sun-Min; Kang, Misook

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on the development of a catalyst for converting carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming, into a beneficial energy source. Core@shell structured particles, BF@ZnO and BF@Zn1-xMgxO, are synthesized in order to selectively obtain CO gas from the photoreduction of CO2. A modified sol-gel process is used to synthesize the core@shell structures with a three-dimensional microstructure, which are subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDAX), ultraviolet (UV)-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and photocurrent density analysis. The CO2 adsorption abilities of the core@shell particles are estimated through CO2-temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The core@shell structured BF@Zn1-xMgxO particles including the Mg ingredient significantly increased the adsorption of CO2 gas at the microfiber/nanoparticle interface. Both the BF@ZnO and BF@Zn1-xMgxO particles selectively reduce the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, with almost no other reduced products being observed. These results are attributed to the effective adsorption of CO2 gas and inhibited recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. BF@Zn0.75Mg0.25O exhibited superior photocatalytic behavior and selectively produced 5.0 μmolgcat-1 L-1 of CO gas after 8 h of reaction.

  7. Studies on II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanostructures. Introduction of the core/shell/shell structure and development of CdSe nanocrystals in an automatized procedure; Untersuchungen an II-VI und III-V Halbleiternanostrukturen. Einfuehrung der Core/shell/shell-Struktur und Darstellung von CdSe-Nanokristallen in einem automatisierten Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, I.

    2005-11-15

    The work in this dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of fluorescent II-VI and III-V-Nanomaterials. Highly luminescent and photostable Nanocrystals with narrow size distributions were prepared. It was shown that nearly monodisperse CdSe-Nanocrystals could be prepared from Cd(Ac){sub 2} and TOPSe in a mixture of TOPO/TOP/HDA/TDPA. Nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS-Core/shell-Nanocrystals have been prepared in a one-pot-synthesis by injection of H{sub 2}S-Gas into a freshly prepared crude solution of CdSe. The passivation of the CdSe-core with an inorganic shell of CdS resulted in the drastic improvement of the photoluminescence-efficiency of the colloidal solution. Reproducible room-temperature quantum yields reached up to a value of 85%. Photostability investigations have proved the enhanced stability of CdSe/CdS-Nanocrystals compared to CdSe-Nanocrystals under illumination with UV-Light. A novel type of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal structure has been developed, consisting of a CdSe core and two anorganic shells. Highly fluorescent and nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS/ZnS- and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS-Core/shell/shell-nanocrystals have been prepared via organometallic- and acetate-precursors. The Core/she ll/shell particles reached reproducible room-temperature quantum yields up to 85%. Photostability investigations among CdSe-core, CdSe/CdS-Core/shell- and CdSe/CdS/ZnS- Core/shell/-shell-nanocrystals under illumination with UV-light have proved the highest photostability of the Core/shell/shell-particles. The photostabilities of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS-and CdSe/ZnS-nanocrystals were compared under illumination with intense laser-beam in air. Another part of this work focused on the development of an automated synthesis procedure of CdSe-nanocrystals by constructing and implementing a flow-reactor system. The size and structure of prepared nanocrystals depended considerably on the Cd:Se-precursorratio and the flow-rate. The preparation of CdSe using Cd(Ac)2

  8. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  9. Core-shell nanophosphor architecture: toward efficient energy transport in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Yuan, Yongbiao; Chen, Zihan; Jin, Xiao; Wei, Tai-huei; Li, Yue; Qin, Yuancheng; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-13

    In this work, a core-shell nanostructure of samarium phosphates encapsulated into a Eu(3+)-doped silica shell has been successfully fabricated, which has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM. Moreover, we report the energy transfer process from the Sm(3+) to emitters Eu(3+) that widens the light absorption range of the hybrid solar cells (HSCs) and the strong enhancement of the electron-transport of TiO2/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) HSCs by introducing the unique core-shell nanoarchitecture. Furthermore, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully obtain the electron transport lifetimes of BHJ systems with or without incorporating the core-shell nanophosphors (NPs). Concrete evidence has been provided that the doping of core-shell NPs improves the efficiency of electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Consequently, a notable power conversion efficiency of 3.30% for SmPO4@Eu(3+):SiO2 blended TiO2/P3HT HSCs is achieved at 5 wt % as compared to 1.98% of pure TiO2/P3HT HSCs. This work indicates that the core-shell NPs can efficiently broaden the absorption region, facilitate electron-transport of BHJ, and enhance photovoltaic performance of inorganic/organic HSCs.

  10. Enhanced structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures by graphene encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matković, Aleksandar; Vasić, Borislav; Pešić, Jelena; Gajić, Radoš; Prinz, Julia; Bald, Ilko; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single-layer graphene replicates the shape of DNA origami nanostructures very well. It can be employed as a protective layer for the enhancement of structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures. Using the AFM based manipulation, we show that the normal force required to damage graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures is over an order of magnitude greater than for the unprotected ones. In addition, we show that graphene encapsulation offers protection to the DNA origami nanostructures against prolonged exposure to deionized water, and multiple immersions. Through these results we demonstrate that graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures are strong enough to sustain various solution phase processing, lithography and transfer steps, thus extending the limits of DNA-mediated bottom-up fabrication. (paper)

  11. Oil encapsulation in core-shell alginate capsules by inverse gelation II: comparison between dripping techniques using W/O or O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Poncelet, Denis; Rodrigues, Ramila Cristiane; Renard, Denis

    2017-09-01

    In the first part of this article, it was described an innovative method of oil encapsulation from dripping-inverse gelation using water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. It was noticed that the method of oil encapsulation was quite different depending on the emulsion type (W/O or oil-in-water (O/W)) used and that the emulsion structure (W/O or O/W) had a high impact on the dripping technique and the capsules characteristics. The objective of this article was to elucidate the differences between the dripping techniques using both emulsions and compare the capsule properties (mechanical resistance and release of actives). The oil encapsulation using O/W emulsions was easier to perform and did not require the use of emulsion destabilisers. However, capsules produced from W/O emulsions were more resistant to compression and showed the slower release of actives over time. The findings detailed here widened the knowledge of the inverse gelation and gave opportunities to develop new techniques of oil encapsulation.

  12. A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.

  13. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructures via silicon on insulator dewetting and germanium condensation: towards a strain tuning method for SiGe-based heterostructures in a three-dimensional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Cabie, Martiane; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-07-29

    We report on a novel method for the implementation of core-shell SiGe-based nanocrystals combining silicon on insulator dewetting in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor with an ex situ Ge condensation process. With an in situ two-step process (annealing and Ge deposition) we produce two families of islands on the same sample: Si-rich, formed during the first step and, all around them, Ge-rich formed after Ge deposition. By increasing the amount of Ge deposited on the annealed samples from 0 to 18 monolayers, the islands' shape in the Si-rich zones can be tuned from elongated and flat to more symmetric and with a larger vertical aspect ratio. At the same time, the spatial extension of the Ge-rich zones is progressively increased as well as the Ge content in the islands. Further processing by ex situ rapid thermal oxidation results in the formation of a core-shell composition profile in both Si and Ge-rich zones with atomically sharp heterointerfaces. The Ge condensation induces a Ge enrichment of the islands' shell of up to 50% while keeping a pure Si core in the Si-rich zones and a ∼25% SiGe alloy in the Ge-rich ones. The large lattice mismatch between core and shell, the absence of dislocations and the islands' monocrystalline nature render this novel class of nanostructures a promising device platform for strain-based band-gap engineering. Finally, this method can be used for the implementation of ultralarge scale meta-surfaces with dielectric Mie resonators for light manipulation at the nanoscale.

  14. Fabrication of Magnetite/Silica/Titania Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method with the aid of sonication. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were being encapsulated within discrete silica nanospheres, and a layer of TiO2 shell was then coated directly onto each silica nanosphere. As-synthesized Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles showed enhanced photocatalytic properties as evidenced by the enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

  15. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells based on a nanostructured WO3-TiO2 core-shell electron transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, only mesoporous TiO2 and ZnO were successfully demonstrated as electron transport layers (ETL) alongside the reports of ZrO2 and Al2O3 as scaffold materials in organometal halide perovskite solar cells, largely owing to ease of processing and to high power conversion efficiency. In this article, we explore tungsten trioxide (WO3)-based nanostructured and porous ETL materials directly grown hydrothermally with different morphologies such as nanoparticles, nanorods and nanosheet arrays. The nanostructure morphology strongly influences the photocurrent and efficiency in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. We find that the perovskite solar cells based on WO3 nanosheet arrays yield significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance as compared to nanoparticles and nanorod arrays due to good perovskite absorber infiltration in the porous scaffold and more rapid carrier transport. We further demonstrate that treating the WO3 nanostructures with an aqueous solution of TiCl4 reduces charge recombination at the perovskite/WO3 interface, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency of 11.24% for devices based on WO3 nanosheet arrays. The successful demonstration of alternative ETL materials and nanostructures based on WO3 will open up new opportunities in the development of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  16. Core-shell architectures as nano-size transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeli, M.; Zarnegar, Z.; Kabiri, R.; Salimi, F.; Dadkah, A.

    2006-01-01

    Core-shell architectures containing poly (ethylene imine) (PEI) as a core and poly (lactide) (PLA) as arms were prepared. PEI was used as macro initiator for ring opening polymerization of lactide. PEI-PLA core-shell architectures were able to encapsulate guest molecules. Size of the core-shell architectures was between 10- 100 nm, hence they can be considered as nano carriers to transport the guest molecules. Transport capacity of nano carriers depends on their nano-environments and type of self-assembly in solvent. In solid state nano carriers self-assemble as long structures with nano-size diameter or they form network structures. Aggregations type depends on the concentration of nano carriers in solution. Effect of the shell thickness and aggregation type on the release rate are also investigated

  17. A pressure tuned stop-flow atomic layer deposition process for MoS2 on high porous nanostructure and fabrication of TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Wang, Zhiwei; Kei Tan, Chiew; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2017-11-01

    MoS2 thin films are obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature range of 120-150 °C using Mo(CO)6 and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as precursors. A pressure tuned stop-flow ALD process facilitates the precursor adsorption and enables the deposition of MoS2 on high porous three dimensional (3D) nanostructures. As a demonstration, a TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal (TiO2/MoS2-IO) structure has been fabricated through ALD of TiO2 and MoS2 on a self-assembled multilayer polystyrene (PS) structure template. Due to the self-limiting surface reaction mechanism of ALD and the utilization of pressure tuned stop-flow ALD processes, the as fabricated TiO2/MoS2-IO structure has a high uniformity, reflected by FESEM and FIB-SEM characterization. A crystallized TiO2/MoS2-IO structure can be obtained through a post annealing process. As a 3D photonic crystal, the TiO2/MoS2-IO exhibits obvious stopband reflecting peaks, which can be adjusted through changing the opal diameters as well as the thickness of MoS2 layer.

  18. One-pot synthesis and characterization of rhodamine derivative-loaded magnetic core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin, E-mail: jzhang@eng.uwo.ca; Li Jiaxin [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada); Razavi, Fereidoon S. [Brock University, Department of Physics (Canada); Mumin, Abdul Md. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    A new method to produce elaborate nanostructure with magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity is reported in this article. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) coated with fluorescent silica (SiO{sub 2}) shell was produced through the one-pot reaction, in which one reactor was utilized to realize the synthesis of superparamagnetic core of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the formation of SiO{sub 2} coating through the condensation and polymerization of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), and the encapsulation of tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate-dextran (TRITC-dextran) within silica shell. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to investigate the core-shell structure. The magnetic core of the core-shell nanoparticles is 60 {+-} 10 nm in diameter. The thickness of the fluorescent SiO{sub 2} shell is estimated at 15 {+-} 5 nm. In addition, the fluorescent signal of the SiO{sub 2} shell has been detected by the laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) with emission wavelength ({lambda}{sub em}) at 566 nm. In addition, the magnetic properties of TRITC-dextran loaded silica-coating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs) were studied. The hysteresis loop of the core-shell NPs measured at room temperature shows that the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) is not reached even at the field of 70 kOe (7T). Meanwhile, the very low coercivity (H{sub c}) and remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) are 0.375 kOe and 6.6 emu/g, respectively, at room temperature. It indicates that the core-shell particles have the superparamagnetic properties. The measured blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of the TRITC-dextran loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs is about 122.5 K. It is expected that the multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles can be used in bio-imaging.

  19. Plasmonic Nanodiamonds – Targeted Core-shell Type Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell Thermoablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Ivan; Lee, Karin L.; Chen, Kevin; Hajek, Miroslav; Havlik, Jan; Lokajova, Jana; Masat, Milan; Slegerova, Jitka; Shukla, Sourabh; Heidari, Hamed; Bals, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Targeted biocompatible nanostructures with controlled plasmonic and morphological parameters are promising materials for cancer treatment based on selective thermal ablation of cells. Here, core-shell plasmonic nanodiamonds consisting of a silica-encapsulated diamond nanocrystal coated in a gold shell is designed and synthesized. The architecture of particles is analyzed and confirmed in detail using 3-dimensional transmission electron microscope tomography. The particles are biocompatibilized using a PEG polymer terminated with bioorthogonally reactive alkyne groups. Azide-modified transferrin is attached to these particles, and their high colloidal stability and successful targeting to cancer cells overexpressing the transferrin receptor is demonstrated. The particles are nontoxic to the cells and they are readily internalized upon binding to the transferrin receptor. The high plasmonic cross section of the particles in the near-infrared region is utilized to quantitatively ablate the cancer cells with a short, one-minute irradiation by a pulse 750-nm laser. PMID:25336437

  20. Au@NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} core@shell nanostructures: Synthesis and construction of luminescence resonance energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yan; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: liuguixia22@163.com; Dong, Xiangting; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng

    2016-03-15

    Luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) system can be constructed using NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} luminescence nanocrystals and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as energy donor and acceptor, respectively. The AuNPs modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were synthesized first and NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} shells encapsulated Au cores via a hydrothermal method. The synthesized materials were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), UV–vis absorption spectra (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The results indicate that the synthesized Au@NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} core–shell nanoparticles have spherical morphology with a size of 80–90 nm and the shell layers of NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals have pure cubic structure. The luminescence properties of Au@NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} core–shell nanoparticles are same as those of NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} particles. The LRET process was realized using the core–shell nanoarchitectures due to the absorption spectrum of AuNPs matches well with the major emission peaks of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The LRET experiments have successfully verified the energy transfer between NaYF{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals and AuNPs. Additionally, the emission intensities of Tb{sup 3+} ions and the content of AuNPs exhibited a fair linear correlation.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of optical sensors using metallic core-shell thin film nanoislands for ozone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addanki, Satish; Nedumaran, D.

    2017-07-01

    Core-Shell nanostructures play a vital role in the sensor field owing to their performance improvements in sensing characteristics and well-established synthesis procedures. These nanostructures can be ingeniously tuned to achieve tailored properties for a particular application of interest. In this work, an Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands with APTMS (3-Aminopropyl trimethoxysilane) and PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) binding agents was modeled, synthesized and characterized. The simulation results were used to fabricate the sensor through chemical route. The results of this study confirmed that the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands offered a better performance over the PVA based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands. Also, the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands exhibited better sensitivity towards ozone sensing over the other types, viz., APTMS/PVA based Au-Ag core-shell and standalone Au/Ag thin film nanoislands.

  2. Tunable and Linker Free Nanogaps in Core-Shell Plasmonic Nanorods for Selective and Quantitative Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells by SERS

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Peng; Madathumpady Abubaker, Habeeb Muhammed; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Moosa, Basem; AlMalik, Abdulaziz; Kumar, Anjli; Ringe, Emilie; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the size, number, and shape of nanogaps in plasmonic nanostructures is of significant importance for the development of novel quantum plasmonic devices and quantitative sensing techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, we introduce a new synthetic method based on coordination interactions and galvanic replacement to prepare core-shell plasmonic nanorods with tunable enclosed nanogaps. Decorating Au nanorods with Raman reporters that strongly coordinate Ag+ ions (e.g., 4-mercaptopyridine) afforded uniform nucleation sites to form a sacrificial Ag shell. Galvanic replacement of the Ag shell by HAuCl4 resulted in Au-AgAu core-shell structure with a uniform intra-nanoparticle gap. The size (length and width) and morphology of the core-shell plasmonic nanorods as well as the nanogap size depends on the concentration of the coordination complexes formed between Ag+ ions and 4-mercaptopyridine. Moreover, encapsulating Raman reporters within the nanogaps afforded an internal standard for sensitive and quantitative SERS analysis. To test the applicability, core-shell plasmonic nanorods were functionalized with aptamers specific to circulating tumor cells such as MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7, breast cancer cell line). This system could selectively detect as low as 20 MCF-7 cells in a blood mimicking fluid employing SERS. The linking DNA duplex on core-shell plasmonic nanorods can also intercalate hydrophobic drug molecules such as Doxorubicin, thereby increasing the versatility of this sensing platform to include drug delivery. Our synthetic method offers the possibility of developing multifunctional SERS-active materials with a wide range of applications including bio sensing, imaging and therapy.

  3. Tunable and Linker Free Nanogaps in Core-Shell Plasmonic Nanorods for Selective and Quantitative Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells by SERS

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2017-10-09

    Controlling the size, number, and shape of nanogaps in plasmonic nanostructures is of significant importance for the development of novel quantum plasmonic devices and quantitative sensing techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, we introduce a new synthetic method based on coordination interactions and galvanic replacement to prepare core-shell plasmonic nanorods with tunable enclosed nanogaps. Decorating Au nanorods with Raman reporters that strongly coordinate Ag+ ions (e.g., 4-mercaptopyridine) afforded uniform nucleation sites to form a sacrificial Ag shell. Galvanic replacement of the Ag shell by HAuCl4 resulted in Au-AgAu core-shell structure with a uniform intra-nanoparticle gap. The size (length and width) and morphology of the core-shell plasmonic nanorods as well as the nanogap size depends on the concentration of the coordination complexes formed between Ag+ ions and 4-mercaptopyridine. Moreover, encapsulating Raman reporters within the nanogaps afforded an internal standard for sensitive and quantitative SERS analysis. To test the applicability, core-shell plasmonic nanorods were functionalized with aptamers specific to circulating tumor cells such as MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7, breast cancer cell line). This system could selectively detect as low as 20 MCF-7 cells in a blood mimicking fluid employing SERS. The linking DNA duplex on core-shell plasmonic nanorods can also intercalate hydrophobic drug molecules such as Doxorubicin, thereby increasing the versatility of this sensing platform to include drug delivery. Our synthetic method offers the possibility of developing multifunctional SERS-active materials with a wide range of applications including bio sensing, imaging and therapy.

  4. Coaxial electrospun polyurethane core-shell nanofibers for shape memory and antibacterial nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel kind of shape memory polyurethane (SMPU nanofibers with core-shell nanostructure is fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results show that nanofibers with core-shell structure or bead-on-string structure can be electrospun successfully from the core solution of polycaprolactone based SMPU (CLSMPU and shell solution of pyridine containing polyurethane (PySMPU. In addition to the excellent shape memory effect with good shape fixity, excellent antibacterial activity against both gramnegative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria are achieved in the CLSMPU-PySMPU core-shell nanofiber. Finally, it is proposed that the antibacterial mechanism should be resulted from the PySMPU shell materials containing amido group in γ position and the high surface area per unit mass of nanofibers. Thus, the CLSMPU-PySMPU core shell nanofibers can be used as both shape memory nanomaterials and antibacterial nanomaterials.

  5. Enhanced linear photonic nanojet generated by core-shell optical microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Yen, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chien-Wen

    2017-05-01

    The generation of linear photonic nanojet using core-shell optical microfiber is demonstrated numerically and experimentally in the visible light region. The power flow patterns for the core-shell optical microfiber are calculated by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The focusing properties of linear photonic nanojet are evaluated in terms of length and width along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the silica optical fiber is etched chemically down to 6 μm diameter and coated with metallic thin film by using glancing angle deposition. We show that the linear photonic nanojet is enhanced clearly by metallic shell due to surface plasmon polaritons. The large-area superresolution imaging can be performed by using a core-shell optical microfiber in the far-field system. The potential applications of this core-shell optical microfiber include micro-fluidics and nano-structure measurements.

  6. Core-shell polymer nanorods by a two-step template wetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, S; Liang, J

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell polymer nanowires offer many advantages and great potential for many different applications. In this paper we introduce a highly versatile two-step template wetting process to fabricate two-component core-shell polymer nanowires with controllable shell thickness. PLLA and PMMA were chosen as model polymers to demonstrate the feasibility of this process. Solution wetting with different concentrations of polymer solutions was used to fabricate the shell layer and melt wetting was used to fill the shell with the core polymer. The shell thickness was analyzed as a function of the polymer solution concentration and viscosity, and the core-shell morphology was observed with TEM. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating polymer core-shell nanostructures using our two-step template wetting process and opens the arena for optimization and future experiments with polymers that are desirable for specific applications.

  7. Dehydration of core/shell fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Yang, Xiaosong; Cao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Chen, B.; Zhang, Jian J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated core/shell fruits, such as jujubes, raisins and plums, show very complex buckles and wrinkles on their exocarp. It is a challenging task to model such complicated patterns and their evolution in a virtual environment even for professional animators. This paper presents a unified physically-based approach to simulate the morphological transformation for the core/shell fruits in the dehydration process. A finite element method (FEM), which is based on the multiplicative decomposition...

  8. Synthesis of basalt fiber@Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O core/shell nanostructures for selective photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byeong Sub; Kim, Kang Min [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun-Min, E-mail: psm@kicet.re.kr [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology (KICET), Jinju, Gyeongnam 52851 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misook, E-mail: mskang@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO and Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O crystals were grown onto the BFs. • The core@shell structured BF@Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O particles significantly increased the adsorption of CO{sub 2} gas. • The BF@ZnO or BF@Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O particles selectively reduce the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. - Abstract: This study focused on the development of a catalyst for converting carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming, into a beneficial energy source. Core@shell structured particles, BF@ZnO and BF@Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O, are synthesized in order to selectively obtain CO gas from the photoreduction of CO{sub 2}. A modified sol-gel process is used to synthesize the core@shell structures with a three-dimensional microstructure, which are subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDAX), ultraviolet (UV)–vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and photocurrent density analysis. The CO{sub 2} adsorption abilities of the core@shell particles are estimated through CO{sub 2}-temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The core@shell structured BF@Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O particles including the Mg ingredient significantly increased the adsorption of CO{sub 2} gas at the microfiber/nanoparticle interface. Both the BF@ZnO and BF@Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O particles selectively reduce the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, with almost no other reduced products being observed. These results are attributed to the effective adsorption of CO{sub 2} gas and inhibited recombination of the photogenerated electron–hole pairs. BF@Zn{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}O exhibited superior photocatalytic behavior and selectively produced 5.0 μmolg{sub cat}{sup −1} L{sup −1} of CO gas after 8 h of reaction.

  9. Large-area super-resolution optical imaging by using core-shell microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Lo, Wei-Chieh

    2017-09-01

    We first numerically and experimentally report large-area super-resolution optical imaging achieved by using core-shell microfibers. The particular spatial electromagnetic waves for different core-shell microfibers are studied by using finite-difference time-domain and ray tracing calculations. The focusing properties of photonic nanojets are evaluated in terms of intensity profile and full width at half-maximum along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the general optical fiber is chemically etched down to 6 μm diameter and coated with different metallic thin films by using glancing angle deposition. The direct imaging of photonic nanojets for different core-shell microfibers is performed with a scanning optical microscope system. We show that the intensity distribution of a photonic nanojet is highly related to the metallic shell due to the surface plasmon polaritons. Furthermore, large-area super-resolution optical imaging is performed by using different core-shell microfibers placed over the nano-scale grating with 150 nm line width. The core-shell microfiber-assisted imaging is achieved with super-resolution and hundreds of times the field-of-view in contrast to microspheres. The possible applications of these core-shell optical microfibers include real-time large-area micro-fluidics and nano-structure inspections.

  10. Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 core-shell spheres encapsulated in three-dimensional graphene foams for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Xu, Jian-Bin; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are fabricated using 300 nm spherical SiO2 particles as template. Then three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are successfully obtained through self-assembly in hydrothermal process from graphene oxide nanosheets and metal oxide hollow spheres. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated architectures could greatly improve the capacity, cycling stability and rate capability of hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres electrodes due to the highly conductive networks and flexible buffering matrix. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  12. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xianbin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wei, Nini; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD

  13. Semiconducting, Magnetic or Superconducting Nanoparticles encapsulated in Carbon Shells by RAPET method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Gedanken

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, solvent-free, environmentally friendly, RAPET (Reactions under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperaturesynthetic approach is discussed for the fabrication of core-shell nanostructures. The semiconducting, magnetic orsuperconducting nanoparticles are encapsulated in a carbon shell. RAPET is a one-step, thermal decomposition reaction ofchemical compound (s followed by the formation of core-shell nanoparticles in a closed stainless steel reactor. Therepresentative examples are discussed, where a variety of nanomaterials are trapped in situ in a carbon shell that offersfascinating properties.

  14. Facile synthesis of 3D few-layered MoS2 coated TiO2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for stable and high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Guo, Lichao; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2015-07-01

    Uniform transition metal sulfide deposition on a smooth TiO2 surface to form a coating structure is a well-known challenge, caused mainly due to their poor affinities. Herein, we report a facile strategy for fabricating mesoporous 3D few-layered (glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (<4 layers) MoS2 onto the TiO2 can remarkably enhance the structure stability and effectively shortens the transfer paths of both lithium ions and electrons, while the strong synergistic effect between MoS2 and TiO2 can significantly facilitate the transport of ions and electrons across the interfaces, especially in the high-rate charge-discharge process. Moreover, the facile fabrication strategy can be easily extended to design other oxide/carbon-sulfide/oxide core-shell materials for extensive applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary SEM, TEM, XPS and EIS analyses. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03334a

  15. Magnetic core-shell silica particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with magnetic silica core-shell colloids and related functionalized silica structures. Synthesis routes have been developed and optimized. The physical properties of these colloids have been investigated, such as the magnetic dipole moment, dipolar structure formation and

  16. Enhancement of the core near-band-edge emission induced by an amorphous shell in coaxial one-dimensional nanostructure: the case of SiC/SiO{sub 2} core/shell self-organized nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rossi, Francesca; Attolini, Giovanni; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore [IMEM-CNR Institute, Viale Usberti 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia; Verucchi, Roberto; Nardi, Marco [IFN-CNR Institute, Via alla Cascata 56/C-Povo, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Fukata, Naoki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science and PRESTO JST, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi [Nano Device Characterization Group, Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    We report the influence of the native amorphous SiO{sub 2} shell on the cathodoluminescence emission of 3C-SiC/SiO{sub 2} core/shell nanowires. A shell-induced enhancement of the SiC near-band-edge emission is observed and studied as a function of the silicon dioxide thickness. Since the diameter of the investigated SiC cores rules out any direct bandgap optical transitions due to confinement effects, this enhancement is ascribed to a carrier diffusion from the shell to the core, promoted by the alignment of the SiO{sub 2} and SiC bands in a type I quantum well. An accurate correlation between the optical emission and structural and SiO{sub 2}-SiC interface properties is also reported.

  17. Core-shell microparticles for protein sequestration and controlled release of a protein-laden core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Philbrick, Brandon D; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2017-07-01

    Development of multifunctional biomaterials that sequester, isolate, and redeliver cell-secreted proteins at a specific timepoint may be required to achieve the level of temporal control needed to more fully regulate tissue regeneration and repair. In response, we fabricated core-shell heparin-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) microparticles (MPs) with a degradable PEG-based shell that can temporally control delivery of protein-laden heparin MPs. Core-shell MPs were fabricated via a re-emulsification technique and the number of heparin MPs per PEG-based shell could be tuned by varying the mass of heparin MPs in the precursor PEG phase. When heparin MPs were loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and then encapsulated into core-shell MPs, degradable core-shell MPs initiated similar C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as the soluble control, while non-degradable core-shell MPs initiated a significantly lower response (85+19% vs. 9.0+4.8% of the soluble control, respectively). Similarly, when degradable core-shell MPs were formed and then loaded with BMP-2, they induced a ∼7-fold higher C2C12 ALP activity than the soluble control. As C2C12 ALP activity was enhanced by BMP-2, these studies indicated that degradable core-shell MPs were able to deliver a bioactive, BMP-2-laden heparin MP core. Overall, these dynamic core-shell MPs have the potential to sequester, isolate, and then redeliver proteins attached to a heparin core to initiate a cell response, which could be of great benefit to tissue regeneration applications requiring tight temporal control over protein presentation. Tissue repair requires temporally controlled presentation of potent proteins. Recently, biomaterial-mediated binding (sequestration) of cell-secreted proteins has emerged as a strategy to harness the regenerative potential of naturally produced proteins, but this strategy currently only allows immediate amplification and re-delivery of these signals. The multifunctional, dynamic

  18. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles study by first principle: The structural, magnetic and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiao-Xu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Hu, Yao-Wen [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Hong-Quan; Huo, Jin-Rong; Li, Lu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qian, Ping, E-mail: ustbqianp@163.com [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Song, Yu-Jun [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been investigated by the density functional theory, revealing proving for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibits a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a ferromagnetic spin polarized state, and the magnetism mainly stems from the spin splitting of 2p electrons of O atoms. In addition, the total and partial DOS of Ag@ZnO indicate that the nanostructure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, the optical properties calculations show that the absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and good photocatalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO. These results of the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure obtain a well agreement with the experimental measurement. - Graphical abstract: Geometric structure of (a) Ag@ZnO core-shell nanostructure; (b) the core of Ag; (c) the shell of ZnO The core-shell nanoparticle Ag@ZnO contains Ag inner core of radius of 4 Å and ZnO outer shell with thickness of 2 Å. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been proved for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibit a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. The absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and get good photo-catalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO.

  19. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  20. Plasmonic nanodiamonds: targeted core-shell type nanoparticles for cancer cell thermoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Ivan; Lee, Karin L; Chen, Kevin; Hajek, Miroslav; Havlik, Jan; Lokajova, Jana; Masat, Milan; Slegerova, Jitka; Shukla, Sourabh; Heidari, Hamed; Bals, Sara; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Cigler, Petr

    2015-02-18

    Targeted biocompatible nanostructures with controlled plasmonic and morphological parameters are promising materials for cancer treatment based on selective thermal ablation of cells. Here, core-shell plasmonic nanodiamonds consisting of a silica-encapsulated diamond nanocrystal coated in a gold shell are designed and synthesized. The architecture of particles is analyzed and confirmed in detail using electron tomography. The particles are biocompatibilized using a PEG polymer terminated with bioorthogonally reactive alkyne groups. Azide-modified transferrin is attached to these particles, and their high colloidal stability and successful targeting to cancer cells overexpressing the transferrin receptor are demonstrated. The particles are nontoxic to the cells and they are readily internalized upon binding to the transferrin receptor. The high plasmonic cross section of the particles in the near-infrared region is utilized to quantitatively ablate the cancer cells with a short, one-minute irradiation by a pulse 750-nm laser. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Efficient tungsten oxide/bismuth oxyiodide core/shell photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haipeng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-11-01

    The novel WO3 nanorods (NRs)/BiOI core/shell structure composite is used as an efficient photoanode applied in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. It is synthesized via facile hydrothermal method and, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. This facile synthesis route can achieve uniform WO3/BiOI core/shell composite nanostructures and obtain varied BiOI morphologies simultaneously. The WO3 NRs/BiOI-20 composite exhibits enhanced PEC activity compared to pristine WO3 with a photocurrent density of 0.79 mA cm-2 measured at 0.8 V vs. RHE under AM 1.5G. This excellent performance benefits from the broader absorption spectrum and suppressed electron-hole recombination. This novel core/shell composite may provide insight in developing more efficient solar driven photoelectrodes.

  2. Facile synthesis and excellent microwave absorption properties of FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bingbing; Wang, Shiliang; Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Lin, Liangwu; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; He, Jun

    2018-02-01

    FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 10-50 nm have been fabricated on a large scale by one-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using the mixture of cobalt acetylacetonate and iron acetylacetonate as the precursor. The Fe/Co molar ratio of the alloy nanocores and graphitization degree of C shells, and thus the magnetic and electric properties of the core-shell NPs, can be tuned by the deposition temperature ranging from 700 °C to 900 °C. Comparative tests reveal that a relatively high Fe/Co molar ratio and low graphitization degree benefit the microwave absorption (MA) performance of the core-shell NPs. The composite with 20 wt% core-shell NP obtained at 800 °C and 80 wt% paraffin exhibits an optimal reflection loss ({{R}}{{L}}) of -60.4 dB at 7.5 GHz with a thickness of 3.3 mm, and an effective absorption bandwidth (frequency range for RL ≤10 dB) of 9.2 GHz (8.8-18.0 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 2.5 mm. Our study provides a facile route for the fabrication of alloy-C core-shell nanostructures with high MA performance.

  3. Hypersonic vibrations of Ag@SiO2 (cubic core)-shell nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing Ya; Wang, Zhi Kui; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau; Tran, Toan Trong; Lu, Xianmao

    2010-12-28

    The intriguing optical and catalytic properties of metal-silica core-shell nanoparticles, inherited from their plasmonic metallic cores together with the rich surface chemistry and increased stability offered by their silica shells, have enabled a wide variety of applications. In this work, we investigate the confined vibrational modes of a series of monodisperse Ag@SiO(2) (cubic core)-shell nanospheres synthesized using a modified Stöber sol-gel method. The particle-size dependence of their mode frequencies has been mapped by Brillouin light scattering, a powerful tool for probing hypersonic vibrations. Unlike the larger particles, the observed spheroidal-like mode frequencies of the smaller ones do not scale with inverse diameter. Interestingly, the onset of the deviation from this linearity occurs at a smaller particle size for higher-energy modes than for lower-energy ones. Finite element simulations show that the mode displacement profiles of the Ag@SiO(2) core-shells closely resemble those of a homogeneous SiO(2) sphere. Simulations have also been performed to ascertain the effects that the core shape and the relative hardness of the core and shell materials have on the vibrations of the core-shell as a whole. As the vibrational modes of a particle have a bearing on its thermal and mechanical properties, the findings would be of value in designing core-shell nanostructures with customized thermal and mechanical characteristics.

  4. Modified solvothermal synthesis and characterization of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby Suganthi, A.R.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2013-01-01

    Core/shell CdS/ZnS nanorods were synthesized using a two-step solvothermal approach. The first step is the formation of CdS nanoparticles initiated using nucleation followed by growth through coalescence-exchange and particle coagulation. The second step leads to the formation of ZnS and further coalescence-exchange leading to deposition and growth of a ZnS shell around CdS nanoparticles. The structural, morphological and chemical studies were performed using X-ray diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption spectra and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), provide direct evidence for shell growth. The present synthesis provides a rational approach to the design of novel core/shell nanomaterials with appealing applications in optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: From the resulting TEM images, the formation of core/shell could be observed. The apparent microscopy contrast between the CdS core and the ZnS shell offers evidence for the formation of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanostructures. It is clearly evident that the surfaces of the nanorods became rough after coating and also the diameter of the nanorod is seen increased up to 40–50 nm. Highlights: ► CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods were synthesized using two-step solvothermal approach. ► The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, UV–vis and TEM. ► SEM images revealed the surface roughness after ZnS shell growth. ► TEM microscopy offers evidence for the formation of core/shell nanostructures

  5. Transferrin targeted core-shell nanomedicine for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-11-01

    Combinatorial drug delivery is an attractive, but challenging requirement of next generation cancer nanomedicines. Here, we report a transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine formed by encapsulating two clinically used single-agent drugs, doxorubicin and sorafenib against liver cancer. Doxorubicin was loaded in poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-core and sorafenib in albumin nano-shell, both formed by a sequential freeze-thaw/coacervation method. While sorafenib from the nano-shell inhibited aberrant oncogenic signaling involved in cell proliferation, doxorubicin from the nano-core evoked DNA intercalation thereby killing >75% of cancer cells. Upon targeting using transferrin ligands, the nanoparticles showed enhanced cellular uptake and synergistic cytotoxicity in ~92% of cells, particularly in iron-deficient microenvironment. Studies using 3D spheroids of liver tumor indicated efficient penetration of targeted core-shell nanoparticles throughout the tissue causing uniform cell killing. Thus, we show that rationally designed core-shell nanoparticles can effectively combine clinically relevant single-agent drugs for exerting synergistic activity against liver cancer. Transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine encapsulating doxorubicin and sorafenib was studied as a drug delivery system against hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in enhanced and synergistic therapeutic effects, paving the way towards potential future clinical applications of similar techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-Range Correlated Magnetic Core-Shell CrO₂/Cr₂O₃ Nanorods: Experimental Observations and Theoretical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ashish C; Li, Tai-Yue; Chan, Ting Shan; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2018-05-09

    With the evolution of synthesis and the critical characterization of core-shell nanostructures, short-range magnetic correlation is of prime interest in employing their properties to develop novel devices and widespread applications. In this regard, a novel approach of the magnetic core-shell saturated magnetization (CSSM) cylinder model solely based on the contribution of saturated magnetization in one-dimensional CrO₂/Cr₂O₃ core-shell nanorods (NRs) has been developed and applied for the determination of core-diameter and shell-thickness. The nanosized effect leads to a short-range magnetic correlation of ferromagnetic core-CrO₂ extracted from CSSM, which can be explained using finite size scaling method. The outcome of this study is important in terms of utilizing magnetic properties for the critical characterization of core-shell nanomagnetic materials.

  7. Controlled Synthesis of Carbon-Encapsulated Copper Nanostructures by Using Smectite Clays as Nanotemplates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Maccallini, Enrico; Jankovic, Lubos; Rudolf, Petra; Gournis, Dimitrios; Jankovič, Lubos

    Rhomboidal and spherical metallic-copper nanostructures were encapsulated within well-formed graphitic shells by using a simple chemical method that involved the catalytic decomposition of acetylene over a copper catalyst that was supported on different smectite clays surfaces by ion-exchange. These

  8. Microbubble-Triggered Spontaneous Separation of Transparent Thin Films from Substrates Using Evaporable Core-Shell Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Intae; Lee, Byungsun; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Chunho; Yoo, Ji Yong; Ahn, Byung Wook; Hwang, Jeongho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Lee, Jun Hyup

    2018-05-23

    The spontaneous separation of a polymer thin film from a substrate is an innovative technology that will enable material recycling and reduce manufacturing cost in the film industry, and this can be applied in a wide range of applications, from optical films to wearable devices. Here, we present an unprecedented spontaneous strategy for separating transparent polymer films from substrates on the basis of microbubble generation using nanocapsules containing an evaporable material. The core-shell nanocapsules are prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyethyleneimine nanoparticles via the encapsulation of methylcyclohexane (MCH). A spherical nanostructure with a vaporizable core is obtained, with the heat-triggered gas release ability leading to the formation of microbubbles. Our separation method applied to transparent polymer films doped with a small amount of the nanocapsules encapsulating evaporable MCH enables spontaneous detachment of thin films from substrates via vacuum-assisted rapid vaporization of MCH over a short separation time, and clear detachment of the film is achieved with no deterioration of the inherent optical transparency and adhesive property compared to a pristine film.

  9. Piezoelectric constants for ZnO calculated using classical polarizable core-shell potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shuangxing; Dunn, Martin L; Park, Harold S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using classical atomistic simulations, i.e. molecular dynamics and molecular statics, to study the piezoelectric properties of ZnO using core-shell interatomic potentials. We accomplish this by reporting the piezoelectric constants for ZnO as calculated using two different classical interatomic core-shell potentials: that originally proposed by Binks and Grimes (1994 Solid State Commun. 89 921-4), and that proposed by Nyberg et al (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 9054-63). We demonstrate that the classical core-shell potentials are able to qualitatively reproduce the piezoelectric constants as compared to benchmark ab initio calculations. We further demonstrate that while the presence of the shell is required to capture the electron polarization effects that control the clamped ion part of the piezoelectric constant, the major shortcoming of the classical potentials is a significant underprediction of the clamped ion term as compared to previous ab initio results. However, the present results suggest that overall, these classical core-shell potentials are sufficiently accurate to be utilized for large scale atomistic simulations of the piezoelectric response of ZnO nanostructures.

  10. ZnO@MnO2 Core-Shell Nanofiber Cathodes for High Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhamani, A V; Shareef, K M; Rao, M S Ramachandra

    2016-11-09

    Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) with aqueous electrolyte medium have recently become the focus of increasing research. For high performance ASCs, selection of cathode materials play a crucial role, and core-shell nanostructures are found to be a good choice. We successfully synthesized, ZnO@MnO 2 core-shell nanofibers (NFs) by modification of high-aspect-ratio-electrospun ZnO NFs hydrothermally with MnO 2 nanoflakes. High conductivity of the ZnO NFs and the exceptionally high pseudocapacitive nature of MnO 2 nanoflakes coating delivered a specific capacitance of 907 Fg -1 at 0.6 Ag -1 for the core-shell NFs. A simple and cost-effective ASC construction was demonstrated with ZnO@MnO 2 NFs as a battery-type cathode material and a commercial-quality activated carbon as a capacitor-type anode material. The fabricated device functioned very well in a voltage window of 0-2.0 V, and a red-LED was illuminated using a single-celled fabricated ASC device. It was found to deliver a maximum energy density of 17 Whkg -1 and a power density of 6.5 kWkg -1 with capacitance retention of 94% and Coulombic efficiency of 100%. The novel architecture of the ZnO@MnO 2 core-shell nanofibrous material implies the importance of using simple design of fiber-based electrode material by mere changes of core and shell counterparts.

  11. Simultaneous inhibition of aberrant cancer kinome using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Gupta, Neha; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2013-11-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of deregulated cancer kinome using rationally designed nanomedicine is an advanced therapeutic approach. Herein, we have developed a polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine to inhibit critically aberrant pro-survival kinases (mTOR, MAPK and STAT5) in primitive (CD34(+)/CD38(-)) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. The nanomedicine consists of poly-lactide-co-glycolide core (~250 nm) loaded with mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, and albumin shell (~25 nm thick) loaded with MAPK/STAT5 inhibitor, sorafenib and the whole construct was surface conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 receptor overexpressed in AML. Electron microscopy confirmed formation of core-shell nanostructure (~290 nm) and flow cytometry and confocal studies showed enhanced cellular uptake of targeted nanomedicine. Simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells, was demonstrated using immunoblotting, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. This cell receptor plus multi-kinase targeted core-shell nanomedicine was found better specific and tolerable compared to current clinical regime of cytarabine and daunorubicin. These authors demonstrate simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells by using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine, provoding an advanced method to eliminate cancer cells, with the hope of future therapeutic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing deoxidation inhibiting encapsulation of metal oxide nanostructures for fluidic and biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Moumita, E-mail: ghoshiisc@gmail.com [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ghosh, Siddharth [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Seibt, Michael [IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schaap, Iwan A.T. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Christoph F. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mohan Rao, G. [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: To retain atomic structure and morphology of ZnO nanostructures (caused by deoxidation of ZnO) in water/bio-fluids, we propose and demonstrate a robust and inexpensive encapsulation technique using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant. - Highlights: • Aqueous solutions of ZnO nanorods with and without surfactant are prepared. • With time ZnO nanorods show structural deterioration in different aqueous solutions. • Crystallinity of ZnO nanorods in absence of aqueous solution remain unaffected. • Encapsulation of bio-compatible surfactant in alchohol avoid ZnO deoxidation. • Crystallinity and structure of ZnO nanorods after encapsulation remain unaffected. - Abstract: Due to their photoluminescence, metal oxide nanostructures such as ZnO nanostructures are promising candidates in biomedical imaging, drug delivery and bio-sensing. To apply them as label for bio-imaging, it is important to study their structural stability in a bio-fluidic environment. We have explored the effect of water, the main constituent of biological solutions, on ZnO nanostructures with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) studies which show ZnO nanorod degeneration in water. In addition, we propose and investigate a robust and inexpensive method to encapsulate these nanostructures (without structural degradation) using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant in non-aqueous medium, which was not reported earlier. This new finding is an immediate interest to the broad audience of researchers working in biophysics, sensing and actuation, drug delivery, food and cosmetics technology, etc.

  13. Merging of Kirkendall Growth and Ostwald Ripening: CuO@MnO2 Core-shell Architectures for Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhongchang; Alamusi; Hu, Ning; Wen, Zhiyu; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating hierarchical core-shell nanostructures is currently the subject of intensive research in the electrochemical field owing to the hopes it raises for making efficient electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. Here, we develop a simple and cost-effective approach to prepare CuO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures without any surfactants and report their applications as electrodes for supercapacitors. An asymmetric supercapacitor with CuO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure as the positive electrode and activated microwave exfoliated graphite oxide (MEGO) as the negative electrode yields an energy density of 22.1 Wh kg−1 and a maximum power density of 85.6 kW kg−1; the device shows a long-term cycling stability which retains 101.5% of its initial capacitance even after 10000 cycles. Such a facile strategy to fabricate the hierarchical CuO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure with significantly improved functionalities opens up a novel avenue to design electrode materials on demand for high-performance supercapacitor applications. PMID:24682149

  14. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Caurier, E; Bertulani, C

    2005-01-01

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+ 6 Li and 6 He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B S-factor

  15. Bioprinting Using Mechanically Robust Core-Shell Cell-Laden Hydrogel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pritesh; Aied, Ahmed; Alexander, Morgan; Shakesheff, Kevin; Bennett, Andrew; Yang, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The strand material in extrusion-based bioprinting determines the microenvironments of the embedded cells and the initial mechanical properties of the constructs. One unmet challenge is the combination of optimal biological and mechanical properties in bioprinted constructs. Here, a novel bioprinting method that utilizes core-shell cell-laden strands with a mechanically robust shell and an extracellular matrix-like core has been developed. Cells encapsulated in the strands demonstrate high cell viability and tissue-like functions during cultivation. This process of bioprinting using core-shell strands with optimal biochemical and biomechanical properties represents a new strategy for fabricating functional human tissues and organs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Core-shell fluorescent silica nanoparticles for sensing near-neutral pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Chen, X.; Ye, Q.; Yao, Z.; Guo, X.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    pH-responsive fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were prepared by encapsulating the pH-sensitive fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3, 6-trisulfonate into their silica shell via a facile reverse microemulsion method. The resulting SiNPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, photobleaching experiments, and photoluminescence. The core-shell structure endows the SiNPs with reduced photobleaching, excellent photostability, minimized solvatachromic shift, and increased fluorescence efficiency compared to the free fluorophore in aqueous solution. The dynamic range for sensing pH ranges from 5. 5 to 9. 0. The nanosensors show excellent stability, are highly reproducible, and enable rapid detection of pH. The results obtained with the SiNPs are in good agreement with data obtained with a glass electrode. (author)

  17. Controlled synthesis of carbon-encapsulated copper nanostructures by using smectite clays as nanotemplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Colomer, Jean-François; Maccallini, Enrico; Jankovič, Lubos; Rudolf, Petra; Gournis, Dimitrios

    2012-07-23

    Rhomboidal and spherical metallic-copper nanostructures were encapsulated within well-formed graphitic shells by using a simple chemical method that involved the catalytic decomposition of acetylene over a copper catalyst that was supported on different smectite clays surfaces by ion-exchange. These metallic-copper nanostructures could be separated from the inorganic support and remained stable for months. The choice of the clay support influenced both the shape and the size of the synthesized Cu nanostructures. The synthesized materials and the supported catalysts from which they were produced were studied in detail by TEM and SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, as well as by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana M; Zhang, Liangfang; Yuet, Kai P; Liao, Grace; Rhee, June-Wha; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2009-03-01

    Current approaches to encapsulate and deliver therapeutic compounds have focused on developing liposomal and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in clinically approved therapeutics such as Doxil/Caelyx and Genexol-PM, respectively. Our group recently reported the development of biodegradable core-shell NP systems that combined the beneficial properties of liposomal and polymeric NPs for controlled drug delivery. Herein we report the parameters that alter the biological and physicochemical characteristics, stability, drug release properties and cytotoxicity of these core-shell NPs. We further define scalable processes for the formulation of these NPs in a reproducible manner. These core-shell NPs consist of (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) hydrophobic core, (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer, and (iii) a poly(ethylene glycol) shell, and were synthesized by a modified nanoprecipitation method combined with self-assembly. Preparation of the NPs showed that various formulation parameters such as the lipid/polymer mass ratio and lipid/lipid-PEG molar ratio controlled NP physical stability and size. We encapsulated a model chemotherapy drug, docetaxel, in the NPs and showed that the amount of lipid coverage affected its drug release kinetics. Next, we demonstrated a potentially scalable process for the formulation, purification, and storage of NPs. Finally, we tested the cytotoxicity using MTT assays on two model human cell lines, HeLa and HepG2, and demonstrated the biocompatibility of these particles in vitro. Our data suggest that the PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell NPs may be a useful new controlled release drug delivery system.

  19. Polydopamine and MnO2 core-shell composites for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ding; Tao, Haisheng; Zhu, Xuezhen; Li, Maoguo

    2017-10-01

    Polydopamine and MnO2 core-shell composites (PDA@MnO2) for high-performance supercapacitors had been successfully synthesized by a facile and fast method. The morphology, crystalline phase and chemical composition of PDA@MnO2 composites are characterized using SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS and XPS. The performance of PDA@MnO2 composites are further investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The PDA@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure composites exhibit a high capacitance of 193 F g-1 at the current density of 1A g-1 and retained over 81.2% of its initial capacitance after 2500 cycles of charge-discharge at 2 A g-1. The results manifest that the PDA@MnO2 composites can be potentially applied in supercapacitors.

  20. Porous core-shell carbon fibers derived from lignin and cellulose nanofibrils

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2013-10-01

    This letter reports a method to produce lignin and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) based porous core-shell carbon fibers via co-electrospinning followed by controlled carbonization. Lignin formed the shell of the fiber while CNF network formed the porous core. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was added to the lignin solution to increase its electrospinability. CNFs were surface acetylated and dispersed in silicon oil to obtain a homogenous dispersion for electrospinning the porous core. Hollow lignin fibers were also electrospun using glycerin as the core material. FT-IR measurements confirmed the CNF acetylation. SEM micrographs showed the core-shell and hollow fiber nanostructures before and after carbonization. The novel carbon fibers synthesized in this study exhibited increased surface area and porosity that are promising for many advanced applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Porous core-shell carbon fibers derived from lignin and cellulose nanofibrils

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Chen, Ye; Wu, Xiangfa; Piere, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports a method to produce lignin and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) based porous core-shell carbon fibers via co-electrospinning followed by controlled carbonization. Lignin formed the shell of the fiber while CNF network formed the porous core. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was added to the lignin solution to increase its electrospinability. CNFs were surface acetylated and dispersed in silicon oil to obtain a homogenous dispersion for electrospinning the porous core. Hollow lignin fibers were also electrospun using glycerin as the core material. FT-IR measurements confirmed the CNF acetylation. SEM micrographs showed the core-shell and hollow fiber nanostructures before and after carbonization. The novel carbon fibers synthesized in this study exhibited increased surface area and porosity that are promising for many advanced applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Synthesis of N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Alideertu; Wang Tao; Xiao Linghan; Wang Weiwei; Zhao Tianyi; Zheng Xin; Liu Fengqi; Gao Ge; Huang Jinfeng; Chen Yuxin; Lan Shi

    2011-01-01

    N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity were synthesized through the encapsulation of silica nanoparticles as support with polymeric N-halamine. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles displayed powerful antibacterial performance against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antibacterial activities have been greatly improved compared with their bulk counterparts. Therefore, these N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles have the potential for various significant applications such as in medical devices, healthcare products, water purification systems, hospitals, dental office equipment, food packaging, food storage, household sanitation, etc.

  3. Synthesis of N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Alideertu; Wang Tao; Xiao Linghan; Wang Weiwei; Zhao Tianyi; Zheng Xin; Liu Fengqi; Gao Ge [College of Chemistry, Jilin University and MacDiarmid Laboratory, Changchun 130021 (China); Huang Jinfeng; Chen Yuxin [Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Lan Shi, E-mail: gaoge@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028000 (China)

    2011-07-22

    N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity were synthesized through the encapsulation of silica nanoparticles as support with polymeric N-halamine. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles displayed powerful antibacterial performance against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antibacterial activities have been greatly improved compared with their bulk counterparts. Therefore, these N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles have the potential for various significant applications such as in medical devices, healthcare products, water purification systems, hospitals, dental office equipment, food packaging, food storage, household sanitation, etc.

  4. Supramolecular core-shell nanoparticles for photoconductive device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Jem-Kun; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-08-01

    We report a breakthrough discovery involving supramolecular-based strategies to construct novel core-shell heterojunction nanoparticles with hydrophilic adenine-functionalized polythiophene (PAT) as the core and hydrophobic phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the shell, which enables the conception of new functional supramolecular assemblies for constructing functional nanomaterials for applications in optoelectronic devices. The generated nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape, well-controlled tuning of particle size with narrow size distributions, and excellent electrochemical stability in solution and the solid state owing to highly efficient energy transfer from PAT to PCBM. When the PAT/PCBM nanoparticles were fabricated into a photoconducting layer in an electronic device, the resulting device showed excellent electric conduction characteristics, including an electrically-tunable voltage-controlled switch, and high short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. These observations demonstrate how the self-assembly of PAT/PCBM into specific nanostructures may help to promote efficient charge generation and transport processes, suggesting potential for a wide variety of applications as a promising candidate material for bulk heterojunction polymer devices.

  5. Optimization and photomodification of extremely broadband optical response of plasmonic core-shell obscurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Vashista C; Nyga, Piotr; Drachev, Vladimir P

    2016-12-15

    Plasmonic resonances of the metallic shells depend on their nanostructure and geometry of the core, which can be optimized for the broadband extinction normalized by mass. The fractal nanostructures can provide a broadband extinction. It allows as well for a laser photoburning of holes in the extinction spectra and consequently windows of transparency in a controlled manner. The studied core-shell microparticles synthesized using colloidal chemistry consist of gold fractal nanostructures grown on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) microparticles or silica (SiO 2 ) microspheres. The optimization includes different core sizes and shapes, and shell nanostructures. It shows that the rich surface of the PCC flakes is the best core for the fractal shells providing the highest mass normalized extinction over the extremely broad spectral range. The mass normalized extinction cross section up to 3m 2 /g has been demonstrated in the broad spectral range from the visible to mid-infrared. Essentially, the broadband response is a characteristic feature of each core-shell microparticle in contrast to a combination of several structures resonant at different wavelengths, for example nanorods with different aspect ratios. The photomodification at an IR wavelength makes the window of transparency at the longer wavelength side. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A solution phase fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xianwen; Zhu Guoxing; Xia Chuanjun; Ye Yin

    2006-01-01

    To avoid high energy consumption, intensive use of hardware and high cost in the manufacture of nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon, a simple, efficient and economical solution-phase method for the fabrication of FeNi at C nanostructures has been explored. The reaction to the magnetic metal at C structures here is conducted at a relatively low temperature (160 deg. C) and this strategy can be transferred to prepare other transition metal at C core-shell nanostructures. The saturation magnetization of metal in metal at C nanostructures is similar to those of the corresponding buck metals. Magnetic metal at C nanostructures with magnetic metal nanoparticles inside and a functionalized carbon surface outside may not only provide the opportunity to tailor the magnetic properties for magnetic storage devices and therapeutics but also make possible the loading of other functional molecules (e.g. enzymes, antigens) for clinic diagnostics, molecular biology, bioengineering, and catalysis

  7. Enhancement of curcumin water dispersibility and antioxidant activity using core-shell protein-polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Xulin; Gong, Yushi; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Kun

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin has strong antioxidant activity, but poor water-solubility and chemical stability, which limits its utilization as a nutraceutical in many applications. Previously, we developed a core-shell (zein-pectin) nanoparticle delivery system with high curcumin loading efficiency, high particle yield, and good water dispersibility. However, this system was unstable to aggregation around neutral pH and moderate ionic strengths due to weakening of electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles. In the current study, we used a combination of alginate (high charge density) and pectin (low charge density) to form the shell around zein nanoparticles. Replacement of 30% of pectin with alginate greatly improved aggregation stability at pH 5 to 7 and at high ionic strengths (2000mM NaCl). Curcumin encapsulated within these core-shell nanoparticles exhibited higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activities than curcumin solubilized in ethanol solutions as determined by Fe (III) reducing power, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·), and 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS· + ) scavenging analysis. These core-shell nanoparticles may be useful for incorporating chemically unstable hydrophobic nutraceuticals such as curcumin into functional foods, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Core-shell designed scaffolds for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-07-01

    Scaffolds that secure and deliver therapeutic ingredients like signaling molecules and stem cells hold great promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Employing a core-shell design for scaffolds provides a promising solution. Some unique methods, such as co-concentric nozzle extrusion, microfluidics generation, and chemical confinement reactions, have been successful in producing core-shelled nano/microfibers and nano/microspheres. Signaling molecules and drugs, spatially allocated to the core and/or shell part, can be delivered in a controllable and sequential manner for optimal therapeutic effects. Stem cells can be loaded within the core part on-demand, safely protected from the environments, which ultimately affords ex vivo culture and in vivo tissue engineering. The encapsulated cells experience three-dimensional tissue-mimic microenvironments in which therapeutic molecules are secreted to the surrounding tissues through the semi-permeable shell. Tuning the material properties of the core and shell, changing the geometrical parameters, and shaping them into proper forms significantly influence the release behaviors of biomolecules and the fate of the cells. This topical issue highlights the immense usefulness of core-shell designs for the therapeutic actions of scaffolds in the delivery of signaling molecules and stem cells for tissue regeneration and disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-Range Correlated Magnetic Core-Shell CrO2/Cr2O3 Nanorods: Experimental Observations and Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish C. Gandhi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution of synthesis and the critical characterization of core-shell nanostructures, short-range magnetic correlation is of prime interest in employing their properties to develop novel devices and widespread applications. In this regard, a novel approach of the magnetic core-shell saturated magnetization (CSSM cylinder model solely based on the contribution of saturated magnetization in one-dimensional CrO2/Cr2O3 core-shell nanorods (NRs has been developed and applied for the determination of core-diameter and shell-thickness. The nanosized effect leads to a short-range magnetic correlation of ferromagnetic core-CrO2 extracted from CSSM, which can be explained using finite size scaling method. The outcome of this study is important in terms of utilizing magnetic properties for the critical characterization of core-shell nanomagnetic materials.

  10. Iron/iron oxide core-shell nanoclusters for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang You; Antony, Jiji; Sharma, Amit; Nutting, Joseph; Sikes, Daniel; Meyer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles have been found promising in several biomedical applications for tagging, imaging, sensing and separation in recent years. Most magnetic particles or beads currently used in biomedical applications are based on ferromagnetic iron oxides with very low specific magnetic moments of about 20-30 emu/g. Here we report a new approach to synthesize monodispersed core-shell nanostructured clusters with high specific magnetic moments above 200 emu/g. Iron nanoclusters with monodispersive size of diameters from 2 nm to 100 nm are produced by our newly developed nanocluster source and go to a deposition chamber, where a chemical reaction starts, and the nanoclusters are coated with iron oxides. HRTEM Images show the coatings are very uniform and stable. The core-shell nanoclusters are superparamagnetic at room temperature for sizes less than 15 nm, and then become ferromagnetic when the cluster size increases. The specific magnetic moment of core-shell nanoclusters is size dependent, and increases rapidly from about 80 emu/g at the cluster size of around 3 nm to over 200 emu/g up to the size of 100 nm. The use of high magnetic moment nanoclusters for biomedical applications could dramatically enhance the contrast for MRI, reduce the concentration of magnetic particle needs for cell separation, or make drug delivery possible with much lower magnetic field gradients

  11. Nano-engineering of three-dimensional core/shell nanotube arrays for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Lei, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale arrays of core/shell nanostructures are highly desirable to enhance the performance of supercapacitors. Here we demonstrate an innovative template-based fabrication technique with high structural controllability, which is capable of synthesizing well-ordered three-dimensional arrays of SnO2/MnO2 core/shell nanotubes for electrochemical energy storage in supercapacitor applications. The SnO2 core is fabricated by atomic layer deposition and provides a highly electrical conductive matrix. Subsequently a thin MnO2 shell is coated by electrochemical deposition onto the SnO2 core, which guarantees a short ion diffusion length within the shell. The core/shell structure shows an excellent electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 910 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and a good rate capability of remaining 217 F g-1 at 50 A g-1. These results shall pave the way to realize aqueous based asymmetric supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy.

  12. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  13. Localized surface plasmon mediated energy transfer in the vicinity of core-shell nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishodia, Manmohan Singh, E-mail: manmohan@gbu.ac.in; Juneja, Soniya [Department of Applied Physics, School of Vocational Studies and Applied Sciences, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida 201308 (India)

    2016-05-28

    Multipole spectral expansion based theory of energy transfer interactions between a donor and an acceptor molecule in the vicinity of a core-shell (nanoshell or core@shell) based plasmonic nanostructure is developed. In view of the diverse applications and rich plasmonic features such as tuning capability of surface plasmon (SP) frequencies, greater sensitivity to the change of dielectric environment, controllable redirection of electromagnetic radiation, closed form expressions for Energy Transfer Rate Enhancement Factor (ETREF) near core-shell particle are reported. The dependence of ETREF on different parameters is established through fitting equations, perceived to be of key importance for developing appropriate designs. The theoretical approach developed in the present work is capable of treating higher order multipoles, which, in turn, are also shown to play a crucial role in the present context. Moreover, closed form expressions derived in the present work can directly be used as formula, e.g., for designing SP based biosensors and estimating energy exchange between proteins and excitonic interactions in quantum dots.

  14. Size-exclusion chromatography using core-shell particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Breuer, Pascal; Hoppe, Serafine J M; Chitty, Mike; Welch, Emmet; Farkas, Tivadar; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Peters, Ron; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-02-24

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is an indispensable technique for the separation of high-molecular-weight analytes and for determining molar-mass distributions. The potential application of SEC as second-dimension separation in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography demands very short analysis times. Liquid chromatography benefits from the advent of highly efficient core-shell packing materials, but because of the reduced total pore volume these materials have so far not been explored in SEC. The feasibility of using core-shell particles in SEC has been investigated and contemporary core-shell materials were compared with conventional packing materials for SEC. Columns packed with very small core-shell particles showed excellent resolution in specific molar-mass ranges, depending on the pore size. The analysis times were about an order of magnitude shorter than what could be achieved using conventional SEC columns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesú s G.; Bran, Cristina; Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Kosel, Jü rgen; Morales, Marí a P.; Vazquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential

  16. Core-shell particle composition by liquid phase infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Goncalves, Odinei H.; Bona, Evandro

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric particles with core-shell morphology can offer advantages over conventional particles improving properties like mechanical and chemical resistance. However, particle composition must be known due to its influence on the final properties. In this work liquid phase infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the overall composition of core-shell particles composed by polystyrene (core) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (shell). Results were in agreement with those obtained with H 1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data (Goncalves et al, 2008). (author)

  17. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  18. Silver-gold core-shell nanoparticles containing methylene blue as SERS labels for probing and imaging of live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Guo, Z.; Jin, Y.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, W.; Huang, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report on silver-gold core-shell nanostructures that contain Methylene Blue (MB) at the gold/x96silver interface. They can be used as reporter molecules in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) labels. The labels are stable and have strong SERS activity. TEM imaging revealed that these nanoparticles display bright and dark stripe structures. In addition, these labels can act as probes that can be detected and imaged through the specific Raman signatures of the reporters. We show that such SERS probes can identify cellular structures due to enhanced Raman spectra of intrinsic cellular molecules measured in the local optical fields of the core-shell nanostructures. They also provide structural information on the cellular environment as demonstrated for these nanoparticles as new SERS-active and biocompatible substrates for imaging of live cells. (author)

  19. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  20. Atomistic Tight-Binding Theory of Electron-Hole Exchange Interaction in Morphological Evolution of CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanorod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worasak Sukkabot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the atomistic tight-binding theory (TB and a configuration interaction (CI description, the electron-hole exchange interaction in the morphological transformation of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanorod is described with the aim of understanding the impact of the structural shapes on the change of the electron-hole exchange interaction. Normally, the ground hole states confined in typical CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals are of heavy hole-like character. However, the atomistic tight-binding theory shows that a transition of the ground hole states from heavy hole-like to light hole-like contribution with the increasing aspect ratios of the CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanostructures is recognized. According to the change in the ground-state hole characters, the electron-hole exchange interaction is also significantly altered. To do so, optical band gaps, ground-state electron character, ground-state hole character, oscillation strengths, ground-state coulomb energies, ground-state exchange energies, and dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting (stoke shift are numerically demonstrated. These atomistic computations obviously show the sensitivity with the aspect ratios. Finally, the alteration in the hole character has a prominent effect on dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting.

  1. Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell nanoparticles at different molar ratio and its application in biosensors: An optical properties study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D., E-mail: ddasphy014@gmail.com; Hussain, A. M. P. [Department of Physics, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam, India- 781001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell type nanoparticles fabricated with two different molar ratios are characterized for study of structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibits cubic phased polycrystalline nanocrystals. The calculated grain sizes from Williamson-Hall plot were found to be around 6 nm with increased strain. HRTEM investigation confirms the formation of core/shell nanostructures and the sizes of the particles were found to be around 7 nm which is in good agreement with the results of the W-H plot. An increase of band gap with the decrease in precursor concentration is confirmed from the blue shift in the absorption spectra and also from Tauc plot. A clear blue shifted intense emission is observed in the photoluminescence spectra with decrease in particle size. Intense luminescence from the core/shell nanostructure may be applied in bio labelling and biosensors.

  2. A novel approach to preparing magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Sun Zhendong; Li Fengsheng; Chen Kai; Liu Tianyu; Liu Jialing; Zhou Tianle; Guo Rui

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). Under an optimized condition, up to 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides of the abundant functional groups. The possible formation mechanism of magnetic microspheres was discussed in detail. - Research Highlights: → Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method.→ The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA).→ 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides the abundant functional groups.

  3. A novel approach to preparing magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wei, E-mail: climentjw@126.co [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun Zhendong; Li Fengsheng [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen Kai; Liu Tianyu; Liu Jialing [Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhou Tianle [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Guo Rui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). Under an optimized condition, up to 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides of the abundant functional groups. The possible formation mechanism of magnetic microspheres was discussed in detail. - Research Highlights: Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides the abundant functional groups.

  4. Pt@Ag and Pd@Ag core/shell nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Congo red in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A.; Bakr, Eman A.; El-Attar, Heba G.

    2018-01-01

    Platinum/silver (Pt@Ag) and palladium/silver (Pd@Ag) core/shell NPs have been synthesized in two steps reaction using the citrate method. The progress of nanoparticle formation was followed by the UV/Vis spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical shaped core/shell nanoparticles with average particle diameter 32.17 nm for Pt@Ag and 8.8 nm for Pd@Ag. The core/shell NPs were further characterized by FT-IR and XRD. Reductive degradation of the Congo red dye was chosen to demonstrate the excellent catalytic activity of these core/shell nanostructures. The nanocatalysts act as electron mediators for the transfer of electrons from the reducing agent (NaBH4) to the dye molecules. Effect of reaction parameters such as nanocatalyst dose, dye and NaBH4 concentrations on the dye degradation was investigated. A comparison between the catalytic activities of both nanocatalysts was made to realize which of them the best in catalytic performance. Pd@Ag was the higher in catalytic activity over Pt@Ag. Such greater activity is originated from the smaller particle size and larger surface area. Pd@Ag nanocatalyst was catalytically stable through four subsequent reaction runs under the utilized reaction conditions. These findings can thus be considered as possible economical alternative for environmental safety against water pollution by dyes.

  5. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-01-14

    Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni) show a great potential as pseudocapacitor materials for electrochemical energy storage applications. Yet, the cycling instability of PAni resulting from structural alteration is a major hurdle to its commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on PAni nanofibers plays a crucial role in stabilizing the PAni pseudocapacitors and improving their energy density. The pseudocapacitors, which are based on optimized PAni-RuO2 core-shell nanostructured electrodes, exhibit very high specific capacitance (710 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and power density (42.2 kW kg-1) at an energy density of 10 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, they exhibit remarkable capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at very high current density of 20 A g-1, superior to that of pristine PAni-based pseudocapacitors. This prominently enhanced electrochemical stability successfully demonstrates the buffering effect of ALD coating on PAni, which provides a new approach for the preparation of metal-oxide/conducting polymer hybrid electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance.

  6. Electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Holovatsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire and elliptic semiconductor nanotubes are investigated within the effective mass approximation. The solution of Schrodinger equation based on the Mathieu functions is obtained in elliptic coordinates. The dependencies of the electron size quantization spectrum on the size and shape of the core-shell nanowire and nanotube are calculated. It is shown that the ellipticity of a quantum wire leads to break of degeneration of quasiparticle energy spectrum. The dependences of the energy of odd and even electron states on the ratio between semiaxes are of a nonmonotonous character. The anticrosing effects are observed at the dependencies of electron energy spectrum on the transversal size of the core-shell nanowire.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesús G.

    2015-04-16

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential) have been firstly determined for the growth of continuous Au nanotubes at the inner wall of pores. Then, a magnetic core was synthesized inside the Au shells under suitable electrochemical conditions for a wide spectrum of single elements and alloy compositions (e.g., Fe, Ni and CoFe alloys). Novel opportunities offered by such nanowires are discussed particularly the magnetic behavior of (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell nanowires was tested and compared with that of bare TM nanowires. These core-shell nanowires can be released from the template so, opening novel opportunities for biofunctionalization of individual nanowires.

  8. Current directions in core-shell nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärtl, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Ten years ago I wrote a review about the important field of core-shell nanoparticles, focussing mainly on our own work about tracer systems, and briefly addressing polymer-coated nanoparticles as fillers for homogeneous polymer-colloid composites. Since then, the potential use of core-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional sensors or potential smart drug-delivery vehicles in biology and medicine has gained more and more importance, affording special types of multi-functionalized and bio-compatible nanoparticles. In this new review article, I try to address the most important developments during the last ten years. This overview is mainly based on frequently cited and more specialized recent review articles from leaders in their respective field. We will consider a variety of nanoscopic core-shell architectures from highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), protected magnetic NPs, multifunctional NPs, thermoresponsive NPs and biocompatible systems to, finally, smart drug-delivery systems.Ten years ago I wrote a review about the important field of core-shell nanoparticles, focussing mainly on our own work about tracer systems, and briefly addressing polymer-coated nanoparticles as fillers for homogeneous polymer-colloid composites. Since then, the potential use of core-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional sensors or potential smart drug-delivery vehicles in biology and medicine has gained more and more importance, affording special types of multi-functionalized and bio-compatible nanoparticles. In this new review article, I try to address the most important developments during the last ten years. This overview is mainly based on frequently cited and more specialized recent review articles from leaders in their respective field. We will consider a variety of nanoscopic core-shell architectures from highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), protected magnetic NPs, multifunctional NPs, thermoresponsive NPs and biocompatible systems to, finally, smart drug-delivery systems

  9. Tailored Core Shell Cathode Powders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Scott [NexTech Materials, Ltd.,Lewis Center, OH (United States)

    2015-03-23

    In this Phase I SBIR project, a “core-shell” composite cathode approach was evaluated for improving SOFC performance and reducing degradation of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode materials, following previous successful demonstrations of infiltration approaches for achieving the same goals. The intent was to establish core-shell cathode powders that enabled high performance to be obtained with “drop-in” process capability for SOFC manufacturing (i.e., rather than adding an infiltration step to the SOFC manufacturing process). Milling, precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were evaluated for making core-shell composite cathode powders comprised of coarse LSCF “core” particles and nanoscale “shell” particles of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) or praseodymium strontium manganite (PSM). Precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were successful for obtaining the targeted core-shell morphology, although perfect coverage of the LSCF core particles by the LSM and PSM particles was not obtained. Electrochemical characterization of core-shell cathode powders and conventional (baseline) cathode powders was performed via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) half-cell measurements and single-cell SOFC testing. Reliable EIS testing methods were established, which enabled comparative area-specific resistance measurements to be obtained. A single-cell SOFC testing approach also was established that enabled cathode resistance to be separated from overall cell resistance, and for cathode degradation to be separated from overall cell degradation. The results of these EIS and SOFC tests conclusively determined that the core-shell cathode powders resulted in significant lowering of performance, compared to the baseline cathodes. Based on the results of this project, it was concluded that the core-shell cathode approach did not warrant further investigation.

  10. Broadband absorption and enhanced photothermal conversion property of octopod-like Ag@Ag2S core@shell structures with gradually varying shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zeng, Wenxia; Zhang, Canying; Meng, Zhaoguo; Wu, Jiawei; Zhu, Qunzhi; Wu, Daxiong; Zhu, Haitao

    2017-12-19

    Photothermal conversion materials have promising applications in many fields and therefore they have attracted tremendous attention. However, the multi-functionalization of a single nanostructure to meet the requirements of multiple photothermal applications is still a challenge. The difficulty is that most nanostructures have specific absoprtion band and are not flexible to different demands. In the current work, we reported the synthesis and multi-band photothermal conversion of Ag@Ag 2 S core@shell structures with gradually varying shell thickness. We synthesized the core@shell structures through the sulfidation of Ag nanocubes by taking the advantage of their spatially different reactivity. The resulting core@shell structures show an octopod-like mopgorlogy with a Ag 2 S bulge sitting at each corner of the Ag nanocubes. The thickness of the Ag 2 S shell gradually increases from the central surface towards the corners of the structure. The synthesized core@shell structures show a broad band absorption spectrum from 300 to 1100 nm. Enhanced photothermal conversion effect is observed under the illuminations of 635, 808, and 1064 nm lasers. The results indicate that the octopod-like Ag@Ag 2 S core@shell structures have characteristics of multi-band photothermal conversion. The current work might provide a guidance for the design and synthesis of multifunctional photothermal conversion materials.

  11. Core/Shell Conjugated Polymer/Quantum Dot Composite Nanofibers through Orthogonal Non-Covalent Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad W. Watson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructuring organic polymers and organic/inorganic hybrid materials and controlling blend morphologies at the molecular level are the prerequisites for modern electronic devices including biological sensors, light emitting diodes, memory devices and solar cells. To achieve all-around high performance, multiple organic and inorganic entities, each designed for specific functions, are commonly incorporated into a single device. Accurate arrangement of these components is a crucial goal in order to achieve the overall synergistic effects. We describe here a facile methodology of nanostructuring conjugated polymers and inorganic quantum dots into well-ordered core/shell composite nanofibers through cooperation of several orthogonal non-covalent interactions including conjugated polymer crystallization, block copolymer self-assembly and coordination interactions. Our methods provide precise control on the spatial arrangements among the various building blocks that are otherwise incompatible with one another, and should find applications in modern organic electronic devices such as solar cells.

  12. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi; Zhu, Yihan; Huang, Xiao; Han, Yu; Wang, Qingxiao; Liu, Qing; Huang, Ying; Gan, Chee Lip; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    @Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase

  13. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  14. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  15. Synthesis of Cationic Core-Shell Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziomkina, N.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant-free seeded (core-shell) polymerization of cationic polymer colloids is presented. Polystyrene core particles with sizes between 200 nm and 500 nm were synthesized. The number average diameter of the colloidal core particles increased with increasing monomer concentration. Cationic shells

  16. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  17. Green synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles using gallic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojun; Zheng, Hongmei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaosan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed a facile and benign green synthesis approach for the successful fabrication of well-dispersed urchin-like Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) using gallic acid (GA) as both a reducing and protecting agent. The proposed one-step synthesis exploits the differences in the reduction potentials of AuCl4- and PtCl62-, where the AuCl4- ions are preferentially reduced to Au cores and the PtCl62- ions are then deposited continuously onto the Au core surface as a Pt shell. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM); high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM); scanning electron microscope (SEM); UV-vis absorption spectra (UV-vis); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transmission infrared spectra (FT-IR). We systematically investigated the effects of some experimental parameters on the formation of the Au@Pt NPs, i.e., the reaction temperature, the molar ratios of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6, and the amount of GA. When polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) was used as a protecting agent, the Au@Pt core-shell NPs obtained using this green synthesis method were better dispersed and smaller in size. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs exhibited better catalytic activity in the reaction where NaBH4 reduced p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. However, the results showed that the Au@Pt bimetallic NPs had a lower catalytic activity than the pure Au NPs obtained by the same method, which confirmed the formation of Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures because the active sites on the surfaces of the Au NPs were covered with a Pt shell.

  18. Tungsten oxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowire arrays as novel negative electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Xu, Kai; Safdar, Muhammad; He, Jun

    2015-02-11

    Among active pseudocapacitive materials, polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. PPy-based materials research has thus far focused on its electrochemical performance as a positive electrode rather than as a negative electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Here high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors are designed with tungsten oxide@PPy (WO3 @PPy) core-shell nanowire arrays and Co(OH)2 nanowires grown on carbon fibers. The WO3 @PPy core-shell nanowire electrode exhibits a high capacitance (253 mF/cm2) in negative potentials (-1.0-0.0 V). The ASCs packaged with CF-Co(OH)2 as a positive electrode and CF-WO3 @PPy as a negative electrode display a high volumetric capacitance up to 2.865 F/cm3 based on volume of the device, an energy density of 1.02 mWh/cm3 , and very good stability performance. These findings promote the application of PPy-based nanostructures as advanced negative electrodes for ASCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stabilization of Palladium Nanoparticles on Nanodiamond-Graphene Core-Shell Supports for CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Liu, Hongyang; Huang, Xing; Sun, Xueping; Jiang, Zheng; Schlögl, Robert; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-12-21

    Nanodiamond-graphene core-shell materials have several unique properties compared with purely sp(2) -bonded nanocarbons and perform remarkably well as metal-free catalysts. In this work, we report that palladium nanoparticles supported on nanodiamond-graphene core-shell materials (Pd/ND@G) exhibit superior catalytic activity in CO oxidation compared to Pd NPs supported on an sp(2) -bonded onion-like carbon (Pd/OLC) material. Characterization revealed that the Pd NPs in Pd/ND@G have a special morphology with reduced crystallinity and are more stable towards sintering at high temperature than the Pd NPs in Pd/OLC. The electronic structure of Pd is changed in Pd/ND@G, resulting in weak CO chemisorption on the Pd NPs. Our work indicates that strong metal-support interactions can be achieved on a non-reducible support, as exemplified for nanocarbon, by carefully tuning the surface structure of the support, thus providing a good example for designing a high-performance nanostructured catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Formulation, Characterization and Pulmonary Deposition of Nebulized Celecoxib Encapsulated Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R.; Chougule, Mahavir; Patel, Apurva R.; Jackson, Tanise; Tata, Prasad NV; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to encapsulate celecoxib (Cxb) in the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (Cxb-NLC) nanoparticles and evaluate the lung disposition of nanoparticles following nebulization in Balb/c mice. Cxb-NLC nanoparticles were prepared with Cxb, Compritol, Miglyol and sodium taurocholate using high-pressure homogenization. Cxb-NLC nanoparticles were characterized for physical and aerosol properties. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed with A549 cells. The lung deposition and pharmacokinetic parameters of Cxb-NLC and Cxb solution (Cxb-Soln) formulations were determined using Inexpose™ system and Pari LC star jet nebulizer. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of Cxb-NLC formulation were 217 ± 20 nm and > 90%, respectively. The Cxb-NLC released the drug in controlled fashion, and in vitro aersolization of Cxb-NLC formulation showed FPF of 75.6 ± 4.6 %, MMAD of 1.6 ±0.13 μm and GSD of 1.2 ± 0.21. Cxb-NLC showed dose and time dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells. Nebulization of Cxb-NLC demonstrated 4 fold higher AUCt/D in lung tissues compared to Cxb-Soln. The systemic clearance of Cxb-NLC was slower (0.93 L/h) compared to Cxb-Soln (20.03 L/h). Cxb encapsulated NLC were found to be stable and aerodynamic properties were within the respirable limits. Aerosolization of Cxb-NLC improved the Cxb pulmonary bioavailability compared to solution formulation which will potentially lead to better patient compliance with minimal dosing intervals. PMID:20153385

  1. A novel approach to preparing magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Fengsheng; Chen, Kai; Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Jialing; Zhou, Tianle; Guo, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe 3O 4 cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). Under an optimized condition, up to 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides of the abundant functional groups. The possible formation mechanism of magnetic microspheres was discussed in detail.

  2. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Renren; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qingxiao; Han, Yu; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Photon upconversion is promising for applications such as biological imaging, data storage or solar cells. Here, we have investigated upconversion processes in a broad range of gadolinium-based nanoparticles of varying composition. We show that by rational design of a core-shell structure with a set of lanthanide ions incorporated into separated layers at precisely defined concentrations, efficient upconversion emission can be realized through gadolinium sublattice-mediated energy migration for a wide range of lanthanide activators without long-lived intermediary energy states. Furthermore, the use of the core-shell structure allows the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. This effect enables fine-tuning of upconversion emission through trapping of the migrating energy by the activators. Indeed, the findings described here suggest a general approach to constructing a new class of luminescent materials with tunable upconversion emissions by controlled manipulation of energy transfer within a nanoscopic region. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  5. Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng

    2011-10-23

    Photon upconversion is promising for applications such as biological imaging, data storage or solar cells. Here, we have investigated upconversion processes in a broad range of gadolinium-based nanoparticles of varying composition. We show that by rational design of a core-shell structure with a set of lanthanide ions incorporated into separated layers at precisely defined concentrations, efficient upconversion emission can be realized through gadolinium sublattice-mediated energy migration for a wide range of lanthanide activators without long-lived intermediary energy states. Furthermore, the use of the core-shell structure allows the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. This effect enables fine-tuning of upconversion emission through trapping of the migrating energy by the activators. Indeed, the findings described here suggest a general approach to constructing a new class of luminescent materials with tunable upconversion emissions by controlled manipulation of energy transfer within a nanoscopic region. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Angle Dependent Optics of Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0014 Angle-Dependent Optics of Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles G.V. Pavan Kumar INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION AND... EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 900, NCL Innovation Park, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan PUNE, 411008 IN 8.  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION      REPORT NUMBER 9...function of spherical co-ordinates: azimuthal and polar angles. Absorption, scattering and emission of light from nanoparticles, especially when they are

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties of core/shell mesoporous silica nanospheres supporting nanocrystalline titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cendrowski, K.; Chen, X.; Zielinska, B.; Kalenczuk, R. J.; Rümmeli, M. H.; Büchner, B.; Klingeler, R.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The facile bulk synthesis of silica nanospheres makes them an attractive support for the transport of chemical compounds such as nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. In this contribution we present a promising route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO 2 ) with diameter in range 200 nm, which are ideal supports for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). The detailed microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations of core/shell structure (m-SiO 2 /TiO 2 ) were conducted. Moreover, the photocatalytic potential of the nanostructures was investigated via phenol decomposition and hydrogen generation. A clear enhancement of photoactivity in both reactions as compared to commercial TiO 2 -Degussa P25 catalyst is detected.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties of core/shell mesoporous silica nanospheres supporting nanocrystalline titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, K.; Chen, X.; Zielinska, B.; Kalenczuk, R. J.; Rümmeli, M. H.; Büchner, B.; Klingeler, R.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2011-11-01

    The facile bulk synthesis of silica nanospheres makes them an attractive support for the transport of chemical compounds such as nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. In this contribution we present a promising route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2) with diameter in range 200 nm, which are ideal supports for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2). The detailed microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations of core/shell structure (m-SiO2/TiO2) were conducted. Moreover, the photocatalytic potential of the nanostructures was investigated via phenol decomposition and hydrogen generation. A clear enhancement of photoactivity in both reactions as compared to commercial TiO2-Degussa P25 catalyst is detected.

  9. Core - shell upconversion nanoparticle - semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  10. Core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids: Synthesis and their enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Erqi; Qi, Xiaosi; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2018-05-01

    High encapsulation efficiency of core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids have been synthesized in high yield by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene directly over octahedral-shaped Fe2O3 nanoparticles. By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, Fe3O4@Fe3C@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids could be selectively produced. The optimal RL values for the as-prepared ternary nanohybrids could reach up to ca. -46.7, -52.7 and -29.5 dB, respectively. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the obtaiend ternary nanohybrids were proved to ascribe to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Moreover, the as-prepared Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids displayed remarkably enhanced EM wave absorption capabilities compared to Fe3O4@Fe3C@CNTs due to their excellent dielectric loss abilities, good complementarities between the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss, and high attenuation constant. Generally, this strategy can be extended to explore other categories of core@shell or core@shell@shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, which is very beneficial to accelerate the advancements of high performance MAMs.

  11. Nanoscale semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell heterostructures: facile synthesis and light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gong Ping; Chen, Rui; Guo, Dong Lai; Wong, Lai Mun; Wang, Shi Jie; Sun, Han Dong; Wu, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in MgO nanotubes and porous MgO nanotubes can be obtained by taking advantage of the reduced thermal stability of the ZnO core. Furthermore, after MgO shell-coating and the appropriate annealing treatment, the intensity of the ZnO near-band-edge UV emission becomes much stronger, showing a 25-fold enhancement. The intensity ratio of the UV/visible emission can be increased further by decorating the surface of the ZnO/MgO nanowires with high-density plasmonic Au nanoparticles. These heterostructured semiconductor-insulator-metal nanowires with tailored morphologies and enhanced functionalities have great potential for use as nanoscale building blocks in photonic and electronic applications.Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in

  12. Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals with concave cubic shapes: kinetically controlled synthesis and electrocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Niu, Wenxin; Zhao, Jianming; Zhu, Shuyun; Yuan, Yali; Hua, Lianzhe; Xu, Guobao

    2013-01-01

    A new type of concave cubic Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals is synthesized through a kinetically controlled growth process. Pd nanocubes of 56 nm are used as the inner core, and CTAC and Br(-) are used as the capping agent and selective adsorbent, respectively. A suitable ratio of HAuCl4 and cubic Pd seeds and the presence of Br(-) anions are critical to the growth of the concave cubic Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals. The fast deposition rate on the corners of the cubic Pd seeds promotes the overgrowth of the Au outer shell along the direction, leading to the formation of concave cubic nanostructures. The reduction process is monitored by the surface plasmon resonance spectra of the nanocrystals, and the extinction band became broader and red shifted as the nanocrystals became larger. The electrocatalytic properties of the concave cubic Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals were investigated with the cathodic electrochemiluminescence reaction of luminol and H2O2. A possible electrocatalytic mechanism was proposed and analyzed.

  13. Hierarchical ZnO@MnO2 Core-Shell Pillar Arrays on Ni Foam for Binder-Free Supercapacitor Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ming; Li, Fei; Zhao, Xiao Li; Luo, Da; You, Xue Qiu; Zhang, Yu Xin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Hierarchical ZnO@MnO2 core-shell pillar arrays on Ni foam have been fabricated by a facile two-step hydrothermal approach and further investigated as the binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. The core-shell hybrid nanostructure is achieved by decorating ultrathin self-standing MnO2 nanosheets on ZnO pillar arrays grown radically on Nickel foam. This unique well-designed binder-free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (423.5 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1), and excellent cycling stability (92% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles). The improved electrochemical results show that the ZnO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure electrode is promising for high-performance supercapacitors. The facile design of the unique core-shell array architectures provides a new and effective approach to fabricate high-performance binder-free electrode for supercapacitors.

  14. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  15. Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with finely tuned and well-controlled sizes, shell thicknesses, and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanyun; Li, Weiyang; Cho, Eun Chul; Li, Zhiyuan; Yu, Taekyung; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Xia, Younan

    2010-11-23

    This paper describes a facile method for generating Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with edge lengths controllable in the range of 13.4-50 nm. The synthesis involved the use of single-crystal, spherical Au nanocrystals of 11 nm in size as the seeds in an aqueous system, with ascorbic acid serving as the reductant and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as the capping agent. The thickness of the Ag shells could be finely tuned from 1.2 to 20 nm by varying the ratio of AgNO(3) precursor to Au seeds. We also investigated the growth mechanism by examining the effects of seeds (capped by CTAC or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB)) and capping agent (CTAC vs CTAB) on both size and shape of the resultant core-shell nanocrystals. Our results clearly indicate that CTAC worked much better than CTAB as a capping agent in both the syntheses of Au seeds and Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes. We further studied the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of the Au@Ag nanocubes as a function of the Ag shell thickness. By comparing with the extinction spectra obtained from theoretical calculations, we derived a critical value of ca. 3 nm for the shell thickness at which the plasmon excitation of the Au cores would be completely screened by the Ag shells. Moreover, these Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes could be converted into Au-based hollow nanostructures containing the original Au seeds in the interiors through a galvanic replacement reaction.

  16. Measurement and simulation of anisotropic magnetoresistance in single GaAs/MnAs core/shell nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Wang, J.; Cooley, B. J.; Rench, D. W.; Samarth, N.; Paul, A.; Dellas, N. S.; Mohney, S. E.; Engel-Herbert, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report four probe measurements of the low field magnetoresistance (MR) in single core/shell GaAs/MnAs nanowires (NWs) synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy, demonstrating clear signatures of anisotropic magnetoresistance that track the field-dependent magnetization. A comparison with micromagnetic simulations reveals that the principal characteristics of the magnetoresistance data can be unambiguously attributed to the nanowire segments with a zinc blende GaAs core. The direct correlation between magnetoresistance, magnetization, and crystal structure provides a powerful means of characterizing individual hybrid ferromagnet/semiconductor nanostructures.

  17. Core/Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell signaling. The surface modification of the nanomaterials is required for biomedical use to give physiogical stability, surface reactivity and targeting properties. Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is using metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodispersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Magnetic nanoparticle with gold coating is an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification (Au-S) chemistry. The Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. This makes the magnetic/Au core/shell combinations interesting for magnetic and optical applications. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of gold capped-magnetic core structured nanomaterials with different gold sources, such as gold acetate and chloroauric acid have been reported. The core/shell nanoparticles were transferred from organic to aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. Magnetic core/shell structured nanoparticles have been prepared and transferred from organic phase to aqueous solutions. The resulting Au-coated magnetic core nanoparticles might be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging

  18. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica core-shell particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nikolić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell particles were formed by deposition of primary silica particles synthesized from sodium silicate solution on functionalized silica core particles (having size of ~0.5 µm prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylortosilicate. The obtained mesoporous shell has thickness of about 60 nm and consists of primary silica particles with average size of ~21 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements showed that continuous silica shell exists around functionalized core particles which was additionally proved by FTIR and TEM results.

  19. Novel fluorescent core-shell nanocontainers for cell membrane transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meizhen; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W; Sorokina, Ksenia; Li, Chen; Mihov, George; Pietrowski, Eweline; Koynov, Kaloian; Klapper, Markus; Luhmann, Heiko J; Müllen, Klaus; Weil, Tanja

    2008-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel core-shell macromolecules consisting of a fluorescent perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxdiimide chromophore in the center surrounded by a hydrophobic polyphenylene shell as a first and a flexible hydrophilic polymer shell as a second layer was presented. Following this strategy, several macromolecules bearing varying polymer chain lengths, different polymer shell densities, and increasing numbers of positive and negative charges were achieved. Because all of these macromolecules reveal a good water solubility, their ability to cross cellular membranes was investigated. In this way, a qualitative relationship between the molecular architecture of these macromolecules and the biological response was established.

  20. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  1. Controlled-release and preserved bioactivity of proteins from (self-assembled core-shell double-walled microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to address preserved protein bioactivities and protein sustained-release problems, a method for preparing double-walled microspheres with a core (protein-loaded nanoparticles with a polymer-suspended granule system-formed core and a second shell (a polymer-formed shell for controlled drug release and preserved protein bioactivities has been developed using (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W phases. The method, based on our previous microsphere preparation method (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W, employs different concentric poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, poly(D,L-lactide, and protein-loaded nanoparticles to produce a suspended liquid which then self-assembles to form shell-core microspheres in the hydrophilic oil phase, which are then solidified in the water phase. Variations in the preparation parameters allowed complete encapsulation by the shell phase, including the efficient formation of a poly(D,L-lactide shell encapsulating a protein-loaded nanoparticle-based poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide core. This method produces core-shell double-walled microspheres that show controlled protein release and preserved protein bioactivities for 60 days. Based upon these results, we concluded that the core-shell double-walled microspheres might be applied for tissue engineering and therapy for chronic diseases, etc.Keywords: protein delivery, protein stability, core-shell microspheres, dextran nanoparticles

  2. Gold nanorod@iron oxide core-shell heterostructures: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhao, Junwei; You, Wenlong; Cheng, Danhong; Ni, Weihai

    2017-03-17

    Iron oxides are directly coated on the surface of cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped gold nanorods (AuNRs) in aqueous solutions at room temperature, which results in AuNR@Fe 2 O 3 , AuNR@Fe 3 O 4 , and AuNR@Fe 2 O 3 @Fe 3 O 4 core-shell heterostructures. The iron oxide shells are uniform, smooth, with characteristic porous structure, and their thickness can be readily tuned. The shell formation is highly dependent on the reaction parameters including pH and CTAB concentration. The Fe 2 O 3 shell is amorphous and exhibits nearly zero remanence and coercivity, while the Fe 3 O 4 shell is ferromagnetic with a low saturation magnetization of about 0.5 emu g -1 due to its low crystallinity and the porous structure. At elevated temperatures achieved by plasmonic heating of the Au core, the Fe 2 O 3 shell transforms from amorphous to γ-Fe 2 O 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 phases, while the Fe 3 O 4 phase disappears because of the oxidation of Fe 2+ . A 1.4-fold increase of photocatalytic performance is observed due to the plasmonic resonance provided by the Au core. The photocatalytic efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 is about 1.7-fold higher than Fe 2 O 3 as more surface defects are present on the Fe 3 O 4 shell, promoting the adsorption and activation of reagents on the surface during the catalytic reactions. This approach can be readily extended to other nanostructures including Au spherical nanoparticles and nanostars. These highly uniform and multifunctional core-shell heterostructures can be of great potential in a variety of energy, magnetic, and environment applications.

  3. Lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 core-shell nanoparticles for non-contact self-referencing temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuhong; Chen, Weibo; Tan, Dezhi; Zhou, Jiajia; Guo, Qiangbing; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Cheng; Liu, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-06-07

    We report that non-contact self-referencing temperature sensors can be realized with the use of core-shell nanostructures. These lanthanide-based nanothermometers (NaGdF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)@Tb(3+)/Eu(3+)) exhibit higher sensitivity in a wide range from 125 to 300 K based on two emissions of Tb(3+) at 545 nm and Eu(3+) at 615 nm under near-infrared laser excitation.

  4. Controlling interface characteristics by adjusting core-shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.; Cheng, S.Y.; Sheu, C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Most grain boundary layer ceramics comprise semiconductive/conductive grains and insulated grain boundaries. Such a structure can be theoretically regarded as a shell (grain boundary layer) surrounds a core (conductive or semiconductive grain). The core-shell structure of titanium (Ti)-strontium titanate (ST) is composed of three zones - ST, non-stoichiometric strontium-titanium oxide and Ti, in order from shell to core. It was successfully prepared using a hydrothermal method. The Ti-ST core-shell structure was sintered in a reducing atmosphere and then annealed in air to achieve the metal-insulator-metal structure (MIM structure). The resulting MIM structure, annealed in air, changes with the oxygen stoichiometry of the ST shell (insulator layer) at various temperatures, which is thus used to tune its electrical characteristics. The characteristics exhibit nonlinear behavior. Accordingly, the thickness of the insulator layer can be adjusted in various annealing atmospheres and at various temperatures to develop various interfacial devices, such as varistors, capacitors and thermistors, without the use of complex donor/acceptor doping technology

  5. Laser Heating of the Core-Shell Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Dumitru, Ioan; Stancu, Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The induced thermal stress in a heating process is an important parameter to be known and controlled in the magnetization process of core-shell nanowires. This paper analyses the stress produced by a laser heating source placed at one end of a core-shell type structure. The thermal field was computed with the non-Fourier heat transport equation using a finite element method (FEM) implemented in Comsol Multiphysics. The internal stresses are essentially due to thermal gradients and different expansion characteristics of core and shell materials. The stress values were computed using the thermo elastic formalism and are depending on the laser beam parameters (spot size, power etc.) and system characteristics (dimensions, thermal characteristics). Stresses in the GPa range were estimated and consequently we find that the magnetic state of the system can be influenced significantly. A shell material as the glass which is a good thermal insulator induces in the magnetic core, the smaller stresses and consequently the smaller magnetoelastic energy. These results lead to a better understanding of the switching process in the magnetic materials.

  6. pH-sensitive chitosan/alginate core-shell nanoparticles for efficient and safe oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Chakraborty, Souma; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mishra, Roshnara; Kundu, P P

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-alginate (CS/ALG) nanoparticles were prepared by formation of an ionotropic pre-gelation of an alginate (ALG) core entrapping insulin, followed by chitosan (CS) polyelectrolyte complexation, for successful oral insulin administration. Mild preparation process without harsh chemicals is aimed at improving insulin bio-efficiency in in vivo model. The nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 100-200 nm in dynamic light scattering (DLS), with almost spherical or sub-spherical shape and ∼ 85% of insulin encapsulation. Again, retention of almost entire amount of encapsulated insulin in simulated gastric buffer followed by its sustained release in simulated intestinal condition proved its pH sensitivity in in vitro release studies. Significant hypoglycemic effects with improved insulin-relative bioavailability (∼ 8.11%) in in vivo model revealed the efficacy of these core-shell nanoparticles of CS/ALG as an oral insulin carrier. No systemic toxicity was found after its peroral treatment, suggesting these core-shell nanoparticles as a promising device for potential oral insulin delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In-situ synthetize multi-walled carbon nanotubes@MnO2 nanoflake core-shell structured materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Jiaoxia; Jia, Yi; Ma, Chun'an

    2012-10-01

    A new type of core-shell structured material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoflake is synthesized using an in-situ co-precipitation method. By scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscope, it is confirmed that the core-shell nanostructure is formed by the uniform incorporation of birnessite-type MnO2 nanoflake growth round the surface of the activated-MWCNTs. That core-shell structured material electrode presents excellent electrochemical capacitance properties with the specific capacitance reaching 380 F g-1 at the current density of 5 A g-1 in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. In addition, the electrode also exhibits good performance (the power density: 11.28 kW kg-1 at 5 A g-1) and long-term cycling stability (retaining 82.7% of its initial capacitance after 3500 cycles at 5 A g-1). It mainly attributes to MWCNTs not only providing considerable specific surface area for high mass loading of MnO2 nanoflakes to ensure effective utilization of MnO2 nanoflake, but also offering an electron pathway to improve electrical conductivity of the electrode materials. It is clearly indicated that such core-shell structured materials including MWCNTs and MnO2 nanoflake may find important applications for supercapacitors.

  8. Facile synthesis of hierarchical Co3O4@MnO2 core-shell arrays on Ni foam for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lili; Wen, Zhiyu; Liu, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Hierarchical Co3O4@MnO2 core-shell arrays on Ni foam have been fabricated by a facile hydrothermal approach and further investigated as the electrode for high-performance supercapacitors. Owing to the high conductivity of the well-defined mesoporous Co3O4 nanowire arrays in combination with the large surface area provided by the ultrathin MnO2 nanosheets, the unique designed Co3O4@MnO2 core-shell arrays on Ni foam have exhibited a high specific capacitance (560 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1), good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability (95% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles). An asymmetric supercapacitor with Co3O4@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure as the positive electrode and activated microwave exfoliated graphite oxide activated graphene (MEGO) as the negative electrode yielded an energy density of 17.7 Wh kg-1 and a maximum power density of 158 kW kg-1. The rational design of the unique core-shell array architectures demonstrated in this work provides a new and facile approach to fabricate high-performance electrode for supercapacitors.

  9. Chemical insights into the roles of nanowire cores on the growth and supercapacitor performances of Ni-Co-O/Ni(OH)₂ core/shell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuesong; Tang, Chunhua; Zhang, Liuyang; Yu, Zhi Gen; Gong, Hao

    2016-02-09

    Nanostructured core/shell electrodes have been experimentally demonstrated promising for high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. However, chemical insights into the significant roles of nanowire cores on the growth of shells and their supercapacitor behaviors still remain as a research shortfall. In this work, by substituting 1/3 cobalt in the Co3O4 nanowire core with nickel, a 61% enhancement of the specific mass-loading of the Ni(OH)2 shell, a tremendous 93% increase of the volumetric capacitance and a superior cyclability were achieved in a novel NiCo2O4/Ni(OH)2 core/shell electrode in contrast to a Co3O4/Ni(OH)2 one. A comparative study suggested that not only the growth of Ni(OH)2 shells but also the contribution of cores were attributed to the overall performances. Importantly, their chemical origins were revealed through a theoretical simulation of the core/shell interfacial energy changes. Besides, asymmetric supercapacitor devices and applications were also explored. The scientific clues and practical potentials obtained in this work are helpful for the design and analysis of alternative core/shell electrode materials.

  10. Plasma-assisted synthesis and study of structural and magnetic properties of Fe/C core shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, K. P.; Ranot, M.; Choi, C. J.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    Pure and carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by using the DC plasma arc discharge method. Fe core nanoparticles were encapsulated with carbon layer, which is acting as protection layer against both oxidation and chemical reaction. The morphology and the Fe/C core/shell structure of the nanoparticles were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction study showed that the α-Fe phase exists with γ-Fe as an impurity. The studied samples have been interrelated with the variation of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field with the amount of carbon coating. The pure α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization = 172 emu/g, and coercive field = 150 Oe, on the other hand few layer carbon coated α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization =169 emu/g with higher coercive field 398 Oe.

  11. Plasma-assisted synthesis and study of structural and magnetic properties of Fe/C core shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Shinde

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pure and carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by using the DC plasma arc discharge method. Fe core nanoparticles were encapsulated with carbon layer, which is acting as protection layer against both oxidation and chemical reaction. The morphology and the Fe/C core/shell structure of the nanoparticles were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction study showed that the α-Fe phase exists with γ-Fe as an impurity. The studied samples have been interrelated with the variation of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field with the amount of carbon coating. The pure α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization = 172 emu/g, and coercive field = 150 Oe, on the other hand few layer carbon coated α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization =169 emu/g with higher coercive field 398 Oe.

  12. Core-shell nanoparticles optical sensors - Rational design of zinc ions fluorescent nanoprobes of improved analytical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźnica, Emilia; Gasik, Joanna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Kisiel, Anna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    In this work the effect of affinity of an analyte to a receptor on the response of nanostructural fluorimetric probes is discussed. Core-shell nanoparticles sensors are prepared that benefit from the properties of the phases involved leading to improved analytical performance. The optical transduction system chosen is independent of pH, thus the change of sample pH can be used to control the analyte - receptor affinity through the "conditional" binding constant prevailing within the lipophilic phase. It is shown that by affecting the "conditional" binding constant the performance of the sensor can be fine-tuned. As expected, increase in "conditional" affinity of the ligand embedded in the lipophilic phase to the analyte results in higher sensitivity over narrow concentration range - bulk reaction and sigmoidal shape response of emission intensity vs. logarithm of concentration changes. To induce a linear dependence of emission intensity vs. logarithm of analyte concentration covering a broad concentration range, a spatial confinement of the reaction zone is proposed, and application of core-shell nanostructures. The core material, polypyrrole nanospheres, is effectively not permeable for the analyte - ligand complex, thus the reaction is limited to the outer shell layer of the polymer prepared from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). For herein introduced system a linear dependence of emission intensity vs. logarithm of Zn2+ concentration was obtained within the range from 10-7 to 10-1 M.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of WS2@SiO2 and WS2@PANI Core-Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Sade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tungsten disulfide (WS2-based core-shell nanocomposites were fabricated using readily available reagents and simple procedures. The surface was pre-treated with a surfactant couple in a layer-by-layer approach, enabling good dispersion of the WS2 nanostructures in aqueous media and providing a template for the polymerization of a silica (SiO2 shell. After a Stöber-like reaction, a conformal silica coating was achieved. Inspired by the resulting nanocomposite, a second one was prepared by reacting the surfactant-modified WS2 nanostructures with aniline and an oxidizing agent in an aqueous medium. Here too, a conformal coating of polyaniline (PANI was obtained, giving a WS2@PANI nanocomposite. Both nanocomposites were analyzed by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and FTIR, verifying the core-shell structure and the character of shells. The silica shell was amorphous and mesoporous and the surface area of the composite increases with shell thickness. Polyaniline shells slightly differ in their morphologies dependent on the acid used in the polymerization process and are amorphous like the silica shell. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the WS2@PANI nanocomposite showed variation between bulk PANI and the PANI shell. These two nanocomposites have great potential to expand the use of transition metals dichalcogenides (TMDCs for new applications in different fields.

  14. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  15. Synthesis of CuO-NiO core-shell nanoparticles by homogeneous precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuO-NiO core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized using a simple homogeneous precipitation method for the first time. ► Mechanism of the formation of core-shell nanoparticles has been investigated. ► The synthesis route may be extended for the synthesis of other mixed metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles. - Abstract: Core-shell CuO–NiO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles in which CuO is the core and NiO is the shell have been successfully synthesized using homogeneous precipitation method. This is a simple synthetic method which produces first a layered double hydroxide precursor with core-shell morphology which on calcination at 350 °C yields the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with the retention of core-shell morphology. The CuO–NiO mixed metal oxide precursor and the core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The chemical reactivity of the core-shell nanoparticles was tested using catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH 4 . The possible growth mechanism of the particles with core-shell morphology has also been investigated.

  16. Toward hybrid Au nanorods @ M (Au, Ag, Pd and Pt) core-shell heterostructures for ultrasensitive SERS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Lei, Yanhua; Pan, Zhengyin; Shibayama, Tamaki; Cai, Lintao

    2017-06-01

    Being able to precisely control the morphologies of noble metallic nanostructures is of essential significance for promoting the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Herein, we demonstrate an overgrowth strategy for synthesizing Au @ M (M = Au, Ag, Pd, Pt) core-shell heterogeneous nanocrystals with an orientated structural evolution and highly improved properties by using Au nanorods as seeds. With the same reaction condition system applied, we obtain four well-designed heterostructures with diverse shapes, including Au concave nanocuboids (Au CNs), Au @ Ag crystalizing face central cube nanopeanuts, Au @ Pd porous nanocuboids and Au @ Pt nanotrepangs. Subsequently, the exact overgrowth mechanism of the above heterostructural building blocks is further analysed via the systematic optimiziation of a series of fabrications. Remarkably, the well-defined Au CNs and Au @ Ag nanopeanuts both exhibit highly promoted SERS activity. We expect to be able to supply a facile strategy for the fabrication of multimetallic heterogeneous nanostructures, exploring the high SERS effect and catalytic activities.

  17. Ellipsoidal all-dielectric Fano resonant core-shell metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Kumar, Ajeet

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, ellipsoidal core (Si) and shell (SiO2) metamaterial has been proposed for highly directional properties. At the wavelength of magnetic resonance, Fano dip occurs in the backward scattering cross section and forward scattering enhancement takes place at the same wavelength so that there is an increment in the directivity. Effect on the directivity by changing the length of ellipsoidal nanoparticle along semi-axes has been analyzed. Two Fano resonances have been observed by decreasing the length of the nanoparticle along the semi-axis having electric polarization, where first and second Fano resonances are attributed to the dipole and quadrupole moments, respectively. These Fano resonant wavelengths in ellipsoidal nanoparticle exhibit higher directivity than the Kerker's type scattering or forward scattering shown by symmetrical structures like sphere. So, this core-shell metamaterial can act as an efficient directional nanoantenna.

  18. Optical Bistability in Graded Core-Shell Granular Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ya-Min; Chen Guo-Qing; Xue Si-Zhong; Zhu Zhuo-Wei; Ma Chao-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic optical bistability (OB) of graded core-shell granular composites is investigated. The coated particles are made of cores with gradient dielectric function in c (r) = A(r/a) k and nonlinear shells. In view of the exponential distribution of the core dielectric constant, the potential functions of each region are obtained by solving the Maxwell equations, and the mathematical expressions of electric field in the shells and cores are determined. Numerical study reveals that the optical bistable threshold and the threshold width of the composite medium are dependent on the shell thickness, core dielectric exponent, and power function coefficient. The optical bistable width increases with the decreasing shell thickness and the power exponent and with the increasing power function coefficient

  19. Ab Initio Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J P; Dytrych, T; Launey, K D

    2011-01-01

    A multi-shell extension of the Elliott SU(3) model, the SU(3) symmetry-adapted version of the no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), is described. The significance of this SA-NCSM emerges from the physical relevance of its SU(3)-coupled basis, which – while it naturally manages center-of-mass spuriosity – provides a microscopic description of nuclei in terms of mixed shape configurations. Since typically configurations of maximum spatial deformation dominate, only a small part of the model space suffices to reproduce the low-energy nuclear dynamics and hence, offers an effective symmetry-guided framework for winnowing of model space. This is based on our recent findings of low-spin and high-deformation dominance in realistic NCSM results and, in turn, holds promise to significantly enhance the reach of ab initio shell models.

  20. Facile in situ synthesis of wurtzite ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructure with highly efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity and photostability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Hua; Huang, Wei-Qing; Hu, Yong-sheng; Zeng, Fan; Huang, Qin-Yi; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Pan, Anlian; Li, Kai; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-02-01

    High photocatalytic activity and photostability are the pursuit of the goal for designing promising photocatalysts. Herein, using ZnO to encapsulate ZnS nanoparticles is proposed as an effective strategy to enhance photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion. The ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructures are obtained via an annealing treatment of ZnS nanoparticles produced by a facile wet chemical approach. Due to its small size, the nascent cubic sphalerite ZnS (s-ZnS) converts into a hexagonal wurtzite ZnS (w-ZnS)/ZnO core/shell structure after annealing treatment. In situ oxidation leads to increasing ZnO, simultaneously decreasing the w-ZnS content in the resultant w-ZnS/ZnO with thermal annealing time. The w-ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructures show high photocatalytic activity, demonstrated by the photodegradation rate of methylene blue being up to ten-fold and seven-fold higher than that of s-ZnS under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively, and the high capability of degrading rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity may be attributed to the large specific surface and improved charge carrier separation at the core/shell interface. Moreover, it displays high photostability owing to the protection of the ZnO shell, greatly inhibiting the photocorrosion of ZnS. This facile in situ oxidation is effective and easily scalable, providing opportunities for developing novel core/shell structure photocatalysts with high activity and photostability.

  1. A rationally designed photo-chemo core-shell nanomedicine for inhibiting the migration of metastatic breast cancer cells followed by photodynamic killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Chandran, Parwathy; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Ramachandran, Ranjith; Gupta, Neha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-04-01

    A multifunctional core-shell nanomedicine capable of inhibiting the migratory capacity of metastatic cancer cells followed by imparting cytotoxic stress by photodynamic action is reported. Based on in silico design, we have developed a core-shell nanomedicine comprising of ~80nm size poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano-core encapsulating photosensitizer, m-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC), and ~20nm size albumin nano-shell encapsulating tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Dasatinib, which impair cancer migration. This system was prepared by a sequential process involving electrospray of polymer core and coacervation of protein shell. Cell studies using metastatic breast cancer cells demonstrated disruption of Src kinase involved in the cancer migration by albumin-dasatinib nano-shell and generation of photoactivated oxidative stress by mTHPC-PLGA nano-core. This unique combinatorial photo-chemo nanotherapy resulted synergistic cytotoxicity in ~99% of the motility-impaired metastatic cells. This approach of blocking cancer migration followed by photodynamic killing using rationally designed nanomedicine is a promising new strategy against cancer metastasis. A multifunctional core-shell nanomedicine capable of inhibiting metastatic cancer cell migration, in addition to inducing photodynamic effects, is described in this paper. The authors document cytotoxicity in approximately 99% of the studied metastatic breast cancer cells. Similar approaches would be a very welcome addition to the treatment protocols of advanced metastatic breast cancer and other types of neoplasms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tunable luminescent emission characterization of type-I and type-II systems in CdS-ZnSe core-shell nanoparticles: Raman and photoluminescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ca, Nguyen Xuan; Lien, V T K; Nghia, N X; Chi, T T K; Phan, The-Long

    2015-11-06

    We used wet chemical methods to synthesize core-shell nanocrystalline samples CdS(d)/ZnSe N , where d = 3-6 nm and N = 1-5 are the size of CdS cores and the number of monolayers grown on the cores, respectively. By annealing typical CdS(d)/ZnSe N samples (with d = 3 and 6 nm and N = 2) at 300 °C for various times t an = 10-600 min, we created an intermediate layer composed of Zn1-x Cd x Se and Cd1-x Zn x S alloys with various thicknesses. The formation of core-shell structures and intermediate layers was monitored by Raman scattering and UV-vis absorption spectrometers. Careful photoluminescence studies revealed that the as-prepared CdS(d)/ZnSe N samples with d = 5 nm and N = 2-4, and the annealed samples CdS(3 nm)/ZnSe2 with t an ≤ 60 min and CdS(6 nm)/ZnSe2 with t an ≤ 180 min, show the emission characteristics of type-II systems. Meanwhile, the other samples show the emission characteristics of type-I systems. These results prove that the partial separation of photoexcited carriers between the core and shell is dependent strongly on the engineered core-shell nanostructures, meaning the sizes of the core, shell, and intermediate layers. With the tunable luminescence properties, CdS-ZnSe-based core-shell materials are considered as promising candidates for multiple-exciton generation and single-photon sources.

  3. The diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in a semiconductor core shell quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudharshan, M. S.; Subhash, P.; Shaik, Nagoor Babu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105 (India); Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram, Tamilnadu-624302 (India); Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D., E-mail: merwyn@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The effect of Aluminium concentration, shell thickness and size of the core shell Quantum Dot on the Diamagnetic Susceptibility of a donor in the Core Shell Quantum Dot is calculated in the effective mass approximation using the variational method. The results are presented and discussed.

  4. The diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in a semiconductor core shell quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharshan, M. S.; Subhash, P.; Shaik, Nagoor Babu; Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K.; Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of Aluminium concentration, shell thickness and size of the core shell Quantum Dot on the Diamagnetic Susceptibility of a donor in the Core Shell Quantum Dot is calculated in the effective mass approximation using the variational method. The results are presented and discussed.

  5. Synthesis of eccentric titania-silica core-shell and composite particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel method to synthesize colloidal particles with an eccentric core-shell structure. Titania-silica core-shell particles were synthesized by silica coating of porous titania particles under Sto¨ber (Sto¨ber et al. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1968, 26, 62) conditions. We can control

  6. Rapid Synthesis and Formation Mechanism of Core-Shell-Structured La-Doped SrTiO3 with a Nb-Doped Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Hee Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide a convenient and practical synthesis process for metal ion doping on the surface of nanoparticles in an assembled nanostructure, core-shell-structured La-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes with a Nb-doped surface layer were synthesized via a rapid synthesis combining a rapid sol-precipitation and hydrothermal process. The La-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes were formed at room temperature by a rapid dissolution of NaOH pellets during the rapid sol-precipitation process, and the Nb-doped surface (shell along with Nb-rich edges formed on the core nanocubes via the hydrothermal process. The formation mechanism of the core-shell-structured nanocubes and their shape evolution as a function of the Nb doping level were investigated. The synthesized core-shell-structured nanocubes could be arranged face-to-face on a SiO2/Si substrate by a slow evaporation process, and this nanostructured 10 μm thick thin film showed a smooth surface.

  7. Synthesis of a carbon-coated NiO/MgO core/shell nanocomposite as a Pd electro-catalyst support for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendiran, C.; Maiyalagan, T.; Scott, K.; Gedanken, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Carbon coated on NiO/MgO in a core/shell nanostructure is synthesized by RAPET. → The carbon-coated NiO/MgO is supported by Pd. → The electrocatalytic properties of the Pd/(NiO/MgO-C) catalyst for ethanol oxidation studied. - Abstract: Carbon coated on NiO/MgO in a core/shell nanostructure was synthesized by the single-step RAPET (reaction under autogenic pressure at elevated temperatures) technique, and the obtained formation mechanism of the core/shell nanocomposite was presented. The carbon-coated NiO/MgO and its supported Pd catalyst, Pd/(NiO/MgO-C), were characterized by SEM, HR-TEM, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the face-centered cubic crystal structure of NiO/MgO. Raman spectroscopy measurements provided structural evidence for the formation of a NiO/MgO composite and the nature of the coated carbon shell. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed the core and shell morphologies individually. The electrocatalytic properties of the Pd/(NiO/MgO-C) catalyst for ethanol oxidation were investigated in an alkaline solution. The results indicated that the prepared Pd-NiO/MgO-C catalyst has excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability.

  8. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  9. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  10. Core/shell cellulose-based microspheres for oral administration of Ketoprofen Lysinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Caputo, Tania; Calcagnile, Paola; Altobelli, Rosaria; Demitri, Christian; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2018-01-26

    Herein, we propose the fabrication of a new carrier with core/shell structure-inner core of cellulose acetate (CA) coated by a micrometric layer of chitosan (CS)-fabricated through an integrated process, which combines Electro Dynamic Atomization (EDA) and layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We demonstrate that CA based microspheres possess a unique capability to relevantly retain the drugs-that is, Ketoprofen Lysinate (KL)-along the gastric tract, while providing a massive release along the intestine. CS shell slightly influences the morphology and water retention under different pH conditions, improving drug encapsulation without compromising drug release kinetics. In vitro studies in simulated gastric and intestine fluids (SGF, SIF) with physiological enzymes, show a moderate release of LSK during the first 2 h (ca. 20% at pH 2), followed by a sustained release during the next 6 h (ca. 80% at pH 7). The obtained results demonstrate that CA-based microspheres hold strong potential to be used as carriers for a delayed oral administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Novel thermo-sensitive core-shell nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanpei; Pan Shirong; Zhang Wei; Du Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Novel thermo-sensitive nanoparticles self-assembled from poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide- co-acrylamide)-block-poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) were designed for targeted drug delivery in localized hyperthermia. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of nanoparticles was adjusted to a level between physiological body temperature (37 deg. C) and that used in local hyperthermia (about 43 deg. C). The temperature-dependent performances of the core-shell nanoparticles were systemically studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atom force microscopy (AFM). The mean diameter of the nanoparticles increased slightly from 110 to 129 nm when paclitaxel (PTX), a poorly water-soluble anti-tumor drug, was encapsulated. A stability study in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the PTX loaded nanoparticles may have a long circulation time under physiological environments as the LCST was above physiological body temperature and the shell remained hydrophilic at 37 deg.C. The PTX release profiles showed thermo-sensitive controlled behavior. The proliferation inhibiting activity of PTX loaded nanoparticles was evaluated against Hela cells in vitro, compared with Taxol (a formulation of paclitaxel dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol). The cytotoxicity of PTX loaded nanoparticles increased obviously when hyperthermia was performed. The nanoparticles synthesized here could be an ideal candidate for thermal triggered anti-tumor PTX delivery system.

  12. The effect of surface-bulk potential difference on the kinetics of intercalation in core-shell active cathode particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiabnavi, Saeed; Malik, Rahul; Orvananos, Bernardo; Abdellahi, Aziz; Ceder, Gerbrand; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2018-04-01

    Surface modification of active cathode particles is commonly observed in battery research as either a surface phase evolving during the cycling process, or intentionally engineered to improve capacity retention, rate capability, and/or thermal stability of the cathode material. Here, a continuum-scale model is developed to simulate the galvanostatic charge/discharge of a cathode particle with core-shell heterostructure. The particle is assumed to be comprised of a core material encapsulated by a thin layer of a second phase that has a different open-circuit voltage. The effect of the potential difference between the surface and bulk phases (Ω) on the kinetics of lithium intercalation and the galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles is studied at different values of Ω, C-rates, and exchange current densities. The difference between the Li chemical potential in the surface and bulk phases of the cathode particle results in a concentration difference between these two phases. This leads to a charge/discharge asymmetry in the galvanostatic voltage profiles, causing a decrease in the accessible capacity of the particle. These effects are more significant at higher magnitudes of surface-bulk potential difference. The proposed model provides detailed insight into the kinetics and voltage behavior of the intercalation/de-intercalation processes in core-shell heterostructure cathode particles.

  13. Multifunctional antitumor magnetite/chitosan-l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela P.; Ruiz, M. Adolfina; Gallardo, Visitación; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B.; Arias, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of anticancer drug delivery systems based on biodegradable nanoparticles has been intended to maximize the localization of chemotherapy agents within tumor interstitium, along with negligible drug distribution into healthy tissues. Interestingly, passive and active drug targeting strategies to cancer have led to improved nanomedicines with great tumor specificity and efficient chemotherapy effect. One of the most promising areas in the formulation of such nanoplatforms is the engineering of magnetically responsive nanoparticles. In this way, we have followed a chemical modification method for the synthesis of magnetite/chitosan-l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanostructures. These magnetic nanocomposites (average size ≈340 nm) exhibited multifunctional properties based on its capability to load the antitumor drug doxorubicin (along with an adequate sustained release) and its potential for hyperthermia applications. Compared to drug surface adsorption, doxorubicin entrapment into the nanocomposites matrix yielded a higher drug loading and a slower drug release profile. Heating characteristics of the magnetic nanocomposites were investigated in a high-frequency alternating magnetic gradient: a stable maximum temperature of 46 °C was successfully achieved within 40 min. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such kind of stimuli-sensitive nanoformulation with very important properties (i.e., magnetic targeting capabilities, hyperthermia, high drug loading, and little burst drug release) has been formulated for combined antitumor therapy against cancer.

  14. Preparation, Properties, and Self-Assembly Behavior of PTFE-Based Core-Shell Nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparnacci, K.; Antonioli, D.; Deregibus, S.; Laus, M.; Zuccheri, G.; Boarino, L.; De Leo, N.; Comoretto, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nano sized PTFE-based core-shell particles can be prepared by emulsifier-free seed emulsion polymerization technique starting from spherical or rod-like PTFE seeds of different size. The shell can be constituted by the relatively high Tg polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate as well as by low Tg polyacrylic copolymers. Peculiar thermal behavior of the PTFE component is observed due to the high degree of PTFE compartmentalization. A very precise control over the particle size can be exerted by properly adjusting the ratio between the monomers and the PTFE seed. In addition, the particle size distribution self-sharpens as the ratio monomer/PTFE increases. Samples with uniformity ratios suited to build 2D and 3D colloidal crystals are easily prepared. In particular, 2D colloidal crystal of spheres leads to very small 2D nanostructuration, useful for the preparation of masks with a combination of nanosphere lithography and reactive ion etching. 3D colloidal crystals were also obtained featuring excellent opal quality, which is a direct consequence of the monodispersity of colloids used for their growth.

  15. Preparation, Properties, and Self-Assembly Behavior of PTFE-Based Core-Shell Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Sparnacci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized PTFE-based core-shell particles can be prepared by emulsifier-free seed emulsion polymerization technique starting from spherical or rod-like PTFE seeds of different size. The shell can be constituted by the relatively high Tg polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate as well as by low Tg polyacrylic copolymers. Peculiar thermal behavior of the PTFE component is observed due to the high degree of PTFE compartmentalization. A very precise control over the particle size can be exerted by properly adjusting the ratio between the monomers and the PTFE seed. In addition, the particle size distribution self-sharpens as the ratio monomer/PTFE increases. Samples with uniformity ratios suited to build 2D and 3D colloidal crystals are easily prepared. In particular, 2D colloidal crystal of spheres leads to very small 2D nanostructuration, useful for the preparation of masks with a combination of nanosphere lithography and reactive ion etching. 3D colloidal crystals were also obtained featuring excellent opal quality, which is a direct consequence of the monodispersity of colloids used for their growth.

  16. High-performance polyimide nanocomposites with core-shell AgNWs@BN for electronic packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yongcun; Liu, Feng, E-mail: liufeng@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2016-08-22

    The increasing density of electronic devices underscores the need for efficient thermal management. Silver nanowires (AgNWs), as one-dimensional nanostructures, possess a high aspect ratio and intrinsic thermal conductivity. However, high electrical conductivity of AgNWs limits their application for electronic packaging. We synthesized boron nitride-coated silver nanowires (AgNWs@BN) using a flexible and fast method followed by incorporation into synthetic polyimide (PI) for enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites. The thinner boron nitride intermediate nanolayer on AgNWs not only alleviated the mismatch between AgNWs and PI but also enhanced their interfacial interaction. Hence, the maximum thermal conductivity of an AgNWs@BN/PI composite with a filler loading up to 20% volume was increased to 4.33 W/m K, which is an enhancement by nearly 23.3 times compared with that of the PI matrix. The relative permittivity and dielectric loss were about 9.89 and 0.015 at 1 MHz, respectively. Compared with AgNWs@SiO{sub 2}/PI and Ag@BN/PI composites, boron nitride-coated core-shell structures effectively increased the thermal conductivity and reduced the permittivity of nanocomposites. The relative mechanism was studied and discussed. This study enables the identification of appropriate modifier fillers for polymer matrix nanocomposites.

  17. Multifunctional antitumor magnetite/chitosan- l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela P.; Ruiz, M. Adolfina; Gallardo, Visitación; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B.; Arias, José L.

    2011-09-01

    The development of anticancer drug delivery systems based on biodegradable nanoparticles has been intended to maximize the localization of chemotherapy agents within tumor interstitium, along with negligible drug distribution into healthy tissues. Interestingly, passive and active drug targeting strategies to cancer have led to improved nanomedicines with great tumor specificity and efficient chemotherapy effect. One of the most promising areas in the formulation of such nanoplatforms is the engineering of magnetically responsive nanoparticles. In this way, we have followed a chemical modification method for the synthesis of magnetite/chitosan- l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanostructures. These magnetic nanocomposites (average size ≈340 nm) exhibited multifunctional properties based on its capability to load the antitumor drug doxorubicin (along with an adequate sustained release) and its potential for hyperthermia applications. Compared to drug surface adsorption, doxorubicin entrapment into the nanocomposites matrix yielded a higher drug loading and a slower drug release profile. Heating characteristics of the magnetic nanocomposites were investigated in a high-frequency alternating magnetic gradient: a stable maximum temperature of 46 °C was successfully achieved within 40 min. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such kind of stimuli-sensitive nanoformulation with very important properties (i.e., magnetic targeting capabilities, hyperthermia, high drug loading, and little burst drug release) has been formulated for combined antitumor therapy against cancer.

  18. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  19. Synthesis of bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Liu, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao; Fang, Ning; Wang, Xian-Hong; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified nanoemulsion process using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles were studied by TEM/HRTEM and XRD. The nanoparticles manifest soft ferromagnetic and/or near superparamagnetic behavior with a small coercivity of ~19 Oe at room temperature. The corresponding magnetic hysteresis curves were elucidated by the modified Langevin equation. The FTIR study confirms the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules on the surface of the nanoparticles. The UV-vis and PL results reveal the well-behaved absorption bands including surface plasmon resonance and multiple visible fingerprint photoluminescent emissions of the nanoparticles dispersed in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents. Moreover, the processes of solvent dispersion-collection of the nanoparticles were demonstrated for application readiness of such core-shell nanostructures.

  20. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on freestanding electrodes of electrospun polyacrylonitrile@polyaniline core-shell nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Fujun; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional PAN@PANI nanofiberous networks as freestanding electrodes. • The novel architecture exhibits high specific capacitance of 577 F/g. • Influence of acid doping and mass loading of PANI on electrochemical properties. • Capacitor: an energy density of 12.6 Wh/kg at the power density of 2.3 kW/kg. • Excellent cycling stability: 98% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles - Abstract: Three-dimensional porous polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline core-shell (PAN@PANI) nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning technique combining in situ chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. The obtained PAN@PANI nanofibers possess unique continuous and homogeneous core-shell nanostructures and high mass loading of PANI (∼60 wt%) as active materials, which have greatly improved the electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance up to 577 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Moreover, the porous networks of randomly arrayed PAN@PANI nanofibers provide binder-free and freestanding electrodes for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The obtained devices based on PAN@PANI networks present excellent electrochemical properties with an energy density of 12.6 Wh/kg at a power density of 2.3 kW/kg and good cycling stability with retaining more than 98% of the initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, showing the possibility for practical applications in flexible electronics

  1. Core-shell heterojunction of silicon nanowire arrays and carbon quantum dots for photovoltaic devices and self-driven photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao; Nie, Biao; Zeng, Longhui; Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Ming-Zheng; Luo, Linbao; Feng, Mei; Yu, Yongqiang; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Yucheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-22

    Silicon nanostructure-based solar cells have lately intrigued intensive interest because of their promising potential in next-generation solar energy conversion devices. Herein, we report a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array/carbon quantum dot (CQD) core-shell heterojunction photovoltaic device by directly coating Ag-assisted chemical-etched SiNW arrays with CQDs. The heterojunction with a barrier height of 0.75 eV exhibited excellent rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio of 10(3) at ±0.8 V in the dark and power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 9.10% under AM 1.5G irradiation. It is believed that such a high PCE comes from the improved optical absorption as well as the optimized carrier transfer and collection capability. Furthermore, the heterojunction could function as a high-performance self-driven visible light photodetector operating in a wide switching wavelength with good stability, high sensitivity, and fast response speed. It is expected that the present SiNW array/CQD core-shell heterojunction device could find potential applications in future high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of 1D core-shell Si/TiO2 nanotubes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Damian; Mallet, Jeremy; Thomas, Shibin; Nemaga, Abirdu Woreka; Michel, Jean; Guery, Claude; Molinari, Michael; Morcrette, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    Silicon negative electrode for lithium ion battery was designed in the form of self-organized 1D core-shell nanotubes to overcome shortcomings linked to silicon volume expansion upon lithiation/delithiation typically occurring with Si nanoparticles. The negative electrode was formed on TiO2 nanotubes in two step electrochemical synthesis by means of anodizing of titanium and electrodeposition of silicon using ionic liquid electrolytes. Remarkably, it was found that the silicon grows perpendicularly to the z-axis of nanotube and therefore its thickness can be precisely controlled by the charge passed in the electrochemical protocol. Deposited silicon creates a continuous Si network on TiO2 nanotubes without grain boundaries and particle-particle interfaces, defining its electrochemical characteristics under battery testing. In the core-shell system the titania nanotube play a role of volume expansion stabilizer framework holding the nanostructured silicon upon lithiation/delithiation. The nature of Si shell and presence of titania core determine stable performance as negative electrode tested in half cell of CR2032 coin cell battery.

  3. Homogeneous protein analysis by magnetic core-shell nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-03-29

    Studying protein interactions is of vital importance both to fundamental biology research and to medical applications. Here, we report on the experimental proof of a universally applicable label-free homogeneous platform for rapid protein analysis. It is based on optically detecting changes in the rotational dynamics of magnetically agitated core-shell nanorods upon their specific interaction with proteins. By adjusting the excitation frequency, we are able to optimize the measurement signal for each analyte protein size. In addition, due to the locking of the optical signal to the magnetic excitation frequency, background signals are suppressed, thus allowing exclusive studies of processes at the nanoprobe surface only. We study target proteins (soluble domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - sHER2) specifically binding to antibodies (trastuzumab) immobilized on the surface of our nanoprobes and demonstrate direct deduction of their respective sizes. Additionally, we examine the dependence of our measurement signal on the concentration of the analyte protein, and deduce a minimally detectable sHER2 concentration of 440 pM. For our homogeneous measurement platform, good dispersion stability of the applied nanoprobes under physiological conditions is of vital importance. To that end, we support our measurement data by theoretical modeling of the total particle-particle interaction energies. The successful implementation of our platform offers scope for applications in biomarker-based diagnostics as well as for answering basic biology questions.

  4. Variable solar control using thermotropic core/shell particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, Olaf; Seeboth, Arno; Ruhmann, Ralf; Potechius, Elvira; Vetter, Renate [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP), Department of Chromogenic Polymers, Volmerstr. 7B, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Haeusler, Tobias [Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU Cottbus), Chair of Applied Physics/Thermophysics, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Subject of our recent investigations is the utilization of a reversible thermotropic material for a self-regulating sun protection glazing that controls the solar energy input in order to avoid overheating. Based on the well-established UV curing technology for laminated glass a superior thermotropic material with tunable switching characteristics and of low material costs was developed. The polymer layer contains core/shell particles homogeneously dispersed in a UV-cured resin. The particle core in turn consists of an n-alkane mixture that is responsible for the temperature-induced clear/opaque switching. To obtain particles of well-defined size and with a narrow size distribution, the miniemulsion polymerization technique was used. The visible and solar optical properties (normal-normal, normal-hemispherical, and normal-diffuse transmittance) in the off (clear) and in the on state (opaque) were determined by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Samples containing particles of high median diameter (>800 nm) primarily scatter in the forward direction. However, with smaller particles (300-600 nm) a higher backscattering (reflection) efficiency was achieved. The largest difference in the normal-hemispherical transmittance could be found with a particle amount of 6% and a median scattering domain diameter of {proportional_to}380 nm. (author)

  5. Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.; Stetcu, I.; Barrett, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.

  6. Majorana states in prismatic core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolescu, Andrei; Sitek, Anna; Osca, Javier; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Stanescu, Tudor Dan

    2017-09-01

    We consider core-shell nanowires with conductive shell and insulating core and with polygonal cross section. We investigate the implications of this geometry on Majorana states expected in the presence of proximity-induced superconductivity and an external magnetic field. A typical prismatic nanowire has a hexagonal profile, but square and triangular shapes can also be obtained. The low-energy states are localized at the corners of the cross section, i.e., along the prism edges, and are separated by a gap from higher energy states localized on the sides. The corner localization depends on the details of the shell geometry, i.e., thickness, diameter, and sharpness of the corners. We study systematically the low-energy spectrum of prismatic shells using numerical methods and derive the topological phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and chemical potential for triangular, square, and hexagonal geometries. A strong corner localization enhances the stability of Majorana modes to various perturbations, including the orbital effect of the magnetic field, whereas a weaker localization favorizes orbital effects and reduces the critical magnetic field. The prismatic geometry allows the Majorana zero-energy modes to be accompanied by low-energy states, which we call pseudo Majorana, and which converge to real Majoranas in the limit of small shell thickness. We include the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a phenomenological manner, assuming a radial electric field across the shell.

  7. Excitons in Core-Shell Nanowires with Polygonal Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Anna; Urbaneja Torres, Miguel; Torfason, Kristinn; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Bertoni, Andrea; Manolescu, Andrei

    2018-04-11

    The distinctive prismatic geometry of semiconductor core-shell nanowires leads to complex localization patterns of carriers. Here, we describe the formation of optically active in-gap excitonic states induced by the interplay between localization of carriers in the corners and their mutual Coulomb interaction. To compute the energy spectra and configurations of excitons created in the conductive shell, we use a multielectron numerical approach based on the exact solution of the multiparticle Hamiltonian for electrons in the valence and conduction bands, which includes the Coulomb interaction in a nonperturbative manner. We expose the formation of well-separated quasidegenerate levels, and focus on the implications of the electron localization in the corners or on the sides of triangular, square, and hexagonal cross sections. We obtain excitonic in-gap states associated with symmetrically distributed electrons in the spin singlet configuration. They acquire large contributions due to Coulomb interaction, and thus are shifted to much higher energies than other states corresponding to the conduction electron and the vacancy localized in the same corner. We compare the results of the multielectron method with those of an electron-hole model, and we show that the latter does not reproduce the singlet excitonic states. We also obtain the exciton lifetime and explain selection rules which govern the recombination process.

  8. Modified ferrite core-shell nanoparticles magneto-structural characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotka, Urszula; Piotrowska, Beata; Satuła, Dariusz; Kalska-Szostko, Beata

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ferrite nanoparticles with core-shell structures and different chemical compositions of both the core and shell were prepared with success. Proposed nanoparticles have in the first and second series magnetite core, and the shell is composed of a mixture of ferrites with Fe3+, Fe2+ and M ions (where M = Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+) with a general composition of M0.5Fe2.5O4. In the third series, the composition is inverted, the core is composed of a mixture of ferrites and as a shell magnetite is placed. Morphology and structural characterization of nanoparticles were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). While room temperature magnetic properties were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). It is seen from Mössbauer measurements that Co always increases hyperfine magnetic field on Fe atoms at RT, while Ni and Mn have opposite influences in comparison to pure Fe ferrite, regardless of the nanoparticles structure.

  9. Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R

    2009-03-20

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.

  10. Rhometal interface in pseudo-core shell powders like Permalloy/Rhometal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicinaş, I.; Marinca, T.F.; Popa, F.; Neamţu, B.V.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Pseudo-core shell powders like Permalloy/Rhometal type obtained by microalloying. • During annealing, by interdiffusion, Rhometal phase is formed at the interface. • Both bcc and fcc structures of the Rhometal have been evidenced in interface. - Abstract: The nanocrystalline Ni{sub 3}Fe (around Permalloy composition) powders were prepared by dry mechanical alloying. The nanocrystalline Ni{sub 3}Fe and carbonyl Fe mixture powders and green compacts have been subjected to heat treatments in an argon atmosphere in order to obtain pseudo-core-shell like particles by micro-alloying in the temperature range of 400–900 °C. The large Permalloy particles are partially covered by very small Fe particles and at the interface a layer of Rhometal is formed by micro-alloying. The Permalloy particles remain in the nanocrystalline/nanostructured state after the annealing independent on the annealing temperature up to 900 °C. Structural, microstructural characterisation and local elemental chemical analysis have been performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. The Rhometal interface was studied and evidenced by Fe and Ni concentration profile (EDX microanalysis) and X-ray diffraction. It was found that by a heat treatment up to 900 °C the interface is in the iron zone and at the heat treatment temperature of 900 °C the interface is in both Permalloy and iron zones. By XRD the bcc and fcc structures of the Rhometal have been evidenced. The interface length in iron zones is about 0.8 μm for the heat treatment at 400 °C and reaches 2.5 μm for heat treatment at 900 °C. The interface reaches 10 μm for a temperature of a heat treatment of 900 °C. The iron zones welded by Permalloy zones is evidenced the presence of the Ni atoms up to 4.7 at%. Also, in Permalloy particles are evidenced two zones with a different amount of Ni: one around Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4} composition close to the interface and the second in the

  11. Photoelectrochemical performance of NiO-coated ZnO-CdS core-shell photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Pranit; Das, Chandan; Balasubramaniam, K. R.

    2017-03-01

    A nano-structured core-shell ZnO-CdS photoanode device with a mesoporous NiO co-catalyst layer was fabricated using solution-processing methods. The growth of the sparse ZnO nano-rod film with a thickness of ca. 930 nm was achieved by optimizing parameters such as the thickness of the ZnO seed layer, choice of Zn precursor salt and the salt concentration. CdS was then coated by a combination of spin coating and spin SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) methods to completely fill the interspace of ZnO nano-rods. The uniform CdS surface facilitated the growth of a continuous mesoporous NiO layer. Upon illumination of 100 mW·cm-2 AM 1.5 G radiation the device exhibits stable photocurrents of 2.15 mA·cm-2 at 1.23 V and 0.92 mA·cm-2 at 0.00 V versus RHE, which are significantly higher as compared to the bare ZnO-CdS device. The excellent performance of the device can be ascribed to the higher visible region absorption by CdS, and effective separation of the photogenerated charge carriers due to the suitable band alignment and nanostructuring. Additionally, the mesoporous NiO overlayer offered a larger contact area with the electrolyte and promoted the kinetics enabling higher and stable photocurrent even till the 35th min. of testing.

  12. Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chulhwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Wook, E-mail: kimsw@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ► The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ► Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ► The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ∼200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

  13. Core-Shell Structured Electro- and Magneto-Responsive Materials: Fabrication and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jin Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell structured electrorheological (ER and magnetorheological (MR particles have attracted increasing interest owing to their outstanding field-responsive properties, including morphology, chemical and dispersion stability, and rheological characteristics of shear stress and yield stress. This study covers recent progress in the preparation of core-shell structured materials as well as their critical characteristics and advantages. Broad emphasises from the synthetic strategy of various core-shell particles to their feature behaviours in the magnetic and electric fields have been elaborated.

  14. Simulation of thermal stress and buckling instability in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core/shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvankar; Moitra, Amitava; Bhattacharya, Mishreyee; Dutta, Amlan

    2015-01-01

    The present study employs the method of atomistic simulation to estimate the thermal stress experienced by Si/Ge and Ge/Si, ultrathin, core/shell nanowires with fixed ends. The underlying technique involves the computation of Young's modulus and the linear coefficient of thermal expansion through separate simulations. These two material parameters are combined to obtain the thermal stress on the nanowires. In addition, the thermally induced stress is perceived in the context of buckling instability. The analysis provides a trade-off between the geometrical and operational parameters of the nanostructures. The proposed methodology can be extended to other materials and structures and helps with the prediction of the conditions under which a nanowire-based device might possibly fail due to elastic instability.

  15. Emergent ferromagnetism in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires: Towards oxide spinterfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, G. Z.

    2013-07-08

    We report that room-temperature ferromagnetism emerges at the interface formed between ZnO nanowire core and Al2O3 shell although both constituents show mainly diamagnetism. The interface-based ferromagnetism can be further enhanced by annealing the ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires and activating the formation of ZnAl2O4 phase as a result of interfacial solid-state reaction. High-temperature measurements indicate that the magnetic order is thermally stable up to 750 K. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the annealing-induced jagged interfaces, and the extensive structural defects appear to be relevant to the emergent magnetism. Our study suggests that tailoring the spinterfaces in nanostructure-harnessed wide-band-gap oxides is an effective route towards engineered nanoscale architecture with enhanced magnetic properties.

  16. Improving the electrode performance of Ge through Ge@C core-shell nanoparticles and graphene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ding-Jiang; Xin, Sen; Yan, Yang; Jiang, Ke-Cheng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-02-08

    Germanium is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. A double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance of Ge through the use of Ge@C core-shell nanostructures and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) networks has been developed. The as-synthesized Ge@C/RGO nanocomposite showed excellent cycling performance and rate capability in comparison with Ge@C nanoparticles when used as an anode material for Li ion batteries, which can be attributed to the electronically conductive and elastic RGO networks in addition to the carbon shells and small particle sizes of Ge. The strategy is simple yet very effective, and because of its versatility, it may be extended to other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations and low electrical conductivities.

  17. Emergent ferromagnetism in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires: Towards oxide spinterfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, D. D.; Cheng, C.-J.; He, M.; Li, S.; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    We report that room-temperature ferromagnetism emerges at the interface formed between ZnO nanowire core and Al2O3 shell although both constituents show mainly diamagnetism. The interface-based ferromagnetism can be further enhanced by annealing the ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires and activating the formation of ZnAl2O4 phase as a result of interfacial solid-state reaction. High-temperature measurements indicate that the magnetic order is thermally stable up to 750 K. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the annealing-induced jagged interfaces, and the extensive structural defects appear to be relevant to the emergent magnetism. Our study suggests that tailoring the spinterfaces in nanostructure-harnessed wide-band-gap oxides is an effective route towards engineered nanoscale architecture with enhanced magnetic properties.

  18. Free-Standing Hybrid Graphene Paper Encapsulating Nanostructures for High Cycle-Life Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xinyan; Hao, Qingli; Xia, Xifeng; Lei, Wu; Ouyang, Yu; Ye, Haitao; Mandler, Daniel

    2018-03-09

    The incorporation of spacers between graphene sheets has been investigated as an effective method to improve the electrochemical performance of graphene papers (GPs) for supercapacitors. Here, we report the design of free-standing GP@NiO and GP@Ni hybrid GPs in which NiO nanoclusters and Ni nanoparticles are encapsulated into graphene sheets through electrostatic assembly and subsequent vacuum filtration. The encapsulated NiO nanoclusters and Ni nanoparticles can mitigate the restacking of graphene sheets, providing sufficient spaces for high-speed ion diffusion and electron transport. In addition, the spacers strongly bind to graphene sheets, which can efficiently improve the electrochemical stability. Therefore, at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 , the GP@NiO and GP@Ni electrodes exhibit higher specific capacitances of 306.9 and 246.1 F g -1 than the GP electrode (185.7 F g -1 ). The GP@NiO and GP@Ni electrodes exhibit capacitance retention of 98.7 % and 95.6 % after 10000 cycles, demonstrating an outstanding cycling stability. Additionally, the GP@NiO∥GP@Ni delivers excellent cycling stability (93.7 % after 10 000 cycles) and high energy density. These free-standing encapsulated hybrid GPs have great potential as electrode for high-performance supercapacitors. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Super-paramagnetic core-shell material with tunable magnetic behavior by regulating electron transfer efficiency and structure stability of the shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work, a spherical nano core-shell material was constructed by encapsulating Fe3O4 microsphere into conductive polymer-metal composite shell. The Fe3O4 microspheres were fabricated by assembling large amounts of Fe3O4 nano-crystals, which endowed the microspheres with super-paramagnetic property and high saturation magnetization. The polymer-metal composite shell was constructed by inserting Pt nano-particles (NPs into the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy. As size and dispersion of the Pt NPs has an important influence on their surface area and surface energy, it was effective to enlarge the interface area between PPy and Pt NPs, enhance the electron transfer efficiency of PPy/Pt composite shell, and reinforced the shell’s structural stability just by tuning the size and dispersion of Pt NPs. Moreover, core-shell structure of the materials made it convenient to investigate the PPy/Pt shell’s shielding effect on the Fe3O4 core’s magnetic response to external magnetic fields. It was found that the saturation magnetization of Fe3O4/PPy/Pt core-shell material could be reduced by 20.5% by regulating the conductivity of the PPy/Pt shell. Keywords: Super-paramagnetic, Conductivity, Magnetic shielding, Structural stability

  20. Selective degradation of model pollutants in the presence of core@shell TiO{sub 2}@SiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadrah, Peter, E-mail: peter.nadrah@zag.si [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva ul. 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gaberšček, Miran [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova ul. 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sever Škapin, Andrijana [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva ul. 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} encapsulated in mesoporous silica exhibits selective photocatalytic degradation of low-molecular-weight molecules. • Core@shell photocatalyst degrades rhodamine B in presence of fivefold mass concentration of starch, while pure TiO{sub 2} does not. • Potential use for removing water pollutants, while retaining non-harmful and beneficial macromolecules. - Abstract: Photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} degrades organic matter unselectively. However, in certain applications, such as degradation of pollutants, selectivity towards pollutants is beneficial. We synthesized core@shell TiO{sub 2}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with photocatalytic activity featuring a significantly faster preferential degradation of model pollutant (rhodamine B) in presence of abundant concentration of natural organic matter compared to pure TiO{sub 2} (P25). The material’s photocatalytic activity was tested in aqueous medium. The selectivity of prepared effect of core@shell materials is explained based on transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction and zeta potential measurements.

  1. Graphitic encapsulation of MgO and Fe3C nanoparticles in the reaction of iron pentacarbonyl with magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyjak, Sławomir; Cudziło, Stanisław; Polański, Marek; Budner, Bogusław; Bystrzycki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to produce highly ordered carbon nanostructures by combustion synthesis is presented. Graphite-encapsulated magnesium oxide, iron carbide nanoparticles and carbon nanobelts were synthesized by the one-step reduction of iron pentacarbonyl with magnesium. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the products revealed nanocrystalline MgO and Fe 3 C particles surrounded by a well-crystallized, tight graphite film. The possible formation mechanism is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • We present a simple method to produce highly ordered carbon nanostructures by combustion synthesis. • The cubic MgO particles are completely coated by tight graphitic shells. • The mechanism of formation a distant carbon film on MgO surface has been discussed. • The presented method can be applied to synthesis of other core-shell structures

  2. Catalyst-free fabrication of novel ZnO/CuO core-Shell nanowires heterojunction: Controlled growth, structural and optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Arif; Wahab, Yussof; Muhammad, Rosnita; Tahir, Muhammad; Sakrani, Samsudi

    2018-03-01

    Development of controlled growth and vertically aligned ZnO/CuO core-shell heterojunction nanowires (NWs) with large area by a catalyst free vapor deposition and oxidation approach has been investigated. Structural characterization reveals successful fabrication of a core ZnO nanowire having single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure along [002] direction and CuO nanostructure shell with thickness (8-10 nm) having polycrystalline monoclinic structure. The optical property analysis suggests that the reflectance spectrum of ZnO/CuO heterostructure nanowires is decreased by 18% in the visible range, which correspondingly shows high absorption in this region as compared to pristine ZnO nanowires. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of core-shell heterojunction nanowires measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) shows excellent rectifying behavior, which indicates the characteristics of a good p-n junction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has confirmed the sharp junction interface between the core-shell heterojunction nanowire arrays. The valence band offset and conduction band offset at ZnO/CuO heterointerfaces are measured to be 2.4 ± 0.05 and 0.23 ± 0.005 eV respectively, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a type-II band alignment structure is found. The results of this study contribute to the development of new advanced device heterostructures for solar energy conversion and optoelectronics applications.

  3. Construction of Core-Shell NiMoO4@Ni-Co-S Nanorods as Advanced Electrodes for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Yan, Dan; Luo, Xin; Gao, Wenjia; Huang, Guanjie; Han, Ziwu; Zeng, Yan; Zhu, Zhihong

    2018-02-07

    In this work, hierarchical core-shell NiMoO 4 @Ni-Co-S nanorods were first successfully grown on nickel foam by a facile two-step method to fabricate a bind-free electrode. The well-aligned electrode wrapped by Ni-Co-S nanosheets displays excellent nanostructural properties and outstanding electrochemical performance, owing to the synergistic effects of both nickel molybdenum oxides and nickel cobalt sulfides. The prepared core-shell nanorods in a three-electrode cell yielded a high specific capacitance of 2.27 F cm -2 (1892 F g -1 ) at a current density of 5 mA cm -2 and retained 91.7% of the specific capacitance even after 6000 cycles. Their electrochemical performance was further investigated for their use as positive electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors. Notably, the energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor device reached 2.45 mWh cm -3 at a power density of 0.131 W cm -3 , and still retained a remarkable 80.3% of the specific capacitance after 3500 cycles. There is great potential for the electrode composed of the core-shell NiMoO 4 @Ni-Co-S nanorods for use in an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device.

  4. The synthesis of four-layer gold-silver-polymer-silver core-shell nanomushroom with inbuilt Raman molecule for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Jun

    2017-12-01

    A facial two-step reduction method was proposed to synthesize four-layer gold-silver-polymer-silver (Au@Ag@PSPAA@Ag) core-shell nanomushrooms (NMs) with inbuilt Raman molecule. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensity of 4MBA adhered on the surface of Au core gradually increased with the modification of middle Ag shell and then Ag mushroom cap due to the formation of two kinds of ultra-small interior nanogap. Compared with the initial Au nanoparticles, the SERS enhancement ratio of the Au@Ag@PSPAA@Ag NMs approached to nearly 40. The novel core-shell NMs also exhibited homogeneous SERS signals for only one sample and reproducible signals for 10 different samples, certified by the low relative standard deviation values of less than 10% and 15% for the character peaks of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid, respectively. Such a novel four-layer core-shell nanostructure with reliable SERS performance has great potential application in quantitative SERS-based immunoassay.

  5. Optical properties of core-shell and multi-shell nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Shehata, Nader

    2018-05-01

    We report a first-principles time dependent density functional theory study of the optical response modulations in bimetallic core-shell (Na@Al and Al@Na) and multi-shell (Al@Na@Al@Na and Na@Al@Na@Al: concentric shells of Al and Na alternate) nanorods. All of the core-shell and multi-shell configurations display highly enhanced absorption intensity with respect to the pure Al and Na nanorods, showing sensitivity to both composition and chemical ordering. Remarkably large spectral intensity enhancements were found in a couple of core-shell configurations, indicative that optical response averaging based on the individual components can not be considered as true as always in the case of bimetallic core-shell nanorods. We believe that our theoretical results would be useful in promising applications depending on Aluminum-based plasmonic materials such as solar cells and sensors.

  6. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial Au/C core-shell composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yanhong [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China); Zhang Nianchun [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China); Zhong Yuwen [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China); Cai Huaihong [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China); Liu Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China)

    2010-09-01

    An environment-friendly oxidation-reduction method was used to prepare Au/C core-shell composite using carbon as core and gold as shell. The chemical structures and morphologies of Au/C core-shell composite and carbon sphere were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersion X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antibacterial properties of the Au/C core-shell composite against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were examined by the disk diffusion assay and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) methods. In addition, antibacterial ability of Au/C core-shell composite was observed by atomic force microscope. Results demonstrated that gold homogeneously supported on the surface of carbon spheres without aggregation and showed efficient antibacterial abilities.

  7. Engineered magnetic core shell nanoprobes: Synthesis and applications to cancer imaging and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Samir; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2016-02-26

    Magnetic core shell nanoparticles are composed of a highly magnetic core material surrounded by a thin shell of desired drug, polymer or metal oxide. These magnetic core shell nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in biomedical research, more specifically in tissue imaging, drug delivery and therapeutics. The present review discusses the up-to-date knowledge on the various procedures for synthesis of magnetic core shell nanoparticles along with their applications in cancer imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia or cancer therapeutics. Literature in this area shows that magnetic core shell nanoparticle-based imaging, drug targeting and therapy through hyperthermia can potentially be a powerful tool for the advanced diagnosis and treatment of various cancers.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/TiO 2 composite core/shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic solar cells; ZnO/TiO2 core/shell; nanorod arrays; sol–gel. ... on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate via a facile sol–gel dip-coating process. Effects of solution pH for ZnO, annealing temperature, growth time and temperature on the ... The optical and electrical properties of the bare TiO2 thin film and core/shell composite ...

  9. Nano-sized LiFePO4/C composite with core-shell structure as cathode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Li, Ying; Hu, Yemin; Zhu, Mingyuan; Jin, Hongming; Li, Wenxian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized LiFePO4/C composite with core-shell structure was fabricated via a well-designed approach as cathode material forlithium ion battery. The nano-sized LiFePO4/C composite with whole carbon shell coating layer showed an excellent electrical performance. - Abstract: Nano-sized composite with LiFePO 4 -core and carbon-shell was synthesized via a facile route followed by heat treatment at 650 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the core is well crystallized LiFePO 4 . The electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) observations show that the core-shell structured LiFePO 4 /C composite coating with whole carbon shell layer of ∼2.8 nm, possesses a specific surface area of 51 m 2 g −1 . As cathode material for lithium ion battery, the core-shell LiFePO 4 /C composite exhibits high initial capacity of 161 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C, excellent high-rate discharge capacity of 135 mAh g −1 at 5 C and perfect cycling retention of 99.6% at 100 th cycle. All these promising results should be contributed to the core-shell nanostructure which prevents collapse of the particle structure in the long-term charge and discharge cycles, as well as the large surface area of the nano-sized LiFePO 4 /C composite which enhances the electronic conductivity and shortens the distance of lithium ion diffusion

  10. Ultrafast light matter interaction in CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Rituraj; Mondal, Anirban; Adarsh, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell quantum dot are imperative for carrier (electron and holes) confinement in core/shell, which provides a stage to explore the linear and nonlinear optical phenomena at the nanoscalelimit. Here we present a comprehensive study of ultrafast excitation dynamics and nonlinear optical absorption of CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dot with the help of ultrafast spectroscopy. Pump-probe and time-resolved measurements revealed the drop of trapping at CdSe surface due to the presence of the ZnS shell, which makes more efficient photoluminescence. We have carried out femtosecond transient absorption studies of the CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot by irradiation with 400 nm laser light, monitoring the transients in the visible region. The optical nonlinearity of the core-shell quantum dot studied by using the Z-scan technique with 120 fs pulses at the wavelengths of 800 nm. The value of two photon absorption coefficients (β) of core-shell QDs extracted as80cm/GW, and it shows excellent benchmark for the optical limiting onset of 2.5GW/cm2 with the low limiting differential transmittance of 0.10, that is an order of magnitude better than graphene based materials.

  11. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-01

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  12. Predictable Particle Engineering: Programming the Energy Level, Carrier Generation, and Conductivity of Core-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Wu, Tong; Mao, Jie; Chen, Ting; Li, Yuntong; Li, Min; Xu, Yiting; Zeng, Birong; Luo, Weiang; Yu, Lingke; Zheng, Gaofeng; Dai, Lizong

    2018-06-20

    Core-shell structures are of particular interest in the development of advanced composite materials as they can efficiently bring different components together at nanoscale. The advantage of this structure greatly relies on the crucial design of both core and shell, thus achieving an intercomponent synergistic effect. In this report, we show that decorating semiconductor nanocrystals with a boronate polymer shell can easily achieve programmable core-shell interactions. Taking ZnO and anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals as inner core examples, the effective core-shell interactions can narrow the band gap of semiconductor nanocrystals, change the HOMO and LUMO levels of boronate polymer shell, and significantly improve the carrier density of core-shell particles. The hole mobility of core-shell particles can be improved by almost 9 orders of magnitude in comparison with net boronate polymer, while the conductivity of core-shell particles is at most 30-fold of nanocrystals. The particle engineering strategy is based on two driving forces: catechol-surface binding and B-N dative bonding and having a high ability to control and predict the shell thickness. Also, this approach is applicable to various inorganic nanoparticles with different components, sizes, and shapes.

  13. Geometric screening of core/shell hydrogel microcapsules using a tapered microchannel with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ye; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Fen; Zhao, Yi

    2018-07-30

    Core/shell hydrogel microcapsules attract increasing research attention due to their potentials in tissue engineering, food engineering, and drug delivery. Current approaches for generating core/shell hydrogel microcapsules suffer from large geometric variations. Geometrically defective core/shell microcapsules need to be removed before further use. High-throughput geometric characterization of such core/shell microcapsules is therefore necessary. In this work, a continuous-flow device was developed to measure the geometric properties of microcapsules with a hydrogel shell and an aqueous core. The microcapsules were pumped through a tapered microchannel patterned with an array of interdigitated microelectrodes. The geometric parameters (the shell thickness and the diameter) were derived from the displacement profiles of the microcapsules. The results show that this approach can successfully distinguish all unencapsulated microparticles. The geometric properties of core/shell microcapsules can be determined with high accuracy. The efficacy of this method was demonstrated through a drug releasing experiment where the optimization of the electrospray process based on geometric screening can lead to controlled and extended drug releasing profiles. This method does not require high-speed optical systems, simplifying the system configuration and making it an indeed miniaturized device. The throughput of up to 584 microcapsules per minute was achieved. This study provides a powerful tool for screening core/shell hydrogel microcapsules and is expected to facilitate the applications of these microcapsules in various fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for drug delivery by nebulization

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Verma, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-23

    AbstractBackgroundAerosolized therapeutics hold great potential for effective treatment of various diseases including lung cancer. In this context, there is an urgent need to develop novel nanocarriers suitable for drug delivery by nebulization. To address this need, we synthesized and characterized a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle following surface coating of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with a polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The polymeric shell of these engineered nanoparticles was loaded with a potential anti-cancer drug quercetin and their suitability for targeting lung cancer cells via nebulization was evaluated.ResultsAverage particle size of the developed MNPs and PLGA-MNPs as measured by electron microscopy was 9.6 and 53.2 nm, whereas their hydrodynamic swelling as determined using dynamic light scattering was 54.3 nm and 293.4 nm respectively. Utilizing a series of standardized biological tests incorporating a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we confirmed that the developed MNP-based nanocarrier system was biocompatible, as no cytotoxicity was observed when up to 100 mug\\/ml PLGA-MNP was applied to the cultured human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, the PLGA-MNP preparation was well-tolerated in vivo in mice when applied intranasally as measured by glutathione and IL-6 secretion assays after 1, 4, or 7 days post-treatment. To imitate aerosol formation for drug delivery to the lungs, we applied quercitin loaded PLGA-MNPs to the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 following a single round of nebulization. The drug-loaded PLGA-MNPs significantly reduced the number of viable A549 cells, which was comparable when applied either by nebulization or by direct pipetting.ConclusionWe have developed a magnetic core-shell nanoparticle-based nanocarrier system and evaluated the feasibility of its drug delivery capability via aerosol administration. This study has

  15. Ultrafast Dynamics of Metallo-Dielectric Core-Shell Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, X.

    2008-01-01

    Optical properties of metallic nano-structures have attracted a lot of attention in the past decades. In this thesis, we focus on nano-sized silica-core gold-shell particles, study the linear, nonlinear and acoustic vibrations of the particles. The linear optical properties in the visible range of

  16. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra eVasei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  17. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Pakawanit, Phakkhananan; Wipatanawin, Angkana; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe_2O_4) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe_2O_4 nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe_2O_4 core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe_2O_4 core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV–vis spectra of complete coated MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe_2O_4 core. Both of MgFe_2O_4 and MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles with particle size < 100 nm • Complete Au shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe_2O_4 nanoparticles • In vitro cytotoxicity study of complete coated MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles

  18. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pakawanit, Phakkhananan [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wipatanawin, Angkana [Division of Biochemistry and Biochemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Jantaratana, Pongsakorn [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 11900 (Thailand); Ananta, Supon [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Srisombat, Laongnuan, E-mail: slaongnuan@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV–vis spectra of complete coated MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core. Both of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles with particle size < 100 nm • Complete Au shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles • In vitro cytotoxicity study of complete coated MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell

  19. Core/shell PLGA microspheres with controllable in vivo release profile via rational core phase design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meiling; Yao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Huilin; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Tian; Tang, Xing; Xu, Hui

    2018-02-27

    the microspheres prepared by various methods were mainly controlled by either the porosity inside the microspheres or the degradation of materials, which could, therefore, lead to different release behaviours. This results indicated great potential of the PLGA microsphere formulation as an injectable depot for controllable in vivo release profile via rational core phase design. Core/shell microspheres fabricated by modified double emulsification-solvent evaporation methods, with various inner phases, to obtain high loading drugs system, as well as appropriate release behaviours. Accordingly, control in vivo release profile via rational core phase design.

  20. Significant efficiency enhancement of hybrid solar cells using core-shell nanowire geometry for energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shin-Hung; Chang, Hung-Chih; Wang, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Szu-Ying; Lin, Chin-An; Chen, Show-An; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

    2011-12-27

    A novel strategy employing core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) consisting of Si/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was demonstrated to facilitate efficient light harvesting and exciton dissociation/charge collection for hybrid solar cells (HSCs). We experimentally demonstrate broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting characteristics of core-shell NWA HSCs due to their subwavelength features, further supported by the simulation based on finite-difference time domain analysis. Meanwhile, core-shell geometry of NWA HSCs guarantees efficient charge separation since the thickness of the P3HT shells is comparable to the exciton diffusion length. Consequently, core-shell HSCs exhibit a 61% improvement of short-circuit current for a conversion efficiency (η) enhancement of 31.1% as compared to the P3HT-infiltrated Si NWA HSCs with layers forming a flat air/polymer cell interface. The improvement of crystal quality of P3HT shells due to the formation of ordering structure at Si interfaces after air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The core-shell geometry with the interfacial improvement by AM 1.5G illumination promotes more efficient exciton dissociation and charge separation, leading to η improvement (∼140.6%) due to the considerable increase in V(oc) from 257 to 346 mV, J(sc) from 11.7 to 18.9 mA/cm(2), and FF from 32.2 to 35.2%, which is not observed in conventional P3HT-infiltrated Si NWA HSCs. The stability of the Si/P3HT core-shell NWA HSCs in air ambient was carefully examined. The core-shell geometry should be applicable to many other material systems of solar cells and thus holds high potential in third-generation solar cells.

  1. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon nanowires/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhen [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Ma, Ge [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Zhihong, E-mail: chenzhihong1227@sina.com [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Guangzhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Zhang, Yongguang [Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interface Control Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhang, Zhe [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Meng, Qingguo; Yuan, Mingzhe [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Guangzhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxin@scnu.edu.cn [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Liu, Jun-ming [Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Guofu [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A novel Silicon Nanowires/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell arrays photoanode prepared by a mild and inexpensive metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) process followed by liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD), wiich is a facile and low-cost method. • In comparison with FTO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si NWs samples, the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrent which could be attributed to the SiNWs-based core/shell structure. • A systematical PEC mechanism of the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was proposed is this manuscript. - Abstract: A photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell made of metal-free carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) @siliconnanowire(Si NW) arrays (denoted as Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is presented in this work. The as-prepared photoelectrodes with different mass contents of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been synthesized via a metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD) and annealing methods. The amount of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the Si NW arrays can be controlled by tuning the concentration of the cyanamide solution used in the LALD procedure. The dense and vertically aligned Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In comparison with FTO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si NW samples, the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrents over the entire potential sweep range. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted to investigate the properties of the charge transfer process, and the results indicated that the enhanced PEC performance may be due to the increased photo-generated interfacial charge transfer between the Si NWs and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The photocurrent density reached 45 μA/cm{sup 2} under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM 1.5 G) illumination at 0 V (vs. Pt) in neutral Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH ∼ 7

  2. Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel in biodegradable self-assembled core-shell poly(lactide-co-glycolide ethylene oxide fumarate) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuezhong; Ma, Junyu; Mercado, Angel E; Xu, Weijie; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2008-07-01

    Biodegradable core-shell polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic shell, are developed for surfactant-free encapsulation and delivery of Paclitaxel to tumor cells. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide fumarate) (PLGF) and Poly (lactide-fumarate) (PLAF) were synthesized by condensation polymerization of ultra-low molecular weight poly(L: -lactide-co-glycolide) (ULMW PLGA) with fumaryl chloride (FuCl). Similarly, poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) macromer was synthesized by reacting ultra-low molecular weight poly(L: -lactide) (ULMW PLA) and PEG with FuCl. The blend PLGF/PLEOF and PLAF/PLEOF macromers were self-assembled into NPs by dialysis. The NPs were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, morphology, and loading efficiency. The physical state and miscibility of Paclitaxel in NPs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Tumor cell uptake and cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel loaded NPs were measured by incubation with HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. The distribution of NPs in vivo was assessed with Apc(Min/+)mouse using infrared imaging. PLEOF macromer, due to its amphiphilic nature, acted as a surface active agent in the process of self-assembly which produced core-shell NPs with PLGF/PLAF and PLEOF macromers as the core and shell, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 70 to 56% and it was independent of the macromer but decreased with increasing concentration of Paclitaxel. Most of the PLGF and PLAF NPs degraded in 15 and 28 days, respectively, which demonstrated that the release was dominated by hydrolytic degradation and erosion of the matrix. As the concentration of Paclitaxel was increased from 0 to 10, and 40 mug/ml, the viability of HCT116 cells incubated with free Paclitaxel decreased from 100 to 65 and 40%, respectively, while those encapsulated in PLGF/PLEOF NPs decreased from 93 to 54 and 28%. Groups with Paclitaxel loaded NPs had higher cytotoxicity compared to

  3. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations, by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectra, reveal that single crystalline rutile TiO 2 shells can be epitaxially grown on SnO 2 NWs with an atomically sharp interface at low temperature (250 °C). The growth behavior of the TiO 2 shells highly depends on the surface orientations and the geometrical shape of the core SnO 2 NW cross-section. Atomically smooth surfaces are found for growth on the {110} surface. Rough surfaces develop on {100} surfaces due to (100) - (1 × 3) reconstruction, by introducing steps in the [010] direction as a continuation of {110} facets. Lattice mismatch induces superlattice structures in the TiO 2 shell and misfit dislocations along the interface. Conformal epitaxial growth has been observed for SnO 2 NW cores with an octagonal cross-section ({100} and {110} surfaces). However, for a rectangular core ({101} and {010} surfaces), the shell also derives an octagonal shape from the epitaxial growth, which was explained by a proposed model based on ALD kinetics. The surface steps and defects induced by the lattice mismatch likely lead to improved photoluminescence (PL) performance for the yellow emission. Compared to the pure SnO 2 NWs, the PL spectrum of the core-shell nanostructures exhibits a stronger emission peak, which suggests potential applications in optoelectronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  4. Improvement on electrochemical performance by partial replacement of Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalyst by temperature modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chih-Juei; Lin, Liang-You; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS), and redox transmetalation method were utilized to produce the core-shell Ru (ruthenium)/Pt (platinum) catalysts on the carbon cloth (CC) for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application. By adjusting pH value and heating to proper temperature of the ionized reduction environment, Pt 4+ can be first converted into Pt 2+ to allow partial Ru replacement with Pt by redox transmetalation and produce Ru@Pt core-shell nanostructures[1]. And we change the reduction temperature to see how it affects the efficiency of the DMFC. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) top-view micrographs showing that the apparent Ru@Pt nanoparticles successfully deposited on both the inner and outer surfaces of the hydrophilically-treated CC. At high SEM magnification, the small size and high-density distribution of the Ru@Pt nanoparticles were clearly observed on the hydrophilically-treated CC, and much more Pt@Ru catalyst deposit on the CC surface with the sample of 80 °C. The electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (Q H ) and the peak current density (I P ) of the samples in the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves. The magnitude of peak current density is positive correlation to the temperature. However, the CO tolerance, indicated that the better CO tolerance contributed to the less Pt replace on Ru cluster, which allow the Ru oxidizing CO to CO 2 efficiently, is negative correlation-- to the temperature. The sample of 50 °C shows the better combination catalyst efficiency between the CO tolerance and the electrochemical performance

  5. Co3O4 nanoneedle@electroactive nickel boride membrane core/shell arrays: A novel hybrid for enhanced capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingting; Zhu, Congxu; Yang, Xiaogang; Gao, Yuanhao; He, Weiwei; Yue, Hongwei; Zhao, Hongxiao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Active nickel boride membrane anchored Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays hybrid is synthesized via rapid interface reaction. The optimized core/shell nanostructure demonstrates greatly enhanced electrochemical properties. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Active nickel boride membrane anchored Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays core-shell hybrid architectures was fabricated via rapid interface reaction. •Specific capacity was improved by synergy between highly active components and optimized electron transfer microstructure. •The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor device exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: Exploring novel hybrid materials with efficient microstructure using facile approaches is highly urgent in designing supercapacitor electrodes. Here, the Ni-B membrane was used for coating the porous Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays which supported on the nickel foam (NF) frameworks through a rapid chemical reduction process (denoted as NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB). The Ni-B membrane both provided sufficient active sites for redox reactions and inhibited the aggregation of formed hybrid architectures. Benefiting from the unique structural design and strongly coupled effects between porous Co 3 O 4 arrays and Ni-B membrane, the resulted NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB electrode exhibited high areal capacitance of 3.47 F cm −2 (0.48 mAh cm −2 ) at a current density of 2.5 mA cm −2 , an excellent rate capability while maintaining 95.5% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The asymmetric supercapacitor constructed with the NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB as positive electrode and hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) as negative electrode also showed ideal capacitive behavior, and simultaneously delivered high energy and power densities. The easily decoration of Ni-B membrane on various active nanoarrays may arouse more novel design about hybrid architectures for large-scale applications.

  6. Drug release from core-shell PVA/silk fibroin nanoparticles fabricated by one-step electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Liu, Fengqiu; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Tao; Lou, Deshuai; Guo, Yuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Zhigang; Ran, Haitao

    2017-09-20

    Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up. The model drug, doxorubicin, was encapsulated in the core with a greater than 90% drug encapsulation efficiency. Controllable drug release profiles were achieved by alternating the PVA/SF ratio. Although the initial burst release of the drug was minimized by the SF coating, a large number of drug molecules remained entrapped by the carrier polymers. To promote and trigger drug release on demand, low intensity focused ultrasound (US) was applied. The US was especially advantageous for accelerating the drug diffusion and release. The apoptotic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was found to increase with time. In addition, we also observed PVA/SF nanoparticles that could elicit a drug release in response to pH.

  7. A novel method for the production of core-shell microparticles by inverse gelation optimized with artificial intelligent tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorado, Rosalia; Landín, Mariana; Altai, Ayça; Russo, Paola; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2018-03-01

    Numerous studies have been focused on hydrophobic compounds encapsulation as oils. In fact, oils can provide numerous health benefits as synergic ingredient combined with other hydrophobic active ingredients. However, stable microparticles for pharmaceutical purposes are difficult to achieve when commonly techniques are used. In this work, sunflower oil was encapsulated in calcium-alginate capsules by prilling technique in co-axial configuration. Core-shell beads were produced by inverse gelation directly at the nozzle using a w/o emulsion containing aqueous calcium chloride solution in sunflower oil pumped through the inner nozzle while an aqueous alginate solution, coming out from the annular nozzle, produced the beads shell. To optimize process parameters artificial intelligence tools were proposed to optimize the numerous prilling process variables. Homogeneous and spherical microcapsules with narrow size distribution and a thin alginate shell were obtained when the parameters as w/o constituents, polymer concentrations, flow rates and frequency of vibration were optimized by two commercial software, FormRules® and INForm®, which implement neurofuzzy logic and Artificial Neural Networks together with genetic algorithms, respectively. This technique constitutes an innovative approach for hydrophobic compounds microencapsulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of SiO2/SiCN Core-shell Ceramic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hai-yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The SiO2/PSN core-shell microspheres were prepared via an emulsion reaction combined with the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs method using polysilazane (PSN in situ polymerization on the surface of SiO2 modified by silane coupling agents MPS, followed by pyrolysis process to obtain SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres. The effects of raw mass ratio, curing time and pyrolysis temperature on the formation and the morphology of core-shell microspheres were studied. The morphology, chemical composition and phase transformation were characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The results show that after reaction for 4h at 200℃, SiO2 completely coated PSN forms a core-shell microsphere with rough surface when the mass ratio of SiO2 and PSN is 1:4; when pyrolysis temperature is at 800-1200℃, amorphous SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres are prepared; at 1400℃, the amorphous phase partially crystallizes to produce SiO2, SiC and Si3N4 phase.

  9. Preparation of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with enhanced photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hui; Zhang Lijuan; Soeller, Christian; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized in an aqueous phase using thioacetamide as a sulfur source. The quantum yield was greatly enhanced by the epitaxial growth of a CdS shell, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The quantum yield of as-prepared CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs without any post-preparative processing reached 58%. The experimental results illustrate that the QDs with core/shell structure show better photostability than thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe QDs. The cyclic voltammograms reveal higher oxidation potentials for CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs than for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, which explains the superior photostability of QDs with a core/shell structure. This enhanced photostability makes these QDs with core/shell structure more suitable for bio-labeling and imaging

  10. The effect of magnetic field and donor impurity on electron spectrum in spherical core-shell quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovatsky, V. A.; Voitsekhivska, O. M.; Yakhnevych, M. Ya

    2018-04-01

    The effect of homogeneous magnetic field and location of donor impurity on the electron energy spectrum and distribution of its probability density in spherical core-shell quantum dot is investigated. In the framework of the effective mass approximation and rectangular infinitely deep potential well, the solutions of the Schrodinger equation are found using the matrix method. The wave functions are expanded over the complete set of exact functions obtained without the magnetic field and impurity. It is shown that when the induction of magnetic field increases, the ground state of electron in the nanostructure without impurity or on-center impurity is successively formed by the states with m = 0, -1, -2, … (Aharonov-Bohm effect). When donor impurity is located in the shell of the nanostructure the Aharonov-Bohm effect vanishes. The dependences of electron energy spectrum and its wave functions on the location of impurity, placed along the direction of magnetic field or perpendicularly to it, are studied. It is shown, that in the first case, the quantum states are characterized by the certain value of magnetic quantum number m and the expansion contains the wave functions of the states with it only. In the second case, the cylindrical symmetry of the problem is broken and the new quantum states are formed from the states with different values of all three quantum numbers n, l, m and electron energy spectrum weakly depends on the magnetic field induction.

  11. Study of the effect of varying core diameter, shell thickness and strain velocity on the tensile properties of single crystals of Cu-Ag core-shell nanowire using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jit; Das, D. K.

    2018-01-01

    Core-shell type nanostructures show exceptional properties due to their unique structure having a central solid core of one type and an outer thin shell of another type which draw immense attention among researchers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on single crystals of copper-silver core-shell nanowires having wire diameter ranging from 9 to 30 nm with varying core diameter, shell thickness, and strain velocity. The tensile properties like yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and Young's modulus are studied and correlated by varying one parameter at a time and keeping the other two parameters constant. The results obtained for a fixed wire size and different strain velocities were extrapolated to calculate the tensile properties like yield strength and Young's modulus at standard strain rate of 1 mm/min. The results show ultra-high tensile properties of copper-silver core-shell nanowires, several times than that of bulk copper and silver. These copper-silver core-shell nanowires can be used as a reinforcing agent in bulk metal matrix for developing ultra-high strength nanocomposites.

  12. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  13. Fabrication of Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles by modified gas aggregation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Vaidulych, M.; Kylián, O.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Cieslar, M.; Solař, P.; Biederman, H.

    2017-11-01

    Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by a vacuum based method using the gas aggregation source (GAS) of nanoparticles. Ni nanoparticles fabricated in the GAS were afterwards coated by a Ti shell. The Ti shell was deposited by means of magnetron sputtering. The Ni nanoparticles were decelerated in the vicinity of the magnetron to the Ar drift velocity in the second deposition chamber. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nanoparticles showed the core-shell structure. It was shown that the thickness of the shell can be easily tuned by the process parameters with a maximum achieved thickness of the Ti shell ~2.5 nm. The core-shell structure was confirmed by the STEM analysis of the particles.

  14. Synthesis of Various Metal/TiO2 Core/shell Nanorod Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guan-zhong; Hong, Xun; Shen, Xiao-shuang

    2011-02-01

    We present a general approach to fabricate metal/TiO2 core/shell nanorod structures by two-step electrodeposition. Firstly, TiO2 nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are prepared in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes by electrodeposition. The wall thickness of the nanotubes could be easily controlled by modulating the deposition time, and their outer diameter and length are only limited by the channel diameter and the thickness of the AAO membranes, respectively. The nanotubes' tops prepared by this method are open, while the bottoms are connected directly with the Au film at the back of the AAO membranes. Secondly, Pd, Cu, and Fe elements are filled into the TiO2 nanotubes to form core/shell structures. The core/shell nanorods prepared by this two-step process are high density and free-standing, and their length is dependent on the deposition time.

  15. Core/shell structured ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jing; Tao Xia; Pu Yuan; Zeng Xiaofei; Chen Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical synthesis route. Subsequently, SiO 2 layers were successfully coated onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles to modify the photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions. The obtained particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and zeta potential. It was found that ultrafine core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles were successfully obtained. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/SiO 2 core/shell structured nanoparticles in Rhodamine B aqueous solution at varied pH value were also investigated. Compared with uncoated ZnO nanoparticles, core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles with thinner SiO 2 shell possess improved stability and relatively better photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions, which would broaden its potential application in pollutant treatment.

  16. Hierarchical Graphene-Encapsulated Hollow SnO2@SnS2 Nanostructures with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangwang; Xie, Zhiqiang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Dietrich, Grant; Dooley, Kerry M; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-14

    Complex hierarchical structures have received tremendous attention due to their superior properties over their constitute components. In this study, hierarchical graphene-encapsulated hollow SnO2@SnS2 nanostructures are successfully prepared by in situ sulfuration on the backbones of hollow SnO2 spheres via a simple hydrothermal method followed by a solvothermal surface modification. The as-prepared hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposite can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting excellent cyclability with a capacity of 583 mAh/g after 100 electrochemical cycles at a specific current of 200 mA/g. This material shows a very low capacity fading of only 0.273% per cycle from the second to the 100th cycle, lower than the capacity degradation of bare SnO2 hollow spheres (0.830%) and single SnS2 nanosheets (0.393%). Even after being cycled at a range of specific currents varied from 100 mA/g to 2000 mA/g, hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites maintain a reversible capacity of 664 mAh/g, which is much higher than single SnS2 nanosheets (374 mAh/g) and bare SnO2 hollow spheres (177 mAh/g). Such significantly improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique hierarchical hollow structure, which not only effectively alleviates the stress resulting from the lithiation/delithiation process and maintaining structural stability during cycling but also reduces aggregation and facilitates ion transport. This work thus demonstrates the great potential of hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites for applications as a high-performance anode material in next-generation lithium ion battery technology.

  17. Core-shell silk hydrogels with spatially tuned conformations as drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Le-Ping; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Oliveira, Ana L; Reis, Rui L

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogels of spatially controlled physicochemical properties are appealing platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, core-shell silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels of spatially controlled conformation were developed. The core-shell structure in the hydrogels was formed by means of soaking the preformed (enzymatically crosslinked) random coil SF hydrogels in methanol. When increasing the methanol treatment time from 1 to 10 min, the thickness of the shell layer can be tuned from about 200 to about 850 μm as measured in wet status. After lyophilization of the rehydrated core-shell hydrogels, the shell layer displayed compact morphology and the core layer presented porous structure, when observed by scanning electron microscopy. The conformation of the hydrogels was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in wet status. The results revealed that the shell layer possessed dominant β-sheet conformation and the core layer maintained mainly random coil conformation. Enzymatic degradation data showed that the shell layers presented superior stability to the core layer. The mechanical analysis displayed that the compressive modulus of the core-shell hydrogels ranged from about 25 kPa to about 1.1 MPa by increasing the immersion time in methanol. When incorporated with albumin, the core-shell SF hydrogels demonstrated slower and more controllable release profiles compared with the non-treated hydrogel. These core-shell SF hydrogels of highly tuned properties are useful systems as drug-delivery system and may be applied as cartilage substitute. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. One-step synthesis of gold-polyaniline core-shell particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijuan; Yuan Junhua; Han Dongxue; Niu Li; Ivaska, Ari

    2007-01-01

    A one-step method has been developed for synthesizing gold-polyaniline (Au-PANI) core-shell particles by using chlorauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) to oxidize aniline in the presence of acetic acid and Tween 40 at room temperature. SEM images indicated that the resulting core-shell particles were composed of submicrometre-scale Au particles and PANI shells with an average thickness of 25 nm. Furthermore, a possible mechanism concerning the growth of Au-PANI particles was also proposed based on the results of control experiments

  19. CdSe/AsS core-shell quantum dots: preparation and two-photon fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Ming; Yan, Yongli; Wang, Zhe; Ho, Paul C; Loh, Kian Ping

    2009-08-19

    Arsenic(II) sulfide (AsS)-coated CdSe core-shell nanocrystals can be prepared by a cluster-complex deposition approach under mild conditions. At 60 degrees C, growth of an AsS shell onto a CdSe nanocrystal can be realized through the crystallization of a cluster complex of AsS/butylamine in a mixed solvent of isopropanol/chloroform. The new, type I core-shell nanocrystal exhibits markedly enhanced one-photon fluorescence as well two-photon upconversion fluorescence. The nanocrystals can be used for infrared-excited upconversion cellular labeling.

  20. Magnetic properties of Ni/Au core/shell studied by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Sidi Bouzid, Safi, 63 4600 (Morocco); LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Bahmad, L. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2014-01-10

    The magnetic properties of ferromagnetic Ni/Au core/shell have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations within the Ising model framework. The considered Hamiltonian includes the exchange interactions between Ni–Ni, Au–Au and Ni–Au and the external magnetic field. The thermal total magnetizations and total magnetic susceptibilities of core/shell Ni/Au are computed. The critical temperature is deduced. The exchange interaction between Ni and Au atoms is obtained. In addition, the total magnetizations versus the external magnetic field and crystal filed for different temperature are also established.

  1. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  2. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.llorca@upc.edu; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (Spain); Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica Inorganica (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration.

  3. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi; Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O 2 -H 2 mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  5. Synthesis of magnetic CoPt/SiO{sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Takafumi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Koga, Kenji [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Fumiyoshi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Akinaga, Hiroyuki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Orii, Takaaki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hirasawa, Makoto [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Murayama, Mitsuhiro [National Institute for Material Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Core-shell nanoparticles composed of ferromagnetic cobalt platinum cores covered by non-magnetic silica shells were synthesized by laser ablating a composite target in a helium background gas. The average diameter of the CoPt core was controlled by adjusting the CoPt/SiO{sub 2} ratio of the ablation target. The particles were also classified in the gas phase using an electrical mobility classifier. The present method successfully synthesized nearly monodispersed nanoparticles with an average core diameter of 2.5nm. This article describes the synthesis of the core-shell nanoparticles and investigates their magnetic properties.

  6. New insights into micro/nanoscale combined probes (nanoAuger, μXPS) to characterize Ag/Au@SiO2 core-shell assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeuil, J. B.; Uhart, A.; Soulé, S.; Allouche, J.; Dupin, J. C.; Martinez, H.

    2014-09-01

    This work has examined the elemental distribution and local morphology at the nanoscale of core@shell Ag/Au@SiO2 particles. The characterization of such complex metal/insulator materials becomes more efficient when using an initial cross-section method of preparation of the core@shell nanoparticles (ion milling cross polisher). The originality of this route of preparation allows one to obtain undamaged, well-defined and planar layers of cross-cut nano-objects. Once combined with high-resolution techniques of characterization (XPS, Auger and SEM), the process appears as a powerful way to minimize charging effects and enhance the outcoming electron signal (potentially affected by the topography of the material) during analysis. SEM experiments have unambiguously revealed the hollow-morphology of the metal core, while Auger spectroscopy observations showed chemical heterogeneity within the particles (as silver and gold are randomly found in the core ring). To our knowledge, this is the first time that Auger nano probe spectroscopy has been used and successfully optimized for the study of some complex metal/inorganic interfaces at such a high degree of resolution (~12 nm). Complementarily, XPS Au 4f and Ag 3d peaks were finally detected attesting the possibility of access to the whole chemistry of such nanostructured assemblies.This work has examined the elemental distribution and local morphology at the nanoscale of core@shell Ag/Au@SiO2 particles. The characterization of such complex metal/insulator materials becomes more efficient when using an initial cross-section method of preparation of the core@shell nanoparticles (ion milling cross polisher). The originality of this route of preparation allows one to obtain undamaged, well-defined and planar layers of cross-cut nano-objects. Once combined with high-resolution techniques of characterization (XPS, Auger and SEM), the process appears as a powerful way to minimize charging effects and enhance the outcoming

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of CoO-Pt core-shell nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňáková, A.; Zeleňák, V.; Michalik, Štefan; Kováč, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 10 (2014), "104417-1"-"104417-10" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CoO-Pt core shell nanoparticles * superparamagnetism * superspin glass state * x-ray diffraction * x-ray absorption spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  8. Tunable Band Gap and Conductivity Type of ZnSe/Si Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of zincblende ZnSe/Si core-shell nanowires (NWs with a diameter of 1.1–2.8 nm are calculated by means of the first principle calculation. Band gaps of both ZnSe-core/Si-shell and Si-core/ZnSe-shell NWs are much smaller than those of pure ZnSe or Si NWs. Band alignment analysis reveals that the small band gaps of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs are caused by the interface state. Fixing the ZnSe core size and enlarging the Si shell would turn the NWs from intrinsic to p-type, then to metallic. However, Fixing the Si core and enlarging the ZnSe shell would not change the band gap significantly. The partial charge distribution diagram shows that the conduction band maximum (CBM is confined in Si, while the valence band maximum (VBM is mainly distributed around the interface. Our findings also show that the band gap and conductivity type of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs can be tuned by the concentration and diameter of the core-shell material, respectively.

  9. Titanium dioxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowires for all solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Zeng, Yinxiang; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Chenghui; Yao, Chenzhong; Yang, Yangyi; Tong, Yexiang

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance.Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD pattern, FT-IR absorption spectrum and CV curves of TiO2@PPy NWs, and SEM images of the PPy. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03578f

  10. Preparation and recognition of surface molecularly imprinted core-shell microbeads for protein in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Yan Changling; Gao Shuyan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a surface molecular imprinting technique was reported for preparing core-shell microbeads of protein imprinting, and bovine hemoglobin or bovine serum albumin were used as model proteins for studying the imprinted core-shell microbeads. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was polymerized onto the surface of polystyrene microbead in the presence of the protein templates to create protein-imprinted core-shell microbeads. The various samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The effect of pH on rebinding of the template hemoglobin, the specific binding and selective recognition were studied for the imprinted microbeads. The results show that the bovine hemoglobin-imprinted core-shell microbeads were successfully created. The shell was a sort of imprinted thin films with porous structure and larger surface areas. The imprinted microbeads have good selectivity for templates and high stability. Due to the recognition sites locating at or closing to the surface, these imprinted microbeads have good property of mass-transport. Unfortunately, the imprint technology was not successfully applied to imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  11. Origin of Spontaneous Core-Shell AIGaAs Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Shtrom, I. V.; Reznik, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies, we unravel the origin of spontaneous core shell AlGaAs nanowires grown by gold-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Our AlGaAs nanowires have a cylindrical core...

  12. Gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Timea; Boca, Sanda [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania); Biro, Dominic [Sapientia University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences (Romania); Baldeck, Patrice [Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, UMR 5588, CNRS (France); Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    This study presents the synthesis of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles by a two-step method and investigates their biological impact on cancer cells, specifically nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity. Uniform, 9-10-nm-sized, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in organic phase by reducing gold salt with oleylamine, after which oleylamine-protected gold nanoparticles were phase-transferred into aqueous medium using Pluronic F127 block copolymer, resulting in gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of {approx}35 nm. The formation and phase-transfer of gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The obtained gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles proved to be highly stable in salted solution. Cytotoxicity tests showed no modification of cellular viability in the presence of properly purified particles. Furthermore, dark-field cellular imaging demonstrated that gold-Pluronic nanoparticles were able to be efficiently uptaken by cells, being internalized through nonspecific endocytosis. The high stability, proven biocompatibility, and imaging properties of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles hold promise for relevant intracellular applications, with such a design providing the feasibility to combine all multiple functionalities in one nanoparticle for simultaneous detection and imaging.

  13. Fabrication and micro-photoluminescence property of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Guozhang; Gou, Guangyang; Wu, Zeming; Chen, Yu; Li, Hongjian [Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Wan, Qiang [Hunan University, School of Physics and Electronics, Changsha (China); Zou, Bingsuo [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, School of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01

    Hetero-epitaxial CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by a source-controllable chemical vapor deposition method. A two-stage growth mechanism was proposed to the growth process of the core/shell NWs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) property of individual NW was studied by a confocal microscopy system. The pure CdSe NW emits a red light with peak at 712.3 nm, which is inconsistent with the CdSe band-edge emission. The CdSe/CdS core/shell NW emits two apparent peaks, one is an intensive red emission peak centered at 715.2 nm and the other is a weak green emission peak located at 516.2 nm. The room temperature μ-PL spectrum shows that the PL intensity of CdSe NW was evidently promoted by coating the CdS shell, and this is because CdS improves the surface state optimizing the energy band structure of CdSe NW. The as-synthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell NW has more efficient PL quantum yields than pure CdSe NW and may find potential applications in nanoscale photonic devices. (orig.)

  14. Fabrication and micro-photoluminescence property of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Guozhang; Gou, Guangyang; Wu, Zeming; Chen, Yu; Li, Hongjian; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2015-01-01

    Hetero-epitaxial CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by a source-controllable chemical vapor deposition method. A two-stage growth mechanism was proposed to the growth process of the core/shell NWs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) property of individual NW was studied by a confocal microscopy system. The pure CdSe NW emits a red light with peak at 712.3 nm, which is inconsistent with the CdSe band-edge emission. The CdSe/CdS core/shell NW emits two apparent peaks, one is an intensive red emission peak centered at 715.2 nm and the other is a weak green emission peak located at 516.2 nm. The room temperature μ-PL spectrum shows that the PL intensity of CdSe NW was evidently promoted by coating the CdS shell, and this is because CdS improves the surface state optimizing the energy band structure of CdSe NW. The as-synthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell NW has more efficient PL quantum yields than pure CdSe NW and may find potential applications in nanoscale photonic devices. (orig.)

  15. CuO-In2O3 Core-Shell Nanowire Based Chemical Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowire was fabricated by a two-step method. The CuO nanowire core (NWs was firstly grown by the conventional thermal oxidation of Cu meshes at 500°C for 5 hours. Then, the CuO nanowires were immersed into the suspension of amorphous indium hydroxide deposited from the In(AC3 solution by ammonia. The CuO nanowires coated with In(OH3 were subsequently heated at 600°C to form the crystalline CuO-In2O3 core-shell structure, with In2O3 nanocrystals uniformly anchored on the CuO nanowires. The gas sensing properties of the formed CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowires were investigated by various reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and propane at elevated temperature. The sensors using the CuO-In2O3 nanowires show improved sensing performance to hydrogen and propane but a suppressed response to carbon monoxide, which could be attributed to the enhanced catalytic properties of CuO with the coated porous In2O3 shell and the p-n junction formed at the core-shell interface.

  16. Simple Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Core/Shell CdSe/SiOx Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhang Dai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell-structured CdSe/SiOx nanowires were synthesized on an equilateral triangle Si (111 substrate through a simple one-step thermal evaporation process. SEM, TEM, and XRD investigations confirmed the core-shell structure; that is, the core zone is single crystalline CdSe and the shell zone is SiOx amorphous layer and CdSe core was grown along (001 direction. Two-stage growth process was present to explain the growth mechanism of the core/shell nanwires. The silicon substrate of designed equilateral triangle providing the silicon source is the key factor to form the core-shell nanowires, which is significant for fabrication of nanowire-core sheathed with a silica system. The PL of the product studied at room temperature showed two emission bands around 715 and 560 nm, which originate from the band-band transition of CdSe cores and the amorphous SiOx shells, respectively.

  17. Peptide Microencapsulation by Core-Shell Printing Technology for Edible Film Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco-Pascual, N.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.; Stevens, R.S.A.; Montero, M.P.; Gómez-Guillén, M.C.; Cate, A.T.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new microencapsulation methodology for incorporation of functional ingredients in edible films. Core-shell microcapsules filled with demineralized water (C) or 1 % (w/v) peptide solution (Cp) were prepared using the microencapsulation printer technology. Shell material,

  18. Core/shell particles containing liquid cores : morphology prediction, synthesis and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zyl, van A.J.P.; Sanderson, R.D.; Wet-Roos, de D.; Klumperman, B.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to synthesize core/shell particles with distinct geometries is becoming increasingly important due to their potential applications. In this study structured particles with liquid cores and polymeric shells were synthesized by an in situ miniemulsion polymerization reaction. The resulting

  19. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  20. Core-Shell Composite Fibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Zeyang; Barrios, Elizabeth; Zhai, Lei

    2018-01-31

    Core-shell nanofibers containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and manganese oxide nanoparticles as the core and polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell were fabricated through electrospinning the solution of PAA and manganese ions (PAA/Mn 2+ ). The obtained nanofibers were stabilized by Fe 3+ through the interaction between Fe 3+ ions and carboxylate groups. Subsequent oxidation of Mn 2+ by KMnO 4 produced uniform manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) nanoparticles in the fibers. A PPy shell was created on the fibers by immersing the fibers in a pyrrole solution where the Fe 3+ ions in the fiber polymerized the pyrrole on the fiber surfaces. In the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers, MnO 2 nanoparticles function as high-capacity materials, while the PPy shell prevents the loss of MnO 2 during the charge/discharge process. Such a unique structure makes the composite fibers efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. The gravimetric specific capacity of the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers was 564 F/g based on cyclic voltammetry curves at 10 mV/s and 580 F/g based on galvanostatic charge/discharge studies at 5 A/g. The MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers also present stable cycling performance with 100% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Nie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF. It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  2. Strain relaxation and ambipolar electrical transport in GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Torsten; Zellekens, Patrick; Demarina, Natalia; Hassan, Ali Al; Hackemüller, Franz Josef; Lüth, Hans; Pietsch, Ullrich; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2017-11-30

    The growth, crystal structure, strain relaxation and room temperature transport characteristics of GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb of 14%, a transition from island-based to layer-like growth occurs during the formation of the shell. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in combination with geometric phase analyses as well as X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation are used to investigate the strain relaxation and prove the existence of different dislocations relaxing the strain on zinc blende and wurtzite core-shell nanowire segments. While on the wurtzite phase only Frank partial dislocations are found, the strain on the zinc blende phase is relaxed by dislocations with perfect, Shockley partial and Frank partial dislocations. Even for ultrathin shells of about 2 nm thickness, the strain caused by the high lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb is relaxed almost completely. Transfer characteristics of the core-shell nanowires show an ambipolar conductance behavior whose strength strongly depends on the dimensions of the nanowires. The interpretation is given based on an electronic band profile which is calculated for completely relaxed core/shell structures. The peculiarities of the band alignment in this situation implies simultaneously occupied electron and hole channels in the InSb shell. The ambipolar behavior is then explained by the change of carrier concentration in both channels by the gate voltage.

  3. Recent advances in the synthesis of Fe3O4@AU core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihov, Sergei V.; Ivanenkov, Yan A.; Krechetov, Sergei P.; Veselov, Mark S.; Sviridenkova, Natalia V.; Savchenko, Alexander G.; Klyachko, Natalya L.; Golovin, Yury I.; Chufarova, Nina V.; Beloglazkina, Elena K.; Majouga, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 @Au core/shell nanoparticles have unique magnetic and optical properties. These nanoparticles are used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, controlled drug delivery, protein separation, biosensors, DNA detection, and immunosensors. In this review, recent methods for the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles are discussed. We divided all of the synthetic methods in two groups: methods of synthesis of bi-layer structures and methods of synthesis of multilayer composite structures. The latter methods have a layer of “glue” material between the core and the shell. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are promising for biomedical applications but have some disadvantages. • Covering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with Au shell leads to better stability and biocompatibility. • Core/shell nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications. • There are two types of Fe 3 O 4 @Au core/shell nanoparticles structures: bi-layer and multilayer composite. • Different synthetic methods enable production of nanoparticles of different sizes

  4. First-Principles Modeling of Core/Shell Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azpiroz, Jon Mikel; Infante, Ivan; De Angelis, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We report on the density functional theory (DFT) modeling of core/shell quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), a device architecture that holds great potential in photovoltaics but has not been fully exploited so far. To understand the working mechanisms of this kind of solar cells, we

  5. Strippable core-shell polymer emulsion for decontamination of radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho-Sang; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the core-shell composite polymer for decontamination from the surface contamination was synthesized by the method of emulsion polymerization and blends of polymers. The strippable polymer emulsion is composed of the poly(styrene-ethyl acrylate) [poly(St-EA)] composite polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The morphology of the poly(St-EA) composite emulsion particle was core-shell structure, with polystyrene (PS) as the core and poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) as the shell. Core-shell polymers of styrene (St)/ethyl acrylate (EA) pair were prepared by sequential emulsion polymerization in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an emulsifier using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Related tests and analysis confirmed the success in synthesis of composite polymer. The products are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA that were used, respectively, to show the structure, the thermal stability of the prepared polymer. Two-phase particles with a core-shell structure were obtained in experiments where the estimated glass transition temperature and the morphologies of emulsion particles. Decontamination factors of the strippable polymeric emulsion were evaluated with the polymer blend contents. (author)

  6. Preparation and recognition of surface molecularly imprinted core-shell microbeads for protein in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan, E-mail: yanlu2001@sohu.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, 46 Jlanshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Yan Changling; Gao Shuyan [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, 46 Jlanshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, a surface molecular imprinting technique was reported for preparing core-shell microbeads of protein imprinting, and bovine hemoglobin or bovine serum albumin were used as model proteins for studying the imprinted core-shell microbeads. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was polymerized onto the surface of polystyrene microbead in the presence of the protein templates to create protein-imprinted core-shell microbeads. The various samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The effect of pH on rebinding of the template hemoglobin, the specific binding and selective recognition were studied for the imprinted microbeads. The results show that the bovine hemoglobin-imprinted core-shell microbeads were successfully created. The shell was a sort of imprinted thin films with porous structure and larger surface areas. The imprinted microbeads have good selectivity for templates and high stability. Due to the recognition sites locating at or closing to the surface, these imprinted microbeads have good property of mass-transport. Unfortunately, the imprint technology was not successfully applied to imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  7. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.; Rajendran, Arvind; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles and their corresponding electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-01-01

    The shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully achieved through the emulsion phase generated during the phase transfer from organic to aqueous medium. Contrary to conventional epitaxial growth for obtaining core-shell structures, this method does not require high temperatures and does not have shape restrictions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Design and intestinal mucus penetration mechanism of core-shell nanocomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Hongbo; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Meixia; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Xiuhua; Guan, Jian; Wu, Haiyang; Mao, Shirui

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study was to design intestinal mucus-penetrating core-shell nanocomplex by functionally mimicking the surface of virus, which can be used as the carrier for peroral delivery of macromolecules, and further understand the influence of nanocomplex surface properties on the mucosal permeation capacity. Taking insulin as a model drug, the core was formed by the self-assembly among positively charged chitosan, insulin and negatively charged sodium tripolyphosphate, different types of alginates were used as the shell forming material. The nanocomplex was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FTIR. Nanocomplex movement in mucus was recorded using multiple particle tracking (MPT) method. Permeation and uptake of different nanocomplex were studied in rat intestine. It was demonstrated that alginate coating layer was successfully formed on the core and the core-shell nanocomplex showed a good physical stability and improved enzymatic degradation protection. The mucus penetration and MPT study showed that the mucus penetration capacity of the nanocomplex was surface charge and coating polymer structure dependent, nanocomplex with negative alginate coating had 1.6-2.5 times higher mucus penetration ability than that of positively charged chitosan-insulin nanocomplex. Moreover, the mucus penetration ability of the core-shell nanocomplex was alginate structure dependent, whereas alginate with lower G content and lower molecular weight showed the best permeation enhancing ability. The improvement of intestine permeation and intestinal villi uptake of the core-shell nanocomplex were further confirmed in rat intestine and multiple uptake mechanisms were involved in the transport process. In conclusion, core-shell nanocomplex composed of oppositely charged materials could provide a strategy to overcome the mucus barrier and enhance the mucosal permeability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnS/Diamond-Like Carbon Core-Shell Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated ZnS/diamond-like carbon (DLC core-shell heterostructure nanowire using a simple two-step process: the vapor-liquid-solid method combined with radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD. As a core nanowire, ZnS nanowires with face-centered cubic structure were synthesized with a sputtered Au thin film, which exhibit a length and a diameter of ~10 μm and ~30–120 nm . After rf PECVD for DLC coating, The length and width of the dense ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were a range of ~10 μm  and 50–150 nm , respectively. In addition, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were characterized with scanning transmission electron microscopy. From the results, the products have flat and uniform DLC coating layer on ZnS nanowire in spite of high residual stress induced by the high sp3 fraction. To further understanding of the DLC coating layer, Raman spectroscopy was employed with ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires, which reveals two Raman bands at 1550 cm−1 (G peak and 1330 cm−1 (D peak. Finally, we investigated the optical properties from ultraviolet to infrared wavelength region using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometry. Related to optical properties, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires exhibit relatively lower absorbance and higher IR transmittance than that of ZnS nanowires.

  11. Fracture resistance improvement of polypropylene by joint action of core-shell particles and nucleating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Gang; Han Liang; Ding Haifeng; Wu Haiyan; Huang Ting; Li Xiaoxi; Wang Yong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: →The core-shell particles, which were prepared from melt blending of POE and nano-CaCO 3 , and different nucleating agents (α-form NA or β-form NA) were first introduced into PP to prepare the super toughened PP materials. →NAs control the crystalline structures of PP matrix including the spherulites diameter and the crystal form. →NAs and core-shell particles exhibit apparent joint effect in improving the fracture resistance of PP. - Abstract: As a serial work about the fracture resistance improvement of polypropylene (PP), this work reports the joint effect of core-shell particles and nucleating agent (NA) on the microstructure and fracture resistance of PP. Core-shell particles were prepared through melt blending of ethylene-octene copolymer (POE) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ). Different NA, i.e. α-form NA (P-tert-butylbenzoic acid-Al, MD-NA-28) and β-form NA (aryl amides compound, TMB-5) were introduced into PP matrix to control the crystalline structure. The phase morphology of POE and the distribution of CaCO 3 were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the crystallization behavior of PP matrix were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarization optical microscope (POM). The mechanical properties were obtained through universal tensile measurement and notched Izod impact measurement. Surprisingly, the results show that through addition of so-called core-shell particles and NA simultaneously, the fracture resistance of PP can be dramatically improved.

  12. Synthesis and properties MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co) nanoparticles and core-shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Greneche, J. M.; Belous, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Individual Fe3-xO4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, as well as Fe3-xO4/CoFe2O4 core/shell structures were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from diethylene glycol solutions. Core/shell structure were synthesized with CoFe2O4-shell thickness of 1.0, 2.5 and 3.5 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of individual nanoparticles and core/shell are similar and indicate that all synthesized samples have a cubic spinel structure. Compares Mössbauer studies of CoFe2O4, Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles indicate superparamagnetic properties at 300 K. It was shown that individual magnetite nanoparticles are transformed into maghemite through oxidation during the synthesis procedure, wherein the smallest nanoparticles are completely oxidized while a magnetite core does occur in the case of the largest nanoparticles. The Mössbauer spectra of core/shell nanoparticles with increasing CoFe2O4-shell thickness show a gradual decrease in the relative intensity of the quadrupole doublet and significant decrease of the mean isomer shift value at both RT and 77 K indicating a decrease of the superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena. Specific loss power for the prepared ferrofluids was experimentally calculated and it was determined that under influence of ac-magnetic field magnetic fluid based on individual CoFe2O4 and Fe3-xO4 particles are characterized by very low heating temperature, when magnetic fluids based on core/shell nanoparticles demonstrate higher heating effect.

  13. Development of core-shell coaxially electrospun composite PCL/chitosan scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-11-01

    This study was related to combining of synthetic Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and natural chitosan polymers to develop three dimensional (3D) PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds were fabricated with coaxial electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by thickness and contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, mechanical and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests. The average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated for PCL (0.717±0.001μm), chitosan (0.660±0.007μm) and PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds (0.412±0.003μm), also the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decreases of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan scaffolds respectively, compared to PCL/chitosan core-shell ones. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. The cell culture studies (MTT assay, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and SEM analyses) carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line proved that the biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds. The obtained results showed that the created micro/nano fibrous structure of the PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds in this study increased the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple and convenient preparation of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Sha Yufang; Yang Xiurong

    2006-01-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared on glass surface by a seed growth method. Gold nanoparticles were used as seeds and ascorbic acid-H 2 PtCl 6 solutions as growth solutions to deposit Pt shell on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles and their growth process were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy and the results indicated that the deposition speed was fast and nanoparticles with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained after 2 min. Moreover, this seed growth method for preparation of the core-shell nanoparticles is simple and convenient compared with other seed growth methods with NH 4 OH as a mild reductant. In addition, electrochemical experiments indicated that these Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles had similar electrochemical properties to those of the bulk Pt electrode

  15. Dynamics of Green AuNP Formation and Their Application in Core-Shell Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Zhang, Jingdong; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    The formation of gold nanoparticles in our optimized synthesis is achieved through reduction of tetrachloroauric acid in 2 - (N - morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid (MES) buffered glucose and stabilization by starch at room temperature. The formation has been followed by measuring the electrochemica...

  16. Multiple Fano resonances in single-layer nonconcentric core-shell nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zayats, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    where the multiple dark modes appear due to the geometrical symmetry breaking induced by axial offset of the core. Both dielectric-core-metal-shell (DCMS) and metal-core-dielectric-shell (MCDS) configurations have been studied. Compared to the MCDS structure, the DCMS configuration provides higher...

  17. Temperature dependence Infrared and Raman studies of III-V/II-VI core-shell nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; McCombe, Bruce D.; Lucey, Derrick

    2005-03-01

    The temperature dependence (8 K InP/ZnS sample. Raman scattering (457.9 nm excitation) features were determined without polarization selection in the backscattering geometry. Interesting T-dependent resonant Raman effect of the surface optical phonon modes has been discovered in InP/ZnSe sample. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the Raman and FIR results, as well as with theoretical calculations.

  18. The sustained-release behavior and in vitro and in vivo transfection of pEGFP-loaded core-shell-structured chitosan-based composite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Lin, Fu-xing; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Mo-zhen; Ge, Xue-wu; Gong, Zheng-xing; Bao, Dan-dan; Gu, Yu-fang

    2014-01-01

    Novel submicron core-shell-structured chitosan-based composite particles encapsulated with enhanced green fluorescent protein plasmids (pEGFP) were prepared by complex coacervation method. The core was pEGFP-loaded thiolated N-alkylated chitosan (TACS) and the shell was pH- and temperature-responsive hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC). pEGFP-loaded TACS-HBC composite particles were spherical, and had a mean diameter of approximately 120 nm, as measured by transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer. pEGFP showed sustained release in vitro for >15 days. Furthermore, in vitro transfection in human embryonic kidney 293T and human cervix epithelial cells, and in vivo transfection in mice skeletal muscle of loaded pEGFP, were investigated. Results showed that the expression of loaded pEGFP, both in vitro and in vivo, was slow but could be sustained over a long period. pEGFP expression in mice skeletal muscle was sustained for >60 days. This work indicates that these submicron core-shell-structured chitosan-based composite particles could potentially be used as a gene vector for in vivo controlled gene transfection. PMID:25364253

  19. Fabrication of Core-Shell Structural SiO2@H3[PM12O40] Material and Its Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a natural tree grain template and sol-gel technology, the heterogeneous catalytic materials based on polyoxometalate compounds H3[PM12O40] encapsulating SiO2: SiO2@H3[PM12O40] (SiO2@PM12, M = W, Mo with core-shell structure had been prepared. The structure and morphology of the core-shell microspheres were characterized by the XRD, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorbance, and SEM. These microsphere materials can be used as heterogeneous catalysts with high activity and stability for catalytic wet air oxidation of pollutant dyes safranine T (ST at room condition. The results show that the catalysts have excellent catalytic activity in treatment of wastewater containing 10 mg/L ST, and 94% of color can be removed within 60 min. Under different cycling runs, it is shown that the catalysts are stable under such operating conditions and the leaching tests show negligible leaching effect owing to the lesser dissolution.

  20. A core-shell albumin copolymer nanotransporter for high capacity loading and two-step release of doxorubicin with enhanced anti-leukemia activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuzhou; Ihme, Susann; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Kuan, Seah Ling; Eisele, Klaus; Lamla, Markus; Wang, Yanran; Buske, Christian; Weil, Tanja

    2013-06-01

    The native transportation protein serum albumin represents an attractive nano-sized transporter for drug delivery applications due to its beneficial safety profile. Existing albumin-based drug delivery systems are often limited by their low drug loading capacity as well as noticeable drug leakage into the blood circulation. Therefore, a unique albumin-derived core-shell doxorubicin (DOX) delivery system based on the protein denaturing-backfolding strategy was developed. 28 DOX molecules were covalently conjugated to the albumin polypeptide backbone via an acid sensitive hydrazone linker. Polycationic and pegylated human serum albumin formed two non-toxic and enzymatically degradable protection shells around the encapsulated DOX molecules. This core-shell delivery system possesses notable advantages, including a high drug loading capacity critical for low administration doses, a two-step drug release mechanism based on pH and the presence of proteases, an attractive biocompatibility and narrow size distribution inherited from the albumin backbone, as well as fast cellular uptake and masking of epitopes due to a high degree of pegylation. The IC50 of these nanoscopic onion-type micelles was found in the low nanomolar range for Hela cells as well as leukemia cell lines. In vivo data indicate its attractive potential as anti-leukemia treatment suggesting its promising profile as nanomedicine drug delivery system. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. DESIGN AND CONTROL OF SOAP-FREE HYDROPHILIC-HYDROPHOBIC CORE-SHELL LATEX PARTICLES WITH HIGH CARBOXYL CONTENT IN THE CORE OF THE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jiao Ji; Yi-ming Jiang; Bo-tian Li; Wei Deng; Cheng-you Kan

    2012-01-01

    Soap-free hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell latex particles with high carboxyl content in the core of the particles were synthesized via the seeded emulsion polymerization using methyl methacrylate (MMA),butyl acrylate (BA),methacrylic acid (MAA),styrene (St) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as monomers,and the influences of MMA content used in the core preparation on polymerization,particle size and morphology were investigated by transmission electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and conductometric titration.The results showed that the seeded emulsion polymerization could be carried out smoothly using "starved monomer feeding process" when MAA content in the core preparation was equal to or less than 24 wt%,and the encapsulating efficiency of the hydrophilic P(MMA-BA-MAA-EGDMA) core with the hydrophobic PSt shell decreased with the increase in MAA content.When an interlayer of P(MMA-MAA-St) with moderate polarity was inserted between the P(MMA-BA-MAA-EGDMA) core and the PSt shell,well designed soap-free hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell latex particles with 24 wt% MAA content in the core preparation were obtained.

  2. Core-shell Ni0.5TiOPO4/C composites as anode materials in Li ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Wei, J.P.; Essehli, R.; Bali, B. El

    2011-01-01

    Pristine Ni 0.5 TiOPO 4 was prepared via a traditional solid-state reaction, and then Ni 0.5 TiOPO 4 /C composites with core-shell nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermally treating Ni 0.5 TiOPO 4 in glucose solution. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that Ni 0.5 TiOPO 4 /C crystallizes in monoclinic P2 1 /c space group. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that the small particles with different sizes are coated with uniform carbon film of ∼3 nm in thickness. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the presence of carbon in the composites. Ni 0.5 TiOPO 4 /C composites presented a capacity of 276 mAh g -1 after 30 cycles at the current density of 42.7 mA g -1 , much higher than that of pristine Ni 0.5 TiOPO 4 (155 mAh g -1 ). The improved electrochemical performances can be attributed to the existence of carbon shell.

  3. Core-Shell Al-Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Configurations to Enhance Reaction Kinetics and Energy Performance for Nanoenergetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yuntao; Shen, Jinpeng; Long, Zhang; Li, Zhaoqian; Cui, Xudong; Yang, Guangcheng

    2016-01-04

    The energy performance of solid energetic materials (Al, Mg, etc.) is typically restricted by a natural passivation layer and the diffusion-limited kinetics between the oxidizer and the metal. In this work, we use polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as the fluorine carrier and the shielding layer to construct a new type of nano-Al based fuels. The PTFE shell not only prevents nano-Al layers from oxidation, but also assists in enhancing the reaction kinetics, greatly improving the stability and reactivity of fuels. An in situ chemical vapor deposition combined with the electrical explosion of wires (EEW) method is used to fabricate core-shell nanostructures. Studies show that by controlling the stoichiometric ratio of the precursors, the morphology of the PTFE shell and the energy performance can be easily tuned. The resultant composites exhibit superior energy output characters than that of their physically mixed Al/PTFE counterparts. This synthetic strategy might provide a general approach to prepare other high-energy fuels (Mg, Si). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Magnetic core/shell nanoparticle thin films deposited by MAPLE: Investigation by chemical, morphological and in vitro biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Iordache, I.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Mihaiescu, D.E.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Balan, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chifiriuc, C.; Bleotu, C.; Saviuc, C.; Popa, M.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposit magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/cephalosporin nanoparticle thin films by MAPLE. ► Thin films have a chemical structure similar to the starting material. ► Cephalosporins have an additive effect on the grain size and induce changes in grain shape. ► MAPLE can be used to develop novel strategies for fighting medical biofilms associated with chronic infections. - Abstract: We report on thin film deposition of nanostructured Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/ceftriaxone and Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/cefepime nanoparticles (core/shell/adsorption-shell) were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto inert substrates. The thin films were characterized by profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and investigated by in vitro biological assays. The biological properties tested included the investigation of the microbial viability and the microbial adherence to the glass coverslip nanoparticle film, using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with known antibiotic susceptibility behavior, the microbial adherence to the HeLa cells monolayer grown on the nanoparticle pellicle, and the cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells. The proposed system, based on MAPLE, could be used for the development of novel anti-microbial materials or strategies for fighting pathogenic biofilms frequently implicated in the etiology of biofilm associated chronic infections.

  5. Structural changes in quantum dots core-shell CdSe/ZnS by thermal treatment and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.G.; Sortica, M.A.; Grande, P.L.; Debastiani, R.; Dias, J.F.; Hentz, A.; Radtke, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Compound quantum-dots (QDs) are promising materials used in many fields of technological development. In spite of that, the accurate knowledge of their compositional depth-profiling is still a technological challenge. Recently, we used the MEIS (medium energy ion-scattering) technique, combined with PIXE and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) to characterize core-shell nanostructures of CdSe/ZnS [1]. In this work, we use the same characterization methods to survey the changes of elemental distribution in the the core and shell regions of these QDs, when submitted to a range of thermal treatments and proton irradiation conditions. Our preliminary results show that for temperatures below the melting point of the bulk CdSe compound, there is already a decrease in the amount of cadmium, accompanied by an overall decrease in the diameter of the CdSe QD nuclei. [1] M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, C. Radtke, L. Almeida, R. Debastiani, J. F. Dias, A. Hentz, Applied Physics Letters, 101 (2012)023110. (author)

  6. Magnetic core/shell nanoparticle thin films deposited by MAPLE: Investigation by chemical, morphological and in vitro biological assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Iordache, I.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, ' Politehnica' University of Bucharest, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Balan, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, C. [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalilor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, C. [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, 285 Mihai Bravu, 030304 Bucharest (Romania); Saviuc, C.; Popa, M. [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalilor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Departments of Materials Science and Biomedical Engineering, Troy, 12180-3590, NY (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We deposit magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/cephalosporin nanoparticle thin films by MAPLE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films have a chemical structure similar to the starting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cephalosporins have an additive effect on the grain size and induce changes in grain shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPLE can be used to develop novel strategies for fighting medical biofilms associated with chronic infections. - Abstract: We report on thin film deposition of nanostructured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/ceftriaxone and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/cefepime nanoparticles (core/shell/adsorption-shell) were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto inert substrates. The thin films were characterized by profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and investigated by in vitro biological assays. The biological properties tested included the investigation of the microbial viability and the microbial adherence to the glass coverslip nanoparticle film, using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with known antibiotic susceptibility behavior, the microbial adherence to the HeLa cells monolayer grown on the nanoparticle pellicle, and the cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells. The proposed system, based on MAPLE, could be used for the development of novel anti-microbial materials or strategies for fighting pathogenic biofilms frequently implicated in the etiology of biofilm associated chronic infections.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell gold nanoparticles with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) from a new precursor salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, M.; Ram, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this article, we report a facile one-step chemical synthesis of gold (Au) nanoparticles (GNPs) from a new precursor salt i.e., gold hydroxide in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer. The non-aqueous dispersion of GNPs was comprehensively characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A strong surface plasmon resonance band at 529 nm in the UV-Visible spectrum confirms the formation of GNPs in the Au colloid. The FTIR spectroscopic results showed that PVP molecules get chemisorbed onto the surface of GNP via O-atom of carbonyl group. A negative zeta potential of (-)16 mV reveals accumulation of nonbonding electrons of O-atom of carbonyl group of PVP molecules on the nanosurface of GNP. TEM images demonstrate a core-shell nanostructure with an Au-crystalline core covered by a thin amorphous PVP-shell. PVP-capped GNPs could be a potential candidate for bio-sensing, catalysis, and other applications.

  8. Ni/CdS bifunctional Ti@TiO2 core-shell nanowire electrode for high-performance nonenzymatic glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Huo, Huanhuan; Han, Xu; Xu, Cailing; Li, Hulin

    2014-01-07

    In this work, a Ni/CdS bifunctional Ti@TiO2 core-shell nanowire electrode with excellent electrochemical sensing property was successfully constructed through a hydrothermal and electrodeposition method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to confirm the synthesis and characterize the morphology of the as-prepared samples. The results revealed that the CdS layer between Ni and TiO2 plays an important role in the uniform nucleation and the following growth of highly dispersive Ni nanoparticle on the Ti@TiO2 core-shell nanowire surface. The bifunctional nanostructured electrode was applied to construct an electrochemical nonenzymatic sensor for the reliable detection of glucose. Under optimized conditions, this nonenzymatic glucose sensor displayed a high sensitivity up to 1136.67 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a wider liner range of 0.005-12 mM, and a lower detection limit of 0.35 μM for glucose oxidation. The high dispersity of Ni nanoparticles, combined with the anti-poisoning faculty against the intermediate derived from the self-cleaning ability of CdS under the photoexcitation, was considered to be responsible for these enhanced electrochemical performances. Importantly, favorable reproducibility and long-term performance were also obtained thanks to the robust frameworks. All these results indicate this novel electrode is a promising candidate for nonenzymatic glucose sensing.

  9. Melting and solidification behavior of Cu/Al and Ti/Al bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles during additive manufacturing by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzin; Jeon, Jungmin; Jiang, Shan; Nouranian, Sasan

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the role of core volume fraction and number of fusing nanoparticles (NPs) on the melting and solidification of Cu/Al and Ti/Al bimetallic core/shell NPs during a superfast heating and slow cooling process, roughly mimicking the conditions of selective laser melting (SLM). One recent trend in the SLM process is the rapid prototyping of nanoscopically heterogeneous alloys, wherein the precious core metal maintains its particulate nature in the final manufactured part. With this potential application in focus, the current work reveals the fundamental role of the interface in the two-stage melting of the core/shell alloy NPs. For a two-NP system, the melting zone gets broader as the core volume fraction increases. This effect is more pronounced for the Ti/Al system than the Cu/Al system because of a larger difference between the melting temperatures of the shell and core metals in the former than the latter. In a larger six-NP system (more nanoscopically heterogeneous), the melting and solidification temperatures of the shell Al roughly coincide, irrespective of the heating or cooling rate, implying that in the SLM process, the part manufacturing time can be reduced due to solidification taking place at higher temperatures. The nanostructure evolution during the cooling of six-NP systems is further investigated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee; Saikia, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications. (paper)

  11. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jutika; Saikia, Rashmi; Datta, Pranayee

    2016-10-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications.

  12. Synthesis, surface modification/decoration of luminescent–magnetic core/shell nanomaterials, based on the lanthanide doped fluorides (Fe3O4/SiO2/NH2/PAA/LnF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles (10–15 nm) were successfully coated with amine modified silica nanoshell, which led to the formation of core/shell type nanostructures (30–50 nm). The as-prepared nanoparticles were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via electrostatic interactions of –NH 2 and –COOH groups. Afterwards, the surface PAA molecules acted as complexing agents of the introduced lanthanide (Ln 3+ ) ions. Subsequently, the as-prepared nanostructures were surface decorated with luminescent LnF 3 nanoparticles, forming Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ doped Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 nanomaterials (50–100 nm). The obtained luminescent–magnetic products exhibited simultaneously bright red or green emission under UV lamp irradiation (λ ex =254 nm), and a response for the applied magnetic field (strong magnet attracts the colloidal particles, dispersed in aqueous medium). After the synthesis, properties of the nanomaterials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and spectrofluorometry (analysis of excitation/emission spectra and luminescence decay curves). Such advanced nanomaterials can be potentially used in multimodal imaging, targeted therapies and as multifunctional contrast agents, novel luminescent–magnetic tracers, protection of documents, etc. - Highlights: • Luminescent–magnetic nanomaterials Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 were synthesized. • Core/shell nanostructures were obtained by surface modification of nanoparticles. • Luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles doped with Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions. • Multifunctional core/shell nanostructures exhibited red or green emission. • Nanomaterials formed stable aqueous colloids.

  13. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, S.K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe 3 O 4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe 3 O 4 -CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu 2+ ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe 3 O 4 . • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  14. Chemical and thermal stability of core-shelled magnetite nanoparticles and solid silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sikora, Pawel; Zielinska, Beata; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Mijowska, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Pristine nanoparticles of magnetite were coated by solid silica shell forming core/shell structure. 20 nm thick silica coating significantly enhanced the chemical and thermal stability of the iron oxide. Chemical and thermal stability of this structure has been compared to the magnetite coated by mesoporous shell and pristine magnetite nanoparticles. It is assumed that six-membered silica rings in a solid silica shell limit the rate of oxygen diffusion during thermal treatment in air and prevent the access of HCl molecules to the core during chemical etching. Therefore, the core/shell structure with a solid shell requires a longer time to induce the oxidation of iron oxide to a higher oxidation state and, basically, even strong concentrated acid such as HCl is not able to dissolve it totally in one month. This leads to the desired performance of the material in potential applications such as catalysis and environmental protection.

  15. Fabrication of Te@Au core-shell hybrids for efficient ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huile; Wang, Demeng; Zhao, Yuewu; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Shun; Wang, Jichang

    2012-10-01

    Using Au nanoparticles to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols has garnered increasing attention due to its potential application in direct alcohol fuel cells. In this research Te@Au core-shell hybrids were fabricated for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol, where the preparation procedure involved the initial production of Te crystals with different microstructures and the subsequent utilization of the Te crystal as a template and reducing agent for the production of Te@Au hybrids. The as-prepared core-shell hybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical measurements illustrate that the hybrids have great electrocatalytic activity and stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocatalytic property may be attributed to the cooperative effects between the metal and semiconductor and the presence of a large number of active sites on the hybrids surface.

  16. TiN/VN composites with core/shell structure for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shanmu; Chen, Xiao [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Gu, Lin [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808577 (Japan); Zhou, Xinhong [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Haibo; Liu, Zhihong; Han, Pengxian; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Li [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Cui, Guanglei, E-mail: cuigl@qibebt.ac.cn [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Chen, Liquan [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Vanadium and titanium nitride nanocomposite with core-shell structure was prepared. {yields} TiN/VN composites with different V:Ti molar ratios were obtained. {yields} TiN/VN composites can provide promising electronic conductivity and favorable capacity storage. -- Abstract: TiN/VN core-shell composites are prepared by a two-step strategy involving coating of commercial TiN nanoparticles with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O sols followed by ammonia reduction. The highest specific capacitance of 170 F g{sup -1} is obtained when scanned at 2 mV s{sup -1} and a promising rate capacity performance is maintained at higher voltage sweep rates. These results indicate that these composites with good electronic conductivity can deliver a favorable capacity performance.

  17. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for on-chip RF inductors

    KAUST Repository

    Koh, Kisik

    2013-01-01

    FeNi3 based core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are demonstrated as the magnetic core material for on-chip, radio frequency (RF) inductors. FeNi3 nanoparticles with 50-150 nm in diameter with 15-20 nm-thick SiO2 coating are chemically synthesized and deposited on a planar inductor as the magnetic core to enhance both inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Experimentally, the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of the on-chip inductors based on FeNi3 core-shell nanoparticles has been shown to be over several GHz. A post-CMOS process has been developed to integrate the magnetic nanoparticles to a planar inductor and inductance enhancements up to 50% of the original magnitude with slightly enhanced Q-factor up to 1 GHz have been achieved. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chungja

    Nanoparticles are fascinating where physical and optical properties are related to size. Highly controllable synthesis methods and nanoparticle assembly are essential for highly innovative technological applications. Well-defined shaped and sized nanoparticles enable comparisons between experiments, theory and subsequent new models to explain experimentally observed phenomena. Among nanoparticles, nonhomogeneous core-shell nanoparticles (CSnp) have new properties that arise when varying the relative dimensions of the core and the shell. This CSnp structure enables various optical resonances, and engineered energy barriers, in addition to the high charge to surface ratio. Assembly of homogeneous nanoparticles into functional structures has become ubiquitous in biosensors (i.e. optical labeling), nanocoatings, and electrical circuits. Limited nonhomogenous nanoparticle assembly has only been explored. Many conventional nanoparticle assembly methods exist, but this work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP) as a new method. DEP is particle polarization via non-uniform electric fields while suspended in conductive fluids. Most prior DEP efforts involve microscale particles. Prior work on core-shell nanoparticle assemblies and separately, nanoparticle characterizations with dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, did not systematically explore particle size, dielectric properties (permittivity and electrical conductivity), shell thickness, particle concentration, medium conductivity, and frequency. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to systematically examine these dielectrophoretic properties for core-shell nanoparticles. Further, we conduct a parametric fitting to traditional core-shell models. These biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles were studied to fill a knowledge gap in the DEP field. Experimental results (chapter 5) first examine medium conductivity, size and shell material dependencies of dielectrophoretic behaviors of spherical CSnp into 2D and

  19. Magnetic Behavior of Ni-Fe Core-Shell and Alloy Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jagnyaseni; Vargas, Jose; Spinu, Leonard; Wiley, John

    2013-03-01

    Template assisted synthesis was used to fabricate a series of Ni-Fe core-shell and alloy nanowires. By controlling reaction conditions as well as pore structure, both systems could be targeted and magnetic properties followed as a function of architectures. In the core-shell structure coercivity increases with decrease in shell thickness while for the alloys, coercivity squareness improve with increase pore diameter. Details on the systematic studies of these materials will be presented in terms of hysteretic measurements, including first order reversal curves (FORC), and FMR data. Magnetic variation as a function of structure and nanowire aspect ratios will be presented and the origins of these behaviors discussed. Advanced Material Research Institute

  20. Core-Shell Particles as Building Blocks for Systems with High Duality Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadegan, Aso; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Material electromagnetic duality symmetry requires a system to have equal electric and magnetic responses. Intrinsically dual materials that meet the duality conditions at the level of the constitutive relations do not exist in many frequency bands. Nevertheless, discrete objects like metallic helices and homogeneous dielectric spheres can be engineered to approximate the dual behavior. We exploit the extra degrees of freedom of a core-shell dielectric sphere in a particle optimization procedure. The duality symmetry of the resulting particle is more than 1 order of magnitude better than previously reported nonmagnetic objects. We use T -matrix-based multiscattering techniques to show that the improvement is transferred onto the duality symmetry of composite objects when the core-shell particle is used as a building block instead of homogeneous spheres. These results are relevant for the fashioning of systems with high duality symmetry, which are required for some technologically important effects.

  1. Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The increased separation efficiency provided by the new technology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological. The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis. Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large amount of samples must be analyzed fast using reliable and solvent-saving apparatus. The literature hereby described shows how the outstanding performances provided by core-shell particles column on a traditional HPLC instruments are comparable to those obtained with a costly UHPLC instrumentation, making this novel column a promising key tool in food analysis. PMID:27143972

  2. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  3. Polyaniline Coated Core-Shell Typed Stimuli-Responsive Microspheres and Their Electrorheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhen Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional core-shell-structured particles have attracted considerable attention recently. This paper reviews the synthetic methods and morphologies of various electro-stimuli responsive polyaniline (PANI-coated core-shell-type microspheres, including PANI-coated Fe3O4, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, poly(methyl methacrylate, poly(glycidyl methacrylate, and polystyrene along with their electrorheological (ER characteristics when prepared by dispersing these particles in an insulating medium. In addition to the various rheological characteristics and their analysis, such as shear stress and yield stress of their ER fluids, this paper summarizes some of the mechanisms proposed for ER fluids to further understand the responses of ER fluids to an externally applied electric field.

  4. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bussone, Genziana [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  5. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoparticle array electrode with enhanced lithium-storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoparticle arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering technique. The Ag nanoparticle arrays on copper substrate are firstly prepared by a displacement reaction at mild temperature of 303K. Then, a NiO layer is deposited onto the surface of the Ag nanoparticles via RF-sputtering technique. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell electrode shows higher capacity and better cycling performance than the planar NiO electrode. The in-situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles can enhance the interfacial strength between the active material and substrate, andimprove the electrical conductivity of the electrode, which may be responsible for the enhanced performance

  6. Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Popov, Maksym [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Chavez, Ferman A. [Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100 nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18 GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

  7. Ab Initio Study of 40Ca with an Importance Truncated No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R; Navratil, P

    2007-05-22

    We propose an importance truncation scheme for the no-core shell model, which enables converged calculations for nuclei well beyond the p-shell. It is based on an a priori measure for the importance of individual basis states constructed by means of many-body perturbation theory. Only the physically relevant states of the no-core model space are considered, which leads to a dramatic reduction of the basis dimension. We analyze the validity and efficiency of this truncation scheme using different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and compare to conventional no-core shell model calculations for {sup 4}He and {sup 16}O. Then, we present the first converged calculations for the ground state of {sup 40}Ca within no-core model spaces including up to 16{h_bar}{Omega}-excitations using realistic low-momentum interactions. The scheme is universal and can be easily applied to other quantum many-body problems.

  8. Ultrathin Interface Regime of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles for Effective Magnetism Tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung Ho; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Hyun; Lim, Yongjun; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2017-02-08

    The magnetic exchange coupling interaction between hard and soft magnetic phases has been important for tailoring nanoscale magnetism, but spin interactions at the core-shell interface have not been well studied. Here, we systematically investigated a new interface phenomenon termed enhanced spin canting (ESC), which is operative when the shell thickness becomes ultrathin, a few atomic layers, and exhibits a large enhancement of magnetic coercivity (H C ). We found that ESC arises not from the typical hard-soft exchange coupling but rather from the large magnetic surface anisotropy (K S ) of the ultrathin interface. Due to this large increase in magnetism, ultrathin core-shell nanoparticles overreach the theoretical limit of magnetic energy product ((BH) max ) and exhibit one of the largest values of specific loss power (SLP), which testifies to their potential capability as an effective mediator of magnetic energy conversion.

  9. Determining the size of nanoparticles in the example of magnetic iron oxide core-shell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzębski, Maciej; Kościński, Mikołaj; Białopiotrowicz, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    The size of nanoparticles is one of the most important factors for their possible applications. Various techniques for the nanoparticle size characterization are available. In this paper selected techniques will be considered base on the prepared core-shell magnetite nanoparticles. Magnetite is one of the most investigated and developed magnetic material. It shows interesting magnetic properties which can be used for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hypothermia and also as a contrast agent. To reduce the toxic effects of Fe3O4, magnetic core was covered by dextran and gelatin. Moreover, the shell was doped by fluorescent dye for confocal microscopy investigation. The main investigation focused on the methods for particles size determination of modified magnetite nanoparticles prepared with different techniques. The size distribution were obtained by nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, fluorescent correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and confocal microscopy were used to compare the results for particle size determination of core-shell systems.

  10. Au@MnO2 core-shell nanomesh electrodes for transparent flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tengfei; Luo, Bin; Giersig, Michael; Akinoglu, Eser Metin; Hao, Long; Wang, Xiangjun; Shi, Lin; Jin, Meihua; Zhi, Linjie

    2014-10-29

    A novel Au@MnO2 supercapacitor is presented. The sophisticated core-shell architecture combining an Au nanomesh core with a MnO2 shell on a flexible polymeric substrate is demonstrated as an electrode for high performance transparent flexible supercapacitors (TFSCs). Due to their unique structure, high areal/gravimetric capacitance and rate capability for TFSCs are achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Preti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The increased separation efficiency provided by the new technology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological. The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis. Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large am...

  12. Strongly luminescent InP/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, S; Haase, M; Kornowski, A; Weller, H

    2001-05-18

    The wide-bandgap semiconducting material, zinc sulfide, has been coated on indium phosphide nanoclusters to a 1-2-Å thickness. The resulting InP-ZnS core-shell particle (as shown in the TEM image; scale 1 cm=5 nm) exhibits bright luminescence at room temperature with quantum efficiencies as high as 23 %. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  13. Lanthanide modification of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Burks, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanide-modified CdSe quantum dots (CdSe(Ln) QDs) have been prepared by heating a solution of Cd(oleate)(2), SeO2, and Ln(bipy)(S2CNEt2)(3) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) to 180-190 degrees C for 10-15 min. The elemental compositions of the resulting CdSe(Ln) cores and CdSe(Ln)/ZnS core/shell QDs show...

  14. Determination of Core-Shell Structures in Pd-Hg Nanoparticles by STEM-EDX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Malacrida, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The structural and elemental configuration of a high-performing Pd-Hg electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide has been studied by means of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Pd-Hg nanoparticles are shown to have a crystalline core-shell structure, with a Pd...... core and a Pd-Hg ordered alloy shell. The ordered shell is responsible for the high oxygen reduction selectivity to H2O2....

  15. Electronic structure and intersubband magnetoabsorption spectra of CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen

    2016-10-01

    The electronic structures of CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires are calculated based on the effective-mass theory, and it is found that the hole states in CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires are strongly mixed, which are very different from the hole states in CdSe or CdS nanowires. In addition, we find the three highest hole states at the Γ point are almost localized in the CdSe core and the energies of the hole states in CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires can be enhanced greatly when the core radius Rc increases and the total radius R is fixed. The degenerate hole states are split by the magnetic field, and the split energies will increase when |Jh | increases from 1/2 to 7/2, while they are almost not influenced by the change of the core radius Rc. The absorption spectra of CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires at the Γ point are also studied in the magnetic field when the temperature T is considered, and we find there are only two peaks will arise if the core radius Rc and the temperature T increase. The intensity of each optical absorption can be considerably enhanced by increasing the core radius Rc when the temperature T is fixed, it is due to the increase of their optical transition matrix element. Meanwhile, the intensity of each optical absorption can be decreased when the temperature T increases and the core radius Rc is fixed, and this is because the Fermi-Dirac distribution function of the corresponding hole states will increase as the increase of the temperature T.

  16. How to Determine the Core-Shell Nature in Bimetallic Catalyst Particles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Westsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized materials have significantly different chemical and physical properties compared to bulk material. However, these properties do not only depend on the elemental composition but also on the structure, shape, size and arrangement. Hence, it is not only of great importance to develop synthesis routes that enable control over the final structure but also characterization strategies that verify the exact nature of the nanoparticles obtained. Here, we consider the verification of contemporary synthesis strategies for the preparation of bimetallic core-shell particles in particular in relation to potential particle structures, such as partial absence of core, alloying and raspberry-like surface. It is discussed what properties must be investigated in order to fully confirm a covering, pin-hole free shell and which characterization techniques can provide such information. Not uncommonly, characterization strategies of core-shell particles rely heavily on visual imaging like transmission electron microscopy. The strengths and weaknesses of various techniques based on scattering, diffraction, transmission and absorption for investigating core-shell particles are discussed and, in particular, cases where structural ambiguities still remain will be highlighted. Our main conclusion is that for particles with extremely thin or mono-layered shells—i.e., structures outside the limitation of most imaging techniques—other strategies, not involving spectroscopy or imaging, are to be employed. We will provide a specific example of Fe-Pt core-shell particles prepared in bicontinuous microemulsion and point out the difficulties that arise in the characterization process of such particles.

  17. Preparation of novel magnetic polyurethane foam nanocomposites by using core-shell nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Nikje,Mir Mohammad Alavi; Moghaddam,Sahebeh Tamaddoni; Noruzian,Maede

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (NP's) converted to the core- shell structres by reacting with by n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAP) incorporated in polyurethane flexible (PUF) foam formulations. Fourier transform spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron images, thermo-mechanical analysis and magnetic properties of the prepared nanocomposites were studied. Obtained data shown that by the increasing of the amine modified magnetic iron oxide NP's u...

  18. Gap state related blue light emitting boron-carbon core shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Thakur, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Boron-carbon core shell structures have been synthesized by solvo-thermal synthesis route. The synthesized material is highly pure. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the reduction of reactants in to boron and carbon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shell is uniform with average thickness of 340 nm. Photo luminescence studies showed that the material is blue light emitting with CIE color coordinates: x=0.16085, y=0.07554.

  19. Magnetoresistance of individual ferromagnetic GaAs/(Ga,Mn)As core-shell nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Butschkow, Christian H.; Reiger, Elisabeth; Geißler, Stefan; Rudolph, Andreas; Soda, Marcello; Schuh, Dieter; Woltersdorf, Georg; Wegscheider, Werner; Weiss, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    We investigate, angle dependent, the magnetoresistance (MR) of individual self-assembled ferromagnetic GaAs/(Ga,Mn)As core-shell nanowires at cryogenic temperatures. The shape of the MR traces and the observed strong anisotropies in transport can be ascribed to the interplay of the negative magnetoresistance effect and a strong uniaxial anisotropy with the magnetic easy direction pointing along the wire axis. The magnetoresistance can be well described by a quantitative analysis based on the ...

  20. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  1. Synthesis of Fe5C2@SiO2 core@shell nanoparticles as a potential candidate for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Delavari H, Hamid; Christiansen, Gunna; Saber, Reza

    2018-05-01

    A new strategy for water-dispersibility of hydrophobic carbide nanostructures was proposed. In this regard, hydrophobic Fe5C2 nanoparticles (NPs) with size ranging 25–40 nm were synthesized and coated with 12–15 nm silica shell for biomedical applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that Fe5C2 NPs with monoclinic structure were successfully prepared. The crystalline structure of Fe5C2 NPs was remained unchanged and saturation magnetization of core remained nearly constant after coating with silica shell. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy identified D-band of amorphous carbon shells which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, Fe5C2@SiO2 core@shell NPs demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity and appropriate heat generating which makes them a promising candidate for magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications.

  2. Multi-photon excited luminescence of magnetic FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K M; Kuhn, B

    2014-07-01

    We present magnetic FePt nanoparticles with a hydrophilic, inert, and biocompatible silico-tungsten oxide shell. The particles can be functionalized, optically detected, and optically manipulated. To show the functionalization the fluorescent dye NOPS was bound to the FePt core-shell nanoparticles with propyl-triethoxy-silane linkers and fluorescence of the labeled particles were observed in ethanol (EtOH). In aqueous dispersion the NOPS fluorescence is quenched making them invisible using 1-photon excitation. However, we observe bright luminescence of labeled and even unlabeled magnetic core-shell nanoparticles with multi-photon excitation. Luminescence can be detected in the near ultraviolet and the full visible spectral range by near infrared multi-photon excitation. For optical manipulation, we were able to drag clusters of particles, and maybe also single particles, by a focused laser beam that acts as optical tweezers by inducing an electric dipole in the insulated metal nanoparticles. In a first application, we show that the luminescence of the core-shell nanoparticles is bright enough for in vivo multi-photon imaging in the mouse neocortex down to cortical layer 5.

  3. The impact of core-shell nanotube structures on fracture in ceramic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xin; Yang, Yingchao; Lou, Jun; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be used to create ceramic nanocomposites with improved fracture toughness. In the present work, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to deposit thin oxide layers on MWCNTs. These core-shell structures were then used to create nanocomposites by using a polymer derived ceramic (PDC) to produce the matrix. Variations in both the initial MWCNT structure and the oxide layers led to substantial differences in fiber-pullout behavior. Single tube pullout tests also showed that the oxide coatings led to stronger bonding with the ceramic matrix. With high defect density MWCNTs, this led to shorter pull-out lengths which is consistent with the conventional understanding of fracture in ceramic matrix composites. However, with low defect density MWCNTs longer pullout lengths were observed with the oxide layers. To interpret the different trends that were observed, we believe that the ALD coatings should not be viewed simply as a means of altering the interfacial properties. Instead, the coated MWCNTs should be viewed as more complex core-shell fibers where both interface and internal properties can be controlled with the ALD layers. - Graphical abstract: Fracture properties of core-shell nanotubes reinforced ceramic nanocomposites.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: yanglin_1028@163.com; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-04-15

    High-quality ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal microemulsion technique. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse ZnSe:Fe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, PSD, XPS, photoluminescence, and Raman spectrum. The results show that the as-synthesized nanocrystals are cubic zinc blende ZnSe structure with high purity and the average particle size of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystal is larger than that of ZnSe:Fe core. The growth of ZnSe shell causes a small red shift in PL spectra, and then the PL quantum yield (QY) increases from 16% before shell growth to the maximum of 37% after increasing shell thickness up to 1.2 monolayers (ML). Moreover, both transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe are shifted toward lower frequency as compared with the reported ones. -- Highlights: • ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell QDs were prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. • ZnSe shell efficiently passivates surface defects by serving as a physical barrier. • The particle size and PL properties can be turned with the growth of ZnSe shell. • The luminescence efficiency and stability of QDs could be improved in this manner.

  5. Laser ablation of Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposite in water for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Raid A.; Abdul-Hamed, Ryam S.

    2017-12-01

    Core-shell gold-copper oxide Au-CuO nanocomposites were synthesized using laser ablation of CuO target in colloidal solution of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The effect of laser fluence on the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of Au-CuO nanocomposites was investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Hall measurement, and UV-vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results confirm the formation of polycrystalline Au-CuO NPs with monoclinic structure. The optical energy gap for CuO was 4 eV and for the Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 3.4-3.7 eV. SEM and TEM investigations revealed that the structure and morphology of Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposites were strongly depending on the laser fluence. A formation of Au-CuO nanospheres and platelets structures was observed. The photoluminescence data showed an emission of broad visible peaks between 407 and 420 nm. The effect of laser fluence on the dark and illuminated I-V characteristics of Au-CuO/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors was investigated and analyzed. The experimental data demonstrated that the photodetector prepared at optimum laser fluence exhibited photosensitivity of 0.6 AW-1 at 800 nm.

  6. Synthesis of hydrophobic zeolite X-SiO{sub 2} core-shell composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Liying [School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Singh, Ranjeet; Li Gang; Xiao Gongkui [Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Webley, Paul A., E-mail: paul.webley@eng.monash.edu.au [Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zhai Yuchun [School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophobic 13X zeolite composites with silicalite and mesoporous silica shells are designed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These core-shell composites are silynated and their hydrophobicity is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of silica layer increases the density of surface hydroxyl groups which makes the improvement of the hydrophobicity possible by further silynation. - Abstract: Core-shell structures of zeolite X coated with silicalite as well as mesoporous (MCM-41) have been synthesized. Furthermore, the surfaces of the silicalite and mesoporous silica shells were silylated using organosilanes. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the properties of zeolite 13X-silicalite and zeolite 13X-mesoporous silica core-shells composite structures are well maintained even after the modification. As expected, the shell thickness increased with increase in synthesis time, however, the micropore volume decreased. Silylation with smaller organosilanes (trimethyl chlorosilane) resulted in decrease in surface area as they diffused through the pores; however, bulkier silane reacted with surface hydroxyl groups and maintained the pore structure. Contact angle measurements revealed that hydrophobicity of zeolite 13X was enhanced by the microporous and mesoporous shell coating and was further improved by silylation.

  7. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  8. Synthesis of SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres via PDCs method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; Wei, Ning; Li, Jing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chu, Peng

    2018-02-01

    A facile and effective polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) emulsification-crosslinking-pyrolysis method was developed to fabricate SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres with polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ) and tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) as precursors. The TBT: PVSZ mass ratios, emulsifier concentrations and the pyrolysis temperature were examined as control parameters to tune the size and morphology of microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the synthesized SiCN@TiO2 microspheres to be comprised of SiCN core coated with TiO2 crystals, with an average size of 0.88 μm when pyrolyzed at 1400 °C. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) ensured that SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres composed of rutile TiO2, β-SiC and Si3N4 crystalline phases, The thermal properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres were the promising candidate of the infrared opacifier in silica aerogels and this technique can be extended to other preceramic polymers.

  9. Coherently Strained Si-SixGe1-x Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, David C; Wen, Feng; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-01-13

    Coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures are expected to possess a positive shell-to-core conduction band offset, allowing for quantum confinement of electrons in the Si core. We report the growth of epitaxial, coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell heterostructures through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the Si core, followed in situ by the epitaxial SixGe1-x shell growth using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra of individual nanowires reveal peaks associated with the Si-Si optical phonon mode in the Si core and the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge vibrational modes of the SixGe1-x shell. The core Si-Si mode displays a clear red-shift compared to unstrained, bare Si nanowires thanks to the lattice mismatch-induced tensile strain, in agreement with calculated values using a finite-element continuum elasticity model combined with lattice dynamic theory. N-type field-effect transistors using Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires as channel are demonstrated.

  10. Core-Shell Processing of Natural Pigment: Upper Palaeolithic Red Ochre from Lovas, Hungary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István E Sajó

    Full Text Available Ochre is the common archaeological term for prehistoric pigments. It is applied to a range of uses, from ritual burials to cave art to medications. While a substantial number of Palaeolithic paint mining pits have been identified across Europe, the link between ochre use and provenance, and their antiquity, has never yet been identified. Here we characterise the mineralogical signature of core-shell processed ochre from the Palaeolithic paint mining pits near Lovas in Hungary, using a novel integration of petrographic and mineralogical techniques. We present the first evidence for core-shell processed, natural pigment that was prepared by prehistoric people from hematitic red ochre. This involved combining the darker red outer shell with the less intensely coloured core to efficiently produce an economical, yet still strongly coloured, paint. We demonstrate the antiquity of the site as having operated between 14-13 kcal BP, during the Epigravettian period. This is based on new radiocarbon dating of bone artefacts associated with the quarry site. The dating results indicate the site to be the oldest known evidence for core-shell pigment processing. We show that the ochre mined at Lovas was exported from the site based on its characteristic signature at other archaeological sites in the region. Our discovery not only provides a methodological framework for future characterisation of ochre pigments, but also provides the earliest known evidence for "value-adding" of products for trade.

  11. Core-Shell Processing of Natural Pigment: Upper Palaeolithic Red Ochre from Lovas, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, István E; Kovács, János; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Jáger, Viktor; Lengyel, György; Viola, Bence; Talamo, Sahra; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Ochre is the common archaeological term for prehistoric pigments. It is applied to a range of uses, from ritual burials to cave art to medications. While a substantial number of Palaeolithic paint mining pits have been identified across Europe, the link between ochre use and provenance, and their antiquity, has never yet been identified. Here we characterise the mineralogical signature of core-shell processed ochre from the Palaeolithic paint mining pits near Lovas in Hungary, using a novel integration of petrographic and mineralogical techniques. We present the first evidence for core-shell processed, natural pigment that was prepared by prehistoric people from hematitic red ochre. This involved combining the darker red outer shell with the less intensely coloured core to efficiently produce an economical, yet still strongly coloured, paint. We demonstrate the antiquity of the site as having operated between 14-13 kcal BP, during the Epigravettian period. This is based on new radiocarbon dating of bone artefacts associated with the quarry site. The dating results indicate the site to be the oldest known evidence for core-shell pigment processing. We show that the ochre mined at Lovas was exported from the site based on its characteristic signature at other archaeological sites in the region. Our discovery not only provides a methodological framework for future characterisation of ochre pigments, but also provides the earliest known evidence for "value-adding" of products for trade.

  12. Optical properties of supported core-shell and alloy silver/gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubenthal, Frank; Traeger, Frank [Universitaet Kassel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For many applications like surface enhanced Raman scattering in which the optical field enhancement associated with surface plasmon excitation is exploited, tunability of this collective resonance over a wide range is required. For this purpose we have prepared core-shell and alloy nanoparticles consisting of Ag and Au. The core-shell nanoparticles were made by subsequent deposition of Ag and Au atoms and vice versa on dielectric substrates followed by diffusion and nucleation. One of the most interesting among the numerous results is that the plasmon frequency can be tuned from 2.8 eV (442 nm) to 2.1 eV (590 nm) depending on the Au shell thickness. Subsequent annealing of the core-shell nanoparticles causes a shift of the resonance frequency to 2.6 eV. Theoretical modelling allows us to attribute this observation to the formation of alloy nanoparticles. Finally, we have measured the dephasing time T{sub 2} of the alloy nanoparticles by means of spectral hole burning. T{sub 2} amounts to 8.1{+-}1.6 fs, in good agreement with the dephasing time T{sub 2}=8.9 fs that is included in the dielectric function of the bulk.

  13. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Jing; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. → The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. → The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 o C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  14. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jing [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jian-Feng, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  15. Two-way actuation behavior of shape memory polymer/elastomer core/shell composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho; Ryu, Hee Wook

    2012-01-01

    Semi-crystalline shape memory polymers (SMPs) show net two-way shape memory (2W-SM) behavior under constant stresses by the recoverable creep strain upon heating and stress-induced crystallization under the application of creep stress upon cooling. The applied constant stress is the key factor in this 2W-SM behavior. A core/shell structure is manufactured for the purpose of imparting a constant stress upon SMPs. An SMP in film or fiber form is dipped into a solution of an elastomer, photoinitiator, and curing agent and then dried out. After this dip coating process is repeatedly carried out, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite is deformed into a temporary shape after being heated up above the transition temperature of the SMP. Under constant strain conditions, the composite is cooled down, after which the shell elastomer is cured using ultraviolet light. Then, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite extends and contracts upon cooling and heating, respectively, without any external load. This cyclic deformation behavior is characterized, demonstrating that the current method offers a simple macroscopic processing technique to manufacture 2W-SM polymer composites. (paper)

  16. Three-Dimensional NiCo2O4@MnMoO4 Core-Shell Nanoarrays for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuliang; Wang, Weicheng; Yang, Jie; Tang, Haichao; Ye, Zhizhen; Zeng, Yujia; Lu, Jianguo

    2017-10-10

    Design of new materials with sophisticated nanostructure has been proven to be an efficient strategy to improve their properties in many applications. Herein, we demonstrate the successful combination of high electron conductive materials of NiCo 2 O 4 with high capacitance materials of MnMoO 4 by forming a core-shell nanostructure. The NiCo 2 O 4 @MnMoO 4 core-shell nanoarrays (CSNAs) electrode possesses high capacitance of 1169 F g -1 (4.24 F cm -2 ) at a current density of 2.5 mA cm -2 , obviously larger than the pristine NiCo 2 O 4 electrode. The asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs), assembled with NiCo 2 O 4 @MnMoO 4 CSNAs as binder-free cathode and active carbon (AC) as anode, exhibit high energy density of 15 Wh kg -1 and high power density of 6734 W kg -1 . Cycle performance of NiCo 2 O 4 @MnMoO 4 CSNAs//AC ASCs, conducted at current density of 20 mA cm -2 , remain 96.45% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating its excellent long-term cycle stability. Kinetically decoupled analysis reveals that the capacitive capacitance is dominant in the total capacitance of NiCo 2 O 4 @MnMoO 4 CSNAs electrode, which may be the reason for ultra long cycle stability of ASCs. Our assembled button ASC can easily light up a red LED for 30 min and a green LED for 10 min after being charged for 30 s. The remarkable electrochemical performance of NiCo 2 O 4 @MnMoO 4 CSNAs//AC ASCs is attributed to its enhanced surface area, abundant electroactive sites, facile electrolyte infiltration into the 3D NiCo 2 O 4 @MnMnO 4 nanoarrays and fast electron and ion transport path.

  17. Facile synthesis of silver immobilized-poly(methyl methacrylate)/polyethyleneimine core-shell particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenjob, Somkieath [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Tharawut, Teeralak [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Sunintaboon, Panya, E-mail: panya.sun@mahidol.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)

    2012-10-01

    A facile route to synthesize silver-embedded-poly(methyl methacrylate)/polyethyleneimine (PMMA/PEI-Ag) core-shell particle composites was illustrated in this present work. PMMA/PEI core-shell particle templates were first prepared by a surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. PEI on the templates' surface was further used to complex and reduce Ag{sup +} ions (from silver nitrate solution) to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at ambient temperature, resulting in the PMMA/PEI-Ag particle composites. The formation of AgNPs was affected by the pHs of the reaction medium. The pH of reaction medium at 6.5 was optimal for the formation of PMMA/PEI-Ag with good colloidal stability, which was confirmed by size and size distribution, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the amount of AgNO{sub 3} solution (4.17-12.50 g) was found to affect the formation of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the AgNPs were incorporated in the PMMA/PEI core-shell matrix, and had 6-10 nm in diameter. AgNPs immobilized on PMMA/PEI core-shell particles were also investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis mode extended from scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS). Furthermore, the presence of AgNPs was found to influence the thermal degradation behavior of PMMA/PEI particle composites as observed through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 2-step synthesis of Ag immobilized-PMMA/PEI particle composites was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMMA/PEI core-shell templates were first formed and PEI assisted AgNP formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of PMMA/PEI-Ag was affected by pH of medium and amount of AgNO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMMA/PEI-Ag can be confirmed by color change, UV-vis, TEM, SEM with EDS, and X-ray. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of AgNPs on thermal degradation of PMMA/PEI-Ag can be observed through TGA.

  18. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  19. Shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles and their corresponding electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    The shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully achieved through the emulsion phase generated during the phase transfer from organic to aqueous medium. Contrary to conventional epitaxial growth for obtaining

  20. Synthesis of Ni-SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell micromembrane reactors and their reaction/diffusion performance

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.; Rajendran, Arvind; Lai, Zhiping

    2010-01-01

    with catalytically active nickel, showed no reactant selectivity between hexene isomers, but the core-shell particles showed high selectivities up to 300 for a 1-hexene conversion of 90%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Sharma, Mamta [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  2. Preparation, process optimization and characterization of core-shell polyurethane/chitosan nanofibers as a potential platform for bioactive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleknia, Laleh; Dilamian, Mandana; Pilehrood, Mohammad Kazemi; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Hekmati, Amir Houshang

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, polyurethane (PU), chitosan (Cs)/polyethylene oxide (PEO), and core-shell PU/Cs nanofibers were produced at the optimal processing conditions using electrospinning technique. Several methods including SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA and image analysis were utilized to characterize these nanofibrous structures. SEM images exhibited that the core-shell PU/Cs nanofibers were spun without any structural imperfections at the optimized processing conditions. TEM image confirmed the PU/Cs core-shell nanofibers were formed apparently. It that seems the inclusion of Cs/PEO to the shell, did not induce the significant variations in the crystallinity in the core-shell nanofibers. DSC analysis showed that the inclusion of Cs/PEO led to the glass temperature of the composition increased significantly compared to those of neat PU nanofibers. The thermal degradation of core-shell PU/Cs was similar to PU nanofibers degradation due to the higher PU concentration compared to other components. It was hypothesized that the core-shell PU/Cs nanofibers can be used as a potential platform for the bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering. Further biological tests should be conducted to evaluate this platform as a three dimensional scaffold with the capabilities of releasing the bioactive molecules in a sustained manner.

  3. 3D bioprinting mesenchymal stem cell-laden construct with core-shell nanospheres for cartilage tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Boualam, Benchaa; Masood, Fahed; Flynn, Erin; Rao, Raj D.; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2018-05-01

    Cartilage tissue is prone to degradation and has little capacity for self-healing due to its avascularity. Tissue engineering, which provides artificial scaffolds to repair injured tissues, is a novel and promising strategy for cartilage repair. 3D bioprinting offers even greater potential for repairing degenerative tissue by simultaneously integrating living cells, biomaterials, and biological cues to provide a customized scaffold. With regard to cell selection, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great capacity for differentiating into a variety of cell types, including chondrocytes, and could therefore be utilized as a cartilage cell source in 3D bioprinting. In the present study, we utilize a tabletop stereolithography-based 3D bioprinter for a novel cell-laden cartilage tissue construct fabrication. Printable resin is composed of 10% gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) base, various concentrations of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), biocompatible photoinitiator, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) embedded nanospheres fabricated via a core-shell electrospraying technique. We find that the addition of PEGDA into GelMA hydrogel greatly improves the printing resolution. Compressive testing shows that modulus of the bioprinted scaffolds proportionally increases with the concentrations of PEGDA, while swelling ratio decreases with the increase of PEGDA concentration. Confocal microscopy images illustrate that the cells and nanospheres are evenly distributed throughout the entire bioprinted construct. Cells grown on 5%/10% (PEGDA/GelMA) hydrogel present the highest cell viability and proliferation rate. The TGF-β1 embedded in nanospheres can keep a sustained release up to 21 d and improve chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated MSCs. The cell-laden bioprinted cartilage constructs with TGF-β1-containing nanospheres is a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration.

  4. Uniform Au@Pt core-shell nanodendrites supported on molybdenum disulfide nanosheets for the methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shao; Zhang, Chi; Yuwen, Lihui; Liu, Xingfen; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we presented a facile seeded growth method to prepare high-quality three-dimensional (3D) Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrite-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (Au@Pt/MoS2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM exhibited that Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures were dispersed onto the surface of MoS2 nanosheets. More importantly, the thickness of the Pt shell of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrites on the surface of the MoS2 nanosheets could be easily tuned via simply changing the synthesis parameters, such as the concentration of H2PtCl6, reaction time and temperature, which greatly influence the catalytic ability of Au@Pt/MoS2 nanohybrids. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) demonstrated that the as-prepared Au@Pt/MoS2 nanohybrids possessed much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than Pt/MoS2 or commercial Pt/C catalyst. The peak current mass density of the selected Au@Pt/MoS2 was 6.24 A mg-1, which was 3389 and 20.3 times those of Pt/C (0.00184 A mg-1) and Pt/MoS2 (0.307 A mg-1), respectively. The presented method may be a facile approach for the synthesis of MoS2-supported bimetallic nanocomposites, which is significant for the development of high performance MoS2-based sensors and catalysts.Herein, we presented a facile seeded growth method to prepare high-quality three-dimensional (3D) Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrite-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (Au@Pt/MoS2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM exhibited that Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures were dispersed onto the surface of MoS2 nanosheets. More importantly, the thickness of the Pt shell of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrites on the surface of the MoS2 nanosheets could be easily tuned via simply changing the synthesis parameters, such as the concentration of H2PtCl6, reaction time and temperature, which greatly influence the catalytic ability of Au@Pt/MoS2 nanohybrids. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV

  5. Co3O4@CoS Core-Shell Nanosheets on Carbon Cloth for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Ning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a two-step electrodeposition strategy is developed for the synthesis of core-shell Co3O4@CoS nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (CC for supercapacitor applications. Porous Co3O4 nanosheet arrays are first directly grown on CC by electrodeposition, followed by the coating of a thin layer of CoS on the surface of Co3O4 nanosheets via the secondary electrodeposition. The morphology control of the ternary composites can be easily achieved by altering the number of cyclic voltammetry (CV cycles of CoS deposition. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results demonstrate that the Co3O4@CoS/CC with 4 CV cycles of CoS deposition possesses the largest specific capacitance 887.5 F·g−1 at a scan rate of 10 mV·s−1 (764.2 F·g−1 at a current density of 1.0 A·g−1, and excellent cycling stability (78.1% capacitance retention at high current density of 5.0 A·g−1 after 5000 cycles. The porous nanostructures on CC not only provide large accessible surface area for fast ions diffusion, electron transport and efficient utilization of active CoS and Co3O4, but also reduce the internal resistance of electrodes, which leads to superior electrochemical performance of Co3O4@CoS/CC composite at 4 cycles of CoS deposition.

  6. Oxidative degradation of the antibiotic oxytetracycline by Cu@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Luan; Kim, Do-Gun; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2018-08-01

    A core-shell nanostructure composed of zero-valent Cu (core) and Fe 3 O 4 (shell) (Cu@Fe 3 O 4 ) was prepared by a simple reduction method and was evaluated for the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibiotic. The Cu core and the Fe 3 O 4 shell were verified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. The optimal molar ratio of [Cu]/[Fe] (1/1) in Cu@Fe 3 O 4 created an outstanding synergic effect, leading to >99% OTC degradation as well as H 2 O 2 decomposition within 10min at the reaction conditions of 1g/L Cu@Fe 3 O 4 , 20mg/L OTC, 20mM H 2 O 2 , and pH3.0 (and even at pH9.0). The OTC degradation rate by Cu@Fe 3 O 4 was higher than obtained using single nanoparticle of Cu or Fe 3 O 4 . The results of the study using radical scavengers showed that OH is the major reactive oxygen species contributing to the OTC degradation. Finally, good stability, reusability, and magnetic separation were obtained with approximately 97% OTC degradation and no notable change in XRD patterns after the Cu@Fe 3 O 4 catalyst was reused five times. These results demonstrate that Cu@Fe 3 O 4 is a novel prospective candidate for the pharmaceutical and personal care products degradation in the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-10

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z 0.5 -T 0.5 )) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  8. Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon-silicon core-shell structures for high-power supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, S A Safiabadi; Soleimani-Amiri, S; Sanaee, Z; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2017-02-10

    We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C 2 H 2 and N 2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures. Although as-deposited a-C:N films have a porous surface, their porosity can be significantly improved through a modification process consisting of Ni-assisted annealing and etching steps. The electrochemical analyses demonstrated the superior performance of the modified a-C:N as a supercapacitor active material, where specific capacitance densities as high as 42 F/g and 8.5 mF/cm 2 (45 F/cm 3 ) on silicon microrod arrays were achieved. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode showed less than 6% degradation of capacitance over 5000 cycles of a galvanostatic charge-discharge test. It also exhibited a relatively high energy density of 2.3 × 10 3  Wh/m 3 (8.3 × 10 6  J/m 3 ) and ultra-high power density of 2.6 × 10 8  W/m 3 which is among the highest reported values.

  9. Co-encapsulation of imiquimod and copaiba oil in novel nanostructured systems: promising formulations against skin carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venturini, Cristina Garcia; Bruinsmann, F. A.; Contri, R. V.; Fonseca, F. N.; Frank, L. A.; D´Amore, C. M.; Raffin, R. P.; Buffon, A.; Pohlmann, A. R.; Guterres, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, 15 November (2015), s. 36-43 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14079 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : imiquimod * copaiba oil * nanostructured copaiba capsules Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.773, year: 2015

  10. Enzyme sensitive smart inulin-dehydropeptide conjugate self-assembles into nanostructures useful for targeted delivery of ornidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Kriti; Garg, Charu; Priyam, Ayushi; Gupta, Alka; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly of biodegradable amphiphilic polymers allows rational design of biocompatible nanomaterials for drug delivery. Use of substituted polysaccharides for such applications offers the ease of design and synthesis, and provides higher biofunctionality and biocompatibility to nanomaterials. The present work focuses on the synthesis, characterization and potential biomedical applications of self-assembled polysaccharide-based materials. We demonstrated that the synthesized amphiphilic inulin self-assembled in aqueous medium into nanostructures with average size in the range of 146-486nm and encapsulated hydrophobic therapeutic molecule, ornidazole. Hydrophophic dehydropeptide was conjugated with inulin via a biocompatible ester linkage. Dehydrophenylalanine, an unusual amino acid, was incorporated in the peptide to make it stable at a broader range of pH as well as against proteases. The resulting core-shell type of nanostructures could encapsulate ornidazole in the hydrophobic core and released it in a controlled fashion. By taking the advantage of inulin, which gets degraded in the colon by colonic bacteria, the effect of enzyme, inulinase, present in the microflora of the large intestine, on inulin-peptide degradation followed by drug release has been studied. Altogether, small peptide conjugated to inulin offers novel scaffold for the future design of nanostructures with potential applications in the field of targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of fly ash based core-shell composites for use as functional pigment in paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash is a combustion residue, mainly composed of silica, alumina and iron oxides. It is produced by the power industries in very large amounts and usually disposed in landfills, which have represented an environmental problem in recent years1. The need to generate a market for fly ash consumption is the main reason why alternative applications have been studied. It has been applied as an additive in construction materials like cement and pavements2. The present work describes the synthesis of Flyash-Titania core-shell particles by precipitation technique using Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) which can be used for variety of applications such as NIR reflecting materials for cool coatings, Photocatalysis etc. In this work, Fly ash is used in core and Nano -TiO2 is coated as shell on it. Surfactants are used to improve the adhesion of Nano Titania shell on fly ash core. Effect on adhesion of TiO2 on Fly ash is studied by using different types of surfactant. The preparation of core shells was carried out in absence of surfactant as well as using anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The percentage of surfactant was varied to study the effect of amount of surfactant on the uniformity and size of particles in the shell using Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra. The morphology of core shell structures was studied using SEM technique. Use of anionic surfactant results in more uniform coating with reduced particle size of the shell material. The composite particles prepared by using anionic surfactant are having good pigment properties and also shows good reflectance in Near Infrared region and hence can be used as a pigment in cool coatings.

  12. Core-shell titanium dioxide-titanium nitride nanotube arrays with near-infrared plasmon resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsinezhad, Samira; Shanavas, Thariq; Mahdi, Najia; Askar, Abdelrahman M.; Kar, Piyush; Sharma, Himani; Shankar, Karthik

    2018-04-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic with high electrical conductivity which in nanoparticle form, exhibits localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The ceramic nature of TiN coupled with its dielectric loss factor being comparable to that of gold, render it attractive for CMOS polarizers, refractory plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and a whole host of sensing applications. We report core-shell TiO2-TiN nanotube arrays exhibiting LSPR peaks in the range 775-830 nm achieved by a simple, solution-based, low cost, large area-compatible fabrication route that does not involve laser-writing or lithography. Self-organized, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown by electrochemical anodization of Ti thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates and then conformally coated with a thin layer of TiN using atomic layer deposition. The effects of varying the TiN layer thickness and thermal annealing on the LSPR profiles were also investigated. Modeling the TiO2-TiN core-shell nanotube structure using two different approaches, one employing effective medium approximations coupled with Fresnel coefficients, resulted in calculated optical spectra that closely matched the experimentally measured spectra. Modeling provided the insight that the observed near-infrared resonance was not collective in nature, and was mainly attributable to the longitudinal resonance of annular nanotube-like TiN particles redshifted due to the presence of the higher permittivity TiO2 matrix. The resulting TiO2-TiN core-shell nanotube structures also function as visible light responsive photocatalysts, as evidenced by their photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance under light emitting diode illumination using 400, 430 and 500 nm photons.

  13. Influence of Shell Thickness on the Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Core-Shell Particle Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Frances; Moreno-Atanasio, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    We present a Discrete Element study of the behavior of magnetic core-shell particles in which the properties of the core and the shell are explicitly defined. Particle cores were considered to be made of pure iron and thus possessed ferromagnetic properties, while particle shells were considered to be made of silica. Core sizes ranged between 0.5 and 4.0 μm with the actual particle size of the core-shell particles in the range between 0.6 and 21 μm. The magnetic cores were considered to have a magnetization of one tenth of the saturation magnetization of iron. This study aimed to understand how the thickness of the shell hinders the formation of particle chains. Chain formation was studied with different shell thicknesses and particle sizes in the presence and absence of an electrical double layer force in order to investigate the effect of surface charge density on the magnetic core-shell particle interactions. For core sizes of 0.5 and 4.0 μm the relative shell thicknesses needed to hinder the aggregation process were approximately 0.4 and 0.6 respectively, indicating that larger core sizes are detrimental to be used in applications in which no flocculation is needed. In addition, the presence of an electrical double layer, for values of surface charge density of less than 20 mC/m 2 , could stop the contact between particles without hindering their vertical alignment. Only when the shell thickness was considerably larger, was the electrical double layer able to contribute to the full disruption of the magnetic flocculation process.

  14. Hierarchical Mesoporous Organosilica-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles Capable of Controlled Fungicide Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Leilei; Liang, Yucang; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Anwander, Reiner

    2018-05-17

    A new class of hierarchically structured mesoporous silica core-shell nanoparticles (HSMSCSNs) with a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) core and a mesoporous silica (MS) shell is reported. The applied one-pot, two-step strategy allows rational control over the core/shell chemical composition, topology, and pore/particle size, simply by adjusting the reaction conditions in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agent under basic conditions. The spherical, ethylene- or methylene-bridged PMO cores feature hexagonal (p6mm) or cage-like cubic symmetry (Pm3‾ n) depending on the organosilica precursor. The hexagonal MS shell was obtained by n-hexane-induced controlled hydrolysis of TEOS followed by directional co-assembly/condensation of silicate/CTAB composites at the PMO cores. The HSMSCSNs feature a hierarchical pore structure with pore diameters of about 2.7 and 5.6 nm in the core and shell domains, respectively. The core sizes and shell thicknesses are adjustable in the ranges of 90-275 and 15-50 nm, respectively, and the surface areas (max. 1300 m 2  g -1 ) and pore volumes (max. 1.83 cm 3  g -1 ) are among the highest reported for core-shell nanoparticles. The adsorption and controlled release of the fungicide propiconazole by the HSMSCSNs showed a three-stage release profile. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A study of the compartmentalization of core-shell nanoparticles through fluorescence energy transfer of dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Jorge L; Jiang Hui; Duran, Randolph S, E-mail: rduran@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, PO Box 117200, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-02-05

    Hybrid organic-inorganic templates and core-shell nanoparticles were used as models to study the communication between fluorescent probes placed inside nanoparticles. The hybrid templates were prepared on the basis of a mixed-surfactant system using octadecyltrimethoxysilane as a reactive amphiphile. The core-shell particles were obtained after coating of the templates with a siloxane shell, using the silanol groups on their surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging showed that the templates were made of a flexible material that flattened significantly after deposition on a substrate and evaporation of the solvent. Pyrene was sequestered by the templates in an aqueous suspension, which placed it in a nonpolar environment, as observed by its fluorescence response. Subsequently, double-doped templates were prepared by sequestering coumarin 153 (C153), with pyrene-doped hybrid templates. The communication between these probes was studied on the basis of their spectral properties, by means of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Energy transfer between the dyes with efficiencies up to 55% was observed. Similarly, double-doped core-shell particles prepared on the basis of the hybrid templates were doped with this pair of dyes. Despite the presence of the shell, which was intended to increment the average separation between the probes, interaction of the dyes was observed, although with lower efficiencies. A similar study was performed with C153 and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-p-(dimethylamino)styryl-4H-pyran (DCM). FRET studies indicated that the probes were placed in proximity to each other. We confirmed these observations by means of fluorescence lifetime measurements, which showed a decrease in the lifetime of the donor upon addition of the acceptor.

  16. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  17. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  18. Exchange bias and asymmetric hysteresis loops from a microscopic model of core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Oscar; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, Amilcar

    2007-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of hysteresis loops of a model of a magnetic nanoparticle with a ferromagnetic core and an antiferromagnetic shell with varying values of the core/shell interface exchange coupling which aim to clarify the microscopic origin of exchange bias observed experimentally. We have found loop shifts in the field direction as well as displacements along the magnetization axis that increase in magnitude when increasing the interfacial exchange coupling. Overlap functions computed from the spin configurations along the loops have been obtained to explain the origin and magnitude of these features microscopically

  19. Electrospun core/shell nanofibers: a promising system for cartilage and tissue engineering?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amler, Evžen; Míčková, Andrea; Buzgo, Matej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), s. 509-512 ISSN 1743-5889 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 330611; GA UK(CZ) 384311; GA UK(CZ) 626012; GA UK(CZ) 648112; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10145; GA MZd(CZ) NT12156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : core-shell nanofibers * electrospinning * drug delivery Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 5.824, year: 2013

  20. Synthesis and characterization of multifunctional silica core-shell nanocomposites with magnetic and fluorescent functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhiya; Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Dumas, Randy K.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Liu Kai; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional core-shell nanocomposites with a magnetic core and a silica shell doped with lanthanide chelate have been prepared by a simple method. First, citric acid-modified magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation method. Then the magnetite nanoparticles were coated with silica shells doped with terbium (Tb 3+ ) complex by a modified Stoeber method based on hydrolyzing and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and a silane precursor. These multifunctional nanocomposites are potentially useful in a variety of biological areas such as bio-imaging, bio-labeling and bioassays because they can be simultaneously manipulated with an external magnetic field and exhibit unique phosphorescence properties.

  1. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S.; Turchini, S.; Bertoni, G.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.; D’Addato, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p_O_2 ≈ 10"−"7 mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO_x and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L_2_,_3 absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  2. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, M.C., E-mail: mariachiara.spadaro@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Turchini, S. [CNR-ISM, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bertoni, G. [CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy); D’Addato, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p{sub O2} ≈ 10{sup −7} mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO{sub x} and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L{sub 2,3} absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  3. Radiative Properties of Carriers in Cdse-Cds Core-Shell Heterostructured Nanocrystals of Various Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Dong, L.; Popov, S.; Friberg, A. T.

    2013-07-01

    We report a model on core-shell heterostructured nanocrystals with CdSe as the core and CdS as the shell. The model is based on one-band Schrödinger equation. Three different geometries, nanodot, nanorod, and nanobone, are implemented. The carrier localization regimes with these structures are simulated, compared, and analyzed. Based on the electron and hole wave functions, the carrier overlap integral that has a great impact on stimulated emission is further investigated numerically by a novel approach. Furthermore, the relation between the nanocrystal size and electron-hole recombination energy is also examined.

  4. Surface-engineered core-shell nano-size ferrites and their antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraliya, Jagdish D.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of biological study on core-shell structured MFe 2 O 4 (where M = Co, Mn, Ni) nanoparticles and influence of silica- DEG dual coating on their antimicrobial activity. Spherical MFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared via a Co-precipitation method. The microstructures and morphologies of these nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction and FTIR. The antimicrobial activity study carried out in nutrient agar medium with addition of antimicrobial synthesis compound which is tested for its activity against different types of bacteria

  5. Symplectic no-core shell-model approach to intermediate-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, G. K.; Ferriss, M. C.; Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Draayer, J. P.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Bahri, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a microscopic description of nuclei in the intermediate-mass region, including the proximity to the proton drip line, based on a no-core shell model with a schematic many-nucleon long-range interaction with no parameter adjustments. The outcome confirms the essential role played by the symplectic symmetry to inform the interaction and the winnowing of shell-model spaces. We show that it is imperative that model spaces be expanded well beyond the current limits up through 15 major shells to accommodate particle excitations, which appear critical to highly deformed spatial structures and the convergence of associated observables.

  6. Boron-based nanostructures: Synthesis, functionalization, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedasso, Eyrusalam Kifyalew

    Boron-based nanostructures have not been explored in detail; however, these structures have the potential to revolutionize many fields including electronics and biomedicine. The research discussed in this dissertation focuses on synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of boron-based zero-dimensional nanostructures (core/shell and nanoparticles) and one-dimensional nanostructures (nanorods). The first project investigates the synthesis and functionalization of boron-based core/shell nanoparticles. Two boron-containing core/shell nanoparticles, namely boron/iron oxide and boron/silica, were synthesized. Initially, boron nanoparticles with a diameter between 10-100 nm were prepared by decomposition of nido-decaborane (B10H14) followed by formation of a core/shell structure. The core/shell structures were prepared using the appropriate precursor, iron source and silica source, for the shell in the presence of boron nanoparticles. The formation of core/shell nanostructures was confirmed using high resolution TEM. Then, the core/shell nanoparticles underwent a surface modification. Boron/iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles were functionalized with oleic acid, citric acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, folic acid, and dopamine, and boron/silica core/shell nanoparticles were modified with 3-(amino propyl) triethoxy silane, 3-(2-aminoethyleamino)propyltrimethoxysilane), citric acid, folic acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, and O-(2-Carboxyethyl)polyethylene glycol. A UV-Vis and ATR-FTIR analysis established the success of surface modification. The cytotoxicity of water-soluble core/shell nanoparticles was studied in triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the result showed the compounds are not toxic. The second project highlights optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of boron nanorods. This synthesis, done via reduction of boron oxide with molten lithium, was studied to produce boron nanorods without any

  7. The sustained-release behavior and in vitro and in vivo transfection of pEGFP-loaded core-shell-structured chitosan-based composite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yun Wang,1 Fu-xing Lin,2 Yu Zhao,1 Mo-zhen Wang,2 Xue-wu Ge,2 Zheng-xing Gong,1 Dan-dan Bao,1 Yu-fang Gu1 1Department of Plastic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 2CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Novel submicron core-shell-structured chitosan-based composite particles ­encapsulated with enhanced green fluorescent protein plasmids (pEGFP were prepared by complex coacervation method. The core was pEGFP-loaded thiolated N-alkylated chitosan (TACS and the shell was pH- and temperature-responsive hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC. pEGFP-loaded TACS-HBC composite particles were spherical, and had a mean diameter of approximately 120 nm, as measured by transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer. pEGFP showed sustained release in vitro for >15 days. Furthermore, in vitro transfection in human embryonic kidney 293T and human cervix epithelial cells, and in vivo transfection in mice skeletal muscle of loaded pEGFP, were investigated. Results showed that the expression of loaded pEGFP, both in vitro and in vivo, was slow but could be sustained over a long period. pEGFP expression in mice skeletal muscle was sustained for >60 days. This work indicates that these submicron core-shell-structured chitosan-based composite particles could potentially be used as a gene vector for in vivo controlled gene transfection. Keywords: gene therapy, gene transfection, hydroxybutyl chitosan, thiolated N-alkylated chitosan, pEGFP, complex coacervation

  8. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  9. Application of Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Glow Microdischarge Generated in Contact with a Flowing Liquid Solution for Synthesis of Au-Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimitrowicz, Anna; Jamroz, Piotr; Nyk, Marcin; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-06

    A direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) generated between an Ar nozzle microjet and a flowing liquid was applied to produce Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AgCSNPs) in a continuous flow system. Firstly, operating dc-μAPGD with the flowing solution of the Au(III) ions as the cathode, the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) core was produced. Next, to produce the core-shell nanostructures, the collected AuNPs solution was immediately mixed with an AgNO₃ solution and passed through the system with the reversed polarity to fabricate the Ag nanoshell on the AuNPs core. The formation of Au@AgCSNPs was confirmed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Three localized surface plasmon resonance absorption bands with wavelengths centered at 372, 546, and 675 nm were observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of Au@AgCSNPs, confirming the reduction of both the Au(III) and Ag(I) ions. The right configuration of metals in Au@AgCSNPs was evidenced by TEM. The Au core diameter was 10.2 ± 2.0 nm, while the thickness of the Ag nanoshell was 5.8 ± 1.8 nm. The elemental composition of the bimetallic nanoparticles was also confirmed by EDS. It is possible to obtain 90 mL of a solution containing Au@AgCSNPs per hour using the applied microdischarge system.

  10. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis of core/shell ZnO/ZnSe nanowires using novel low cost two-steps electrochemical deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoul, M., E-mail: ghoulmed2009@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Braiek, Z. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Brayek, A. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR – 7086, 75205 Paris (France); Ben Assaker, I.; Khalifa, N.; Ben Naceur, J.; Souissi, A.; Lamouchi, A. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Ammar, S. [ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR – 7086, 75205 Paris (France); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-10-25

    This work highlights the original use of a two-step electrochemical deposition protocol to grow ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanowires on a Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO)/glass substrate. The good alignment of the nanowires is verified by the scanning electron microscopy characterization technique in addition to the surface roughness after the ZnSe electrodeposition on the ZnO nanowires lateral facets. The X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra allow estimating that ZnO has grown along the wurtzite (W) structure c-axis. The presence of the type-II interfacial transition between the valence band of ZnSe and the conduction band of ZnO was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. It was proved that the absorbed energy of the developed nanostructures is extended to the near infrared which is well recommended for the photovoltaic applications. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication of the ZnO–ZnSe core–shell nanowires through a solution based all-electrochemical approach, and their application as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells. - Highlights: • Deposition of ZnO/ZnSe nanowires by two steps electrodeposition method. • The morphology studies show the formation of ZnO/ZnSe core/Shell nanowires. • XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirm the presence of the wurtzite ZnO and blende ZnSe junction. • Optical properties demonstrate the evidence type-II interfacial transition between the two semiconductors.

  12. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.

  13. Preparation and Properties of PTFE-PMMA Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antonioli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of polytetrafluoroethylene-poly(methyl methacrylate (PTFE-PMMA core-shell particles was described, featuring controlled size and narrow size distribution over a wide compositional range, through a seeded emulsion polymerization starting from a PTFE seed of 26 nanometers. Over the entire MMA/PTFE range, the particle size increases as the MMA/PTFE ratio increases. A very precise control over the particle size can be exerted by properly adjusting the ratio between the monomer and the PTFE seed. Particles in the 80–240 nm range can be prepared with uniformity indexes suited to build 2D and 3D colloidal crystals. These core-shell particles were employed to prepare nanocomposites with different compositions, through an annealing procedure at a temperature higher than the glass transition temperature of the shell forming polymer. A perfect dispersion of the PTFE particles within the PMMA matrix was obtained and optically transparent nanocomposites were prepared containing a very high PTFE amount.

  14. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  15. Synthesis of Pt-Sn core-shell nanoparticles deposited on SBA-15 modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Contreras, L.; Alonso-Lemus, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia (Mexico); Botte, G. G. [Ohio University, Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Verde-Gomez, Y., E-mail: ysmaelverde@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    A novel one-step synthesis method to prepare Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica with high surface area (SBA-15, 700 m{sup 2}/g) and narrow pore size distribution (around 9.5 nm) was developed. Tin incorporation plays an important dual role, to create active sites into the silica walls that serve as particles anchors center, and to grow Pt-Sn core-shell nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of the Pt-Sn core-shell type nanoparticles ( Almost-Equal-To 1-10 nm). The metal loading was 2.2 and 2.3 wt% for Pt and Sn, respectively. Electron microscopy results show that the metal nanoparticles were deposited not only on the matrix, but also inside of it. Structural, textural, and morphological features of the SBA-15 were slightly affected after the nanoparticles deposition, maintaining its high surface area. The results obtained suggest that Pt-Sn on SBA-15 could be attractive material for several catalytic applications, due to the narrow particle size distribution achieved (from 1 to 10 nm) the high dispersion on the support, as well as the Pt-Sn alloy developed.Graphical Abstract.

  16. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha, E-mail: sshin@utk.edu [The University of Tennessee, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Room temperature (T{sub room}, 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T{sub room}. The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T{sub room}, compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-shell NW itself. This study deepens understanding in the underlying joining mechanisms and thus nanojoint with desirable thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties could be potentially achieved.

  17. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninkhof, J.J.; Dillen, T. van; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; Blaaderen, A. van; Vredenberg, A.M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO 2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks

  18. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninkhof, J. J.; van Dillen, T.; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; van Blaaderen, A.; Vredenberg, A. M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks.

  19. Fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using a coaxial electrospray process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    Full Text Available This study reports on novel fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using coaxial electrospraying. A PVC-coated concentric spinneret was developed to conduct the electrospray process. A series of analyses were undertaken to characterize the resultant particles in terms of their morphology, the physical form of their components, and their functional performance. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed that the microparticles had spherical morphologies with clear core-shell structure visible. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction verified that the quercetin active ingredient in the core and sucralose and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS excipients in the shell existed in the amorphous state. This is believed to be a result of second-order interactions between the components; these could be observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro dissolution and permeation studies showed that the microparticles rapidly released the incorporated quercetin within one minute, and had permeation rates across the sublingual mucosa around 10 times faster than raw quercetin.

  20. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha

    2017-01-01

    Room temperature (T room , 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T room . The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T room , compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-shell NW itself. This study deepens understanding in the underlying joining mechanisms and thus nanojoint with desirable thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties could be potentially achieved.

  1. Estimation of sensing characteristics for refractory nitrides based gain assisted core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Manmohan Singh; Pathania, Pankaj

    2018-04-01

    Refractory transition metal nitrides such as zirconium nitride (ZrN), hafnium nitride (HfN) and titanium nitride (TiN) have emerged as viable alternatives to coinage metals based plasmonic materials, e.g., gold (Au) and silver (Ag). The present work assesses the suitability of gain assisted ZrN-, HfN- and TiN-based conventional core-shell nanoparticles (CCSNPs) and multilayered core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) for refractive index sensing. We report that the optical gain incorporation in the dielectric layer leads to multifold enhancement of the scattering efficiency (Qsca), substantial reduction of the spectral full width at half maximum, and a higher figure of merit (FOM). In comparison with CCSNPs, the MCSNP system exhibits superior sensing characteristics such as higher FOM, ˜ 45% reduction in the critical optical gain, response shift towards the biological window, and higher degree of tunability. Inherent biocompatibility, growth compatibility, chemical stability and flexible spectral tuning of refractory nitrides augmented by superior sensing properties in the present work may pave the way for refractory nitrides based low cost sensing.

  2. Simulations of the Light Scattering Properties of Metal/Oxide Core/Shell Nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, F.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of the optical properties of metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, in this work we focus our attention on the light scattering properties, within the Mie framework, of some specific categories of these noteworthy nano structures. In particular, we report theoretical results of angle-dependent light scattering intensity and scattering efficiency for Ag/Ag 2 O, Al/Al 2 O 2 , Cu/Cu 2 O, Pd/PdO, and Ti/TiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles as a function of the core radius/shell thickness ratio and on a relative comparison. The results highlight the light scattering characteristics of these systems as a function of the radius/shell thickness ratio, helping in the choice of the more suitable materials and sizes for specific applications (i.e., dynamic light scattering for biological and molecular recognition, increasing light trapping in thin-film silicon, organic solar cells for achieving a higher photocurrent).

  3. Fulde-Ferrell state in superconducting core/shell nanowires: role of the orbital effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Marek; Wójcik, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The orbital effect on the Fulde-Ferrell (FF) phase is investigated in superconducting core/shell nanowires subjected to the axial magnetic field. Confinement in the radial direction results in quantization of the electron motion with energies determined by the radial j and orbital m quantum numbers. In the external magnetic field, the twofold degeneracy with respect to the orbital magnetic quantum number m is lifted which leads to the Fermi wave vector mismatch between the paired electrons, (k, j, m, \\uparrow) ≤ftrightarrow (-k, j, -m, \\downarrow) . This mismatch is transferred to the nonzero total momentum of the Cooper pairs, which results in a formation of the FF phase occurring sequentially with increasing magnetic field. By changing the nanowire radius R and the superconducting shell thickness d, we discuss the role of the orbital effect in the FF phase formation in both the nanowire-like (R/d \\ll 1 ) and nanofilm-like (R/d \\gg 1 ) regime. We have found that the irregular pattern of the FF phase which appears for the case of the nanowire-like regime, for the nanofilm-like geometry evolves towards the regular distribution in which the FF phase stability regions emerge periodically between the BCS states. The transition between these two different phase diagrams is explained as resulting from the orbital effect and the multigap character of superconductivity in the core/shell nanowires.

  4. Core-shell microstructured nanocomposites for synergistic adjustment of environmental temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiquan; Yuan, Yanping; Zhang, Nan; Sun, Qingrong; Cao, Xiaoling

    2016-11-01

    The adjustment of temperature and humidity is of great importance in a variety of fields. Composites that can perform both functions are prepared by mixing phase change materials (PCMs) with hygroscopic materials. However, the contact area between the adsorbent and humid air is inevitably decreased in such structures, which reduces the number of mass transfer channels for water vapor. An approach entailing the increase in the mass ratio of the adsorbent is presented here to improve the adsorption capacity. A core-shell CuSO4/polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanomaterial was developed to satisfy the conflicting requirements of temperature control and dehumidification. The results show that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the PEG coating layer was enhanced by a factor of 188 compared with that of the pure PEG powder. The coating layer easily concentrates vapor, providing better adsorption properties for the composite. Furthermore, the volume modification of the CuSO4 matrix was reduced by 80% by the PEG coated layer, a factor that increases the stability of the composite. For the phase change process, the crystallization temperature of the coating layer was adjusted between 37.2 and 46.3 °C by interfacial tension. The core-shell CuSO4/PEG composite reported here provides a new general approach for the simultaneous control of temperature and humidity.

  5. Development of SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanospheres for catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsou, I.; Panagopoulos, P.; Maggos, Th.; Arkas, M.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2018-05-01

    Silica-titania core-shell nanospheres, CSNp, were prepared via a simple and environmentally friendly two step route. First, silica cores were prepared through the hydrolysis-condensation reaction of silicic acid in the presence of hyperbranched poly(ethylene)imine (HBPEI) followed by repeating washing, centrifugation and, finally, calcination steps. To create the core-shell structure, various amounts of titanium isopropoxide were added to the cores and after that a HBPEI-water solution was added to hydrolyze the titanium precursor. Washing with ethanol and heat treatment followed. The optimization of processing parameters led to well-developed core-shell structures bearing a homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase coating over each silica core. The photocatalytic activity for NO was examined in a continuous flux photocatalytic reactor under real environmental conditions. The results revealed a very potent photocatalyst as the degradation percentage reached 84.27% for the core-shell material compared to the 82% of pure titania with the photodecomposition rates measured at 0.62 and 0.55 μg·m-2·s-1, respectively. In addition, catalytic activities of the CSNp and pure titania were investigated by monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by an excess of NaBH4. Both materials exhibited excellent catalytic activity (100%), making the core-shell material a promising alternative catalyst to pure titania for various applications.

  6. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  7. NaF-loaded core-shell PAN-PMMA nanofibers as reinforcements for Bis-GMA/TEGDMA restorative resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liyuan; Zhou, Xuegang; Zhong, Hong; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    A kind of core-shell nanofibers containing sodium fluoride (NaF) was produced and used as reinforcing materials for dimethacrylate-based dental restorative resins in this study. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared by coaxial-electrospinning with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions as core and shell fluids, respectively. The produced PAN-PMMA nanofibers varied in fiber diameter and the thickness of PMMA shell depending on electrospinning parameters. NaF-loaded nanofibers were obtained by incorporating NaF nanocrystals into the core fluid at two loadings (0.8 or 1.0wt.%). Embedment of NaF nanocrystals into the PAN core did not damage the core-shell structure. The addition of PAN-PMMA nanofibers into Bis-GMA/TEGDMA clearly showed the reinforcement due to the good interfacial adhesion between fibers and resin. The flexural strength (Fs) and flexural modulus (Ey) of the composites decreased slightly as the thickness of PMMA shell increasing. Sustained fluoride releases with minor initial burst release were achieved from NaF-loaded core-shell nanofibers and the corresponding composites, which was quite different from the case of embedding NaF nanocrystals into the dental resin directly. The study demonstrated that NaF-loaded PAN-PMMA core-shell nanofibers were not only able to improve the mechanical properties of restorative resin, but also able to provide sustained fluoride release to help in preventing secondary caries. © 2013.

  8. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo; Sai, Tianqi; Xia, Long; Yu, Yuanlie; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-01-01

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  9. Centrifugal Deposited Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticle Film for Room-Temperature Optical Detection of Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Luo, Zhijie; Liu, Mingyao; Zhang, Gang; Peng, Wang; Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong

    2018-05-06

    In the present work, centrifugal deposited Au-Pd core-shell nanoparticle (NP) film was proposed for the room-temperature optical detection of hydrogen gas. The size dimension of 44, 48, 54, and 62 nm Au-Pd core-shell nanocubes with 40 nm Au core were synthesized following a solution-based seed-mediated growth method. Compared to a pure Pd NP, this core-shell structure with an inert Au core could decrease the H diffusion length in the Pd shell. Through a modified centrifugal deposition process, continues film samples with different core-shell NPs were deposited on 10 mm diameter quartz substrates. Under various hydrogen concentration conditions, the optical response properties of these samples were characterized by an intensity-based optical fiber bundle sensor. Experimental results show that the continues film that was composed of 62 nm Au-Pd core-shell NPs has achieved a stable and repeatable reflectance response with low zero drift in the range of 4 to 0.1% hydrogen after a stress relaxation mechanism at first few loading/unloading cycles. Because of the short H diffusion length due to the thinner Pd shell, the film sample composed of 44 nm Au-Pd NPs has achieved a dramatically decreased response/recovery time to 4 s/30 s. The experiments present the promising prospect of this simple method to fabricate optical hydrogen sensors with controllable high sensitivity and response rate at low cost.

  10. Core-Shell Structuring of Pure Metallic Aerogels towards Highly Efficient Platinum Utilization for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Hübner, René; Sasaki, Kotaro; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Su, Dong; Ziegler, Christoph; Vukmirovic, Miomir B; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Adzic, Radoslav R; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2018-03-05

    The development of core-shell structures remains a fundamental challenge for pure metallic aerogels. Here we report the synthesis of Pd x Au-Pt core-shell aerogels composed of an ultrathin Pt shell and a composition-tunable Pd x Au alloy core. The universality of this strategy ensures the extension of core compositions to Pd transition-metal alloys. The core-shell aerogels exhibited largely improved Pt utilization efficiencies for the oxygen reduction reaction and their activities show a volcano-type relationship as a function of the lattice parameter of the core substrate. The maximum mass and specific activities are 5.25 A mg Pt -1 and 2.53 mA cm -2 , which are 18.7 and 4.1 times higher than those of Pt/C, respectively, demonstrating the superiority of the core-shell metallic aerogels. The proposed core-based activity descriptor provides a new possible strategy for the design of future core-shell electrocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-02-21

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  12. One-pot synthesis of stable water soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Gao Xue; Liu Siyu; Su Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell-doped quantum dots (d-dots) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the stabilizer are successfully synthesized through a simple one-pot synthesis procedure in aqueous solution. The average diameter of Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots is about 2.9 nm, which is lager than that of Mn:ZnSe cores (about 1.9 nm). The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots have been characterized by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photostability against UV irradiation and chemical stability against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} etching have been studied, and the results showed that the prepared Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots are more stable than CdTe quantum dots prepared in aqueous solution. Finally, the resulting core/shell quantum dots are used as fluorescent label in human osteoblast-like HepG2 cell imaging.

  13. High ink absorption performance of inkjet printing based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YiFan; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Li; Du, Yunzhe; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, LiWei; Huang, YuDong

    2018-04-01

    The increasing growth of the inkjet market makes the inkjet printing more necessary. A composite material based on core-shell structure has been developed and applied to prepare inkjet printing layer. In this contribution, the ink printing record layers based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composite was elaborated. The prepared core-shell composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved the presence of electrostatic adsorption between SiO2 molecules and Al13 molecules with the formation of the well-dispersed system. In addition, based on the adsorption and the liquid permeability analysis, SiO2@Al13 ink printing record layer achieved a relatively high ink uptake (2.5 gmm-1) and permeability (87%), respectively. The smoothness and glossiness of SiO2@Al13 record layers were higher than SiO2 record layers. The core-shell structure facilitated the dispersion of the silica, thereby improved its ink absorption performance and made the clear printed image. Thus, the proposed procedure based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell structure of dye particles could be applied as a promising strategy for inkjet printing.

  14. Preparation of Ca-alginate coated nZVI core shell beads for uranium (VI) removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhong Hu; Xiaoyan Lin; Yahui Zhang; Meiling Shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the core-shell nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI)@Alg-Ca beads were synthesized by coaxial electronic injection method for removal of U (VI) from aqueous solution, and characterized by SEM, EDX and XPS. The results showed that the pseudo-second-order models and the Langmuir isotherm model fitted well with the data obtained. The removal mechanism may include both physical adsorption of U (VI) on the surface or inside of core-shell nZVI@Alg-Ca beads and subsequent reduction of U (VI) to U (IV). Therefore, the core-shell nZVI@Alg-Ca beads would have an application prospect in effective removal of U (VI) contamination from aqueous solution. (author)

  15. Strain distribution of confined Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles engineered by growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenyan; Yuan, Cailei; Luo, Xingfang; Yu, Ting; Wang, Gongping

    2016-02-01

    The strain distributions of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles confined in different host matrix grown by surface oxidation are investigated. The simulated results by finite element method demonstrated that the strains of the Ge core and the GeO2 shell strongly depend on the growth environments of the nanoparticles. Moreover, it can be found that there is a transformation of the strain on Ge core from tensile to compressive strain during the growth of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles. And, the transformation of the strain is closely related with the Young's modulus of surrounding materials of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles.

  16. Fabrication of In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haohua; Chen, Cong; Huang, Xinyou; Leng, Yang; Hou, Mengnan; Xiao, Xiaogu; Bao, Jie; You, Jiali; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yukun; Song, Juan; Wang, Yaping; Liu, Qinqin; Hope, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    Herein, we report the facile synthesis of In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes and their improved photoelectrochemical property. In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes are grown on a F-doped SnO2 (FTO) glass substrate by a two-step process, which involves the electrodeposition of In2O3 nanocubes and a subsequent ion-exchange treatment. The improved light-harvesting ability and the suitable band alignment of the In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes generate a remarkable photocurrent density of 6.19 mA cm-2 (at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl), which is substantially higher than the pristine In2O3 nanocubes. These results provide a new insight into the design of a high-performance photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  17. Synthesis of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes containing varying shaped cores and their localized surface plasmon resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianxiao; Zhou, Fei; Li, Zhiyuan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2012-06-19

    We have synthesized Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes containing Au cores with varying shapes and sizes through modified seed-mediated methods. Bromide ions are found to be crucial in the epitaxial growth of Ag atoms onto Au cores and in the formation of the shell's cubic shape. The Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes exhibit very abundant and distinct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which are core-shape and size-dependent. With the help of theoretical calculation, the physical origin and the resonance mode profile of each LSPR peak are identified and studied. The core-shell nanocrystals with varying shaped cores offer a new rich category for LSPR control through the plasmonic coupling effect between core and shell materials.

  18. Design and characterization of core-shell mPEG-PLGA composite microparticles for development of cell-scaffold constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2013-01-01

    /DS or Alg/CS/DS particles in the mPEG-PLGA microparticles were significantly dependent on the operating conditions, including the flow rate ratio (Qout/Qin) and the viscosity of the polymer solutions (Vout, Vin) between the outer and the inner feeding channels. The core-shell composite microparticles.......e. more sustainable cell growth was induced by the DS released from the core-shell composite microparticles comprising Alg/CS/DS particles. After seeding fibroblasts onto the composite microparticles, excellent cell adhesion was observed, and a successful assembly of the cell-scaffold constructs...... was induced within 7 days. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a novel strategy for fabrication of core-shell composite microparticles comprising additional particulate drug carriers in the core, which provides controlled delivery of DS and favorable cell biocompatibility; an approach to potentially...

  19. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoflower arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering method. The aligned Ag nanoflower arrays on copper substrate are prepared by a facile displacement reaction in absence of any surfactant at a mild temperature. When used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays show better cycling performance and higher capacity than the planar NiO electrodes. The improved performance should be attributed to the core-shell structures that can enhance the conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the charge-discharge process.

  20. Synthesis of Ni-SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell micromembrane reactors and their reaction/diffusion performance

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2010-12-15

    Core-shell micromembrane reactors are a novel class of materials where a catalyst and a shape-selective membrane are synergistically housed in a single particle. In this work, we report the synthesis of micrometer -sized core-shell particles containing a catalyst core and a thin permselective zeolite shell and their application as a micromembrane reactor for the selective hydrogenation of the 1-hexene and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene isomers. The bare catalyst, which is made from porous silica loaded with catalytically active nickel, showed no reactant selectivity between hexene isomers, but the core-shell particles showed high selectivities up to 300 for a 1-hexene conversion of 90%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Extreme IR absorption in group IV-SiGeSn core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiaoui, Anis; Wirth, Stephan; Blanchard-Dionne, André-Pierre; Meunier, Michel; Hartmann, J. M.; Buca, Dan; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2018-06-01

    Sn-containing Si and Ge (Ge1-y-xSixSny) alloys are an emerging family of semiconductors with the potential to impact group IV material-based devices. These semiconductors provide the ability to independently engineer both the lattice parameter and bandgap, which holds the premise to develop enhanced or novel photonic and electronic devices. With this perspective, we present detailed investigations of the influence of Ge1-y-xSixSny layers on the optical properties of Si and Ge based heterostructures and nanowires. We found that by adding a thin Ge1-y-xSixSny capping layer on Si or Ge greatly enhances light absorption especially in the near infrared range, leading to an increase in short-circuit current density. For the Ge1-y-xSixSny structure at thicknesses below 30 nm, a 14-fold increase in the short-circuit current is observed with respect to bare Si. This enhancement decreases by reducing the capping layer thickness. Conversely, decreasing the shell thickness was found to improve the short-circuit current in Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny and Ge/Ge1-y-xSixSny core/shell nanowires. The optical absorption becomes very important by increasing the Sn content. Moreover, by exploiting an optical antenna effect, these nanowires show extreme light absorption, reaching an enhancement factor, with respect to Si or Ge nanowires, on the order of 104 in Si/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12 and 12 in Ge/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12. Furthermore, we analyzed the optical response after the addition of a dielectric layer of Si3N4 to the Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny core-shell nanowire and found approximatively a 50% increase in the short-circuit current density for a dielectric layer of thickness equal to 45 nm and both a core radius and a shell thickness greater than 40 nm. The core-shell optical antenna benefits from a multiplication of enhancements contributed by leaky mode resonances in the semiconductor part and antireflection effects in the dielectric part.

  2. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-09-27

    Hybrid alloys among gold, palladium and platinum become a new category of catalysts primarily due to their enhanced catalytic effects. Enhancement means not only their effectiveness, but also their uniqueness as catalysts for the reactions that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au compared to Ag, Pd, and Pt helps to produce hollow Au cores first, followed by Pd or Pt shell growth. Continuous and highly crystalline shell growth was observed in Au@Pd core-shell NPs, but the sporadic and porous-like structure was observed in Au@Pt core-shell NPs. Along with hollow core-shell NPs, hollow porous Pt and hollow Au NPs are also prepared from Ag seed NPs. Twin boundaries which are typically observed in large size (>20 nm) Au NPs were not observed in hollow Au NPs. This absence is believed to be due to the role of the hollows, which significantly reduce the strain energy of edges where the two lattice planes meet. In ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium, hollow Au@Pd core-shell NPs show highest current density in forward scan. Hollow Au@Pt core-shell NPs maintain better catalytic activities than metallic Pt, which is thought to be due to the better crystallinity of Pt shells as well as the alloy effect of Au cores. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Large enhanced dielectric permittivity in polyaniline passivated core-shell nano magnetic iron oxide by plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, Lija K.; Sooraj, V.; Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022, Kerala (India); Sajeev, U. S. [Department of Physics, Government College, Kottayam-686613, Kerala (India); Nair, Swapna S. [Department of Physics, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Central University of Kerala, Kasargode-671123, Kerala (India); Narayanan, T. N. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikkudi-630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Ajayan, P. M. [Department of Material Science and Nano Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 7700 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Commercial samples of Magnetite with size ranging from 25–30 nm were coated with polyaniline by using radio frequency plasma polymerization to achieve a core shell structure of magnetic nanoparticle (core)–Polyaniline (shell). High resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the core shell architecture of polyaniline coated iron oxide. The dielectric properties of the material were studied before and after plasma treatment. The polymer coated magnetite particles exhibited a large dielectric permittivity with respect to uncoated samples. The dielectric behavior was modeled using a Maxwell–Wagner capacitor model. A plausible mechanism for the enhancement of dielectric permittivity is proposed.

  4. Millimeter wave absorption by confined acoustic modes in CdSe/CdTe core-shell quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T-M; Lu, J-Y; Kuo, C-C; Wen, Y-C; Lai, C-W; Yang, M-J; Chou, P-T; Murray, D B; Saviot, L; Sun, C-Kuang

    2007-01-01

    Taking advantage of the specific core-shell charge separation structure in the CdSe/CdTe core-shell Type-II quantum dots (QDs), we experimentally observed the resonant-enhanced dipolar interaction between millimeter-wave (MMW) photons and their corresponding (l = 1) confined acoustic phonons. With proper choice of size, the absorption band can be tuned to desired frequency of MMW imaging. Exploiting this characteristic absorption, in a fiber-scanned MMW imaging system, we demonstrated the feasibility of CdSe/CdTe QDs as the contrast agents of MMW imaging

  5. Hiding the interior region of core-shell nanoparticles with quantum invisible cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    Based on the scattering cancellation, we provide a method not only making a nanoparticle nearly invisible, but also hiding its interior region from the outside probing matter wave. By applying the interplay among the nodal points of partial waves along with the concept of streamline in fluid dynamics for probability flux, a quantum invisible cloak to the electron transport in a host semiconductor is demonstrated by simultaneously guiding the probability flux outside a hidden region and keeping the total scattering cross section negligible. As the probability flux vanishes in the interior region, one can embed any materials inside a multiple core-shell nanoparticle without affecting physical observables from the outside. Our results reveal the possibility to design a protection shield layer for fragile interior parts from the impact of transport electrons.

  6. Core/shell magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with radially oriented wide mesopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ž. Knežević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell nanoparticles, containing magnetic iron-oxide (maghemite core and mesoporous shell with radial porous structure, were prepared by dispersing magnetite nanoparticles and adding tetraethylorthosilicate to a basic aqueous solution containing structure-templating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and a pore-swelling mesithylene. The material is characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, nitrogen sorption and powder X-ray diffraction. Distinctive features of the prepared material are its high surface area (959 m2/g, wide average pore diameter (12.4 nm and large pore volume (2.3 cm3/g. The material exhibits radial pore structure and the high angle XRD pattern characteristic for maghemite nanoparticles, which are obtained upon calcination of the magnetite-containing material. The observed properties of the prepared material may render the material applicable in separation, drug delivery, sensing and heterogeneous catalysis.

  7. ZnO-nanocarbon core-shell type hybrid quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Won Kook

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive overview of ZnO-nano carbon core shell hybrid issues. There is significant interest in metal oxide/nanocarbon hybrid functional materials in the field of energy conversion and storage as electrode materials for supercapacitors, Li ion secondary battery, electrocatalysts for water splitting, and optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and solar photovoltaic cells. Despite efforts to manipulate more uniform metal oxide-nanocarbon nanocomposite structures, they have shown poor performance because they are randomly scattered and non-uniformly attached to the nanocarbon surface. For higher and more effective performance of the hybrid structure, 3D conformal coating on metal oxides are highly desirable. In the first part of the book, the physical and chemical properties of ZnO and nanocarbons and the state-of-the-art in related research are briefly summarized. In the next part, the 3D conformal coating synthetic processes of ZnO templated nanocarbon hybrid materials suc...

  8. Preparation of novel magnetic polyurethane foam nanocomposites by using core-shell nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    Full Text Available Abstract Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (NP's converted to the core- shell structres by reacting with by n-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAP incorporated in polyurethane flexible (PUF foam formulations. Fourier transform spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron images, thermo-mechanical analysis and magnetic properties of the prepared nanocomposites were studied. Obtained data shown that by the increasing of the amine modified magnetic iron oxide NP's up to 3% in the polymer matrix, thermal and magnetic properties improved in comparison with pristine foams. In addition, due to the presence of functional groups on the magnetic NP's surface, hard phases formation decrease in the bulk polymer and cause decreasing of glass transition temperature.

  9. Flexible, silver nanowire network nickel hydroxide core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Recep; Coskun, Sahin; Kalay, Yunus Eren; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel one-dimensional coaxial architecture composed of silver nanowire (Ag NW) network core and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) shell for the realization of coaxial nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitors. Ag NWs are formed conductive networks via spray coating onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and Ni(OH)2 is gradually electrodeposited onto the Ag NW network to fabricate core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors. Synergy of highly conductive Ag NWs and high capacitive Ni(OH)2 facilitate ion and electron transport, enhance electrochemical properties and result in a specific capacitance of 1165.2 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1. After 3000 cycles, fabricated nanocomposite electrodes show 93% capacity retention. The rational design explored in this study points out the potential of nanowire based coaxial energy storage devices.

  10. Silver, gold and the corresponding core shell nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Fraser; Yanez, Ramon; Ros, Josep; Marin, Sergio; Escosura-Muniz, Alfredo de la; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoci, Arben

    2008-01-01

    Simple strategies for producing silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNP and AuNP) along with the corresponding core shell nanoparticles (Au-Ag and Ag-Au) by reduction of the metal salts AgBF 4 and HAuCl 4 by NaBH 4 in water will be presented. The morphologies of the obtained nanoparticles are determined by the order of addition of reactants. The obtained NPs, with sizes in the range 3-40 nm, are characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, so as to evaluate their qualities. Moreover, a direct electrochemical detection protocol based on a cyclic voltammetry in water solution that involves the use of glassy carbon electrode is also applied to characterize the prepared NPs. The developed NPs and the related electroanalytical method seem to be with interest for future sensing and biosensing applications including DNA sensors and immunosensors.

  11. Black GE based on crystalline/amorphous core/shell nanoneedle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javey, Ali; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-03-04

    Direct growth of black Ge on low-temperature substrates, including plastics and rubber is reported. The material is based on highly dense, crystalline/amorphous core/shell Ge nanoneedle arrays with ultrasharp tips (.about.4 nm) enabled by the Ni catalyzed vapor-solid-solid growth process. Ge nanoneedle arrays exhibit remarkable optical properties. Specifically, minimal optical reflectance (<1%) is observed, even for high angles of incidence (.about.75.degree.) and for relatively short nanoneedle lengths (.about.1 .mu.m). Furthermore, the material exhibits high optical absorption efficiency with an effective band gap of .about.1 eV. The reported black Ge can have important practical implications for efficient photovoltaic and photodetector applications on nonconventional substrates.

  12. Phase Transition of Poly(acrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) Core-shell Nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-bing; Zhou, Jian-feng; Ye, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    A series of poly(acrylic acid) macromolecular chain transfer agents with different molecular weights were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography. Multiresponsive core-shell nanogels were prepared by dispersion polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water using these poly(potassium acrylate) macro-RAFT agents as the electrosteric stabilizer. The size of the nanogels decreases with the amount of the macro-RAFT agent, indicating that the surface area occupied by per polyelectrolyte group is a critical parameter for stabilizing the nanogels. The volume phase transition and the zeta potentials of the nanogels in aqueous solutions were studied by dynamic light scattering and zetasizer analyzer, respectively.

  13. Significant reduction of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Giapis, Konstantinos P; Goicochea, Javier V; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-02-09

    We report on the effect of germanium (Ge) coatings on the thermal transport properties of silicon (Si) nanowires using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that a simple deposition of a Ge shell of only 1 to 2 unit cells in thickness on a single crystalline Si nanowire can lead to a dramatic 75% decrease in thermal conductivity at room temperature compared to an uncoated Si nanowire. By analyzing the vibrational density states of phonons and the participation ratio of each specific mode, we demonstrate that the reduction in the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowire stems from the depression and localization of long-wavelength phonon modes at the Si/Ge interface and of high frequency nonpropagating diffusive modes.

  14. Facile Synthesis of Au Nanocube-CdS Core-Shell Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Liang, Shan; Li, Min; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Qua

    2014-06-01

    Au nanocube-CdS core-shell nanocomposites are prepared by using a one-pot method in aqueous phase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant. The extinction properties and photocatalytic activity of Au-CdS nanocomposites are investigated. Compared with the pure Au nanocubes, the Au-CdS nanocomposites exhibit enhanced extinction intensity. Compared with CdS nanoparticles, the Au-CdS nanocomposites exhibit improved photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the photocatalytic efficiency is even better with the increase in the core size of the Au-CdS nanocomposites. Typically, the photocatalytic efficiency of the Au-CdS with 62 nm sized Au nanocubes is about two times higher than that of the pure CdS. It is believed that the Au-CdS nanocomposites may find potential applications in environmental fields, and this synthesis method can be extended to prepare a wide variety of functional composites with Au cores.

  15. Protective agent-free synthesis of Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Wang, S.-R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-10

    Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by successive hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol in the absence of protective agents. TEM analysis indicated the product was very fine and the thickness of Ag nanoshells could be controlled by the added silver nitrate concentration. The analyses of electron diffraction pattern and XRD revealed that both Ni cores and Ag shells had a fcc structure. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that Ni cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. Because of the absence of protective agent, the appropriate nickel concentration for the coating of Ag nanoshells should be less than 1.0 mM to avoid particle agglomeration. The product possessed the surface character of Ag and the magnetic property of Ni, and may have many potential applications in optical, magnetic, catalytic, biochemical, and biomedical fields.

  16. Harmonic Quantum Coherence of Multiple Excitons in PbS/CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    The generation and recombination dynamics of multiple excitons in nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted much attention from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and device applications. However, the quantum coherence of multiple exciton states in NCs still remains unclear due to a lack of experimental support. Here, we report the first observation of harmonic dipole oscillations in PbS/CdS core-shell NCs using a phase-locked interference detection method for transient absorption. From the ultrafast coherent dynamics and excitation-photon-fluence dependence of the oscillations, we found that multiple excitons cause the harmonic dipole oscillations with ω , 2 ω , and 3 ω oscillations, even though the excitation pulse energy is set to the exciton resonance frequency, ω . This observation is closely related to the quantum coherence of multiple exciton states in NCs, providing important insights into multiple exciton generation mechanisms.

  17. Conductance oscillations of core-shell nanowires in transversal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolescu, Andrei; Nemnes, George Alexandru; Sitek, Anna; Rosdahl, Tomas Orn; Erlingsson, Sigurdur Ingi; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2016-05-01

    We analyze theoretically electronic transport through a core-shell nanowire in the presence of a transversal magnetic field. We calculate the conductance for a variable coupling between the nanowire and the attached leads and show how the snaking states, which are low-energy states localized along the lines of the vanishing radial component of the magnetic field, manifest their existence. In the strong-coupling regime they induce flux periodic, Aharonov-Bohm-like, conductance oscillations, which, by decreasing the coupling to the leads, evolve into well-resolved peaks. The flux periodic oscillations arise due to interference of the snaking states, which is a consequence of backscattering at either the contacts with leads or magnetic or potential barriers in the wire.

  18. Chemical resistance of core-shell particles (PS/PMMA polymerized by seeded suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Belchior Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Core-shell particles were produced on seeded suspension polymerization by using polystyrene (PS as polymer core, or seed, and methyl methacrylate (MMA as the shell forming monomer. Two synthesis routes were evaluated by varying the PS seed conversion before MMA addition. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of synthesis routes on the morphology and chemical resistance of the resulting particles. 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the use of PS seeds with lower conversion led to the formation of higher amount of poly(styrene-co-MMA. The copolymer acted as a compatibilizer, decreasing the interfacial energy between both homopolymers. As a consequence, a larger amount of reduced PMMA cluster were formed, as was revealed by TEM measurements. Samples in this system showed enhanced resistance to cyclohexane attack compared with pure PS, with a PS extraction of only 37% after 54 hours test.

  19. Colloidal InP/ZnS core shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor ( gex) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  20. Uniform formation of Au coated polystyrene core-shell structure using metallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoungseob; Koo, Jonghyun; Roh, Yonghan, E-mail: yhroh@skku.edu

    2011-08-01

    There are several methods for the fabrication of core-shell particles, including chemical reduction and self-assembly. In this study, the chemical reduction method was used to fabricate 100 nm, Au-coated polystyrene nanoparticles. The formation of the gold layer was based on the increase of gold coverage by the reaction with aniline and HAuCl{sub 4}. This method allowed for efficient control of the gold coverage and led to relatively stable products. The formation of Au clusters on the surface of the 100 nm polystyrene beads was characterized by scanning electron microscope and high resolution tunneling electron microscope. As a result, the Au-coated nanoparticles can be used in various applications such as surface plasmon resonators, drug delivery systems and electronic optical devices.

  1. Chemical resistance of core-shell particles (PS/PMMA) polymerized by seeded suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Luiz Fernando Belchior; Machado, Ricardo Antonio Francisco, E-mail: ricardo.machado@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess [Universidade Técnológica Federal do Paraná(UTFPR), Campo Mourão, PR (Brazil); Marangoni, Cintia [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Motz, Günter [Lehrstuhl Keramische Werkstoffe, Universität Bayreuth (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Core-shell particles were produced on seeded suspension polymerization by using polystyrene (PS) as polymer core, or seed, and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the shell forming monomer. Two synthesis routes were evaluated by varying the PS seed conversion before MMA addition. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of synthesis routes on the morphology and chemical resistance of the resulting particles. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy showed that the use of PS seeds with lower conversion led to the formation of higher amount of poly(styrene-co-MMA). The copolymer acted as a compatibilizer, decreasing the interfacial energy between both homopolymers. As a consequence, a larger amount of reduced PMMA cluster were formed, as was revealed by TEM measurements. Samples in this system showed enhanced resistance to cyclohexane attack compared with pure PS, with a PS extraction of only 37% after 54 hours test. (author)

  2. Au@Pd core-shell nanobricks with concave structures and their catalysis of ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjin; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shengchun; Ding, Bingjun; Song, Xiaoping

    2013-10-01

    Au@Pd core-shell nanobricks (CNBs) with concave surfaces and Pd shells with a thickness of approximately 5 nm were synthesized by co-reduction of HAuCl4 and H2 PdCl4 in the presence of Au seeds and Ag ions. These as-synthesized concave CNBs exhibit significantly enhanced catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of ethanol in alkaline media compared to the commercially-used Pd black. The improved performance of the Au@Pd CNBs can be attributed to the exposed stepped surfaces, high-index facets, and the synergistic effects of the core and shell metals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Defect-tuning exchange bias of ferromagnet/antiferromagnet core/shell nanoparticles by numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhongquan; Chen Xi; Zhan Xiaozhi

    2012-01-01

    The influence of non-magnetic defects on the exchange bias (EB) of ferromagnet (FM)/antiferromagnet (AFM) core/shell nanoparticles is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the EB can be tuned by defects in different positions. Defects at both the AFM and FM interfaces reduce the EB field while they enhance the coercive field by decreasing the effective interface coupling. However, the EB field and the coercive field show respectively a non-monotonic and a monotonic dependence on the defect concentration when the defects are located inside the AFM shell, indicating a similar microscopic mechanism to that proposed in the domain state model. These results suggest a way to optimize the EB effect for applications. (paper)

  4. Core/shell fluorescent magnetic silica-coated composite nanoparticles for bioconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; You, Xiaogang; Shao, Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Bifeng; Cui, Daxiang

    2007-08-01

    A new class of highly fluorescent, photostable, and magnetic core/shell nanoparticles has been synthesized from a reverse microemulsion method. The obtained bifunctional nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy in a magnetic field. To further improve their biocompatibility, the silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with amino groups. The fluorescent magnetic composite nanoparticles (FMCNPs) had a typical diameter of 50 ± 5 nm and a saturation magnetization of 3.21 emu g-1 at room temperature, and exhibited strong excitonic photoluminescence. Through activation with glutaraldehyde, the FMCNPs were successfully conjugated with goat anti-mouse immunoglobin G (GM IgG), and the bioactivity and binding specificity of the as-prepared FMCNPs-GM IgG were confirmed via immunofluorescence assays, commonly used in bioanalysis. So they are potentially useful for many applications in biolabelling, imaging, drug targeting, bioseparation and bioassays.

  5. Core/shell fluorescent magnetic silica-coated composite nanoparticles for bioconjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Rong; You Xiaogang; Shao Jun; Gao Feng; Pan Bifeng; Cui Daxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new class of highly fluorescent, photostable, and magnetic core/shell nanoparticles has been synthesized from a reverse microemulsion method. The obtained bifunctional nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy in a magnetic field. To further improve their biocompatibility, the silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with amino groups. The fluorescent magnetic composite nanoparticles (FMCNPs) had a typical diameter of 50 ± 5 nm and a saturation magnetization of 3.21 emu g -1 at room temperature, and exhibited strong excitonic photoluminescence. Through activation with glutaraldehyde, the FMCNPs were successfully conjugated with goat anti-mouse immunoglobin G (GM IgG), and the bioactivity and binding specificity of the as-prepared FMCNPs-GM IgG were confirmed via immunofluorescence assays, commonly used in bioanalysis. So they are potentially useful for many applications in biolabelling, imaging, drug targeting, bioseparation and bioassays

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of inverted core-shell polyaniline-ferrite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donescu, Dan [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Fierascu, Radu Claudiu, E-mail: radu_claudiu_fierascu@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Ghiurea, Marius [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Manaila-Maximean, Doina [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Physics, 313 Spl. Independentei, 060042, Bucharest (Romania); Nicolae, Cristian Andi; Somoghi, Raluca; Spataru, Catalin Ilie [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Stanica, Nicolae [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Raditoiu, Valentin [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, Eugeniu [SC METAV – CD SA, 31 C. A. Rosetti Str., 021051, Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-08-31

    The present paper studies the effect of polyaniline grafting on magnetite functionalized with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. All the compounds were characterized by analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, Transmission electron microscopy), as well as by determining their magnetic properties. The electron microscopy analysis of the hybrids shows similar morphologies for all the samples. The presence of the iron atoms on the surface of the final product supports the idea of the existence of an inverted core-shell type structure, the more polar ferrite orienting itself towards water. The correlation between the maximum grafting probability and the maximum magnetization is evidenced, demonstrating the importance of the polymer grafting method on the magnetic properties.

  7. Synthesis of Co/MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) Core/Shell Nanocomposite Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Xie, Jin; Sun, Shouheng

    2008-01-01

    Monodispersed cobalt nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable size (8-14 nm) have been synthesized using thermal decomposition of dicobaltoctacarbonyl in organic solvent. The as-synthesized high magnetic moment (125 emu/g) Co NPs are dispersible in various organic solvents, and can be easily transferred into aqueous phase by surface modification using phospholipids. However, the modified hydrophilic Co NPs are not stable as they are quickly oxidized, agglomerated in buffer. Co NPs are stabilized by coating the MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) ferrite shell. Core/shell structured bimagnetic Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites are prepared with tunable shell thickness (1-5 nm). The Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites retain the high magnetic moment density from the Co core, while gaining chemical and magnetic stability from the ferrite shell. Comparing to Co NPs, the nanocomposites show much enhanced stability in buffer solution at elevated temperatures, making them promising for biomedical applications.

  8. HTGR Metallic Reactor Internals Core Shell Cutting & Machining Antideformation Technique Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Huiping; Xue Song

    2014-01-01

    The reactor shell assembly of HTGR nuclear power station demonstration project metallic reactor internals is key components of reactor, remains with high-precision large component with large-sized thin-walled straight cylinder-shaped structure, and is the first manufacture in China. As compared with other reactor shell, it has a larger ID (Φ5360mm), a longer length (19000mm), a smaller wall thickness (40mm) and a higher precision requirement. During the process of manufacture, the deformation due to cutting & machining will directly affect the final result of manufacture, the control of structural deformation and cutting deformation shall be throughout total manufacture process of such assembly. To realize the control of entire core shell assembly geometry, the key is to innovate and make breakthroughs on anti-deformation technique and then provide reliable technological foundations for the manufacture of HTGR metallic reactor internals. (author)

  9. Interface bond relaxation on the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weifeng; He, Yan; Ouyang, Gang, E-mail: gangouy@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications(SICQEA), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Sun, Changqing [School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-15

    The thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) is investigated on the basis of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. An analytical model is developed to clarify the interface bond relaxation of Si/Ge CSNWs. It is found that the thermal conductivity of Si core can be modulated through covering with Ge epitaxial layers. The change of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge CSNWs should be attributed to the surface relaxation and interface mismatch between inner Si nanowire and outer Ge epitaxial layer. Our results are in well agreement with the experimental measurements and simulations, suggesting that the presented method provides a fundamental insight of the thermal conductivity of CSNWs from the atomistic origin.

  10. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Multimetallic Core-Shell and Hollow-Like Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra

    A thorough control of nanoscale systems is crucial for developing and improving their activity in a variety of application fields. These range from nanocatalysis, plasmonics, nanosensors, nanomedicine, communications, and others. Controlling and understanding the growth and spatial distribution of multi metallic systems allow us to explore the correlation between the characteristics of the nanoparticle (composition, surface chemistry, crystallinity, etc.) and their properties (mechanical, optical, structural, etc.). In this dissertation bimetallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles were obtained by a seed mediated method and galvanic replacement. Combinations of the type core shell of Au Ag, Au Pd and Au Pd-Au Au multi-metallic systems were studied. A galvanic replacement method was used to obtain hollow-like Au/Pt nanoboxes and Au AgM (M = Au, Pd or Pt) yolk-shell structures with voids in the middle shell. Characterization regarding composition, morphology, optical properties and atomic structures was performed. The mechanical properties of Au Pd nanocubes were studied in situ by the use of a TEM-AFM nanomechanical holder. The nanoparticles strengthening mechanism relies on the Au core resistance to the motion of partial dislocations. The catalytic efficiency of core-shell and nanorattles structures were tested with a model reaction for the decomposition of 4-ntp to 4-amp. Yolk-shell systems exhibit an enhancement in the catalytic decomposition rate in comparison with solid and bimetallic system. Finally, the development of an Electrospray assisted Langmuir Blodgett technique was successfully employed for the deposition of nanoparticles monolayer on a substrate. High particle density and coverage of the substrate makes this a promising technique to finely tune nanoparticles self-assembly.

  11. Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Priya [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Srivastava, Manish [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India); Kumar, Manish [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, D., E-mail: dkumar@dce.ac.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Singh, Jay, E-mail: jay_singh143@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic–inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic–inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV–Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO{sub 2} and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2–22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35 s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles grafted in to gaur gum (GG) organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for determination of hydrazine (HZ). Under optimized experimental conditions, SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows, linearity 2–22 mM, and detection limit 2.769 mM with high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. The results clearly suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG

  12. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu2S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu 2 S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C 2 S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu 2 S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu 2 S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C 2 S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  13. Recent advances in the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@AU core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salihov, Sergei V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Ivanenkov, Yan A.; Krechetov, Sergei P.; Veselov, Mark S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskiy lane, Dolgoprudny City, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sviridenkova, Natalia V.; Savchenko, Alexander G. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalya L. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Golovin, Yury I. [Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Chufarova, Nina V., E-mail: chnv@pharmcluster.ru [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskiy lane, Dolgoprudny City, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Beloglazkina, Elena K. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Majouga, Alexander G., E-mail: majouga@org.chem.msu.ru [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au core/shell nanoparticles have unique magnetic and optical properties. These nanoparticles are used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, controlled drug delivery, protein separation, biosensors, DNA detection, and immunosensors. In this review, recent methods for the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles are discussed. We divided all of the synthetic methods in two groups: methods of synthesis of bi-layer structures and methods of synthesis of multilayer composite structures. The latter methods have a layer of “glue” material between the core and the shell. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are promising for biomedical applications but have some disadvantages. • Covering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with Au shell leads to better stability and biocompatibility. • Core/shell nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications. • There are two types of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au core/shell nanoparticles structures: bi-layer and multilayer composite. • Different synthetic methods enable production of nanoparticles of different sizes.

  14. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Sougrat, Rachid; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au

  15. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Qianqian; Cheng, Yingchun; Dong, Cezhou; Zhou, Wu; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Yihan; Zeng, Yuewu; Wang, Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations

  16. Separative analyses of a chromatographic column packed with a core-shell adsorbent for lithium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Sugura, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-6 is used as a blanket material for sufficient tritium production in DT fueled fusion reactors. A core-shell type adsorbent was proposed for lithium isotope separation by chromatography. The mass transfer model in a chromatographic column consisted of 4 steps, such as convection and dispersion in the column, transfer through liquid films, intra-particle diffusion and and adsorption or desorption at the local adsorption sites. A model was developed and concentration profiles and time variation in the column were numerically simulated. It became clear that core-shell type adsorbents with thin porous shell were saturated rapidly relatively to fully porous one and established a sharp edge of adsorption band. This is very important feature because lithium isotope separation requires long-distance development of adsorption band. The values of HETP (Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate) for core-shell adsorbent packed column were estimated by statistical moments of the step response curve. The value of HETP decreased with the thickness of the porous shell. A core-shell type adsorbent is, then, useful for lithium isotope separation. (authors)

  17. Discussion on Microwave-Matter Interaction Mechanisms by In Situ Observation of "Core-Shell" Microstructure during Microwave Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenchao; Xu, Feng; Li, Yongcun; Hu, Xiaofang; Dong, Bo; Xiao, Yu

    2016-02-23

    This research aims to deepen the understanding of the interaction mechanisms between microwave and matter in a metal-ceramic system based on in situ synchrotron radiation computed tomography. A special internal "core-shell" microstructure was discovered for the first time and used as an indicator for the interaction mechanisms between microwave and matter. Firstly, it was proved that the microwave magnetic field acted on metal particles by way of inducing an eddy current in the surface of the metal particles, which led to the formation of a "core-shell" microstructure in the metal particles. On this basis, it was proposed that the ceramic particles could change the microwave field and open a way for the microwave, thereby leading to selective heating in the region around the ceramic particles, which was verified by the fact that all the "core-shell" microstructure was located around ceramic particles. Furthermore, it was indicated that the ceramic particles would gather the microwaves, and might lead to local heating in the metal-ceramic contact region. The focusing of the microwave was proved by the quantitative analysis of the evolution rate of the "core-shell" microstructure in a different region. This study will help to reveal the microwave-matter interaction mechanisms during microwave sintering.

  18. Methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured Ruthenium-Palladium nanoparticles: Relationship between structure and electrochemical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Markus; Jurzinsky, Tilman; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Cremers, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    In this work the relationship between structural composition and electrochemical characteristics of Palladium(Pd)-Ruthenium(Ru) nanoparticles during alkaline methanol oxidation reaction is investigated. The comparative study of a standard alloyed and a precisely Ru-core-Pd-shell structured catalyst allows for a distinct investigation of the electronic effect and the bifunctional mechanism. Core-shell catalysts benefit from a strong electronic effect and an efficient Pd utilization. It is found that core-shell nanoparticles are highly active towards methanol oxidation reaction for potentials ≥0.6 V, whereas alloyed catalysts show higher current outputs in the lower potential range. However, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments reveal that the methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured catalysts proceeds via the incomplete oxidation pathway yielding formaldehyde, formic acid or methyl formate. Contrary, the alloyed catalyst benefits from the Ru atoms at its surface. Those are found to be responsible for high methanol oxidation activity at lower potentials as well as for complete oxidation of CH3OH to CO2 via the bifunctional mechanism. Based on these findings a new Ru-core-Pd-shell-Ru-terrace catalyst was synthesized, which combines the advantages of the core-shell structure and the alloy. This novel catalyst shows high methanol electrooxidation activity as well as excellent selectivity for the complete oxidation pathway.

  19. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I., E-mail: maria.gomez@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Pedro de Alba, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C{sub 2}S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu{sub 2}S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C{sub 2}S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  20. Study of Charge Transport in Vertically Aligned Nitride Nanowire Based Core Shell P-I-N Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ci) [activity of radionuclides] 3.7 × 10 10 per second (s –1 ) [becquerel (Bq)] roentgen (R) [air exposure] 2.579 760 × 10 –4 coulomb per kilogram...objectives include: 1) design and simulation of core-shell structures for realistic estimation of performance metrics achievable from such

  1. Magnetization measurements and XMCD studies on ion irradiated iron oxide and core-shell iron/iron-oxide nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Jiang, Weilin; Pearce, Carolyn; McCloy, John S.

    2014-12-02

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) and core-shell iron/iron-oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) nanomaterials prepared by a cluster deposition system were irradiated with 5.5 MeV Si2+ ions and the structures determined by x-ray diffraction as consisting of 100% magnetite and 36/64 wt% Fe/FeO, respectively. However, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) indicates similar surfaces in the two samples, slightly oxidized and so having more Fe3+ than the expected magnetite structure, with XMCD intensity much lower for the irradiated core-shell samples indicating weaker magnetism. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data lack the signature for FeO, but the irradiated core-shell system consists of Fe-cores with ~13 nm of separating oxide crystallite, so it is likely that FeO exists deeper than the probe depth of the XAS (~5 nm). Exchange bias (Hex) for both samples becomes increasingly negative as temperature is lowered, but the irradiated Fe3O4 sample shows greater sensitivity of cooling field on Hex. Loop asymmetries and Hex sensitivities of the irradiated Fe3O4 sample are due to interfaces and interactions between grains which were not present in samples before irradiation as well as surface oxidation. Asymmetries in the hysteresis curves of the irradiated core/shell sample are related to the reversal mechanism of the antiferromagnetic FeO and possibly some near surface oxidation.

  2. Core/shell CdS/ZnS nanoparticles: Molecular modelling and characterization by photocatalytic decomposition of Methylene Blue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Praus, P.; Svoboda, L.; Tokarský, J.; Hospodková, Alice; Klemm, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, Feb (2014), s. 813-822 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : core/shell nanoparticles * CdS/ZnS * molecular modelling * electron tunnelling * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  3. Box-like gel capsules from heterostructures based on a core-shell MOF as a template of crystal crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Michibata, Ayano; Kokado, Kenta; Ferlay, Sylvie; Hosseini, Mir Wais; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-02-06

    New polymer capsules (PCs) were obtained using a crystal crosslinking (CC) method on core-shell MOF crystals. The latter are based on the epitaxial growth of two isostructural coordination polymers which are then selectively crosslinked. Decomposition of the non-reticulated phase leads to new PCs, possessing a well-defined hollow cubic shape reflecting the heterostructure of the template.

  4. Pearl-necklace structures in core-shell molecular brushes: Experiments, Monte Carlo simulations and self-consistent field modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polotsky, A.; Charlaganov, M.; Xu, Y.P.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Daoud, M.; Muller, A.H.E.; Dotera, T.; Borisov, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    We present theoretical arguments and experimental evidence for a longitudinal instability in core-shell cylindrical polymer brushes with a solvophobic inner (core) block and a solvophilic outer (shell) block in selective solvents. The two-gradient self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer (SCF-SF)

  5. Core-shell rhodium sulfide catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction / hydrogen oxidation reaction in hydrogen-bromine reversible fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanchao; Nguyen, Trung Van

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis and characterization of high electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) core-shell RhxSy catalysts for hydrogen evolution oxidation (HER)/hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in H2-Br2 fuel cell are discussed. Catalysts with RhxSy as shell and different percentages (5%, 10%, and 20%) of platinum on carbon as core materials are synthesized. Cyclic voltammetry is used to evaluate the Pt-equivalent mass specific ECSA and durability of these catalysts. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques are utilized to characterize the bulk and surface compositions and to confirm the core-shell structure of the catalysts, respectively. Cycling test and polarization curve measurements in the H2-Br2 fuel cell are used to assess the catalyst stability and performance in a fuel cell. The results show that the catalysts with core-shell structure have higher mass specific ECSA (50 m2 gm-Rh-1) compared to a commercial catalyst (RhxSy/C catalyst from BASF, 6.9 m2 gm-Rh-1). It also shows better HOR/HER performance in the fuel cell. Compared to the platinum catalyst, the core-shell catalysts show more stable performance in the fuel cell cycling test.

  6. Microstructural Characterization of Reinforced Mortar after Corrosion and Cathodic Prevention in the Presence of Core-Shell Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the microstructural properties of reinforced mortar after chloride-induced corrosion and two regimes of cathodic prevention. Additionally, the impact of a very low concentration polymeric nano-aggregates (core-shell micelles from PEO113-b-PS218), admixed in the mortar mixture is

  7. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S. K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe3O4@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe3O4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe3O4@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe3O4-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent.

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting polyhedral morphologies by modified polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Asaka, Toru; Matsubara, Takashi; Nogami, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple synthetic method. First, Pt nanoparticles were synthesized in a controlled manner via the reduction of chloroplantinic acid hexahydrate in ethylene glycol (EG) at 160 deg. C in the presence of silver nitrate and the stabilization of polyvinylpyrrolidon. AgNO 3 used acts as a structure-modifying agent to the morphology of the Pt nanoparticles. These Pt nanoparticles function as the seeds for the successive reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) hydrate in EG under stirring for 15 min at 160 deg. C in order to synthesize Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles. To characterize the as-prepared Pt-Pd nanoparticles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM are used. The high-resolution elemental mappings were carried out using the combination of scanning TEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results also demonstrate the homogeneous nucleation and growth of the Pd metal shell on the definite Pt core. The synthesized Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a sharp and polyhedral morphology. The epitaxial growth of the controlled Pd shells on the Pt cores via a polyol method was observed. It is suggested that Frank-van der Merwe and Stranski-Krastanov growth modes coexisted in the nucleation and growth of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles.

  9. Development of silane grafted ZnO core shell nanoparticles loaded diglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites film for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Saravanan, P; Jayamoorthy, K; Ananda Kumar, S; Karthikeyan, S

    2016-07-01

    In this article a series of epoxy nanocomposites film were developed using amine functionalized (ZnO-APTES) core shell nanoparticles as the dispersed phase and a commercially available epoxy resin as the matrix phase. The functional group of the samples was characterized using FT-IR spectra. The most prominent peaks of epoxy resin were found in bare epoxy and in all the functionalized ZnO dispersed epoxy nanocomposites (ZnO-APTES-DGEBA). The XRD analysis of all the samples exhibits considerable shift in 2θ, intensity and d-spacing values but the best and optimum concentration is found to be 3% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposites supported by FT-IR results. From TGA measurements, 100wt% residue is obtained in bare ZnO nanoparticles whereas in ZnO core shell nanoparticles grafted DGEBA residue percentages are 37, 41, 45, 46 and 52% for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% ZnO-APTES-DGEBA respectively, which is confirmed with ICP-OES analysis. From antimicrobial activity test, it was notable that antimicrobial activity of 7% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposite film has best inhibition zone effect against all pathogens under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate

  11. Giant exchange bias and its angular dependence in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Koymen, Ali R.; Liu, J. Ping

    2017-01-01

    The exchange-bias field (H EB ) and its angular dependence are systematically investigated in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies (∼15 nm in diameter and ∼200 nm in length) consisting of single-crystalline Co core and polycrystalline CoO shell. Giant exchange-bias field (H EB ) up to 2.4 kOe is observed below a blocking temperature (T EB ∼150 K) in the aligned Co/CoO nanowire assemblies. It is also found that there is an angular dependence between the H EB and the applied magnetization direction. The H EB showed a peak at 30° between the applied field and the nanowire aligned direction, which may be attributed to the noncollinear spin orientations at the interface between the ferromagnetic core and the antiferromagnetic shell. This behavior is quantitatively supported by an analytical calculation based on Stoner–Wohlfarth model. This study underlines the importance of the competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. - Highlights: • Giant exchange bias is observed in oriented Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies. • Study of angular and temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. • Effect of misaligned spins in FM/AFM interface on angular dependence of exchange bias. • We explain the analytical model that accounts for experimental results.

  12. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Lixin, E-mail: caolixin@ouc.edu.cn; Su, Ge; Liu, Wei; Xia, Chenghui; Zhou, Huajian

    2013-09-01

    The synthesis and luminescent properties of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with different shell thickness are reported in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies present that the ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell QDs with different shell thickness have a cubic zinc-blende structure. The tests of transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures exhibit that the QDs obtained are spherical-shaped particles and the average grain size increased from 2.7 to 3.8 nm with the growth of ZnS shell. The emission peak position of QDs has a small redshift from 461 to 475 nm with the growth of ZnS shell within the blue spectral window. The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity and stability of the ZnSe:Cu core d-dots are both enhanced by coating ZnS shell on the surface of core d-dots. The largest PL intensity of the core/shell QDs is almost 3 times larger than that of Cu doped ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe:Cu d-dots). The redshift of core/shell QDs compared with the core QDs are observed in both the absorption and the photoluminescence excitation spectra.

  13. High-performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on core/shell cobalt oxide/carbon nanowire arrays with enhanced electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, G.X.; Xia, X.H.; Cao, F.; Chen, J.; Tang, P.S.; Zhang, Y.J.; Chen, H.F.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We prepared a self-supported porous Co 3 O 4 /C core/shell nanowire array. • Core/shell nanowire array showed high pseudo-capacitive properties. • Core/shell array structure was favorable for fast ion and electron transfer. - Abstract: High-reactivity electrode materials are indispensible for developing high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. Herein, we report self-supported core/shell Co 3 O 4 /C nanowire arrays by using hydrothermal synthesis and chemical vapor deposition methods. A uniform and thin carbon shell is coated on the surface of Co 3 O 4 nanowire forming core/shell nanowires with diameters of ∼100 nm. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been assembled with the core/shell Co 3 O 4 /C nanowire arrays as the positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode. The core/shell Co 3 O 4 /C nanowire arrays exhibit a specific capacity of 116 mAh g −1 at the working current of 100 mA (4 A g −1 ), and a long cycle life along with ∼ 92% retention after 8000 cycles at 4 A g −1 , higher than the unmodified Co 3 O 4 nanowire arrays (81 mAh g −1 at 4 A g −1 ). The introduction of uniform carbon layer into the core/shell structure is favorable for the enhancement of supercapacitor due to the improved electrical conductivity and reaction kinetics

  14. Saccharide-based Approach to Green Metallic Nanostructure Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Sørensen, Karsten Holm; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    A green approach to solution synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been developed using harmless and bioapplicable chemicals as well as moderate temperatures. Metal precursors are reduced by glucose/buffers and sterically stabilized by starch. The saccharide based procedure is highly diverse pr...... producing specifically a wide range of spherical, anisotropic, metallic, semi - conductor and core-shell nanostructures....

  15. Design of Magnetic Gelatine/Silica Nanocomposites by Nanoemulsification: Encapsulation versus in Situ Growth of Iron Oxide Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Allouche

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of magnetic nanoparticles by incorporation of iron oxide colloids within gelatine/silica hybrid nanoparticles has been performed for the first time through a nanoemulsion route using the encapsulation of pre-formed magnetite nanocrystals and the in situ precipitation of ferrous/ferric ions. The first method leads to bi-continuous hybrid nanocomposites containing a limited amount of well-dispersed magnetite colloids. In contrast, the second approach allows the formation of gelatine-silica core-shell nanostructures incorporating larger amounts of agglomerated iron oxide colloids. Both magnetic nanocomposites exhibit similar superparamagnetic behaviors. Whereas nanocomposites obtained via an in situ approach show a strong tendency to aggregate in solution, the encapsulation route allows further surface modification of the magnetic nanocomposites, leading to quaternary gold/iron oxide/silica/gelatine nanoparticles. Hence, such a first-time rational combination of nano-emulsion, nanocrystallization and sol-gel chemistry allows the elaboration of multi-component functional nanomaterials. This constitutes a step forward in the design of more complex bio-nanoplatforms.

  16. Fabrication of ammonium perchlorate/copper-chromium oxides core-shell nanocomposites for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Abbas, E-mail: eslami@umz.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O.Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juibari, Nafise Modanlou [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O.Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The ammonium perchlorate/Cu(II)-Cr(III)-oxides(AP/Cu-Cr-O) core-shell nanocomposites were in-situ prepared by deposition of copper and chromium oxides on suspended ammonium perchlorate particles in ethyl acetate as solvent. The results of differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments showed that the nanocomposites have excellent catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of AP, so that the released heat increases up to about 3-fold over initial values, changing from 450 J/g for pure AP to 1510 J/g for most appropriate mixture. For better comparison, single metal oxide/AP core-shell nanocomposite have also been prepared and the results showed that they have less catalytic effect respect to mixed metal oxides system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed homogenous deposition of nanoparticles on the surface of AP and fabrication of core-shell structures. The kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of both pure AP and AP/Cu-Cr-O samples have been calculated by Kissinger method and the results showed that the values of pre-exponential factor and activation energy are higher for AP/Cu-Cr-O nanocomposite. The better catalytic effect of Cu-Cr-O nanocomposites is probably attributed to the synergistic effect between Cu{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} in the nanocomposites, smaller particle size and more crystal defect. - Highlights: • The Cu-Cr-O nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical liquid deposition method. • Then, the AP/Cu-Cr-O core-shell nanocomposites were prepared. • The core-shell samples showed high catalytic activity for AP decomposition. • Thermal decomposition of samples occurs at lower temperature range.

  17. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 μm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 μm), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  18. Core-shell diamond as a support for solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S; Wiest, Landon A; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L; Shutthanandan, V; Linford, Matthew R

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO(2) surfaces, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 microm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 microm), normal and reversed-phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates/m for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes and 54,800 plates/m for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides on a C(18) adsorbent.

  19. From core/shell to hollow Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles: evolution of the magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Z; Khurshid, H; Alonso, J; Phan, M H; Mukherjee, P; Srikanth, H

    2015-01-01

    High quality Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 core/shell, core/void/shell, and hollow nanoparticles with two different sizes of 8 and 12 nm were synthesized, and the effect of morphology, surface and finite-size effects on their magnetic properties including the exchange bias (EB) effect were systematically investigated. We find a general trend for both systems that as the morphology changes from core/shell to core/void/shell, the magnetization of the system decays and inter-particle interactions become weaker, while the effective anisotropy and the EB effect increase. The changes are more drastic when the nanoparticles become completely hollow. Noticeably, the morphological change from core/shell to hollow increases the mean blocking temperature for the 12 nm particles but decreases for the 8 nm particles. The low-temperature magnetic behavior of the 12 nm particles changes from a collective super-spin-glass system mediated by dipolar interactions for the core/shell nanoparticles to a frustrated cluster glass-like state for the shell nanograins in the hollow morphology. On the other hand for the 8 nm nanoparticles core/shell and hollow particles the magnetic behavior is more similar, and a conventional spin glass-like transition is obtained at low temperatures. In the case of the hollow nanoparticles, the coupling between the inner and outer spin layers in the shell gives rise to an enhanced EB effect, which increases with increasing shell thickness. This indicates that the morphology of the shell plays a crucial role in this kind of exchange-biased systems. (paper)

  20. Improved microbial growth inhibition activity of bio-surfactant induced Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadevi, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal college for women, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis process and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by using hydrazine reduction method. • Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse micelle method. • Coatings of TiO{sub 2} shell leads to decrease the usage of silver particles and also it reduces the release of silver ions from the matrix. • Optimum ratio of TiO{sub 2} particles: Ag atoms are needed for better antibacterial activity. • Sodium alginate (Bio-copolymer) induced core shell nanoparticles results 100% cell growth inhibition toward Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Surfactant induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles within the size range of 10–50 nm were applied in the antibacterial agent to inhibit the growth of bacterial cells. The single crystalline silver was located in the core part of the composite powder and the titanium dioxide components were uniformly distributed in the shell part. HRTEM and XRD results indicated that silver was completely covered by titanium dioxide and its crystal structure was not affected after being coated by titanium dioxide. The effect of silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the inhibition of bacterial cell growth was studied by means of disk diffusion method. The inhibition zone results reveal that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit 100% more antibacterial activity than that with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis showed a large concentration of silver was rapidly released into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) within a period of 1 day, with a much smaller concentration being released after this 1-day period. It was concluded that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles could enhance long term cell growth inhibition in comparison with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. The surfactant mediated core shell