WorldWideScience

Sample records for core sandwich panel

  1. Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Finnveden, Svante; Barbagallo, Mathias; Arteaga, Ines Lopez

    2014-05-01

    Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core, which is modeled by Biot's theory, is investigated using the waveguide finite element method. A waveguide poroelastic element is developed based on a displacement-pressure weak form. The dispersion curves of the sandwich panel are first identified as propagating or evanescent waves by varying the damping in the panel, and wave characteristics are analyzed by examining their motions. The energy distributions are calculated to identify the dominant motions. Simplified analytical models are also devised to show the main physics of the corresponding waves. This wave propagation analysis provides insight into the vibro-acoustic behavior of sandwich panels lined with elastic porous materials.

  2. Thermal behavior of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    Finite element thermal stress analysis was performed on a rectangular titanium honecomb-core sandwich panel which is subjected to thermal load with a temperature gradient across its depth. The distributions of normal stresses in the face sheets and the face-sheet/sandwich-core interfacial shear stresses are presented. The thermal buckling of the heated face sheet was analyzed by assuming the face sheet to be resting on an elastic foundation representing the sandwich core. Thermal buckling curves and thermal buckling load surface are presented for setting the limit for temperature gradient across the panel depth.

  3. Thick Plate Homogenization of Sandwich Panels Including Folded Cellular Cores

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEE, Arthur; Sab, Karam

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we provide the Bending-Gradient homogenization scheme and apply it to a sandwich panel including the chevron pattern. It turns out that the shear forces stiffness of the sandwich panel is strongly influenced by a skin distortion phenomenon which cannot be neglected in conventional design.

  4. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  5. Fabrication and Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Truss Core Sandwich Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Wang; Linzhi Wu; Li Ma; Qiang Wang; Shanyi Du

    2009-01-01

    Truss core sandwich panels reinforced by carbon fibers were assembled with bonded laminate facesheets and carbon fiber reinforced truss cores. The top and bottom facesheets were interconnected with truss cores. Both ends of the truss cores were embedded into four layers of top and bottom facesheets. The mechanical properties of truss core sandwich panels were then investigated under out-of-plane and in-plane compression loadings to reveal the failure mechanisms of sandwich panels. Experimental results indicated that the mechanical behavior of sandwich structure under in-plane loading is dominated by the buckling and debonding of facesheets.

  6. Sandwiched structural panel having a bi-directional core structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A structural panel assembly has a bi-directional core structure sandwiched between and secured to a pair of outer side wall members. The core structure is formed from first and second perpendicular series of elongated strip members having crenelated configurations. The strip members in the first series thereof are transversely interwoven with the strip members in the second series thereof in a manner such that crest portions of the strip members in the first series overlie and oppose trough portions of the strip members in the second series, and trough portions of the strip members in the first series underlie and oppose crest portions of the strip members in the second series. The crest portions of all of the strip members lie generally in a first plane and are secured to the inner side of one of the panel assembly outer side walls, and the trough portions of all of the strip members lie generally in a second plane and are secured to the inner side of the other panel assembly outer side wall.

  7. Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramachandran

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article give an insight into the different methods employed in the construction of Sandwich panels, their limitations and future design application for defence use as a structural element with one of the highest strength-weight ratios yet devised.

  8. Flutter Characteristic Study of Composite Sandwich Panel with Functionally Graded Foam Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the flutter characteristic of sandwich panel composed of laminated facesheets and a functionally graded foam core. The macroscopic properties of the foam core change continuously along this direction parallel to the facesheet lamina. The model used in the study is a simple sandwich panel-wing clamped at the root, with three simple types of grading strategies for FGM core: (1 linear grading strategy in the chord-wise direction, (2 linear grading strategy in the span-wise direction, and (3 bilinear grading of properties of foam core across the panel. The results show that use of FGM core has the potential to increase the flutter speed of the sandwich panel. Finally, a minimum weight design of composite sandwich panel with lamination parameters of facesheet and density distribution of foam core as design variables is conducted using particle swarm optimization (PSO.

  9. Experimental validation of the Higher-Order Theory approach for sandwich panels with flexible core materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2000-01-01

    During tthe 1990's the higher-order theory was developed by Frostig to enable detailed stress analyses of sandwich panel structures. To investigate the potentials of this approach experiments are performed on sandwich panels made of thin steel faces and mineral wool or polystyrene core material. A p

  10. Sound transmission loss characteristics of sandwich panels with a truss lattice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Moosavimehr, S; Srikantha Phani, A

    2017-04-01

    Sandwich panels are extensively used in constructional, naval, and aerospace structures due to the high stiffness and strength-to-weight ratios. In contrast, the sound transmission properties are adversely influenced by the low effective mass. Phase velocity matching of structural waves propagating within the panel and the incident pressure waves from the fluid medium leads to coincidence effects resulting in reduced impedance and high sound transmission. Truss-like lattice cores with porous microarchitecture and reduced inter panel connectivity offer the potential to satisfy the conflicting structural and vibroacoustic response requirements. This study combines Bloch-wave analysis and the finite element method to understand wave propagation and hence sound transmission in sandwich panels with a truss lattice core. Three dimensional coupled fluid-structure finite element simulations are conducted to compare the performance of a representative set of lattice core topologies. Potential advantages of sandwich structures with a lattice core are identified. The significance of partial band gaps is evident in the sound transmission loss characteristics of the panels studied. This work demonstrates that, even without optimization, significant enhancements in sound transmission loss performance can be achieved in truss lattice core sandwich panels compared to a traditional sandwich panel employing a honeycomb core under constant mass constraint.

  11. Vibroacoustic Characterization of Corrugated-Core and Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Albert; Schiller, Noah

    2016-01-01

    The vibroacoustic characteristics of two candidate launch vehicle fairing structures, corrugated- core and honeycomb-core sandwich designs, were studied. The study of these structures has been motivated by recent risk reduction efforts focused on mitigating high noise levels within the payload bays of large launch vehicles during launch. The corrugated-core sandwich concept is of particular interest as a dual purpose structure due to its ability to harbor resonant noise control systems without appreciably adding mass or taking up additional volume. Specifically, modal information, wavelength dispersion, and damping were determined from a series of vibrometer measurements and subsequent analysis procedures carried out on two test panels. Numerical and analytical modeling techniques were also used to assess assumed material properties and to further illuminate underlying structural dynamic aspects. Results from the tests and analyses described herein may serve as a reference for additional vibroacoustic studies involving these or similar structures.

  12. Sound transmission across lightweight all-metallic sandwich panels with corrugated cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Fengxian; LU Tianjian; CHEN Changqing

    2009-01-01

    The transmission of sound through all-metallic sandwich panels with corrugated cores is investigated using the space-harmonic method. The sandwich panel is modeled as two parallel panels connected by uniformly distributed translational springs and rotational springs, with the mass of the core sheets taken as lumped mass. Based on the periodicity of the panel structure, a unit cell model is developed to provide the effective translational and rotational stiffness of the core. To check the validity of the model, it is used first to study the sound insulation properties of double-panel structures with air cavity, and the analytical predictions agree well with existing experimental data. The model is then employed to quantify the influence of sound incidence angle and the inclination angle between facesheet and core sheet on sound transmission loss (STL) across sandwich panels with corrugated cores. The results show that the inclination angle has a significant effect on STL and it is possible to avoid STL dips by altering the inclination angle. Moreover, it is found that sandwich panels with corrugated cores are more suitable for the insulation of sound waves having small incidence angles.

  13. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Metallic foams are a relatively new class of materials with low density and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. Although incompletely characterized, they offer comparable mechanical performance to traditional spacecraft structural materials (i.e. honeycomb sandwich panels) without detrimental through-thickness channeling cells. There are two competing types of metallic foams: open cell and closed cell. Open cell foams are considered the more promising technology due to their lower weight and higher degree of homogeneity. Leading micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields (MMOD) incorporate thin plates separated by a void space (i.e. Whipple shield). Inclusion of intermediate fabric layers, or multiple bumper plates have led to significant performance enhancements, yet these shields require additional non-ballistic mass for installation (fasteners, supports, etc.) that can consume up to 35% of the total shield weight [1]. Structural panels, such as open cell foam core sandwich panels, that are also capable of providing sufficient MMOD protection, represent a significant potential for increased efficiency in hypervelocity impact shielding from a systems perspective through a reduction in required non-ballistic mass. In this paper, the results of an extensive impact test program on aluminum foam core sandwich panels are reported. The effect of pore density, and core thickness on shielding performance have been evaluated over impact velocities ranging from 2.2 - 9.3 km/s at various angles. A number of additional tests on alternate sandwich panel configurations of comparable-weight have also been performed, including aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels (see Figure 1), Nomex honeycomb core sandwich panels, and 3D aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels. A total of 70 hypervelocity impact tests are reported, from which an empirical ballistic limit equation (BLE) has been derived. The BLE is in the standard form suitable for implementation in

  14. Variable stiffness sandwich panels using electrostatic interlocking core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-04-01

    Structural topology has a large impact on the flexural stiffness of a beam structure. Reversible attachment between discrete substructures allows for control of shear stress transfer between structural elements, thus stiffness modulation. Electrostatic adhesion has shown promise for providing a reversible latching mechanism for controllable internal connectivity. Building on previous research, a thin film copper polyimide laminate has been used to incorporate high voltage electrodes to Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sandwich structures. The level of electrostatic holding force across the electrode interface is key to the achievable level of stiffness modulation. The use of non-flat interlocking core structures can allow for a significant increase in electrode contact area for a given core geometry, thus a greater electrostatic holding force. Interlocking core geometries based on cosine waves can be Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machined from Rohacell IGF 110 Foam core. These Interlocking Core structures could allow for enhanced variable stiffness functionality compared to basic planar electrodes. This novel concept could open up potential new applications for electrostatically induced variable stiffness structures.

  15. Compression strength of sandwich panels with sub-interface damage in the foam core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of a local quasi-static indentation or a low-velocity impact on the residual strength of foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. The damage is characterized by a local zone of crushed core accompanied by a residual dent in the face sheet.

  16. Fracture Behaviours in Compression-loaded Triangular Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure modes occurring in sandwich panels based on the corrugations of aluminium alloy, carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP and glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP are analysed in this work. The fracture behaviour of these sandwich panels under compressive stresses is determined through a series of uniform lateral compression performed on samples with different cell wall thicknesses. Compression test on the corrugated-core sandwich panels were conducted using an Instron series 4505 testing machine. The post-failure examinations of the corrugated-core in different cell wall thickness were conducted using optical microscope. Load-displacement graphs of aluminium alloy, GFRP and CFRP specimens were plotted to show progressive damage development with five unit cells. Four modes of failure were described in the results: buckling, hinges, delamination and debonding. Each of these failure modes may dominate under different cell wall thickness or loading condition, and they may act in combination. The results indicate that thicker composites corrugated-core panels tend can recover more stress and retain more stiffness. This analysis provides a valuable insight into the mechanical behaviour of corrugated-core sandwich panels for use in lightweight engineering applications.

  17. Compressive and bending behavior of sandwich panels with Octet truss core fabricated from wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Hyun; Nah, Seong Jun; Kang, Ki Ju [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Man Hoe [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-01

    Ultra light metal structures have been studied for several years because of their superior specific stiffness, strength and potential of multi functions. Many studies have been focused on how to manufacture ultra light metal structures and optimize them. In this study, we introduced a new idea to make sandwich panels having Octet truss cores. Wires bent in a shape of triangular wave were assembled to construct an Octet truss core and it was bonded with two face sheets to be a sandwich panel. The bending and compressive strength and stiffness were estimated through elementary mechanics for the sandwich specimens with two kinds of face sheets and the results were compared with the ones measured by experiments. Some aspects of assembling and mechanical behavior were discussed compared with Kagome core fabricated from wire, which had been introduced in the authors' previous work.

  18. Localized Effects in the Nonlinear Behavior of Sandwich Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostig, Y.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2005-01-01

    nonlinear analysis approach incorporates the effects of the vertical flexibility of the core, and it is based on the approach of the High-order Sandwich Panel Theory (HSAPT). The results demonstrate that the effects of localized loads, when taken into the geometrically nonlinear domain, change the response...

  19. Transmission Loss and Absorption of Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels With Embedded Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of embedded resonators on the diffuse field sound transmission loss and absorption of composite corrugated core sandwich panels has been evaluated experimentally. Two 1.219 m × 2.438 m panels with embedded resonator arrangements targeting frequencies near 100 Hz were evaluated using non-standard processing of ASTM E90-09 acoustic transmission loss and ASTM C423-09a room absorption test measurements. Each panel is comprised of two composite face sheets sandwiching a corrugated core with a trapezoidal cross section. When inlet openings are introduced in one face sheet, the chambers within the core can be used as embedded acoustic resonators. Changes to the inlet and chamber partition locations allow this type of structure to be tuned for targeted spectrum passive noise control. Because the core chambers are aligned with the plane of the panel, the resonators can be tuned for low frequencies without compromising the sandwich panel construction, which is typically sized to meet static load requirements. Absorption and transmission loss performance improvements attributed to opening the inlets were apparent for some configurations and inconclusive for others.

  20. Sound Transmission Loss Through a Corrugated-Core Sandwich Panel with Integrated Acoustic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.; Zalewski, Bart F; Beck, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the effect of structurally integrated resonators on the transmission loss of a sandwich panel. The sandwich panel has facesheets over a corrugated core, which creates long aligned chambers that run parallel to the facesheets. When ports are introduced through the facesheet, the long chambers within the core can be used as low-frequency acoustic resonators. By integrating the resonators within the structure they contribute to the static load bearing capability of the panel while also attenuating noise. An analytical model of a panel with embedded resonators is derived and compared with numerical simulations. Predictions show that acoustic resonators can significantly improve the transmission loss of the sandwich panel around the natural frequency of the resonators. In one configuration with 0.813 m long internal chambers, the diffuse field transmission loss is improved by more than 22 dB around 104 Hz. The benefit is achieved with no added mass or volume relative to the baseline structure. The embedded resonators are effective because they radiate sound out-of-phase with the structure. This results in destructive interference, which leads to less transmitted sound power.

  1. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S.; Ordonez, E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell metallic foam core sandwich panel structures are of interest for application in spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields due to their novel form and advantageous structural and thermal performance. Repeated shocking as a result of secondary impacts upon individual foam ligaments during the penetration process acts to raise the thermal state of impacting projectiles ; resulting in fragmentation, melting, and vaporization at lower velocities than with traditional shielding configurations (e.g. Whipple shield). In order to characterize the protective capability of these structures, an extensive experimental campaign was performed by the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility, the results of which are reported in this paper. Although not capable of competing against the protection levels achievable with leading heavy shields in use on modern high-risk vehicles (i.e. International Space Station modules), metallic foam core sandwich panels are shown to provide a substantial improvement over comparable structural panels and traditional low weight shielding alternatives such as honeycomb sandwich panels and metallic Whipple shields. A ballistic limit equation, generalized in terms of panel geometry, is derived and presented in a form suitable for application in risk assessment codes.

  2. Technology sandwich panels with mineral wool insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tyulenev M.; Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panel — self–supporting structure consisting of metal cladding and thermal insulation core. As a heat–insulating core used mineral wool, foamed plastics. Production of sandwich panels with insulation mineral wool performed on modular lines for the production of aggregate or conveyer scheme. Sandwich panels are used as load–bearing elements of the facades, as well as a roof covering.

  3. Optimal Design of Multistage Two-Dimensional Cellular-Cored Sandwich Panel Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcun Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For a two-dimensional (2D cellular-cored sandwich panel heat exchanger, there exists an optimum cell size to achieve the maximum heat transfer with the prescribed pressure drop when the length is fixed and the two plates are isothermal. However, in engineering design, it is difficult to find 2D cellular materials with the ideal cell size because the cell size selected must be from those commercially available, which are discrete, not continuous. In order to obtain the maximum heat dissipation, an innovative design scheme is proposed for the sandwich panel heat exchanger which is divided into multiple stages in the direction of fluid flow where the 2D cellular material in each stage has a specific cell size. An analytical model is presented to evaluate the thermal performance of the multistage sandwich panel heat exchanger when all 2D cellular materials have the same porosity. Also, a new parameter named equivalent cell size (ECS is defined, which is dependent on the cell size and length of cellular material in all stages. Results show that the maximum heat dissipation design of the multistage sandwich panel heat exchanger can be converted to make the ECS equal to the optimal cell size of the single-stage exchanger.

  4. Compression After Impact on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels with Thin Facesheets, Part 2: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2012-01-01

    A two part research study has been completed on the topic of compression after impact (CAI) of thin facesheet honeycomb core sandwich panels. The research has focused on both experiments and analysis in an effort to establish and validate a new understanding of the damage tolerance of these materials. Part 2, the subject of the current paper, is focused on the analysis, which corresponds to the CAI testings described in Part 1. Of interest, are sandwich panels, with aerospace applications, which consist of very thin, woven S2-fiberglass (with MTM45-1 epoxy) facesheets adhered to a Nomex honeycomb core. Two sets of materials, which were identical with the exception of the density of the honeycomb core, were tested in Part 1. The results highlighted the need for analysis methods which taken into account multiple failure modes. A finite element model (FEM) is developed here, in Part 2. A commercial implementation of the Multicontinuum Failure Theory (MCT) for progressive failure analysis (PFA) in composite laminates, Helius:MCT, is included in this model. The inclusion of PFA in the present model provided a new, unique ability to account for multiple failure modes. In addition, significant impact damage detail is included in the model. A sensitivity study, used to assess the effect of each damage parameter on overall analysis results, is included in an appendix. Analysis results are compared to the experimental results for each of the 32 CAI sandwich panel specimens tested to failure. The failure of each specimen is predicted using the high-fidelity, physicsbased analysis model developed here, and the results highlight key improvements in the understanding of honeycomb core sandwich panel CAI failure. Finally, a parametric study highlights the strength benefits compared to mass penalty for various core densities.

  5. Transverse Shear Behavior of a Nomex Core for Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. A.; Khan, Z.; Farooqi, I.; Nauman, S.; Anas, S.; Khalil, S.; Pasha, A.; Khan, Z.; Shah, M.; Qaiser, H.; Ata, R.

    2015-01-01

    The out-of-plane transverse shear characteristics of a Nomex honeycomb core have been studied. Finite-element analyses were performed to find the equivalent transverse shear moduli of the honeycomb core by using a unit-cell-based modeling approach with account of the orthotropic nature of Nomex paper. The results obtained are compared with those of three theoretical approaches. The differences between the numerical and theoretical results are attributed to the isotropic behavior of the basic core material considered in the theoretical approaches.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Response of Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels Subjected to Near-Field Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional fully coupled simulation is conducted to analyze the dynamic response of sandwich panels comprising equal thicknesses face sheets sandwiching a corrugated core when subjected to localized impulse created by the detonation of cylindrical explosive. A large number of computational cases have been calculated to comprehensively investigate the performance of sandwich panels under near-field air blast loading. Results show that the deformation/failure modes of panels depend strongly on stand-off distance. The beneficial FSI effect can be enhanced by decreasing the thickness of front face sheet. The core configuration has a negligible influence on the peak reflected pressure, but it has an effect on the deflection of a panel. It is found that the benefits of a sandwich panel over an equivalent weight solid plate to withstand near-field air blast loading are more evident at lower stand-off distance.

  7. Compression After Impact on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels With Thin Facesheets. Part 1; Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2012-01-01

    A two part research study has been completed on the topic of compression after impact (CAI) of thin facesheet honeycomb core sandwich panels. The research has focused on both experiments and analysis in an effort to establish and validate a new understanding of the damage tolerance of these materials. Part one, the subject of the current paper, is focused on the experimental testing. Of interest are sandwich panels, with aerospace applications, which consist of very thin, woven S2-fiberglass (with MTM45-1 epoxy) facesheets adhered to a Nomex honeycomb core. Two sets of specimens, which were identical with the exception of the density of the honeycomb core, were tested. Static indentation and low velocity impact using a drop tower are used to study damage formation in these materials. A series of highly instrumented CAI tests was then completed. New techniques used to observe CAI response and failure include high speed video photography, as well as digital image correlation (DIC) for full-field deformation measurement. Two CAI failure modes, indentation propagation, and crack propagation, were observed. From the results, it can be concluded that the CAI failure mode of these panels depends solely on the honeycomb core density.

  8. Experimental Validation of the Transverse Shear Behavior of a Nomex Core for Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, M. I.; Nasir, M. A.; Ali, H. M.; Ali, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This work deals with determination of the transverse shear moduli of a Nomex® honeycomb core of sandwich panels. Their out-of-plane shear characteristics depend on the transverse shear moduli of the honeycomb core. These moduli were determined experimentally, numerically, and analytically. Numerical simulations were performed by using a unit cell model and three analytical approaches. Analytical calculations showed that two of the approaches provided reasonable predictions for the transverse shear modulus as compared with experimental results. However, the approach based upon the classical lamination theory showed large deviations from experimental data. Numerical simulations also showed a trend similar to that resulting from the analytical models.

  9. A Comparative Study of Ballistic Resistance of Sandwich Panels with Aluminum Foam and Auxetic Honeycomb Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative auxetic-cored sandwich panel (AXP is proposed. Its perforation resistant performance under high-velocity projectile impact was numerically analyzed using the validated finite element simulation techniques and compared with that of the aluminum foam-cored sandwich panel (AFP of identical dimensions and weight. It has been found that the AXP is far superior to the AFP in ballistic resistance because of the material concentration at the impacted area due to the negative Poisson's ratio (NPR effect. A parametric study was carried out to investigate the effects of several key parameters, including impact velocity, face and core thicknesses, and core density, on the ballistic resistance of the AXP and AFP. The results show that the ballistic limit and perforation energy of the AXP is greatly affected by these parameters. Meanwhile, the advantages of AXP over AFP being used as ballistic resistant structures are highlighted. The primary outcome of this research is new information on the development and design of advanced ballistic resistant structures containing auxetic materials.

  10. Compression After Impact Experiments and Analysis on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels with Thin Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the effect of impact damage on composite structures is necessary to give the engineer an ability to design safe, efficient structures. Current composite structures suffer severe strength reduction under compressive loading conditions, due to even light damage, such as from low velocity impact. A review is undertaken to access the current state-of-development in the areas of experimental testing, and analysis methods. A set of experiments on honeycomb core sandwich panels, with thin woven fiberglass cloth facesheets, is described, which includes detailed instrumentation and unique observation techniques.

  11. Blast loading of sandwich panels with thin-walled tube cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobold, M.D.; Nurick, G.N. [Cape Town Univ., Cape Town (South Africa). Blast Impact and Survivability Research Unit

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented the results of an experimental and modelling study that investigated the responses to blast loading of a novel sandwich panel used in structural protection. The panel was comprised of thin-walled aluminium alloy square tubes with annealed steel outer plates. A split Hopkinson pressure bar was used to characterize the materials at quasi-static strain rates as well as at high strain rates. A series of blast tests was conducted with explosive charges that ranged from between 13 to 38 g with a blast tube mounted to a ballistic pendulum. Results of the experimental study showed that the panel had a large energy absorption capacity. The tube layout and the choice of materials had a significant influence on panel response. During larger blasts, progressive symmetric buckling was observed in core tubes, and core stability was compromised in lower impulse blasts. It was concluded that finite element analyses conducted on the panels showed good agreement with results obtained during the experimental studies.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Sandwich Panels with Steel Facesheets and GFRP Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a new form of composite sandwich panels, with steel plates as facesheets and bonded glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP pultruded hollow square tubes as core. In this novel panel, GFRP and steel were optimally combined to obtain high bending stiffness, strength, and good ductility. Four-point bending test was implemented to analyze the distribution of the stress, strain, mid-span deflection, and the ultimate failure mode. A section transformation method was used to evaluate the stress and the mid-span deflection of the sandwich panels. The theoretical values, experimental results, and FEM simulation values are compared and appeared to be in good agreement. The influence of thickness of steel facesheet on mid-span deflection and stress was simulated. The results showed that the mid-span deflection and stress decreased and the decent speed was getting smaller as the thickness of steel facesheet increases. A most effective thickness of steel facesheet was advised.

  13. Thermo-mechanical interaction effects in foam cored sandwich panels-correlation between High-order models and Finite element analysis results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Santiuste, Carlos; Thomsen, Ole Thybo;

    2010-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical interaction effects including thermal material degradation in polymer foam cored sandwich structures is investigated using the commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) package ABAQUS/Standard. Sandwich panels with different boundary conditions in the form of simply supported...

  14. Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of Steel Hollow I-core Sandwich Panel under Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Vatani Oskouei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the non-linear dynamic response of novel steel sandwich panel with hollow I-core subjected to blast loading was studied. Special emphasis is placed on the evaluation of midpoint displacements and energy dissipation of the models. Several parameters such as boundary conditions, strain rate, mesh dependency and asymmetrical loading are considered in this study. The material and geometric non-linearities are also considered in the numerical simulation. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data to verify the developed FE model. Modeling techniques are described in detail. According to the results, sandwich panels with hollow I-core allowed more plastic deformation and energy dissipation and less midpoint displacement than conventional I-core sandwich panels and also equivalent solid plate with the same weight and material.

  15. Harmonic Differential Quadrature Analysis of Soft-Core Sandwich Panels under Locally Distributed Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are widely used in practice and thus various engineering theories adopting simplifying assumptions are available. However, most engineering theories of beams, plates and shells cannot recover all stresses accurately through their constitutive equations. Therefore, the soft-core is directly modeled by two-dimensional (2D elasticity theory without any pre-assumption on the displacement field. The top and bottom faces act like the elastic supports on the top and bottom edges of the core. The differential equations of the 2D core are then solved by the harmonic differential quadrature method (HDQM. To circumvent the difficulties in dealing with the locally distributed load by point discrete methods such as the HDQM, a general and rigorous way is proposed to treat the locally distributed load. Detailed formulations are provided. The static behavior of sandwich panels under different locally distributed loads is investigated. For verification, results are compared with data obtained by ABAQUS with very fine meshes. A high degree of accuracy on both displacement and stress has been observed.

  16. Perforation of aluminium foam core sandwich panels under impact loading: A numerical and analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnasri Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical results of the inversed perforation test instrumented with Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar SHPB with an instrumented pressure bar on the AlSi7Mg0.5 aluminium foam core sandwich panels with 0.8 mm thick 2024 T3 aluminium top and bottom skin. The numerical models are developed in order to understand the origin of the enhancement of the top skin loads found under impact loading (paper published by [1]. Numerical predicted piercing force vs displacement curves are compared with experimental measurements (tests at impact velocities at 27 and 44 m/s. The simulation catches all process of the perforation of the sandwich panels (top skin, foam core, and bottom skin. Within experimental scatter, there is a good agreement between numerical predictions and experimental measurements. Virtual tests with different impact velocities up 200 m/s are presented and showed a significant enhancement of the piercing force under impact loading (top skin peak and foam core plateau loads. In order to understand the origin of these force enhancements, any difference of detailed local information between static and dynamic loading is studied and showed that a shock front effect is responsible for the enhancement piercing force. An analytical model using an improved RPPL shock model based a power law densification assumption is proposed to calculate the top skin piercing force. The improved RPPL shock model agrees with the FE results for small velocities and gives better prediction of the piercing force than the RPPL shock model for large velocities (>100 m/s.

  17. Perforation of aluminium foam core sandwich panels under impact loading: A numerical and analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasri, Ibrahim; Zhao, Han

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the numerical results of the inversed perforation test instrumented with Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar SHPB with an instrumented pressure bar on the AlSi7Mg0.5 aluminium foam core sandwich panels with 0.8 mm thick 2024 T3 aluminium top and bottom skin. The numerical models are developed in order to understand the origin of the enhancement of the top skin loads found under impact loading (paper published by [1]). Numerical predicted piercing force vs displacement curves are compared with experimental measurements (tests at impact velocities at 27 and 44 m/s). The simulation catches all process of the perforation of the sandwich panels (top skin, foam core, and bottom skin). Within experimental scatter, there is a good agreement between numerical predictions and experimental measurements. Virtual tests with different impact velocities up 200 m/s are presented and showed a significant enhancement of the piercing force under impact loading (top skin peak and foam core plateau loads). In order to understand the origin of these force enhancements, any difference of detailed local information between static and dynamic loading is studied and showed that a shock front effect is responsible for the enhancement piercing force. An analytical model using an improved RPPL shock model based a power law densification assumption is proposed to calculate the top skin piercing force. The improved RPPL shock model agrees with the FE results for small velocities and gives better prediction of the piercing force than the RPPL shock model for large velocities (>100 m/s).

  18. Thermal-mechanical behavior of sandwich panels with closed-cell foam core under intensive laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature field and thermal deformation of sandwich panels with closed-cell aluminum alloy foam core and heat-protective layer, which are subjected to Gaussian laser beam intensively irradiating, are investigated numerically. In transient heat analysis models, the influence of thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thickness of heat-protective layer on the temperature rise of the sandwich panels is calculated. In stress analysis models, a sequence coupled numerical method is utilized to simulate the thermal stress and deformation of sandwich panels induced by thermal expansion. Simulation results indicate that the temperature at center of sandwich panel increases firstly and then drops gradually with the increase of thermal conductivity of heat-protective layer after laser irradiation, and the critical thermal conductivity is obtained, while it decreases with the increase of specific heat and thickness of heat-protective layer. The thermal stress verifies the “Cyclo-hoop effect”, i. e. radial stress is compression stress in “hot zone” and tension stress in “cold zone”. The max thermal deformation of sandwich panels slightly increases with the increase of thickness of heat-protective layer for given specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  19. Effect of temperature on the compressive behavior of carbon fiber composite pyramidal truss cores sandwich panels with reinforced frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of temperature on the out-of-plane compressive properties and failure mechanism of carbon fiber/epoxy composite pyramidal truss cores sandwich panels (CF/CPTSP. CF/CPTSP with novel reinforced frames are manufactured by the water jet cutting and interlocking assembly method in this paper. The theoretical analysis is presented to predict the out-of-plane compressive stiffness and strength of CF/CPTSP at different ambient temperatures. The tests of composite sandwich panels are performed throughout the temperature range from −90∘C to 180∘C. Good agreement is found between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. Experimental results indicate that the low temperature increases the compressive stiffness and strength of CF/CPTSP. However, the high temperature causes the degradation of the compressive stiffness and strength. Meanwhile, the effects of temperature on the failure mode of composite sandwich panels are also observed.

  20. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  1. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. The present study investigates the use of a sandwich foam fan blade mae up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The resulting structures possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and a detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of kin thickness and core volume are presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  2. Standard practice for radiologic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice is intended to be used as a supplement to Practices E 1742, E 1255, and E 2033. 1.2 This practice describes procedures for radiologic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials made entirely or in part from fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. Radiologic examination is: a) radiographic (RT) with film, b) Computed Radiography (CR) with Imaging Plate, c) Digital Radiology (DR) with Digital Detector Array’s (DDA), and d) Radioscopic (RTR) Real Time Radiology with a detection system such as an Image Intensifier. The composite materials under consideration typically contain continuous high modulus fibers (> 20 GPa), such as those listed in 1.4. 1.3 This practice describes established radiological examination methods that are currently used by industry that have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials during product process design and optimization, process control, after manufacture inspection, in service exami...

  3. Development and Evaluation of Stitched Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Larry E.; Adams, Daniel O.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and potential benefits provided by the addition of through-the-thickness reinforcement to sandwich structures. Through-the-thickness stitching is proposed to increase the interlaminar strength and damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures. A low-cost, out-of-autoclave processing method was developed to produce composite sandwich panels with carbon fiber face sheets, a closed-cell foam core, and through-the-thickness Kevlar stitching. The sandwich panels were stitched in a dry preform state, vacuum bagged, and infiltrated using Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processing. For comparison purposes, unstitched sandwich panels were produced using the same materials and manufacturing methodology. Test panels were produced initially at the University of Utah and later at NASA Langley Research Center. Four types of mechanical tests were performed: flexural testing, flatwise tensile testing, core shear testing, and edgewise compression testing. Drop-weight impact testing followed by specimen sectioning was performed to characterize the damage resistance of stitched sandwich panels. Compression after impact (CAI) testing was performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the sandwich panels. Results show significant increases in the flexural stiffness and strength, out-of-plane tensile strength, core shear strength, edgewise compression strength, and compression-after-impact strength of stitched sandwich structures.

  4. Ultrasonic guided wave characterization and damage detection in foam-core sandwich panel using PWAS and LDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nibir; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan

    2012-04-01

    Lamb wave type guided wave propagation in foam core sandwich structures and detectability of damages using spectral analysis method are reported in this paper. An experimental study supported by theoretical evaluation of the guided wave characteristics is presented here that shows the applicability of Lamb wave type guided ultrasonic wave for detection of damage in foam core sandwich structures. Sandwich beam specimens were fabricated with 10 mm thick foam core and 0.3 mm thick aluminum face sheets. Thin piezoelectric patch actuators and sensors are used to excite and sense guided wave. Group velocity dispersion curves and frequency response of sensed signal are obtained experimentally. The nature of damping present in the sandwich panel is monitored by measuring the sensor signal amplitude at various different distances measured from the center of the linear phased array. Delaminations of increasing width are created and detected experimentally by pitch-catch interrogation with guided waves and wavelet transform of the sensed signal. Signal amplitudes are analyzed for various different sizes of damages to differentiate the damage size/severity. A sandwich panel is also fabricated with a planer dimension of 600 mm x 400 mm. Release film delamination is introduced during fabrication. Non-contact Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is used to scan the panel while exciting with a surface bonded piezoelectric actuator. Presence of damage is confirmed by the reflected wave fringe pattern obtained from the LDV scan. With this approach it is possible to locate and monitor the damages by tracking the wave packets scattered from the damages.

  5. Material combinations and parametric study of thermal and mechanical performance of pyramidal core sandwich panels used for hypersonic aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Lorenzini, Giulio; Xie, Gongnan

    2016-11-01

    A novel kind of lightweight integrated thermal protection system, named pyramidal core sandwich panel, is proposed to be a good safeguard for hypersonic aircrafts in the current study. Such system is considered as not only an insulation structure but also a load-bearing structure. In the context of design for hypersonic aircrafts, an efficient optimization should be paid enough attention. This paper concerns with the homogenization of the proposed pyramidal sandwich core panel using two-dimensional model in subsequent research for material selection. According to the required insulation performance and thermal-mechanical properties, several suitable material combinations are chosen as candidates for the pyramidal core sandwich panel by adopting finite element analysis and approximate response surface. To obtain lightweight structure with an excellent capability of heat insulation and load-bearing, an investigation on some specific design variables, which are significant for thermal-mechanical properties of the structure, is performed. Finally, a good balance between the insulation performance, the capability of load-bearing and the lightweight has attained.

  6. Process for Design Optimization of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels for Blast Load Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    damage causing potential of the blast impulse. Though metal sandwich panels have been used for a long time in aircraft and other light weight struc...aluminum alloy with bilinear isotropic-hardening elastoplastic material model is used for the foil. Since the yield and ultimate strength of the AL5052...foil are very close, bilinear elastoplastic mate- rial model with very low tangent modulus is a reasonable approximation. The adhesive is modeled as

  7. Analysis and Tests of Reinforced Carbon-Epoxy/Foam-Core Sandwich Panels with Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Donald J.; Rogers, Charles

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study of a low-cost structurally efficient minimum-gage shear-panel design that can be used in light helicopters are presented. The shear-panel design is based on an integrally stiffened syntactic-foam stabilized-skin with an all-bias-ply tape construction for stabilized-skin concept with an all-bias-ply tape construction for the skins. This sandwich concept is an economical way to increase the panel bending stiffness weight penalty. The panels considered in the study were designed to be buckling resistant up to 100 lbs/in. of shear load and to have an ultimate strength of 300 lbs/in. The panel concept uses unidirectional carbon-epoxy tape on a syntactic adhesive as a stiffener that is co-cured with the skin and is an effective concept for improving panel buckling strength. The panel concept also uses pultruded carbon-epoxy rods embedded in a syntactic adhesive and over-wrapped with a bias-ply carbon-epoxy tape to form a reinforcing beam which is an effective method for redistributing load around rectangular cutout. The buckling strength of the reinforced panels is 83 to 90 percent of the predicted buckling strength based on a linear buckling analysis. The maximum experimental deflection exceeds the maximum deflection predicted by a nonlinear analysis by approximately one panel thickness. The failure strength of the reinforced panels was two and a half to seven times of the buckling strength. This efficient shear-panel design concept exceeds the required ultimate strength requirement of 300 lbs/in by more than 100 percent.

  8. On the non-linear high-order theory of unidirectional sandwich panels with a transversely flexible core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostig, Yeoshua; Sheinman, Izhak [Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Haifa (Israel); Thomsen, Ole Thybo [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Mechanical Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2005-03-01

    The paper presents a general geometrically non-linear high-order theory of sandwich panels that takes into account the high-order geometrical non-linearities in the core as well as in the face sheets and is based on a variational approach. The formulation, which yields a set of rather complicated governing equations, has been simplified in two different approaches and has been compared with FEA results for verification. The first formulation uses the kinematic relations of large displacements with moderate rotations for the face sheets, non-linear kinematic relations for the core and it assumes that the distribution of the vertical normal stresses through the depth of the core are linear. The second approach uses the general formulation to the non-linear high-order theory of sandwich panels (HSAPT) that considers geometrical non-linearities in the face sheets and only linear high-order effects in the core. The numerical results of the two formulations are presented for a three point bending loading scheme, which is associated with a limit point behavior. The results of the two formulations are compared in terms of displacements, bending moments and shear stresses and transverse (vertical) normal stresses at the face-core interfaces on one hand, and load versus these structural quantities on the other hand. The results have compared well with FEA results obtained using the commercial codes ADINA and ANSYS. (Author)

  9. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  10. Behaviour of Metal Foam Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Sandwich panels as used in structures comprise of a foam core enclosed by thin high strength steel faces. This paper discusses currently design formulae of local buckling behaviour of such panels using the finite element method. Multiple wave finite element models were adopted to investigate...

  11. A Numerical Study on the Effect of Facesheet-Core Disbonds on the Buckling Load of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance approach for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method. Facesheet and core nodes in a predetermined circular region were detached to simulate a disbond induced via low-speed impact between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. A significant change in the slope of the edge load-deflection response was used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load.

  12. Response of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panel with Minimum Gage GFRP Face-Sheets to Compression Loading After Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2011-01-01

    A compression after impact study has been conducted to determine the residual strength of three sandwich panel constructions with two types of thin glass fiber reinforced polymer face-sheets and two hexagonal honeycomb Nomex core densities. Impact testing is conducted to first determine the characteristics of damage resulting from various impact energy levels. Two modes of failure are found during compression after impact tests with the density of the core precipitating the failure mode present for a given specimen. A finite element analysis is presented for prediction of the residual compressive strength of the impacted specimens. The analysis includes progressive damage modeling in the face-sheets. Preliminary analysis results were similar to the experimental results; however, a higher fidelity core material model is expected to improve the correlation.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of the Facesheet to Core Interface in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subject to Mode I Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoewer, Daniel; Lerch, Bradley A.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan Jorge; Reese, Stefanie; Simon, Jaan-Willem

    2017-01-01

    A new cohesive zone traction-separation law, which includes the effects of fiber bridging, has been developed, implemented with a finite element (FE) model, and applied to simulate the delamination between the facesheet and core of a composite honeycomb sandwich panel. The proposed traction-separation law includes a standard initial cohesive component, which accounts for the initial interfacial stiffness and energy release rate, along with a new component to account for the fiber bridging contribution to the delamination process. Single cantilever beam tests on aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels with carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets were used to characterize and evaluate the new formulation and its finite element implementation. These tests, designed to evaluate the mode I toughness of the facesheet to core interface, exhibited significant fiber bridging and large crack process zones, giving rise to a concave downward concave upward pre-peak shape in the load-displacement curve. Unlike standard cohesive formulations, the proposed formulation captures this observed shape, and its results have been shown to be in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental load-displacement and apparent critical energy release rate results, representative of a payload fairing structure, as well as local strain fields measured with digital image correlation.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    Two analytical techniques applicable to large deflection dynamic response calculations for pressure loaded composite sandwich panels are demonstrated. One technique utilizes finite element modeling with a single equivalent layer representing the face sheets and core. The other technique utilizes the modal analysis computer code DEPROP which was recently modified to include transverse shear deformation in a core layer. The example problem consists of a simply supported rectangular sandwich panel. Included are comparisons of linear and nonlinear static response calculations, in addition to dynamic response calculations.

  15. Influence of plywood grain direction on sandwich panel bending properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Kljak; Mladen Brezović; Alan Antonović

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of plywood grain direction on bending properties of a sandwich panel, as well as on stress distribution in each layer. Experimental sandwich panels (tnom= 29 mm) were made of two three-ply plywood panels and a rigid PVC core between them. Grain directions of plywood panels were between 0° and 90°, continuously raised by 15°. Seven models of sandwich panels were made. Bending properties of a sandwich panel was determined by three point bending method and s...

  16. Thermal-Diode Sandwich Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal diode sandwich panel transfers heat in one direction, but when heat load reversed, switches off and acts as thermal insulator. Proposed to control temperature in spacecraft and in supersonic missiles to protect internal electronics. In combination with conventional heat pipes, used in solar panels and other heat-sensitive systems.

  17. 栅格三明治板的小挠度弯曲变形%Small deflecrion bending analysis of sandwich panels with truss cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王展光; 龚昕; 王珍吾; 肖鹤亮; 单建

    2011-01-01

    通过横向刚度等效的原则,将金字塔形栅格转变成连续化模型,并通过其刚度常数的推导,使其转变成均匀夹层板,应用Reissner夹层板理论,得到其弹性小挠度下的基本方程,并就简支板为例,得到其解析解,通过与有限元分析进行比较,两者结果吻合良好.%A sandwich panel with pyramidal truss cores was introduced and transformed into continuum model by means of the equivalent transverse shear stiffness. Its elastic stiffness constants were derived, and then the sandwich panel was idealized as a sandwich panel with uniform cores, and the basic equation was obtained with Reissner sandwich panel theory. The closed-form solution of a simple supported sandwich panel was calculated,and agree well with 3D finite element analysis.

  18. X-joints in composite sandwich panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.W.; Janssen, G.Th.M.

    1998-01-01

    The small structural weight of fast large ships such as fast mono hulls or catamaran type of ships is of extreme importance to their success. One possible light weight structural solution is the sandwich panel with fibre reinforced laminates and a balsa, honeycomb or foam core. A severe obstacle for

  19. X-joints in composite sandwich panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.W.; Janssen, G.Th.M.

    1998-01-01

    The small structural weight of fast large ships such as fast mono hulls or catamaran type of ships is of extreme importance to their success. One possible light weight structural solution is the sandwich panel with fibre reinforced laminates and a balsa, honeycomb or foam core. A severe obstacle for

  20. A multifunctional heat pipe sandwich panel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queheillalt, Douglas T.; Wadley, Haydn N.G. [University of Virginia, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 140 Chemistry Way, P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Carbajal, Gerardo [University of Turabo, School of Engineering, P.O. Box 3030, Gurabo 00778 (Puerto Rico); Peterson, G.P. [University of Colorado at Boulder, 914 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    A multifunctional sandwich panel combining efficient structural load support and thermal management characteristics has been designed and experimentally assessed. The concept is based upon a truncated, square honeycomb sandwich structure. In closed cell honeycomb structures, the transport of heat from one face to the other occurs by a combination of conduction through the webs and convection/radiation within the cells. Here, much more effective heat transport is achieved by multifunctionally utilizing the core as a heat pipe sandwich panel. Its interior consists of a 6061 aluminum truncated-square honeycomb core covered with a stochastic open-cell nickel foam wick. An electroless nickel plating barrier layer inhibited the chemical reaction between the deionized water working fluid and the aluminum structure, retarding the generation of non-condensable hydrogen gas. A thermodynamic model was used to guide the design of the heat pipe sandwich panel. We describe the results of a series of experiments that validate the operational principle of the multifunctional heat pipe sandwich panel and characterize its transient response to an intense localized heat source. The systems measured thermal response to a localized heat source agrees well with that predicted by a finite difference method model used to predict the thermal response. (author)

  1. Sandwich Panels Evaluated With Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment systems for next-generation engines. The bond strength between the core and face sheets is critical in maintaining the structural integrity of the sandwich structure. To improve the inspection and production of these systems, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, to evaluate the brazing quality between the face plates and the metallic foam core. The capabilities and limitations of a swept-frequency approach to ultrasonic spectroscopy were evaluated with respect to these sandwich structures. This report discusses results from three regions of a sandwich panel representing different levels of brazing quality between the outer face plates and a metallic foam core. Each region was investigated with ultrasonic spectroscopy. Then, on the basis of the NDE results, three shear specimens sectioned from the sandwich panel to contain each of these regions were mechanically tested.

  2. Behaviour of Metal Foam Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Sandwich panels as used in structures comprise of a foam core enclosed by thin high strength steel faces. This paper discusses currently design formulae of local buckling behaviour of such panels using the finite element method. Multiple wave finite element models were adopted to investigate...... and examine the adequacy of currently used approach for the design of sandwich panels. The paper presents brief details of the finite element model used including geometry, load pattern and boundary conditions. The selected model gives good agreement with experimental results from Pokharel and Mahendran (2003......). The study shows that currently available design formulae are conservative for stocky sandwich plate elements while being over-conservative for high slenderness. A unified design formula of local buckling behaviour applicable to the full range of slenderness is developed....

  3. Lateral crushing energy absorption performance of corrugated cores sandwich panels%折叠式夹层板横向吸能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延昌; 胡宗文; 俞鞠梅; 王自力

    2015-01-01

    折叠式夹层板作为轻型结构在舰船中应用前景广阔,而夹芯层结构为决定夹层板力学性能的关键因素。在总结现有折叠式夹层板类型基础上对其进行分类,整理出20种折叠式夹层板型式,进行结构概念设计;利用 Abaqus 数值仿真分析各种型式夹层板在横向压皱载荷下准静态压皱力学行为,获得各种夹层板压皱变形模式、压皱性能及吸能效率。对比分析表明,V -Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ及 U -Ⅰ五种夹层板结构的吸能效率、平均压皱强度较高,作为吸能结构较优;而U -Ⅳ、Circle Tube -Ⅰ、U -Ⅱ三种夹层板结构在一定条件下可作为吸能结构。%The corrugated cores sandwich panel as a lightweight construction has broad application prospect.The sandwich core is mainly responsible for the mechanical properties of sandwich panel.Based on the summary of existing types of corrugated cores sandwich panels,20 kinds of corrugated cores sandwich panels were sorted out and a conceptual design of structures was proposed.The lateral crushing behavior of various forms of sandwich panels was inspected with the finite element software Abaqus.Their parameters of crushing performance,deformation mode and energy absorption were compared.The results show that five kinds of sandwich planels V-Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and U-Ⅰ,which have characteristics of higher specific energy absorption and specific strength,are better choices for energy-absorption structure.Three kinds of sandwich planels U-Ⅳ,Circle Tube-Ⅰ and U-Ⅱ can be used as the energy-absorption structure under certain conditions.

  4. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  5. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  6. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  7. Buckling optimisation of sandwich cylindrical panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouhamzeh, M.; Sadighi, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the buckling load optimisation is performed on sandwich cylindrical panels. A finite element program is developed in MATLAB to solve the governing differential equations of the global buckling of the structure. In order to find the optimal solution, the genetic algorithm Toolbox in MATLAB is implemented. Verifications are made for both the buckling finite element code and also the results from the genetic algorithm by comparisons to the results available in literature. Sandwich cylindrical panels are optimised for the buckling strength with isotropic or orthotropic cores with different boundary conditions. Results are presented in terms of stacking sequence of fibers in the face sheets and core to face sheet thickness ratio.

  8. Random Vibration Suppression of a Truss Core Sandwich Panel Using Independent Modal Resonant Shunt and Modal Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongming Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to suppress the random spatial vibration of the face sheet of a lightly damped truss core sandwich panel structure. Because broad-bandwidth vibration energy is concentrated in resonance peaks for lightly damped structures, an independent modal resonant shunt control method is utilized to add damping ratios to the chosen modes. In this method, each piezoelectric transducer is connected to a single resonant shunt which is tuned to control the vibration of a single mode. An H2 norm sensitivity-based modal criterion is proposed in order to determine which modes to control under a given bandwidth of excitation and input-output condition. Numerical simulation is implemented while control strategies with different controlled modes are compared. The result shows that the independent modal resonant shunt control method can suppress random vibration response of the face sheet by using only a few piezoelectric transducers, and the proposed modal criterion can be used to determine which modes to control.

  9. Buckling Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Panel Under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Wang, John T.

    1995-01-01

    A sandwich panel with initial through-the-width debonds is analyzed to study the buckling of its faceskin when subject to an in-plane compressive load. The debonded faceskin is modeled as a beam on a Winkler elastic foundation in which the springs of the elastic foundation represent the sandwich foam. The Rayleigh-Ritz and finite-difference methods are used to predict the critical buckling load for various debond lengths and stiffnesses of the sandwich foam. The accuracy of the methods is assessed with a plane-strain finite-element analysis. Results indicate that the elastic foundation approach underpredicts buckling loads for sandwich panels with isotropic foam cores.

  10. Vibration Characteristics Determined for Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels With a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Min, James B.; Raj, Sai V.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is to provide fan materials that are safer, weigh less, and cost less than the currently used titanium alloy or polymer matrix composite fans. The proposed material system is a sandwich fan construction made up of thin solid face sheets and a lightweight metal foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by the foam layer. The resulting structure has a high stiffness and lighter weight in comparison to the solid facesheet material alone. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads (ref. 1). The metal foam core must resist the transverse shear and transverse normal loads, as well as keep the facings supported and working as a single unit. Metal foams have ranges of mechanical properties, such as light weight, impact resistance, and vibration suppression (ref. 2), which makes them more suitable for use in lightweight fan structures. Metal foams have been available for decades (refs. 3 and 4), but the difficulties in the original processes and high costs have prevented their widespread use. However, advances in production techniques and cost reduction have created a new interest in this class of materials (ref. 5). The material chosen for the face sheet and the metal foam for this study was the aerospace-grade stainless steel 17-4PH. This steel was chosen because of its attractive mechanical properties and the ease with which it can be made through the powder metallurgy process (ref. 6). The advantages of a metal foam core, in comparison to a typical honeycomb core, are material isotropy and the ease of forming complex geometries, such as fan blades. A section of a 17-4PH sandwich structure is shown in the following photograph. Part of process of designing any blade is to determine the natural frequencies of the particular blade shape. A designer needs to predict the resonance frequencies of a new blade design to properly identify a useful

  11. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  12. Combined-load buckling behavior of metal-matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels with the consideration of transverse shear effects of the core. The sandwich panel is fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that the square panel has the highest combined load buckling strength, and that the buckling strength decreases sharply with the increases of both temperature and panel aspect ratio. The effect of layup (fiber orientation) on the buckling strength of the panels was studied in detail. The metal matrix composite sandwich panel was much more efficient than the sandwich panel with nonreinforced face sheets and had the same specific weight.

  13. Damage assessment of compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar;

    2010-01-01

    Sandwich composites with face sheets of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) and cores of polymer foam offer a lightweight construction that is well suited to wind turbine blades, naval and other vessels for high-speed operation or where payload considerations require that the structural weight...... with an implanted circular face/core debond. Compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels and panels with an implanted circular face/core debond with three different types of foam core materials (PVC H130, PVC H250 and PMI 51-IG). The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were...

  14. Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

  15. Compressive and shear buckling analysis of metal matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Combined inplane compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels using the Raleigh-Ritz minimum energy method with a consideration of transverse shear effect of the sandwich core. The sandwich panels were fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that slightly slender (along unidirectional compressive loading axis) rectangular sandwich panels have the most desirable stiffness-to-weight ratios for aerospace structural applications; the degradation of buckling strength of sandwich panels with rising temperature is faster in shear than in compression; and the fiber orientation of the face sheets for optimum combined-load buckling strength of sandwich panels is a strong function of both loading condition and panel aspect ratio. Under the same specific weight and panel aspect ratio, a sandwich panel with metal matrix composite face sheets has much higher buckling strength than one having monolithic face sheets.

  16. Optimization of composite sandwich cover panels subjected to compressive loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Juan R.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis and design method is presented for the design of composite sandwich cover panels that include the transverse shear effects and damage tolerance considerations. This method is incorporated into a sandwich optimization computer program entitled SANDOP. As a demonstration of its capabilities, SANDOP is used in the present study to design optimized composite sandwich cover panels for for transport aircraft wing applications. The results of this design study indicate that optimized composite sandwich cover panels have approximately the same structural efficiency as stiffened composite cover panels designed to satisfy individual constraints. The results also indicate that inplane stiffness requirements have a large effect on the weight of these composite sandwich cover panels at higher load levels. Increasing the maximum allowable strain and the upper percentage limit of the 0 degree and +/- 45 degree plies can yield significant weight savings. The results show that the structural efficiency of these optimized composite sandwich cover panels is relatively insensitive to changes in core density. Thus, core density should be chosen by criteria other than minimum weight (e.g., damage tolerance, ease of manufacture, etc.).

  17. 卫星结构用 PVC 泡沫芯与铝蜂窝芯夹层板的比较%Comparison beteen PVC Foam Core and Aluminum Core Sandwich Panel in Satellite Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立; 朱大雷

    2013-01-01

    Taking a shear web of satellite for example, comparison between PVC foam core and aluminum core sandwich panel has been conducted in the aspects of material, process, mechanical properties, mass, production cycle, and cost. The benefits and disadvantages of PVC foam core sandwich panel are summarized. Finally, application prospect of PVC foam core sandwich panel in space is presented.%  以卫星隔板为例,从原材料、工艺方法、力学性能、重量、生产周期及制造成本等方面比较了 PVC 泡沫芯夹层板和传统的铝蜂窝芯夹层板,总结出 PVC 泡沫芯夹层板的优势与劣势。最后,展望了 PVC 泡沫夹层结构在航天领域的应用前景。

  18. 橡胶芯夹层板隔声特性研究%Study on Sound Insulation Performance of Sandwich Panels with Rubber Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康乐; 温华兵; 陆金铭; 彭子龙

    2014-01-01

    Based on Hoff theory and acoustical mechanism of reflection, transmission and radiation, a vibro-acoustic model of sandwich panels is established. The acoustic-vibration coupled equation of this model is solved using the orthogonality property of the modal functions and fluid-structure coupled boundary condition in the interface. Then, the sound transmission loss formula of the sandwich panels located in a mixed sound field is derived. Finally, the influence of different damping factors, thicknesses, elastic modulus of the core layer and the panel’s planar dimensions on the sound transmission loss of the sandwich panels is studied by numerical simulations. This work has some guiding significance for engineering practice.%基于夹层板的Hoff理论和声学反射、透射和辐射机理,建立了声振理论模型,结合模态函数的正交性及流-固耦合边界条件求解了声振耦合系统方程。再根据声场的特性,建立了混合声场下夹层板的隔声量表达式。最后,用数值方法研究了芯层的损耗因子、厚度、弹性模量,以及平面尺寸对夹层板隔声量的影响,对工程应用有一定的参考价值。

  19. Thermal-mechanical analysis of actively cooled folded core sandwich panels%主动冷却皱褶芯材夹层板的热力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晨; 王志瑾; 支骄杨

    2014-01-01

    A multifunctional sandwich panel with folded cellular cores was proposed for actively cooled load-bearing components in aerospace thermal protection systems. Thermal-mechanical responses of V-type and M-type folded core sandwich panels subjected to forced convection using kerosene as a coolant were studied numerically. First, a 3D fluid-solid coupling model was established and the temperature fields of fluid and structure were computed using the conjugate heat transfer model. Subsequently, the thermal stress and deformation of structure were obtained via sequential coupling method. The results show that the heat transfer perform-ances of folded core sandwich panels are evidently improved through active cooling. The temperature increases along the flow direc-tion and presents a periodic fluctuation. Heat convection is reinforced due to the folds which also cause serious stress concentrations. Cell topology and geometric dimensions have certain influences on the heat transfer characteristics and thermal structural behavior of the active cooled panels. A M-type folded core sandwich panel is superior to a V-type one for a much less severe stress concentra-tion.%提出了一种将皱褶芯材夹层板与主动冷却相结合的承载-热防护一体化结构形式。以煤油为冷却液,在强迫对流条件下,采用数值仿真方法对V-型和M-型皱褶芯材夹层板的热力响应进行了研究。首先,建立了主动冷却皱褶芯材夹层板的三维流固耦合模型,应用共轭传热数值计算方法,求解获得了冷却液和结构的温度场;采用顺序耦合求解,得到了相应的结构应力场和变形场。结果表明,实施主动冷却后皱褶结构的换热性能明显提高;沿流向温度上升,并呈现周期性波动;结构的皱褶在加强对流换热的同时,也导致了应力集中。芯材胞元拓扑构型及几何尺寸对结构的换热性能和应力应变具有一定程度的影响。与V-型相比

  20. Non-Uniform Compressive Strength of Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. The core of the theoretical method is a newly developed procedure for prediction of the propagation of a face-core debond. As demonstra......This article describes the development, validation and application of a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. The core of the theoretical method is a newly developed procedure for prediction of the propagation of a face-core debond.......(2005)., shows that the model is indeed able to predict the failure modes and the residual strength of damaged panels with accuracy sufficient for practical applications. This opens up for a number of important engineering applications, for example risk-based inspection and repair schemes....

  1. Structural detailing of openings in sandwich panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomà, T.; Courage, W.

    1996-01-01

    European Recommendations exist which provide calculation rules to determine the strength and stiffness of sandwich panels composed of two metal faces with a foam in between. In case of openings in such panels (e.g. for windows) an influence will appear with regard to the stiffness and loadbearing ca

  2. Mechanical evaluation with fe analysis of sandwich panels for wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasaswi, M.; Naveen, P.N.E.; Prasad, R.V. [GIET. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Rajahmundry (India)

    2012-07-01

    Sandwich panels are notable for their structural efficiency and are used as load bearing components in various branches of engineering, especially in aerospace and marine industries. The objective of the present work is to perform computer-aided analysis on sandwich panels. The analysis of sandwich panel with truss core are compared with other four types of sandwich panel with continuous corrugated core, top hat core, zed core and channel core. The basic reason to use sandwich structure is to save weight, however smooth skins and excellent fatigue resistance are also attributes of a sandwich structure. A sandwich is comprised of two layered composite materials formed by bonding two or more thin facings or face sheets to relatively thick core materials. In this type of construction the facings resist nearly all of the in-plane loads and out-of-plane bending moments. The thin facings provide nearly all of the bending stiffness because they are generally of a much higher modulus material is located at a greatest distance from the neutral axis of the component. The basic concept of sandwich panel is that the facings carry the bending loads and the core carries the shear loads. The main function of the core material is to distribute local loads and stresses over large areas. From all this analysis it is concluded that the truss core Sandwich panels can be used in wind turbine blade design. (Author)

  3. Residual Strength Prediction of Debond Damaged Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian

    This presentation concerns theoretical and experimental prediction of crack propagation and residual strength of debond damaged sandwich panels. It is evident that in order to achieve highly optimised structures which are able to operate in a stochastic loading environment, damage tolerance...... propagation and initiation, as these mechanisms are governing for the overall failure load of the structure. Thus, this presentation will describe the development, validation and application of a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. The core......, but they are especially relevant for sandwich structures which by nature are highly optimised structures with a high number of possible damage scenarios and consequent failure mechanisms. A major challenge in estimation of structural integrity of damaged sandwich structures is modelling and prediction of crack...

  4. Face Sheet/Core Disbond Growth in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Ground-Air-Ground Pressurization and In-Plane Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi M.; Krueger, Ronald; Rinker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Typical damage modes in light honeycomb sandwich structures include face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture, both of which can pose a threat to the structural integrity of a component. These damage modes are of particular interest to aviation certification authorities since several in-service occurrences, such as rudder structural failure and other control surface malfunctions, have been attributed to face sheet/core disbonding. Extensive studies have shown that face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture can lead to damage propagation caused by internal pressure changes in the core. The increasing use of composite sandwich construction in aircraft applications makes it vitally important to understand the effect of ground-air-ground (GAG) cycles and conditions such as maneuver and gust loads on face sheet/core disbonding. The objective of the present study was to use a fracture mechanics based approach developed earlier to evaluate the loading at the disbond front caused by ground-air-ground pressurization and in-plane loading. A honeycomb sandwich panel containing a circular disbond at one face sheet/core interface was modeled with three-dimensional (3D) solid finite elements. The disbond was modeled as a discrete discontinuity and the strain energy release rate along the disbond front was computed using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed. The commercial finite element analysis software, Abaqus/Standard, was used for the analyses. The recursive pressure-deformation coupling problem was solved by representing the entrapped air in the honeycomb cells as filled cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The results show that disbond size, face sheet thickness and core thickness are important parameters that determine crack tip loading at the disbond front. Further, the pressure

  5. Modular container assembled from fiber reinforced thermoplastic sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mathew William; Kasoff, William Andrew; Mcculloch, Patrick Carl; Williams, Frederick Truman

    2007-12-25

    An improved, load bearing, modular design container structure assembled from thermoformed FRTP sandwich panels in which is utilized the unique core-skin edge configuration of the present invention in consideration of improved load bearing performance, improved useful load volume, reduced manufacturing costs, structural weight savings, impact and damage tolerance and repair and replace issues.

  6. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Huo, X. Sharon [Tennessee Technological University

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  7. ANALISIS KERAGAAN PANEL SANDWICH UNTUK RUMAH PRA-PABRIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresworo Nugroho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, several earthquakes struck several places in Indonesia and thousands of people died caused of their masonry house. Therefore, the idea of bamboo utilization in the form of structural sandwich panel components for anti-seismic pre-fabrication house is one of appropriate way out. This research describes the performance and behavior of engineered structure wooden-bamboo sandwich panel in full sized test. The wall frame being use were meranti wood, this frame attached by plywood as face and back, then 5 cm bamboo cutting as core; the fastener used in this study were isocyanate resin and nails. This study carried out by experimental data of full scale structural tests on shear wall (ISO 22452. These result showed that the seismic reliability of the wall frame system made of bamboo sandwich panel was appropriate and will be useful for pre-fabrication houses as anti-seismic and environment friendly residential building

  8. Residual Strength of In-plane Loaded Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Nøkkentved, Alexandros; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    Face/core debond damaged sandwich panels exposed to uniform and non-uniform compression loads are studied experimentally. The panel geometry is full-scale rectangular with a centrally located circular prefabricated debond. The results show a considerable strength reduction with increasing debond...... diameter, with the failure mechanisms varying between buckling driven debond propagation and face compression failure for large and small debonds respectively....

  9. Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis of hypersonic aircraft sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    The combined-load (compression and shear) buckling equations were established for orthotropic sandwich panels by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method to minimize the panel total potential energy. The resulting combined-load buckling equations were used to generate buckling interaction curves for super-plastically-formed/diffusion-bonded titanium truss-core sandwich panels and titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels having the same specific weight. The relative combined-load buckling strengths of these two types of sandwich panels are compared with consideration of their sandwich orientations. For square and nearly square panels of both types, the combined load always induces symmetric buckling. As the panel aspect ratios increase, antisymmetric buckling will show up when the loading is shear-dominated combined loading. The square panel (either type) has the highest combined buckling strength, but the combined load buckling strength drops sharply as the panel aspect ratio increases. For square panels, the truss-core sandwich panel has higher compression-dominated load buckling strength. However, for shear dominated loading, the square honeycomb-core sandwich panel has higher shear-dominated combined load buckling strength.

  10. Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis of hypersonic aircraft structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    The combined-load (compression and shear) buckling equations were established for orthotropic sandwich panels by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method to minimize the panel total potential energy. The resulting combined-load buckling equations were used to generate buckling interaction curves for super-plastically-formed/diffusion-bonded titanium truss-core sandwich panels and titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels having the same specific weight. The relative combined-load buckling strengths of these two types of sandwich panels are compared with consideration of their sandwich orientations. For square and nearly square panels of both types, the combined load always induces symmetric buckling. As the panel aspect ratios increase, antisymmetric buckling will show up when the loading is shear-dominated combined loading. The square panel (either type) has the highest combined buckling strength, but the combined load buckling strength drops sharply as the panel aspect ratio increases. For square panels, the truss-core sandwich panel has higher compression-dominated combined load buckling strength. However, for shear dominated loading, the square honeycomb-core sandwich panel has higher shear-dominated combined load buckling strength.

  11. Analysis and Behaviour of Sandwich Panels with Profiled Metal Facings under Transverse Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Budescu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels with thin steel facings and polyurethane core combine the load-carrying capacity of metal facings and protection functions with core properties. The core separates the two facings and keeps them in a stable condition, transmits shear between external layers, provides most of the shear rigidity and occasionally makes of useful contribution to the bending stiffness of the sandwich construction as a whole [1]. An experimental program on sandwich panels has been organized to prove that the mechanical properties of core and interface satisfy the load-carrying requirements for structural sandwich panels. The analysis of sandwich panels with deep profiles facings for cladding elements, respectively the roof constructions, has been carried out according to the European design norms [1], [5].

  12. Numerical modeling of sandwich panel response to ballistic loading - energy balance for varying impactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøl; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2007-01-01

    A sandwich panel is described by an axisymmetric lumped mass- spring model. The panel compliance is simplified, considering only core shear deformation uniformly distributed across the core thickness. Transverse penetrating impact is modeled for impactors of diameters comparable to the panel thic...

  13. Bending and Deformation of Sandwich Panels Due to Localized Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang K. Hadi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Bending and deformation of sandwich panels due to localized pressure were analyzed using both Rayleigh-Ritz and finite element methods. The faces were made of laminated composite plates, while the core was a honeycomb material. Carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced plastics were used for composite plate faces. In the case of Rayleigh-Ritz method, first the total energy of the system was calculated and then taking the variations of the total energy, the sandwich panel deflections could be computed. The deflections were assumed by means of Fourier series. A finite element code NASTRAN was exploited extensively in the finite element method. 3-dimensional 8-node brick elements were used to model sandwich panels, for both the faces sheets and the core. The results were then compared to each other and in general they are in good agreements. Dimple phenomena were found in these cases. It shows that localized pressure on sandwich structures will produce dimple on the pressurize region with little effects on the rest of the structures.

  14. Transient Thermal Testing and Analysis of a Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bird, Richard K.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    A core configuration was devised for a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Two titanium prototype panels were constructed to illustrate the proposed sandwich panel geometry. The core of one of the titanium panels was filled with Saffil(trademark) alumina fibrous insulation and the panel was tested in a series of transient thermal tests. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal response of the panel using one- and two-dimensional models. Excellent agreement was obtained between predicted and measured temperature histories.

  15. Multiscale Modeling Methods for Analysis of Failure Modes in Foldcore Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, R.; Schatrow, P.; Klett, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents an homogenised core model suitable for use in the analysis of fuselage sandwich panels with folded composite cores under combined loading conditions. Within a multiscale numerical design process a failure criterion was derived for describing the macroscopic behaviour of folded cores under combined loading using a detailed foldcore micromodel. The multiscale modelling method was validated by simulation of combined compression/bending failure of foldcore sandwich panels.

  16. A study of structurally efficient graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1993-01-01

    The structural efficiency of compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich composite panels is studied to determine their weight savings potential. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them, and semi-sandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight designs for critical compressive load levels ranging from 3,000 to 24,000 lb/in. Graphite-thermoplastic panels based on the optimal minimum weight designs were fabricated and tested. A finite-element analysis of several test specimens was also conducted. The results of the optimization study, the finite-element analysis, and the experiments are presented.

  17. Flexural Strength of Functionally Graded Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Spherical Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Trupti R.; Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata K.; Dewangan, S.; Dash, Sushmita

    2017-02-01

    The flexural behaviour of the functionally graded sandwich spherical panel under uniform thermal environment has been investigated in the present work. The face sheets of the sandwich structure are made by the functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced material and the core face is made by the isotropic and homogeneous material. The material properties of both the fiber and matrix are assumed to be temperature dependent. The sandwich panel model is developed in the framework of the first order shear deformation theory and the governing equation of motion is derived using the variational principle. For the discretization purpose a suitable shell element has been employed from the ANSYS library and the responses are computed using a parametric design language (APDL) coding. The performance and accuracy of the developed model has been established through the convergence and validation by comparing the obtained results with previously published results. Finally, the influence of different geometrical parameters and material properties on the flexural behaviour of the sandwich spherical panel in thermal environment has been investigated through various numerical illustrations and discussed in details.

  18. 等腰梯形蜂窝芯玻璃钢夹芯板的热性能%Thermal performance for isosceles trapezoid honeycomb core of glass steel sandwich panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑吉良; 孙勇; 彭明军

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the heat transfer mechanism for isosceles-trapezoid honeycomb core of glass steel sandwich panel,experiment measurement using thermal conductivity meter and simulation investigation on heat transfer performance of sandwich panel were conducted.The results indicate that simulation results for the steady thermal conductivity coefficients of sandwich panels are identical with the calculation results of Swann and Pittman empirical formula,which validates the reasonability of cell plane model for numerical calculation.Part2 is the main steady heat transfer part for sandwich panel,so Part2 cell-wall thickness and side length have strong influences on thermal conductivity coefficient of sandwich panel,and the influences of Part2 height,Part1 and Part3 thickness as well as panel thickness on thermal conductivity coefficient is weak.Meanwhile,if only the thermal conductivity co-efficient of sandwich panel is needed to be reduced and ignoring the demanding for static mechanical properties of sandwich panel,the honeycomb core layer material should be replaced;if both of the heat-insulation performance and static mechanical properties of sandwich panel are required to be satisfied at the same time,the multilayer hon-eycomb core of sandwich panel is an excellent choice.%为研究等腰梯形蜂窝芯玻璃钢夹芯板传热机制,利用导热仪对夹芯板的传热性能进行了实验测试与模拟研究。结果表明:夹芯板稳态导热系数模拟结果与Swann and Pittman经验公式的计算结果相吻合,验证了数值计算胞体平面模型的合理性;Part2为夹芯板稳态传热的主要构件,Part2胞壁厚度与边长对夹芯板导热系数有显著影响,Part2高度、Part1与Part3厚度及面板厚度对夹芯板导热系数的影响偏弱;同时,若仅需降低夹芯板的导热系数,而忽略对夹芯板静力学性能要求,应该更换蜂窝芯层材料;若需夹芯板同时满足隔热性能与静力学性能,

  19. Structural modeling of sandwich structures with lightweight cellular cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Deng, Z. C.; Lu, T. J.

    2007-10-01

    An effective single layered finite element (FE) computational model is proposed to predict the structural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels having two dimensional (2D) prismatic or three dimensional (3D) truss cores. Three different types of cellular core topology are considered: pyramidal truss core (3D), Kagome truss core (3D) and corrugated core (2D), representing three kinds of material anisotropy: orthotropic, monoclinic and general anisotropic. A homogenization technique is developed to obtain the homogenized macroscopic stiffness properties of the cellular core. In comparison with the results obtained by using detailed FE model, the single layered computational model can give acceptable predictions for both the static and dynamic behaviors of orthotropic truss core sandwich panels. However, for non-orthotropic 3D truss cores, the predictions are not so well. For both static and dynamic behaviors of a 2D corrugated core sandwich panel, the predictions derived by the single layered computational model is generally acceptable when the size of the unit cell varies within a certain range, with the predictions for moderately strong or strong corrugated cores more accurate than those for weak cores.

  20. Structural modeling of sandwich structures with lightweight cellular cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Liu; Z. C. Deng; T. J. Lu

    2007-01-01

    An effective single layered finite element (FE) computational model is proposed to predict the structural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels having two dimensional (2D) prismatic or three dimensional (3D) truss cores.Three different types of cellular core topology are considered: pyramidal truss core (3D), Kagome truss core (3D) and corrugated core (2D), representing three kinds of material anisotropy: orthotropic, monoclinic and general anisotropic. A homogenization technique is developed to obtain the homogenized macroscopic stiffness properties of the cellular core. In comparison with the results obtained by using detailed FE model, the single layered computational model cangive acceptable predictions for both the static and dynamic behaviors of orthotropic truss core sandwich panels. However, for non-orthotropic 3D truss cores, the predictions are not so well. For both static and dynamic behaviors of a 2D corrugated core sandwich panel, the predictions derived by the single layered computational model is generally acceptable when the size of the unit cell varies within a certain range, with the predictions for moderately strong or strong corrugated cores more accurate than those for weak cores.

  1. Numerical simulation of anti-explosion performance of U-type core sandwich panel under air explosion%空爆载荷下U型夹层板抗爆性能数值仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延昌; 赵卉

    2012-01-01

    Sandwich panels with superior mechanical properties have been widely used in transportation system such as the aircraft and the high-speed train. To investigate damage properties of the U-type core sandwich panel, MSC. Dytran was applied to analyze the deformation modes, coupling forces, velocity, acceleration and energy absorption of the sandwich panel under air explosion. The results were compared with the stiffened plate. Orthogonal experimental method was applied to analyze the affect of structural parameters on the anti-explosion performance and better combination of sizes. Analysis shows the top and bottom face of the U-type core sandwich panel exihibit membrane tensile and wave deformation. Easily crushed core reduces the impact on the top faces and has high energy absorption efficiency, making deformation of the top face reduced significantly. The deformations, speeds, and accelerations of the top and bottom faces are less than those of the stiffened plate. The U-type core sandwich panel shows superior antiknock performance. The influence of structural parameters on the anti-explosion performance of the sandwich panel in a diminishing order is; inclination angle, top face sheet thickness, width of sandwich core member, bottom face sheet thickness. The antiknock performance of the sandwich panel with optimal combination of sizes is improved significantly.%力学性能优越的夹层板结构在飞机、高速列车等交通运输领域得到广泛应用.为研究U型夹层板空爆载荷下的损伤特性,利用有限元软件MSC.Dytran分析U型夹层板空爆载荷下的损伤变形模式、耦合力、结构位移、速度、加速度、吸能,并与加筋板架对比;应用正交试验设计方法分析结构参数对抗爆性能的影响程度及较优的尺寸组合.分析表明:冲击载荷下U型夹层板上下面板的变形模式为膜拉伸,产生波浪式变形;夹芯层易于压皱变形,减少了对上面板冲击载荷的传递,同时夹芯

  2. A comparative study of the impact properties of sandwich materials with different cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viot P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are made of two high strength skins bonded to either side of a light weight core and are used in applications where high stiffness combined with low structural weight is required. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical response of several sandwich panels whose core materials are different. Sandwich panels with glass fibre-reinforced polymer face sheets were used, combined with five different cores; polystyrene foam, polypropylene honeycomb, two different density Balsa wood and Cork. All specimens were subjected to low velocity impact and their structural response (Force-displacement curves were compared to quasistatic response of the panel tested using an hemispherical indenter.

  3. A comparative study of the impact properties of sandwich materials with different cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, K. R.; Shankar, K.; Viot, P.; Guerard, S.

    2012-08-01

    Sandwich panels are made of two high strength skins bonded to either side of a light weight core and are used in applications where high stiffness combined with low structural weight is required. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical response of several sandwich panels whose core materials are different. Sandwich panels with glass fibre-reinforced polymer face sheets were used, combined with five different cores; polystyrene foam, polypropylene honeycomb, two different density Balsa wood and Cork. All specimens were subjected to low velocity impact and their structural response (Force-displacement curves) were compared to quasistatic response of the panel tested using an hemispherical indenter.

  4. Numerical simulation analysis on protective performance of U-type corrugated cores sandwich panel%U型折叠式夹层板防护性能数值仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延昌; 周红; 王果; 王自力

    2013-01-01

    Research on protective performance of sandwich panel can guide design of warship protective structures. Taking a warship bottom stiffened plate for example, U-type corrugated cores sandwich panel was designed. Based on MSC.Dytran, the numerical simulation analysis of stiffened plate and sandwich panel subjected to underwater explosion load was made. The protective performance of stiffened plate, such as coupling pressure, damage deformation, velocity, acceleration and energy absorption, was compared with sandwich panel. Then the damage characteristics of sandwich panel under different impact strength were studied. In addition, the structural parameter influence on damage characteristics of sandwich panel was an-alyzed. The damage characteristics and deformation modes of U-type corrugated cores sandwich panel sub-jected to underwater explosion load are obtained. The results show that the protective performance of sand-wich panel is superior to the traditional stiffened plate. The U-type core plays a key role in resisting un-derwater explosion load. In addition, structural parameters have effects on protective performance to some extent.%开展夹层板单元防护性能研究可为舰船防护结构设计提供指导。以某船底加筋板架为应用对象,设计出U型折叠式夹层板结构;利用MSC.Dytran对船底板架及夹层板结构在水下爆炸冲击载荷下的动态响应进行数值仿真分析,通过分析流-固耦合压力、损伤变形、速度、加速度、结构塑性吸能等性能参数,对比研究两结构的防护性能;分析夹层板在不同冲击强度下的损伤特性,面板厚度、夹芯板厚、夹芯与面板夹角、夹芯单元宽度、夹芯高度等结构参数对夹层板损伤变形、结构吸能等特性的影响。通过研究得到了U型夹层板在水下爆炸冲击载荷下的损伤特性、变形模式等,U型夹层板的防护性能明显优于传统加筋板架,夹芯层在夹层板抵抗水

  5. Numerical analysis of the damage on Ⅰ-core sandwich panels subjected to combined blast and fragment loading%冲击波和破片联合作用下Ⅰ型夹层板毁伤仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新峰; 程远胜; 张攀; 刘均; 李勇

    2015-01-01

    基于非线性有限元软件LS-DYNA,通过在TNT炸药底部布置预制破片模拟战斗部爆炸产生的冲击波与破片联合作用载荷,计算3种TNT炸药当量下Ⅰ型夹层板的毁伤响应,分析冲击波单独作用及冲击波与破片联合作用下Ⅰ型夹层板失效模式的差异,研究夹层板芯层配置以及上、下面板厚度配置对其失效模式的影响,并与等效实体板的抗毁伤性能进行对比.同时,从吸能的角度分析不同载荷工况下Ⅰ型夹层板的吸能特性.数值仿真结果表明:在冲击波与破片联合作用下,结构的毁伤程度远大于冲击波单独作用时;当载荷强度较小时,I型夹层板的抗毁伤性能优于等效实体板;载荷强度、载荷类型(冲击波单独作用或冲击波与破片联合作用)及上、下面板厚度配置对Ⅰ型夹层板的失效模式有较大影响;从吸能特性来看,在冲击波单独作用下,上面板和芯层是主要的吸能构件,而在冲击波与破片联合作用下,上面板和下面板是主要的吸能构件.%In this paper, the combined blast and fragment loads due to close-in warhead explosion is simu-lated by placing prefabricated fragments at the bottom of bare TNT explosive, and the corresponding dam-age on Ⅰ-core sandwich panels are evaluated using the software LS-DYNA. The differences of failure modes of sandwich panels subjected to only blast and combined blast and fragment loads are analyzed, and the effects of core configuration and thickness configuration between the front and back plates on the fail-ure modes are studied. The anti-damage performance of sandwich panels is then compared with that of the equivalent solid plate. In addition, the energy absorption characteristics of Ⅰ-core sandwich panels under different loads are also analyzed. Numerical results show that the overall damage of both the sandwich pan-els and solid plates subjected to combined blast and fragment loads is more severe than that caused

  6. Thermal conductivity of newspaper sandwiched aerated lightweight concrete panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Soon-Ching; Low, Kaw-Sai [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Investigation on the thermal conductivity of newspaper sandwiched aerated lightweight concrete (ALC) panels is the main purpose of this study. Various densities of ALC panels ranging from 1700, 1400 and 1100 kg/m{sup 3} with three different aerial intensities of newspaper sandwiched were produced. Investigation was limited to the effect of aerial intensity of newspaper sandwiched and the effect of density of ALC on thermal conductivity. It is found that the thermal conductivity of newspaper sandwiched ALC panels reduced remarkably compared to control ALC panels. The reduction was recorded at 18.0%, 21.8% and 20.7% correspond to densities of 1700, 1400 and 1100 kg/m{sup 3} with just a mere 0.05 g/cm{sup 2} aerial intensity of newspaper sandwiched. Newspaper sandwiched has a significant impact on the performance of thermal conductivity of ALC panels based on regression analysis. (author)

  7. Vibroacoustic optimization of anti-tetrachiral and auxetic hexagonal sandwich panels with gradient geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mostafa; Boldrin, Luca; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Neild, Simon; Patsias, Sophoclis

    2016-05-01

    The work describes the vibroacoustic behavior of anti-tetrachiral and auxetic hexagonal gradient sandwich panels using homogenized finite element models to determine the mechanical properties of the auxetic structures, the natural frequencies and radiated sound power level of sandwich panels made by the auxetic cores. The mechanical properties and the vibroacoustic behavior of auxetic hexagonal sandwich panels are investigated as a benchmark. The radiated sound power level of the structure over the frequency range of 0-1000 Hz is minimized by modifying the core geometry of the gradient auxetic sandwich panels. Several excitation cases are considered. First-order and random optimization methods are used for the minimization of radiated sound power level of the structures. The results of this study present significant insights into the design of auxetic structures with respect to their vibroacoustical properties.

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel under Four-point Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Fajrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of theoretical and experimental deflection of a hybrid sandwich panel under four-point bending load. The paper initially presents few basic equations developed under three-point load, followed by development of model under four-point bending load and a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental results. It was found that the proposed model for predicting the deflection of hybrid sandwich panels provided fair agreement with the experimental values. Most of the sandwich panels showed theoretical deflection values higher than the experimental values, which is desirable in the design. It was also noticed that the introduction of intermediate layer does not contribute much to reduce the deflection of sandwich panel as the main contributor for the total deflection was the shear deformation of the core that mostly determined by the geometric of the samples and the thickness of the core.

  9. Mechanical properties and experimental researches of new CSIPs sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of glass fiber reinforced composites (FRP and SIPs (structural insulated panels are combined, and a new type of sandwich panel called composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs is proposed. Through the adhesive bonding, CSIPs are made of FRP as face sheets and expanded polyethylene foam (EPS as a core. To master the mechanical characteristics of CSIPs, firstly, adopting the large deflection theory of Reissener in this paper derived the calculation formula of displacement and the stability critical load of CSIPs. Then, ANSYS software was used to carry on the analysis of finite element simulation. Finally, a testing piece of CSIP with length 1000mm and breath 1000mm was made and a test was done. The results show that the theoretical analysis results, finite element simulation results and test results are basically coincide. So the calculating formula of deformation and bearing capacity of CSIPs are correct. And CSIPs have the outstanding advantages of light weight and high strength.

  10. Damage tolerance of a composite sandwich with interleaved foam core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Ori; Hiel, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A composite sandwich panel consisting of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins and a syntactic foam core was selected as an appropriate structural concept for the design of wind tunnel compressor blades. Interleaving of the core with tough interlayers was done to prevent core cracking and to improve damage tolerance of the sandwich. Simply supported sandwich beam specimens were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight impacts as well as high velocity ballistic impacts. The performance of the interleaved core sandwich panels was characterized by localized skin damage and minor cracking of the core. Residual compressive strength (RCS) of the skin, which was derived from flexural test, shows the expected trend of decreasing with increasing size of the damage, impact energy, and velocity. In the case of skin damage, RCS values of around 50 percent of the virgin interleaved reference were obtained at the upper impact energy range. Based on the similarity between low-velocity and ballistic-impact effects, it was concluded that impact energy is the main variable controlling damage and residual strength, where as velocity plays a minor role.

  11. Thermostructural Behavior of a Hypersonic Aircraft Sandwich Panel Subjected to Heating on One Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermostructural analysis was performed on a heated titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel. The sandwich panel was supported at its four edges with spar-like substructures that acted as heat sinks, which are generally not considered in the classical analysis. One side of the panel was heated to high temperature to simulate aerodynamic heating during hypersonic flight. Two types of surface heating were considered: (1) flat-temperature profile, which ignores the effect of edge heat sinks, and (2) dome-shaped-temperature profile, which approximates the actual surface temperature distribution associated with the existence of edge heat sinks. The finite-element method was used to calculate the deformation field and thermal stress distributions in the face sheets and core of the sandwich panel. The detailed thermal stress distributions in the sandwich panel are presented, and critical stress regions are identified. The study shows how the magnitudes of those critical stresses and their locations change with different heating and edge conditions. This technical report presents comprehensive, three-dimensional graphical displays of thermal stress distributions in every part of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel subjected to hypersonic heating on one side. The plots offer quick visualization of the structural response of the panel and are very useful for hot structures designers to identify the critical stress regions.

  12. Design of Fiber Reinforced Foam Sandwich Panels for Large Ares V Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design of three major structural components within NASA's Ares V heavy lift vehicle using a novel fiber reinforced foam composite sandwich panel concept is presented. The Ares V payload shroud, interstage, and core intertank are designed for minimum mass using this panel concept, which consists of integral composite webs separated by structural foam between two composite facesheets. The HyperSizer structural sizing software, in conjunction with NASTRAN finite element analyses, is used. However, since HyperSizer does not currently include a panel concept for fiber reinforced foam, the sizing was performed using two separate approaches. In the first, the panel core is treated as an effective (homogenized) material, whose properties are provided by the vendor. In the second approach, the panel is treated as a blade stiffened sandwich panel, with the mass of the foam added after completion of the panel sizing. Details of the sizing for each of the three Ares V components are given, and it is demonstrated that the two panel sizing approaches are in reasonable agreement for thinner panel designs, but as the panel thickness increases, the blade stiffened sandwich panel approach yields heavier panel designs. This is due to the effects of local buckling, which are not considered in the effective core property approach.

  13. Sound transmission analysis of partially treated MR fluid-based sandwich panels using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatian, M.; Sedaghati, R.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at developing a finite element model to predict the sound transmission loss (STL) of a multilayer panel partially treated with a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid core layer. MR fluids are smart materials with promising controllable rheological characteristics in which the application of an external magnetic field instantly changes their rheological properties. Partial treatment of sandwich panels with MR fluid core layer provides an opportunity to change stiffness and damping of the structure without significantly increasing the mass. The STL of a finite sandwich panel partially treated with MR fluid is modeled using the finite element (FE) method. Circular sandwich panels with clamped boundary condition and elastic face sheets in which the core layer is segmented circumferentially is considered. The MR fluid core layer is considered as a viscoelastic material with complex shear modulus with the magnetic field and frequency dependent storage and loss moduli. Neglecting the effect of the panel's vibration on the pressure forcing function, the work done by the acoustic pressure is expressed as a function of the blocked pressure in order to calculate the force vector in the equation of the motion of the panel. The governing finite element equation of motion of the MR sandwich panel is then developed to predict the transverse vibration of the panel which can then be utilized to obtain the radiated sound using Green's function. The developed model is used to conduct a systematic parametric study on the effect of different locations of MR fluid treatment on the natural frequencies and the STL.

  14. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2017-02-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  15. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2016-08-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  16. Structural Response of Polyethylene Foam-Based Sandwich Panels Subjected to Edgewise Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lamberti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the mechanical behavior of low density polyethylene foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. In order to monitor panel response to buckling, strains generated in the facesheets and overall out-of-plane deformations are measured with strain gages and projection moiré, respectively. A finite element (FE model simulating the experimental test is developed. Numerical results are compared with moiré measurements. After having been validated against experimental evidence, the FE model is parameterized, and a trade study is carried out to investigate to what extent the structural response of the panel depends on the sandwich wall construction and facesheet/core interface defects. The projection moiré set-up utilized in this research is able to capture the sudden and very localized buckling phenomena occurring under edgewise compression of foam-based sandwich panels. Results of parametric FE analyses indicate that, if the total thickness of the sandwich wall is fixed, including thicker facesheets in the laminate yields a larger deflection of the panel that becomes more sensitive to buckling. Furthermore, the mechanical response of the foam sandwich panel is found to be rather insensitive to the level of waviness of core-facesheet interfaces.

  17. FRP夹强化泡沫芯复合材料的力学性能%Mechanical Properties of Sandwich Composites Made of FRP Panels and Strengthened Foam Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琴; 黄争鸣

    2012-01-01

    In this article, mechanical properties of a new type of foam-core sandwich composites are studied. The core was made by inserting thin-walled circular tubes into a PU foam, resulting in a significant reinforcement in its Z-directional properties. The sandwich composites were further fabricated by using FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) panels as surfaces and the strengthened foam as core. Lateral compression, three- point bending and shear tests were carried out for the sandwich composites. Failure mechanisms were analyzed based on fracture modes observed. Theoretical predictions for compression and bending moduli were carried out. The results show that the sandwich materials developed can significantly improve Z-directional mechanical properties, and have a good application prospect.%本文研究一种新型强化泡沫芯夹层复合材料的力学性能。选择在低成本的PU泡沫中置入圆管状结构增强体,使泡沫芯的等效Z向性能大幅提高。对以FRP面板夹这种强化泡沫芯制成的三明治复合材料结构,进行了平压试验、三点弯曲试验和剪切试验,基于其结构破坏模式,分析其破坏机理,并应用三维层板理论和细观力学方法进行了理论模拟。结果表明,这种强化泡沫芯能显著提高三明治板材的Z向力学性能,具有良好的应用前景。

  18. Sandwich Panel as a Structural Element of Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of sandwich panels using as load-bearing structural elements. The comparison of deflections and critical failure loads were obtained by the results of the full-scale roof sandwich panels tests conducted by the company “Joris Ide” and the theoretical design, according to the calculation method described in Euronorms. Based on these results it was concluded that sandwich panels can be treated as a load-bearing structure only with more taught manufacturing requirements. Thus, the reduced spread of critical loads can be achieved.

  19. Extended high order sandwich panel theory for bending analysis of sandwich beams with carbon nanotube reinforced face sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedari Salami, S.

    2016-02-01

    Bending analysis of a sandwich beam with soft core and carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC) face sheets in the literature is presented based on Extended High order Sandwich Panel Theory (EHSAPT). Distribution of fibers through the thickness of the face sheets could be uniform or functionally graded (FG). In this theory the face sheets follow the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Besides, the two dimensional elasticity is used for the core. The field equations are derived via the Ritz based solution which is suitable for any essential boundary condition. The influences of boundary conditions on bending response of the sandwich panel with soft core and CNTRC face sheet are investigated. In each type of boundary condition the effect of distribution pattern of CNTRCs on many essential involved parameters of the sandwich beam with functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG- CNTRC) face sheets are studied in detail. Finally, experimental result have been compared with those obtained based on developed solution method. It is concluded that, the sandwich beam with X distribution figure of face sheets is the strongest with the smallest transverse displacement, and followed by the UD, O and ∧-ones, respectively.

  20. Mechanical Behavior of CFRP Lattice Core Sandwich Bolted Corner Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yana; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lingxue

    2017-02-01

    The lattice core sandwich structures have drawn more attention for the integration of load capacity and multifunctional applications. However, the connection of carbon fibers reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) lattice core sandwich structure hinders its application. In this paper, a typical connection of two lattice core sandwich panels, named as corner joint or L-joint, was investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The mechanical behavior and failure mode of the corner joints were discussed. The results showed that the main deformation pattern and failure mode of the lattice core sandwich bolted corner joints structure were the deformation of metal connector and indentation of the face sheet in the bolt holes. The metal connectors played an important role in bolted corner joints structure. In order to save the calculation resource, a continuum model of pyramid lattice core was used to replace the exact structure. The computation results were consistent with experiment, and the maximum error was 19%. The FEM demonstrated the deflection process of the bolted corner joints structure visually. So the simplified FEM can be used for further analysis of the bolted corner joints structure in engineering.

  1. Dispersion of guided waves in composite laminates and sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Christoph; Mal, Ajit

    2015-03-01

    In composite structures, damages are often invisible from the surface and can grow to reach a critical size, potentially causing catastrophic failure of the entire structure. Thus safe operation of these structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost-effective method for structural health monitoring in advanced structures. Guided waves allow for long monitoring ranges and are very sensitive to defects within their propagation path. In this work, the relevant properties of guided Lamb waves for damage detection in composite structures are investigated. An efficient numerical approach is used to determine their dispersion characteristics, and these results are compared to those from laboratory experiments. The experiments are based on a pitch-catch method, in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on one surface of the structure to induce and detect guided Lamb waves. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel with woven composite face sheets. In addition, a disbond of the interface between one of the face sheets and the honeycomb core of the sandwich panel is also considered, and the dispersion characteristics of the two resultant waveguides are determined. Good agreement between numerical and experimental dispersion results is found, and suggestions on the applicability of the pitch-catch system for structural health monitoring are made.

  2. Lightweight Sandwich Panel in Cold Stores and Refrigerated Warehouses

    OpenAIRE

    Chidom, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The use of sandwich panels has gained considerable recognition in the construction industry and more use of this composite structure is ever increasing. This study highlights and familiarizes the use of lightweight sandwich panel in refrigerated warehouses and cold storage facility and construction and the challenges such construction faces in warm climates considering the effects of thermal load. The study was commissioned by HAMK Sheet Metal Center, the steel research and development ce...

  3. Analysis and Testing of a Tapered End Connection for Laser Welded Steel Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-15

    1951, Elastic Constants for Corrugated Core Sandwich Plates. Technical Note 2289. National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ). 19. Lok...Assoc. Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maine (Co-I) Grant No: N00014-05-1 -0735 ATS subcontract No: UM-591 Report No. C-2004-015...RPT-04 August 15,2009 20090925154 ABSTRACT This report summarize the analysis and cyclic testing of a laser welded steel sandwich panel end

  4. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  5. Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of rectangular sandwich panels under different edge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.

    1994-01-01

    The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide overall comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. In addition, thermal buckling curves of these sandwich panels are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory.

  6. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  7. Development of a finite element model for the simulation of parabolic impact of sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Guérard, Sandra; Mahéo, Laurent; Shankar, Krishna; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Sandwich panels are lightweight structures of two thin high strength facesheets bonded to either side of a thick low density core such as foams and honeycombs. It is necessary to study the impact response of sandwich structures in order to ensure the reliability and safety of these structures. The response of sandwich panels to impact loading is usually studied for impact at normal angle of incidence. In real engineering situations, the structures are more frequently loaded at some oblique angle or with a complex trajectory. It is easy to carry out normal impact tests using devices like the drop tower, but impacts at oblique angles are difficult to characterise experimentally. A tri-dimensional impact device called Hexapod has been developed to experimentally study the impact loading of sandwich plates with a parabolic trajectory. The Hexapod is a modified Gough-Stewart platform that can be moved independently in the six degrees of freedom, corresponding to three translation axes and three rotation axes. In this paper, an approach for modelling the parabolic impact of sandwich structures with thin metallic facesheets and polymer foam core using commercial finite element code LS-DYNA software is presented. The results of the FE model of sandwich panels are compared with experimental data in terms of the time history of vertical and horizontal components of force. A comparison of the strain history obtained from Digital Image Correlation and LS-Dyna model are also presented.

  8. Development of a finite element model for the simulation of parabolic impact of sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Karthik Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are lightweight structures of two thin high strength facesheets bonded to either side of a thick low density core such as foams and honeycombs. It is necessary to study the impact response of sandwich structures in order to ensure the reliability and safety of these structures. The response of sandwich panels to impact loading is usually studied for impact at normal angle of incidence. In real engineering situations, the structures are more frequently loaded at some oblique angle or with a complex trajectory. It is easy to carry out normal impact tests using devices like the drop tower, but impacts at oblique angles are difficult to characterise experimentally. A tri-dimensional impact device called Hexapod has been developed to experimentally study the impact loading of sandwich plates with a parabolic trajectory. The Hexapod is a modified Gough-Stewart platform that can be moved independently in the six degrees of freedom, corresponding to three translation axes and three rotation axes. In this paper, an approach for modelling the parabolic impact of sandwich structures with thin metallic facesheets and polymer foam core using commercial finite element code LS-DYNA software is presented. The results of the FE model of sandwich panels are compared with experimental data in terms of the time history of vertical and horizontal components of force. A comparison of the strain history obtained from Digital Image Correlation and LS-Dyna model are also presented.

  9. Development and evaluation of aerogel-filled BMI sandwich panels for thermal barrier applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dineshkumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study details a fabrication methodology envisaged to manufacture Glass/BMI honeycomb core aerogel-filled sandwich panels. Silica aerogel granules are used as core fillers to provide thermal insulation properties with little weight increase. Experimental heat transfer studies are conducted on these panels to study the temperature distribution between their two surfaces. Numerical studies are also carried out to validate the results. Despite exhibiting good thermal shielding capabilities, the Glass/BMI sandwich panels are found to oxidise at 180 ºC if exposed directly to heat. In order to increase the temperature bearing capacity and the operating temperature range for these panels, a way of coating them from outside with high temperature spray paint was tried. With a silicone-based coating, the temperature sustainability of these sandwich panels is found to increase to 350 ºC. This proved the effectiveness of the formed manufacturing process, selected high temperature coating, the coating method as well as the envisaged sandwich panel concept.

  10. Open-Mode Debonding Analysis of Curved Sandwich Panels Subjected to Heating and Cryogenic Cooling on Opposite Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing use of curved sandwich panels as aerospace structure components makes it vital to fully understand their thermostructural behavior and identify key factors affecting the open-mode debonding failure. Open-mode debonding analysis is performed on a family of curved honeycomb-core sandwich panels with different radii of curvature. The curved sandwich panels are either simply supported or clamped, and are subjected to uniform heating on the convex side and uniform cryogenic cooling on the concave side. The finite-element method was used to study the effects of panel curvature and boundary condition on the open-mode stress (radial tensile stress) and displacement fields in the curved sandwich panels. The critical stress point, where potential debonding failure could initiate, was found to be at the midspan (or outer span) of the inner bonding interface between the sandwich core and face sheet on the concave side, depending on the boundary condition and panel curvature. Open-mode stress increases with increasing panel curvature, reaching a maximum value at certain high curvature, and then decreases slightly as the panel curvature continues to increase and approach that of quarter circle. Changing the boundary condition from simply supported to clamped reduces the magnitudes of open-mode stresses and the associated sandwich core depth stretching.

  11. Thermal buckling analysis of truss-core sandwich plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继伟; 刘咏泉; 刘伟; 苏先樾

    2013-01-01

    Truss-core sandwich plates have received much attention in virtue of the high values of strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight as well as the great ability of impulse-resistance recently. It is necessary to study the stability of sandwich panels under the influence of the thermal load. However, the sandwich plates are such complex three-dimensional (3D) systems that direct analytical solutions do not exist, and the finite element method (FEM) cannot represent the relationship between structural parameters and mechanical properties well. In this paper, an equivalent homogeneous continuous plate is idealized by obtaining the effective bending and transverse shear stiffness based on the characteristics of periodically distributed unit cells. The first order shear deformation theory for plates is used to derive the stability equation. The buckling temperature of a simply supported sandwich plate is given and verified by the FEM. The effect of related parameters on mechanical properties is investigated. The geometric parameters of the unit cell are optimized to attain the maximum buckling temperature. It is shown that the optimized sandwich plate can improve the resistance to thermal buckling significantly.

  12. High Strength Wood-based Sandwich Panels Reinforced with Fiberglass and Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghao Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical analysis is presented for new high-strength sandwich panels made from wood-based phenolic impregnated laminated paper assembled with an interlocking tri-axial ribbed core. Four different panel configurations were tested, including panels with fiberglass fabric bonded to both outside faces with self-expanding urethane foam used to fill the ribbed core. The mechanical behaviors of the sandwich panels were strength tested via flatwise compression, edgewise compression, and third-point load bending. Panels with fiberglass exhibited significantly increased strength and apparent MOE in edgewise compression and bending, but there were no noticeable effects in flatwise compression. The foam provided improved support that resisted both rib buckling and face buckling for both compression and bending tests. Post-failure observation indicated that core buckling dominated the failures for all configurations used. It is believed that using stiffer foam or optimizing the dimension of the core might further improve the mechanical performance of wood-based sandwich panels.

  13. Effect of applied magnetic field on sound transmission loss of MR-based sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatian, Masoud; Sedaghati, Ramin

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the sound transmission loss (STL) capability of sandwich panels treated with Magnetorheological (MR) fluids at low frequencies. An experimental setup has been designed to investigate the effect of the intensity of applied magnetic field on the natural frequencies and STL of a clamped circular panel. It is shown that the fundamental natural frequency of the MR sandwich panel increases in proportion to the applied magnetic field. In addition, the STL of the panel at the resonance frequency increases as the magnetic field is amplified. Furthermore, the classical plate theory and Ritz method have been utilized to develop the governing equations of motion of the finite multilayered circular panels comprising two elastic face sheets and MR fluid core layer. The radiated sound power from the panel is derived using Rayleigh integral as a function of the transverse velocity of the panel which is subsequently used to evaluate the STL. The theoretical study is validated comparing the simulation results with the experimental measurements. Experimental and analytical parametric study have also been conducted to study the effect of the core layers’ thickness on the natural frequency and the STL of sandwich panel.

  14. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  15. Preparation and Performance of Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the light-weight and high-strength thermoplastic composites, novel honeycomb sandwich panels were discussed in this paper: continuous glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GF/PP laminated sheets were used as the surface and polypropylene (PP honeycomb was used as the core. The effects of honeycomb core’s height, thickness and aperture on the mechanical properties were analyzed in this paper. The composite honeycomb sandwich panels exhibited excellent bending strength at 37.6MPa and lateral pressure strength at 25.8MPa.

  16. Two-dimensional analysis of shallow sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skvortsov, V; Bozhevolnaya, Elena

    2001-01-01

    The shallow singly curved and rectangular in-plane sandwich panels affected by lateral loads are considered. The set of governing equations on the basis of the Timoshenko-Reissner plate theory is derived for these panels in the case of general boundary conditions. Usage of any real boundary condi...... all four edges and for the panel that is simply supported along its curved boundaries and has hinge-like supports along the straight boundaries. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimassi, M. A.; Brauner, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence.

  18. Tests for indentation and perforation of sandwich panels with aluminium foam core%泡沫铝夹芯板压入和侵彻性能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 卢芳云

    2015-01-01

    利用MTS和落锤试验机研究了由复合材料面板和闭孔泡沫铝芯层组成的夹芯板结构在压入和侵彻时的变形和失效行为,并通过引入无量纲参数———能量吸收效率因子,探讨了一些关键参数对夹芯板压入和侵彻性能以及能量吸收性能的影响,如冲击能量、面板厚度、芯层厚度及相对密度、压头/锤头形状和边界条件等。结果表明夹芯板的破坏主要集中在压头作用的局部区域内。夹芯板的能量吸收效率对其结构参数比较敏感,增加上层面板厚度、芯层厚度或芯层相对密度能够有效地提高夹芯板结构的能量吸收能力以及抵抗压入和侵彻的能力,而下层面板厚度的对夹心板抗侵彻性能的影响不明显。不同的压头/锤头形状和边界条件对泡沫铝夹芯板的压入和侵彻响应以及能量吸收性能影响明显。%Indentation and perforation behaviors of sandwich panels with composite face sheets and closed-cell aluminium foam core were investigated experimentally.Quasi-static and low-velocity impact tests were conducted by using a MTS system and a drop hammer tester,respectively.Experimental results showed that the deformation and failure of the sandwich panels are roughly confined to the area underneath the indenter and the material outside the contact area seems to be intact.Effects of some key parameters,such as,impact energy,face sheet and core thicknesses,core density, indenter nose shape,and boundary conditions on the overall energy absorption behavior of the panels were studied and compared with an energy-absorbing efficiency factor.It was showed that the energy-absorbing efficiency of the panels is sensitive to its structural parameters;increasing the upper face sheet thickness and the thickness of core or the relative mass density of core can effectively improve the energy-absorbing ability and the ability against indentation and perforation of the panels

  19. ON RESIDUAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH PREDICTION OF COMPOSITE SANDWICH PANELS AFTER LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zonghong; Anthony J. Vizzini; Tang Qingru

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonlinear finite element analysis on damage propagation behavior of composite sandwich panels under in-plane uniaxial quasi-static compression after a low velocity impact. The major damage modes due to the impact, including the residual indentation on the impacted facesheet, the initially crushed core under the impacted area, and the delamination are incorporated into the model. A consequential core crushing mechanism is incorporated intothe analysis by using an element deactivation technique. Damage propagation behavior, which corresponds to those observed in sandwich compression after impact (SCAI) tests, has been successfully captured in the numerical simulation. The critical far field stress corresponding to the onset of damage propagation at specified critical locations near the damage zone are captured successfully. They show a good correlation with experimental data. These values can be used to effectively predict the residual compressive strength of low-velocity impact damaged composite sandwich panels.

  20. Behavior of sandwich panels subjected to bending fatigue, axial compression loading and in-plane bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Haley Aaron

    This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels

  1. Sound radiation and transmission loss characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich panel with composite facings: Effect of inherent material damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, M. P.; Jagadeesh, M.; Pitchaimani, Jeyaraj; Gangadharan, K. V.; Babu, M. C. Lenin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical studies carried out on vibro-acoustic and sound transmission loss behaviour of aluminium honeycomb core sandwich panel with fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) facings. Layered structural shell element with equivalent orthotropic elastic properties of core and orthotropic properties of FRP facing layer is used to predict the free and forced vibration characteristics. Followed by this, acoustic response and transmission loss characteristics are obtained using Rayleigh integral. Vibration and acoustic characteristics of FRP sandwich panels are compared with aluminium sandwich panels. The result reveals that FRP panel has better vibro-acoustic and transmission loss characteristics due to high stiffness and inherent material damping associated with them. Resonant amplitudes of the response are fully controlled by modal damping factors calculated based on modal strain energy. It is also demonstrated that FRP panel can be used to replace the aluminium panel without losing acoustic comfort with nearly 40 percent weight reduction.

  2. Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.;

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure load...... and results are compared to test data. A novel test arrangement utilizing a water filled cushion to create the uniform pressure load on curved panel specimen is used to obtain the experimental data. The panel is modeled with three different commercial finite element codes. Two implicit and one explicit code...... are used with various element types, modeling approaches and material models. The results show that the theoretical and experimental methods generally show fair agreement in panel non-linear behavior before collapse. It is also shown that special attention to detail has to be taken, because the predicted...

  3. Size Effects in Impact Damage of Composite Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobyns, Alan; Jackson, Wade

    2003-01-01

    Panel size has a large effect on the impact response and resultant damage level of honeycomb sandwich panels. It has been observed during impact testing that panels of the same design but different panel sizes will show large differences in damage when impacted with the same impact energy. To study this effect, a test program was conducted with instrumented impact testing of three different sizes of sandwich panels to obtain data on panel response and residual damage. In concert with the test program. a closed form analysis method was developed that incorporates the effects of damage on the impact response. This analysis method will predict both the impact response and the residual damage of a simply-supported sandwich panel impacted at any position on the panel. The damage is incorporated by the use of an experimental load-indentation curve obtained for the face-sheet/honeycomb and indentor combination under study. This curve inherently includes the damage response and can be obtained quasi-statically from a rigidly-backed specimen or a specimen with any support conditions. Good correlation has been obtained between the test data and the analysis results for the maximum force and residual indentation. The predictions can be improved by using a dynamic indentation curve. Analyses have also been done using the MSC/DYTRAN finite element code.

  4. 钢蒙皮-复合材料芯材夹层板弯曲性能研究%Research on Bending Properties of Metal Faced-composite Core Sandwich Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃; 方海; 刘伟庆

    2015-01-01

    Sandwich structure consisting of steel and glass fiber reinforced composite (GFRP) core pultruded hollow square tube was proposed .Bending experiment of metal faced‐composite core sandwich beam through using four‐point bending test method was carried out .The distribution of strain ,the mid‐span deflections and the ultimate failure of the slab w ere analyzed .T he effective bending stiffness of metal faced‐composite core sandwich panel was deduced by transformed section method ,and the mid‐span displacement computational formula was deduced by mechanics of materials theory .The mid‐span deflections of samples were calculated .The theory results and test results were compared and they fitted well .The study results show that when the thickness of the core is constant , the mid‐span deflection decreases with increasing thickness of metal f aced .%采用钢板蒙皮与玻璃纤维增强复合材料(GFRP)拉挤成型的空心方管芯材组成夹层结构,运用四点弯曲试验方法,开展了钢蒙皮‐复合材料芯材夹层梁的受弯性能试验,研究了其受力性能情况、跨中上下面板应力分布和跨中挠度。运用换算截面法推导出钢蒙皮‐复合材料芯材夹层板截面有效抗弯刚度,并采用材料力学理论推导出夹层板跨中挠度计算公式,计算各试件的跨中上下面板应力分布情况和跨中挠度。研究结果表明:当芯材厚度一致时,试件的跨中挠度随着钢板面层厚度的增加而逐渐减小;跨中挠度理论值与试验值吻合较好。

  5. Analysis of propagation characteristics of flexural wave in honeycomb sandwich panel and design of loudspeaker for radiating inclined sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    A loudspeaker for an auditory guiding system is proposed. This loudspeaker utilizes inclined sound transformed from a flexural wave in a honeycomb sandwich panel. We focused on the fact that the inclined sound propagates extensively with uniform level and direction. Furthermore, sound can be generated without group delay dispersion because the phase velocity of the flexural wave in the sandwich panel becomes constant with increasing frequency. These characteristics can be useful for an auditory guiding system in public spaces since voice-guiding navigation indicates the right direction regardless of position on a pathway. To design the proposed loudspeaker, the behavior of the sandwich panel is predicted using a theoretical equation in which the honeycomb core is assumed as an orthotropic continuum. We calculated the phase velocity dispersion of the flexural wave in the sandwich panel and compared the results obtained using the equation with those of a simulation based on the finite element method and an experiment in order to confirm the applicability of the theoretical equation. It was confirmed that the phase velocities obtained using the theoretical equation and by the simulation were in good agreement with that obtained experimentally. The obtained results suggest that the behavior of the sandwich panel can be predicted using the parameters of the panel. In addition, we designed an optimized honeycomb sandwich panel for radiating inclined sound by calculating the phase velocity characteristics of various panels that have different parameters of core height and cell size using the theoretical equation. Sound radiation from the optimized panel was simulated and compared with that of a homogeneous plate. It was clear that the variance of the radiation angle with varying frequency of the optimized panel was smaller than that of the homogeneous plate. This characteristic of sound radiation with a uniform angle is useful for indicating the destination direction. On

  6. Optimization of the curing process of a sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo Maung, Pyi; Tatarnikov, O.; Malysheva, G.

    2016-10-01

    This study presented finite element modelling and experimental measurements of temperatures during the autoclave curing of the T-50 aircraft wing sandwich panel. This panel consists of upper and lower carbon fibre based laminates and an aluminium foil honeycomb. The finite element modelling was performed using the Femap-Nastran product. During processing, the temperature at various points on the surface of the panel was measured using the thermocouples. The finite element method simulated the thermal conditions and determined the temperatures in the different parts of the panel for a full cycle of the curing process. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that their difference does not exceed 6%.

  7. Numerical modeling of sandwich panel response to ballistic loading - energy balance for varying impactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøl; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2007-01-01

    A sandwich panel is described by an axisymmetric lumped mass- spring model. The panel compliance is simplified, considering only core shear deformation uniformly distributed across the core thickness. Transverse penetrating impact is modeled for impactors of diameters comparable to the panel...... thickness but significantly smaller than panel length dimensions. Experimental data for the total loss in impactor kinetic energy and momentum and estimated damage energy are described. For a selection of impactor tip shapes, the numerical model is used to evaluate different simplified force histories...... between the impactor and the panel during penetration. The force histories are selected from a primary criterion of conservation of linear momentum in the impactor-panel system, and evaluated according to agreement with the total measured energy balance....

  8. Design, fabrication and test of liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Camarda, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich panel construction, were fabricated and tested. The designs utilize two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and potassium or sodium as the working fluid. Panels were tested by radiant heating, and the results indicate successful heat pipe operation at temperatures of approximately 922K (1200F). These panels, in addition to solving potential thermal stress problems in an Airframe-Integrated Scramjet Engine, have potential applications as cold plates for electronic component cooling, as radiators for space platforms, and as low distortion, large area structures.

  9. Residual Strength of In-plane Loaded Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. As demonstrated, the model can predict the maximum load carrying capacity of real-life panels with debond damages, where the failure is governed by face-sheet buckling followed by debond...... growth. Comparison of the theoretical predictions is carried out against a series of largescale experiments described in Lundsgaard-Larsen et al. (2005)...

  10. Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of sandwich panels under different edge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system, combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations are established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three dimensional buckling interaction surfaces are constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide easy comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. Thermal buckling curves of the sandwich panels also are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory. In sandwich panels, the effect of transverse shear is quite large, and by neglecting the transverse shear effect, the buckling loads could be overpredicted considerably. Clamping of the edges could greatly increase buckling strength more in compression than in shear.

  11. Effect of microencapsulated phase change material in sandwich panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellon, Cecilia; Medrano, Marc; Roca, Joan; Cabeza, Luisa F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Navarro, Maria E.; Fernandez, Ana I. [Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lazaro, Ana; Zalba, Belen [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, I3A, Grupo de Ingenieria Termica y Sistemas Energeticos (GITSE), Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Politecnico Rio Ebro, Edificio ' ' Agustin de Betancourt,' ' Maria de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Sandwich panels are a good option as building materials, as they offer excellent characteristics in a modular system. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the microencapsulated PCM (Micronal BASF) in sandwich panels to increase their thermal inertia and to reduce the energy demand of the final buildings. In this paper, to manufacture the sandwich panel with microencapsulated PCM three different methods were tested. In case 1, the PCM was added mixing the microencapsulated PCM with one of the components of the polyurethane. In the other two cases, the PCM was added either a step before (case 2) or a step after (case 3) to the addition of the polyurethane to the metal sheets. The results show that in case 1 the effect of PCM was overlapped by a possible increase in thermal conductivity, but an increase of thermal inertia was found in case 3. In case 2, different results were obtained due to the poor distribution of the PCM. Some samples showed the effect of the PCM (higher thermal inertia), and other samples results were similar to the conventional sandwich panel. In both cases (2 and 3), it is required to industrialize the process to improve the results. (author)

  12. Dynamic Behaviour of Concrete Sandwich Panel under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yongxiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface contact explosion experiments were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of concrete sandwich panel subjected to blast loading. Experimental results have shown that there are four damage modes explosion cratering, scabbing of the backside, radial cracking induced failure, and circumferential cracking induced failure. It also illustrates that different foam materials sandwiched in the multi-layered medium have an important effect on damage patterns. Due to the foam material, the stress peak decreases one order of magnitude and the duration is more than four times that of the panel without the soft layer by numerical simulation. Additionally, the multi layered medium with concrete foam demonstrates the favourable protective property compared with that of aluminum foam. Meanwhile, the optimal analysis of the thickness of the foam material in the sandwich panel was performed in terms of experimental and numerical analyseis. The proper thickness proportion of soft layer is about 20 percent to the total thickness of sandwich panel under the conditions in this study.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.22-29, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1480  

  13. Methods for Assessing Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Wrinkling Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient closed-form methods for predicting the facesheet wrinkling failure mode in sandwich panels are assessed. Comparisons were made with finite element model predictions for facesheet wrinkling, and a validated closed-form method was implemented in the HyperSizer structure sizing software.

  14. Long-term hygrothermal effects on damage tolerance of hybrid composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Ori; Hiel, Clement; Luft, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A sandwich construction, composed of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced plastic skins and a syntactic foam core, was selected as the design concept for a wind tunnel compressor blade application, where high damage tolerance and durability are of major importance. Beam specimens were prepared from open-edge and encapsulated sandwich panels which had previously been immersed in water at different temperatures for periods of up to about two years in the extreme case. Moisture absorption and strength characteristics, as related to time of exposure to hygrothermal conditions, were evaluated for the sandwich specimens and their constituents (skins and foam). After different exposure periods, low-velocity impact damage was inflicted on most sandwich specimens and damage characteristics were related to impact energy. Eventually, the residual compressive strengths of the damaged (and undamaged) beams were determined flexurally. Test results show that exposure to hygrothermal conditions leads to significant strength reductions for foam specimens and open-edge sandwich panels, compared with reference specimens stored at room temperature. In the case of skin specimens and for beams prepared from encapsulated sanwich panels that had previously been exposed to hygrothermal conditions, moisture absorption was found to improve strength as related to the reference case. The beneficial effect of moisture on skin performance was, however, limited to moisture contents below 1% (at 50 C and lower temperatures). Above this moisture level and at higher temperatures, strength degradation of the skin seems to prevail.

  15. Fabrication and development of several heat pipe honeycomb sandwich panel concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing liquid metal heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for application on the NASA Langley airframe-integrated Scramjet engine was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts was evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. The chosen design consists of an all-stainless steel structure, sintered screen facesheets, and two types of core-ribbon; a diffusion bonded wire mesh and a foil-screen composite. Cleaning, fluid charging, processing, and process port sealing techniques were established. The liquid metals potassium, sodium and cesium were used as working fluids. Eleven honeycomb panels 15.24 cm X 15.24 cm X 2.94 cm were delivered to NASA Langley for extensive performance testing and evaluation; nine panels were processed as heat pipes, and two panels were left unprocessed.

  16. Fabrication and development of several heat pipe honeycomb sandwich panel concepts. [airframe integrated scramjet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing liquid metal heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for application on the NASA Langley airframe-integrated Scramjet engine was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts was evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. The chosen design consists of an all-stainless steel structure, sintered screen facesheets, and two types of core-ribbon; a diffusion bonded wire mesh and a foil-screen composite. Cleaning, fluid charging, processing, and process port sealing techniques were established. The liquid metals potassium, sodium and cesium were used as working fluids. Eleven honeycomb panels 15.24 cm X 15.24 cm X 2.94 cm were delivered to NASA Langley for extensive performance testing and evaluation; nine panels were processed as heat pipes, and two panels were left unprocessed.

  17. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compressive strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compressive loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  18. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compression Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compression strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compression loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  19. Bending moment of galvanized iron glass fiber sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurustal Somnath Swamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to prepare a laminated with Galvanized iron thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GF were fabricated by hand lay-up method and evaluated for their bending moment properties of the sandwich panel using universal testing machine. This paper theoretically calculates the bending behavior of sandwich panel. The recent need to develop a new range of materials has resulted in the development of high performance lightweight composites with excellent properties. Metal– composite systems consist of alternating layers of metal and fiber-reinforced polymer composites which are bonded by an adhesive. Sandwich beams were tested under Air Bending. Stress-strain and stress-displacement were recorded by using AIMIL UTM. The beam face sheets exhibited a softening non-linearity on the bending side. Experimental results were in good agreement with predictions from simple models. On an overall basis, the sandwich panel exhibited better bending moment performance than the monolithic galvanized iron

  20. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A face/core debond in a sandwich structure may propagate in the interface or kink into either the face or core. It is found that certain modifications of the face/core interface region influence the kinking behavior, which is studied experimentally in the present paper. A sandwich double cantilever...

  1. Mechanical properties of sandwich composite made of syntactic foam core and GFRP skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulzamri Salleh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich composites or sandwich panels have been widely used as potential materials or building structures and are regarded as a lightweight material for marine applications. In particular, the mechanical properties, such as the compressive, tensile and flexural behaviour, of sandwich composites formed from glass fibre sheets used as the skin and glass microballoon/vinyl ester as the syntactic foam core were investigated in this report. This syntactic foam core is sandwiched between unidirectional glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP using vinyl ester resins to build high performance sandwich panels. The results show that the compressive and tensile strengths decrease when the glass microballoon content is increased in syntactic foam core of sandwich panels. Moreover, compressive modulus is also found to be decreased, and there is no trend for tensile modulus. Meanwhile, the flexural stiffness and effective flexural stiffness for edgewise position have a higher bending as 50% and 60%, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that the glass microballoon mixed in a vinyl ester should be controlled to obtain a good combination of the tensile, compressive and flexural strength properties.

  2. New insights into classical solutions of the local instability of the sandwich panels problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozorska, Jolanta; Pozorski, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper concerns the problem of local instability of thin facings of a sandwich panel. The classic analytical solutions are compared and examined. The Airy stress function is applied in the case of the state of plane stress and the state of plane strain. Wrinkling stress values are presented. The differences between the results obtained using the differential equations method and energy method are discussed. The relations between core strain energies are presented.

  3. Morphing nacelle inlet lip with pneumatic actuators and a flexible nano composite sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsine Ozdemir, Nazli; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Craciun, Monica; Remillat, Chrystel; Lira, Cristian; Jagessur, Yogesh; Da Rocha-Schmidt, Luiz

    2015-12-01

    We present a hybrid pneumatic/flexible sandwich structure with thermoplastic (TP) nanocomposite skins to enable the morphing of a nacelle inlet lip. The design consists of pneumatic inflatables as actuators and a flexible sandwich panel that morphs under variable pressure combinations to adapt different flight conditions and save fuel. The sandwich panel forms the outer layer of the nacelle inlet lip. It is lightweight, compliant and impact resistant with no discontinuities, and consists of graphene-doped thermoplastic polyurethane (G/TPU) skins that are supported by an aluminium Flex-core honeycomb in the middle, with near zero in-plane Poisson’s ratio behaviour. A test rig for a reduced-scale demonstrator was designed and built to test the prototype of morphing nacelle with custom-made pneumatic actuators. The output force and the deflections of the experimental demonstrator are verified with the internal pressures of the actuators varying from 0 to 0.41 MPa. The results show the feasibility and promise of the hybrid inflatable/nanocomposite sandwich panel for morphing nacelle airframes.

  4. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    Various modifications of the face/core interface in foam core sandwich specimens are examined in a series of two papers. This paper constitutes part I and describes the finite element analysis of a sandwich test specimen, i.e. a DCB specimen loaded by uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM). Using...

  5. Homogeneous and sandwich active panels under deterministic and stochastic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, J; Gardonio, P

    2009-06-01

    In this paper an element-based model is used to predict the structural response and sound radiation of two smart panels excited by (a) an acoustic plane wave, (b) a stochastic acoustic diffuse field, and (c) a turbulent boundary layer. The first panel is made of aluminum, while the second is a composite sandwich panel with equivalent static stiffness but four times lower mass per unit area. The panels are equipped with 16 decentralized velocity feedback control loops using idealized point force actuators. In contrast to previous studies on smart panels, the analysis is extended to the upper end of the audio frequency range. In this frequency region the response and sound radiation of the panels strongly depend on the spatial characteristics of the excitation field and the sound radiation properties with respect to the bending wavelength on the panels. Considerable reduction in structural response and sound radiation is predicted for the low audio frequency range where the panel response is dominated by well separated resonances of low order structural modes. It is also found that some reduction can be achieved around acoustic and convective coincidence regions.

  6. Probabilistic Structural Evaluation of Uncertainties in Radiator Sandwich Panel Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Ludwiczak, Damian

    2006-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Space System is part of the NASA's Prometheus Program. As part of the JIMO engineering team at NASA Glenn Research Center, the structural design of the JIMO Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) is evaluated. An initial goal of this study was to perform sensitivity analyses to determine the relative importance of the input variables on the structural responses of the radiator panel. The desire was to let the sensitivity analysis information identify the important parameters. The probabilistic analysis methods illustrated here support this objective. The probabilistic structural performance evaluation of a HRS radiator sandwich panel was performed. The radiator panel structural performance was assessed in the presence of uncertainties in the loading, fabrication process variables, and material properties. The stress and displacement contours of the deterministic structural analysis at mean probability was performed and results presented. It is followed by a probabilistic evaluation to determine the effect of the primitive variables on the radiator panel structural performance. Based on uncertainties in material properties, structural geometry and loading, the results of the displacement and stress analysis are used as an input file for the probabilistic analysis of the panel. The sensitivity of the structural responses, such as maximum displacement and maximum tensile and compressive stresses of the facesheet in x and y directions and maximum VonMises stresses of the tube, to the loading and design variables is determined under the boundary condition where all edges of the radiator panel are pinned. Based on this study, design critical material and geometric parameters of the considered sandwich panel are identified.

  7. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  8. Prediction of the ballistic limit of an aluminium sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J.; De Vuyst, T.; Vignjevic, R.; Hughes, K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents research on modelling the impact of a 150g projectile on a 35mm thick aluminium sandwich panel. The objective of the work is a predictive modelling capability for the ballistic limit of the panel. A predictive modelling capability supports the design of capture and deorbit missions for large items of space debris such as satellites and rocket upper stages. A detailed explicit finite element model was built using the LSDYNA software and results were compared with experimental data for the projectile exit velocity to establish key parameters. The primary parameters influencing the model behaviour were the strength and failure of the aluminium face sheets and the friction between projectile and panel. The model results showed good agreement with experimental results for ogive nose projectiles, but overestimated the exit velocity for flat nose projectiles.

  9. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  10. Dynamic response and optimal design of curved metallic sandwich panels under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Yang, Li-Jun; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a "soft" outer face and a "hard" inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Response and Deformation of Aluminium Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Underwater Impulsive Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lin Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of aluminium sandwich panels with three thicknesses’ core subjected to different underwater loading levels has been studied in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI experiments. The transient response of the panels is measured using a three-dimensional (3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC system, along with high-speed photography. The full-field shape and displacement profiles of dry face sheets were recorded in real time compared with those of monolithic plate. The out-of-plane deflection and in-plane strain were quantified and analyzed. Three typical deformation modes of sandwich panel were identified. The results show that the core structure is crushed resulting in an initial large circular shape of deformation in the center area of panels. From this moment on, the panel is starting to act as a free vibration beam with initial velocities. The deformation modes consisted of homogeneous large deformation for both face sheets, obvious deformation border on wet face sheet, core node imprinting, remarkable wrinkled skin of deformation border, and a partial delamination and partial tear failure of the dry face. The blast-resistance of sandwich panel can be highly efficiently improved by increasing the thickness of core structure.

  12. Vibroacoustic flexural properties of symmetric honeycomb sandwich panels with composite faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumie, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The vibroacoustic bending properties of honeycomb sandwich panels with composite faces are studied from the wavenumber modulus to the mechanical impedance, passing through the modal density. Numerical results extracted from finite element software computations are compared with analytical results. In both cases, the homogenization method is used to calculate the global properties of the sandwich panel. Since faces are made of composite material, the classical laminate theory serves as reference. With particular conditions used in the application for symmetric panels, the original orthotropic mechanical properties can be reduced simply to three parameters commonly used in vibroacoustic characterizations. These three parameters are the mass per unit area, the bending rigidity and the out-of-plane shear rigidity. They simultaneously govern the wavenumber modulus, the modal frequencies, the modal density and the mechanical impedance. For all of these vibroacoustic characterizations, a special frequency called the transition frequency separates two domains. In the first domain, below the transition frequency or for low frequencies, the orthotropic sandwich panel has a classical isotropic plate behavior. In the second domain, above the transition frequency or for high frequencies, the out-of-plane shear rigidity is very significant and changes the behavior. However, the results discussed are only valid up to a certain frequency which is determined by the thickness and out-of-plane shear stiffness of the honeycomb core, the thickness and the bending stiffness of the laminated face sheets and then the mass per unit area and bending stiffness of the total sandwich structure. All these parameters influence the final choice of model and simplifications presented. Experimental measurements of the bending wavenumber modulus and modal frequencies for our own application were carried out. In the vibroacoustic domain, the critical frequency is also an important frequency. It again

  13. Characterizing Facesheet/Core Disbonding in Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Martin; Ratcliffe, James G.; Adams, Daniel O.; Krueger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation into facesheet core disbonding in carbon fiber reinforced plastic/Nomex honeycomb sandwich structures using a Single Cantilever Beam test. Specimens with three, six and twelve-ply facesheets were tested. Specimens with different honeycomb cores consisting of four different cell sizes were also tested, in addition to specimens with three different widths. Three different data reduction methods were employed for computing apparent fracture toughness values from the test data, namely an area method, a compliance calibration technique and a modified beam theory method. The compliance calibration and modified beam theory approaches yielded comparable apparent fracture toughness values, which were generally lower than those computed using the area method. Disbonding in the three-ply facesheet specimens took place at the facesheet/core interface and yielded the lowest apparent fracture toughness values. Disbonding in the six and twelve-ply facesheet specimens took place within the core, near to the facesheet/core interface. Specimen width was not found to have a significant effect on apparent fracture toughness. The amount of scatter in the apparent fracture toughness data was found to increase with honeycomb core cell size.

  14. Static and Fatigue Characterization of Nomex Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskes Boualem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main benefits of using the sandwich concept in structural components are the high stiffness, good fatigue resistance and low weight ratios. Recent advances in materials and construction techniques have resulted in further improvement and increased uniformity of the sandwich composite properties. In order to use these materials in different applications, the knowledge of simply their static properties alone is not sufficient but additional information on their fatigue properties and durability are required. In this paper, first static and fatigue tests on four points bending of nomex honeycomb composite sandwich panels have been performed. Load/displacement and S-N fatigue curves are presented and analysed. Fatigue failure and damage modes are observed with an optical microscope and are discussed. The second is to address such fatigue behaviour by using a damage model and check it by experimentation. This fatigue damage model is based on stiffness degradation, which is used as a damage indicator. Two non-linear cumulative damage models derived from the chosen stiffness degradation equation are examined with assumption of linear Miner's damage summation. Predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  15. Static and Fatigue Characterization of Nomex Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskes Boualem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main benefits of using the sandwich concept in structural components are the high stiffness, good fatigue resistance and low weight ratios. Recent advances in materials and construction techniques have resulted in further improvement and increased uniformity of the sandwich composite properties. In order to use these materials in different applications, the knowledge of simply their static properties alone is not sufficient but additional information on their fatigue properties and durability are required. In this paper, first static and fatigue tests on four points bending of nomex honeycomb composite sandwich panels have been performed. Load/displacement and S-N fatigue curves are presented and analysed. Fatigue failure and damage modes are observed with an optical microscope and are discussed. The second is to address such fatigue behaviour by using a damage model and check it by experimentation. This fatigue damage model is based on stiffness degradation, which is used as a damage indicator. Two non-linear cumulative damage models derived from the chosen stiffness degradation equation are examined with assumption of linear Miner's damage summation. Predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  16. Predicting The Compression Strength Of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James; Jackson, Wade; Schaff, Jeffery

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a technique for predicting the residual compression strength of sandwich panels containing impact damage in one facesheet. The technique was tailored to predict the strength of specimens that exhibit a failure mode involving the formation of kink bands at locations of peak strain in the region of impact damage. Under continued compression loading, the kink bands propagate in a stable manner perpendicular to the applied load. When a critical kink-band length is reached, growth becomes unstable corresponding to panel failure. The analysis follows in two sections. The first section calculates the far-field stress required for stable kink-band growth and the second calculates that required for unstable growth. The residual strength prediction is made when the stress for stable growth becomes equal to that for unstable kink-band growth. Initial comparisons between analysis and experiment show good agreement.

  17. Nondestructive and Strain Testing of Composite Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyings, Ryan

    In April 2006, Sikorsky Aircraft received a contract from the United States Marine Corps (USMC) to develop a successor to their CH-53E heavy-lift helicopter. The new designation is the CH-53K "Super Stallion" and provides increased operating capabilities through the use of design revisions that incorporate extensive use of carbon fiber composites and composite sandwich panels. "The CH-53K will have five times the capability at half of the operational cost of the aircraft it's replacing. It will be the most capable helicopter ever produced. With more than twice the combat radius of the CH-53E, the CH-53K uses mature technology to deliver a fully shipboard compatible platform to meet current and future Marine Corps requirements". Upon introduction, it will be the largest rotary wing aircraft in the United States Department of Defense. The USMC will incorporate the CH-53K into the Joint Operations Concept of Full Spectrum Dominance and Sea Power 21 thereby enabling rapid, decisive operations and the early termination of conflict by projecting and sustaining forces to distant anti-access, area-denial environments. Even with an increased lift capability, the CH-53K is a slow moving, low flying helicopter susceptible to damage from small arms fire. There is no field level composite repair capability within any maintained documents published by the Department of Defense. Purdue University has developed a field level rapid repair technique capable of returning strength and integrity to damaged carbon composite structural components. The patch is made from carbon fiber weave that is applied using a field capable Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). This thesis seeks to validate, using nondestructive testing methods and strain monitoring, the manufacturing, damage, and repair process of composite sandwich panels representative of the CH-53K structural panels.

  18. Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.

  19. Fracture Characterization of Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello

    such result it is important to devise new experimental and analytical techniques to establish the multi-mode fracture characteristics of sandwich plate structures and accordingly develop methods to inhibit defect propagation. This thesis deals with characterization of fracture between face and core...... samples. A number of sandwich materials were tested (GFRP/foam cores and CFRP/Nomex) bothin static and fatigue. A linear elastic fracture mechanics model was used to determine the analyticalexpression of compliance which allowed to calculate automatically the crack length. In combination, a finite element...... types of sandwich samples atdifferent mode mixities and ΔG levels, and results in agreement with previous studies were obtained suggesting that the developed testing method is a reliable tool for the study of face/core interface debonded sandwich structures....

  20. Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Samsudin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of precast sandwich concrete has gained acceptance worldwide in conjunction with the Industrial Building System (IBS.  The advancement and improvement of using wall panel has gone through a lot of achievements through the last decade. The usage of precast lightweight sandwich panel has become the alternative to conventional construction using brick wall. The usage of this panel system contributes to a sustainable and environmental friendly construction.  This paper presents an overview of the latest development in precast concrete sandwich panel as an IBS. The purpose of this paper is to provide comprehensive information on latest research development of sandwich panel for building construction purposes. The information on sandwich panel’s composition, material, properties, strength, availability, and its usage as structural element are reported.  An innovative concept used in the design of these systems and the use of lightweight materials is also discussed.

  1. Finite element analysis of hypervelocity impact behaviour of CFRP-Al/HC sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre-reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core) sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact (up to 1 km/s) is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by mean of a user-defined material model (VUMAT) employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria, delamination modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damaged Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing HC core.

  2. Hypervelocity Impact Behaviour of CFRP-A1/HC Sandwich Panel: Finite-Element Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre- reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core) sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact ( 1 km/s) is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by the means of a user-defined material model (VUMAT) employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria and delamination is modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damage of Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson-Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie- Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing of HC core.

  3. Finite element analysis of hypervelocity impact behaviour of CFRP-Al/HC sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnis Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre-reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact (up to 1 km/s is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by mean of a user-defined material model (VUMAT employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria, delamination modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damaged Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing HC core.

  4. Virtual Design Method for Controlled Failure in Foldcore Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Ralf; Fischer, S.

    2015-12-01

    For certification, novel fuselage concepts have to prove equivalent crashworthiness standards compared to the existing metal reference design. Due to the brittle failure behaviour of CFRP this requirement can only be fulfilled by a controlled progressive crash kinematics. Experiments showed that the failure of a twin-walled fuselage panel can be controlled by a local modification of the core through-thickness compression strength. For folded cores the required change in core properties can be integrated by a modification of the fold pattern. However, the complexity of folded cores requires a virtual design methodology for tailoring the fold pattern according to all static and crash relevant requirements. In this context a foldcore micromodel simulation method is presented to identify the structural response of a twin-walled fuselage panels with folded core under crash relevant loading condition. The simulations showed that a high degree of correlation is required before simulation can replace expensive testing. In the presented studies, the necessary correlation quality could only be obtained by including imperfections of the core material in the micromodel simulation approach.

  5. Efficient Design and Analysis of Lightweight Reinforced Core Sandwich and PRSEUS Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Lucking, Ryan C.; Collier, Craig S.; Ainsworth, James J.; Toubia, Elias A.

    2012-01-01

    Design, analysis, and sizing methods for two novel structural panel concepts have been developed and incorporated into the HyperSizer Structural Sizing Software. Reinforced Core Sandwich (RCS) panels consist of a foam core with reinforcing composite webs connecting composite facesheets. Boeing s Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) panels use a pultruded unidirectional composite rod to provide axial stiffness along with integrated transverse frames and stitching. Both of these structural concepts are ovencured and have shown great promise applications in lightweight structures, but have suffered from the lack of efficient sizing capabilities similar to those that exist for honeycomb sandwich, foam sandwich, hat stiffened, and other, more traditional concepts. Now, with accurate design methods for RCS and PRSEUS panels available in HyperSizer, these concepts can be traded and used in designs as is done with the more traditional structural concepts. The methods developed to enable sizing of RCS and PRSEUS are outlined, as are results showing the validity and utility of the methods. Applications include several large NASA heavy lift launch vehicle structures.

  6. On the assumption of transverse isotropy of a honeycomb sandwich panel for NDT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Christoph; Tai, Steffen; Mal, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    Due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio, honeycomb sandwich panels are being increasingly used in lightweight structures, in particular in aircraft and aerospace industry. Delaminations of individual plies in the composite skins or disbonds of a layer in the multi-layer plate structures often remain undetected during visual inspection. Using guided ultrasonic waves, such hidden defects can be detected. For the successful application of ultrasonic nondestructive testing methods, however, wave propagation characteristics have to be well-understood. Recently developed semi-analytical techniques allow for the calculation of dispersion characteristics for many materials. However, the elastic material behavior is often simplified for these calculations. For example, woven composite laminates are modeled as a homogeneous, transversely isotropic plate. While these simplifications only lead to minor errors, the modeling of aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels with homogeneous, transversely isotropic layers has yet to be validated. In this paper, an efficient numerical approach is used to determine the dispersion characteristics of a honeycomb core layer with and without simplified material behavior. A full 3D-model, including the honeycomb cells, of a small representative volume element of the material is generated using finite elements, and the resulting dispersion curves are compared to the ones obtained from simplified models. In addition to dispersion curves, the displacement fields of the waves are also analyzed.

  7. Effective thermal/mechanical properties of honeycomb core panels for hot structure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatemi, J.; Lemmen, M.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work addresses the computation of the effective thermal and mechanical properties of a honeycombcore sandwich panel. The panel considered has a hexagon-cell honeycomb core. An alternative method, based on the Gebhart factors within a hexagonal cell, is presented in addition to the

  8. Effective thermal/mechanical properties of honeycomb core panels for hot structure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatemi, J.; Lemmen, M.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work addresses the computation of the effective thermal and mechanical properties of a honeycombcore sandwich panel. The panel considered has a hexagon-cell honeycomb core. An alternative method, based on the Gebhart factors within a hexagonal cell, is presented in addition to the famili

  9. Thermomechanical response of metal foam sandwich panels for structural thermal protection systems in hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Joseph F.

    Sandwich panels with metal foam cores are proposed for load-bearing structural components in actively cooled thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles. Prototype acreage metal foam sandwich panels (MFSP's) are constructed and analyzed with the central goal of characterizing the thermomechanical response of the system. MFSP's are subjected to uniform temperature fields and equibiaxial loading in a novel experimental load frame. The load frame exploits the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and allows for thermostructural experimentation without the endemic conflict of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. Back-to-back strain gages and distributed thermocouples capture the in-plane response of the panels, including buckling and elastic-plastic post-buckling. The out-of-plane response is captured via moire interferometry, which provides a visualization of evolving mode shapes throughout the post-buckling regime. The experimental results agree with an analytical prediction for critical temperatures in sandwich panels based on a Rayleigh-Ritz minimization of the energy functional for a Reissner-Mindlin plate. In addition, a three-dimensional finite element model of the non-linear thermomechanical response of the panel-frame experimental system is developed and the results are shown to agree well with the experimentally identified response of MFSP's. Central to analytical and numerical characterization of MFSP's is an understanding of the response of metal foam under shear loading. The shear response of metal foam is captured experimentally, providing density-dependent relationships for material stiffness, strength, and energy absorption. Speckle photography is employed to identify microstructural size effects in the distribution of strain throughout metal foam under shear loading. In addition, a micromechanical model is established for the density-dependent shear modulus of metal foam, which allows for the coupling of cell-level imperfections

  10. Ageing tests study on wood-based sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Raquel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite lightweight wood panels are being increasingly used in construction in Spain. Their growing use should be accompanied by necessary guarantees based on studies of their properties. As it is prescriptive and in addition to others tests, in the present work is examinated the durability of these panels when exposed to the climatic conditions, a characteristic of great importance for wood products, according to Guide ETAG 016, the current standard defining the ageing tests to be used. However, due to the use class of this material, there are indications that the testing outlined in this Guide is inappropriate for assessing the ageing of wood-based sandwich panels. Alternative tests are here proposed that recreate rather better the real conditions under which these products are used. Covering the samples in a waterproof sheeting permeable to the outward movement of water vapour, which is in fact used in the installation, provided the best procedure for testing these panels.

    Los paneles sándwich de madera son un producto de creciente aplicación en la edificación de nuestro país. Este ascendente uso del material debe estar acompañado de las garantías necesarias avaladas por un estudio previo de sus prestaciones. Como es preceptivo y entre otros, se evalúa su durabilidad frente a las condiciones climatológicas, clave en los productos derivados de la madera, acorde a la normativa actual definida con tal fin, la Guía ETAG 016. Sin embargo, debido a la clase de uso del material, se ha detectado que dicha normativa tal y como está concebida no es capaz de valorar su envejecimiento adecuadamente. En este trabajo se proponen ensayos alternativos al establecido tras exhaustivos análisis que recrean las condiciones reales de uso y más acordes a los productos de madera. Se concluye que la incorporación de una lámina impermeable pero permeable al vapor de agua hacia el exterior, como las utilizadas en el montaje, aportan el mejor

  11. Evaluation of Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Under Compressive Loads at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sandra P.

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen composite honeycomb sandwich panels were tested to failure under compressive loading. The test specimens included panels with both 8 and 24-ply graphite-bismaleimide composite facesheets and both titanium and graphite-polyimide core materials. The panels were designed to have the load introduced through fasteners attached to pairs of steel angles on the ends of the panels to simulate double shear splice joints. The unloaded edges were unconstrained. Test temperatures included room temperature, 250F, and 300F. For the room and 250F temperature tests, the 24-ply specimen failure strains were close to the unnotched allowable strain values and failure loads were well above the design loads. However, failure strains much lower than the unnotched allowable strain values, and failure loads below the design loads were observed with several of the 8-ply specimens. For each individual test temperature, large variations in the failure strains and loads were observed for the 8-ply specimens. Dramatic decreases in the failure strains and loads were observed for the 24-ply specimens as the test temperature was increased from 250F to 300F. All 8-ply specimens appeared to have failed in a facesheet strength failure mode for all test temperatures. The 24-ply specimens displayed appreciably greater amounts of bending prior to failure than the 8-ply specimens, and panel buckling occurred prior to facesheet strength failure for the 24-ply room and 250F temperature tests.

  12. EFFECT OF DIVIDED CORE ON THE BENDING PERFORMANCES OF TEXTILE REINFORCED FOAM CORE SANDWICH COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALPYILDIZ Tuba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich composites are generally used in marine applications, wind turbines, space and aircraft vehicles due to their high bending rigidities in addition to their lighter weights. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of divided foam core and interlayer sheet of glass fabric on the bending performances of sandwich composites which are manufactured with glass fabrics as the facesheets/interlayer sheets and PVC foam as the core material. Sandwich composites with single and divided core are manufactured and compared in terms of flexural behavious via three point bending tests. It is found that the bending performance is enhanced with the use of divided core and using divided core does not affect the behaviour of the sandwich composite against bending deformations. In the case of the plain core sandwich composite, dividing the core is advised for certain applications rather than perforating the core to increase the bending stiffness and strength of the textile reinforced sandwich composites because it is possible to purchase core with any thickness and there is no need for additional process such as perforation. The proposed application could enhance the bending performances without altering the weight and cost of the sandwich composites, which are preferred due to their higher bending rigidities in relation to their lighter weights.

  13. Enhancing Fatigue Performance of Sandwich Composites with Nanophased Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zainuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report fatigue performance of sandwich composites with nanophased core under shear load. Nanophased core was made from polyurethane foam dispersed with carbon nanofiber (CNF. CNFs were dispersed into part-A of liquid polyurethane through a sonication process and the loading of nanoparticles was 1.0 wt%. After dispersion, part-A was mixed with part-B, cast into a mold, and allowed to cure. Nanophased foam was then used to fabricate sandwich composites. Static shear tests revealed that strength and modulus of nanophased foams were 33% and 19% higher than those of unreinforced (neat foams. Next, shear fatigue tests were conducted at a frequency of 3 Hz and stress ratio (R of 0.1. S-N curves were generated and fatigue performances were compared. Number of cycles to failure for nanophased sandwich was significantly higher than that of the neat ones. For example, at 57% of ultimate shear strength, nanophased sandwich would survive 400,000 cycles more than its neat counterpart. SEM micrographs indicated stronger cell structures with nanophased foams. These stronger cells strengthened the sub-interface zones underneath the actual core-skin interface. High toughness of the sub-interface layer delayed initiation of fatigue cracks and thereby increased the fatigue life of nanophased sandwich composites.

  14. Lamb wave-based BVID imaging for a curved composite sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaze; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2017-02-01

    Composite sandwich structures, consisting of a low density core sandwiched between two laminated facesheets, have been widely used in various aerospace structures. A new Lamb wave-based imaging condition, which will be referred to as the inverse incident wave energy (IIWE) imaging criterion, is proposed in this paper to resolve the situations where the incident wave energy weakly penetrates into the damaged area in the upper facesheet region. Current imaging conditions by analyzing wavefield reconstructed from laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) scanning have been proven to be adequate for imaging damage in layered composite laminates. In this research, those current imaging conditions were applied and compared in the composite foam structures for barely visible impact damage (BVID). A piezoelectric wafer was used to excite Lamb waves into the structure and a LDV was used to scan the potential damaged areas in the upper facesheet of the panel. A BVID site in a curved composite sandwich foam aileron was inspected using various wavefield analysis methods and the damage images were compared with C-scan images. A few imaging conditions that are effective for this BVID site are identified when the incident waves have difficulties penetrating into the damaged region.

  15. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems.

  16. Flexural Behavior of Aluminum Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Vidyasagar; Kumar, J. Suresh; Venkataraviteja, Duddu; Reddy, Guggulla Bharath Kumar

    2017-05-01

    This project is concerned with the fabrication and flexural testing of aluminium honey comb sandwich structure which is a special case of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a light weight but thick core. The core material is normally low density material but its high thickness provide the sandwich composite with high bonding stiffness. Honeycomb core are classified into two types based on the materials and structures. Hexagonal shape has a unique properties i.e has more bonding strength and less formation time based on the cell size and sheet thickness. Sandwich structure exhibit different properties such as high load bearing capacity at low weight and has excellent thermal insulation. By considering the above properties it has tendency to minimize the structural problem. So honey comb sandwich structure is choosed. The core structure has a different applications such as aircraft, ship interiors, construction industries. As there is no proper research on strength characteristics of sandwich structure. So, we use light weight material to desire the strength. There are different parameters involved in this structure i.e cell size, sheet thickness and core height. In this project we considered 3 level of comparison among the 3 different parameters cell size of 4, 6 and 8 mm, sheet thickness of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm, and core height of 20,25 and 30 mm. In order to reduce the number of experiment we use taguchi design of experiment, and we select the L8 orthogonal array is the best array for this type of situation, which clearly identifies the parameters by independent of material weight to support this we add the minitab software, to identify the main effective plots and regression equation which involves the individual response and corresponding parameters. Aluminium material is used for the fabrication of Honeycomb sandwich structure among the various grades of aluminium we consider the AL6061 which is light weight material

  17. Design of Cellular Composite Sandwich Panels for Maximum Blast Resistance Via Energy Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer Righman; Su, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for optimizing the energy absorption under blast loads of cellular composite sandwich panels. A combination of dynamic finite element analysis (FEA) and simplified analytical modeling techniques are used. The analytical modeling calculates both the loading effects and structural response resulting from user-input charge sizes and standoff distances and offers the advantage of expediting iterative design processes. The FEA and the analytical model results are compared and contrasted then used to compare the energy response of various cellular composite sandwich panels under blast loads, where various core shapes and dimensions are the focus. As a result, it is concluded that the optimum shape consists of vertically-oriented webs while the optimum dimensions can be generally described as those which cause the most inelasticity without failure of the webs. These dimensions are also specifically quantified for select situations. This guidance is employed, along with the analytical method developed by the authors and considerations of the influences of material properties, to suggest a general design procedure that is a simple yet sufficiently accurate method for design. The suggested design approach is also demonstrated through a design example.

  18. Free vibrations of delaminated unidirectional sandwich panels with a transversely flexible core—a modified Galerkin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarts-Givli, H.; Rabinovitch, O.; Frostig, Y.

    2007-03-01

    A theoretical approach for the free vibration analysis of delaminated unidirectional sandwich panels is developed. The theoretical model accounts for the flexibility of the core in the out of plane (vertical) direction and the resulting high-order displacement, acceleration, and velocity fields within the core. The analytical approach is based on Hamilton's variational principle along with the high-order unidirectional sandwich panel theory and the modified Galerkin method. The two types of models investigated include delaminated regions with and without contact. The ability of the model to describe the high-order effects such as the pumping phenomenon and the localized effects in the vicinity of the delaminated regions is examined. A numerical example that focuses on the free vibration behavior of simply supported delaminated unidirectional sandwich panels is presented and discussed. A parametric study that examines the influence of the length of the delaminated region, its location, and the mechanical properties of the core material is presented. The numerical results are also compared with finite element analysis and with some special asymptotic cases for which the free vibrations behavior is analytically evaluated. A summary and conclusions close the paper.

  19. Theoretical Calculation and Analysis of Slip and Deformation for Concrete Sandwich Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanbo; ZHANG Shaohua; XIA Baoyang

    2007-01-01

    Slip and deformation of concrete sandwich panels under uniformly distributed loads is concerned. The effect of slip on the deformation of concrete sandwich panels are studied, and the analytical expressions of slip and deformation for concrete sandwich panels is obtained. These formulae can describe the slip distribution and account for its effect on deformation. In order to restrict the bound of formula, the formula of crack moment is obtained. The results of theoretical calculation are compared with those of tests and finite element methods. The comparison shows that the results of theoretical calculation are in accord with those of tests and finite element methods. So the theoretical calculation can be used to calculate slip and deformation of concrete sandwich panels in practical projects.

  20. Response of Composite Fuselage Sandwich Side Panels Subjected to Internal Pressure and Axial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Dopker, Bernard; Shah, Bharat

    1998-01-01

    The results from an experimental and analytical study of two composite sandwich fuselage side panels for a transport aircraft are presented. Each panel has two window cutouts and three frames and utilizes a distinctly different structural concept. These panels have been evaluated with internal pressure loads that generate biaxial tension loading conditions. Design limit load and design ultimate load tests have been performed on both panels. One of the sandwich panels was tested with the middle frame removed to demonstrate the suitability of this two-frame design for supporting the prescribed biaxial loading conditions with twice the initial frame spacing of 20 inches. A damage tolerance study was conducted on the two-frame panel by cutting a notch in the panel that originates at the edge of a cutout and extends in the panel hoop direction through the window-belt area. This panel with a notch was tested in a combined-load condition to demonstrate the structural damage tolerance at the design limit load condition. Both the sandwich panel designs successfully satisfied all desired load requirements in the experimental part of the study, and experimental results from the two-frame panel with and without damage are fully explained by the analytical results. The results of this study suggest that there is potential for using sandwich structural concepts with greater than the usual 20-in. wide frame spacing to further reduce aircraft fuselage structural weight.

  1. Design Considerations for Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panels for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    Simplified thermal/structural sizing equations were derived for the in-plane loading of a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Equations were developed for the strain in the inner and outer face sheets of a sandwich subjected to uniaxial mechanical loads and differences in face sheet temperatures. Simple equations describing situations with no viable solution were developed. Key design parameters, material properties, and design principles are identified. A numerical example illustrates using the equations for a preliminary feasibility assessment of various material combinations and an initial sizing for minimum mass of a sandwich panel.

  2. An h-p Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Open Conical Sandwich Panels and Conical Sandwich Frusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARDELL, N. S.; LANGLEY, R. S.; DUNSDON, J. M.; AGLIETTI, G. S.

    1999-09-01

    The vibration study of a general three-layer conical sandwich panel based on theh -p version of the finite element method is presented in this paper. No restriction is placed on the degree of curvature of the shell, thereby relaxing the strictures associated with shallow shell theory. The methodology incorporates a new set of trigonometric functions to provide the element p -enrichment, and elements may be joined together to model either open conical panels, or complete conical frusta (circumferentially connected, but open at each end). The full range of classical boundary conditions, which includes free, clamped, simply supported and shear diaphragm edges, may be applied in any combination to open and closed panels, thereby facilitating the study of a wide range of conical sandwich shells. The convergence properties of this element have been established for different combinations of the h - and p -parameters, thereby assuring its integrity for more general use. Since very little work has been reported on the vibration characteristic of either circumferentially closed or open conical sandwich panels, the main thrust of this work has been to present and validate an efficient modelling technique, rather than to perform numerous parameter and/or sensitivity studies. To this end, some new results are presented and subsequently validated using a commercially available finite element package. It is shown that for results of comparable accuracy, models constructed using the h-p formulation require significantly fewer degrees of freedom than those assembled using the commercial package. Some preliminary experimental results are also included for completeness.

  3. Mechanical behavior of a sandwich with corrugated GRP core: numerical modeling and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tumino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the mechanical behaviour of a core reinforced composite sandwich structure is studied. The sandwich employs a Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP orthotropic material for both the two external skins and the inner core web. In particular, the core is designed in order to cooperate with the GRP skins in membrane and flexural properties by means of the addition of a corrugated laminate into the foam core. An analytical model has been developed to replace a unit cell of this structure with an orthotropic equivalent thick plate that reproduces the in plane and out of plane behaviour of the original geometry. Different validation procedures have been implemented to verify the quality of the proposed method. At first a comparison has been performed between the analytical model and the original unit cell modelled with a Finite Element mesh. Elementary loading conditions are reproduced and results are compared. Once the reliability of the analytical model was assessed, this homogenised model was implemented within the formulation of a shell finite element. The goal of this step is to simplify the FE analysis of complex structures made of corrugated core sandwiches; in fact, by using the homogenised element, the global response of a real structure can be investigated only with the discretization of its mid-surface. Advantages are mainly in terms of time to solution saving and CAD modelling simplification. Last step is then the comparison between this FE model and experiments made on sandwich beams and panels whose skins and corrugated cores are made of orthotropic cross-ply GRP laminates. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  4. Experimental Investigation and Fracture Mechanical Modelling of Debonded Sandwich Panels Loaded with Lateral Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolma, Perttu; Segercrantz, Sebastian; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    For the determination of debonded sandwich panel residual strength with lateral loading a parametric finite element model is developed. The parametric model allows an arbitrary positioning of the debond within the panel and consists of both solid and shell elements. A fracture mechanical approach...

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Tuned Chamber Core Panels for Payload Fairing Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.; Herlan, Jonathan W.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to predict the sound absorption and sound transmission loss of tuned chamber core panels. The panels are constructed of two facesheets sandwiching a corrugated core. When ports are introduced through one facesheet, the long chambers within the core can be used as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. To evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models, absorption and sound transmission loss tests were performed on flat panels. Measurements show that the acoustic resonators embedded in the panels improve both the absorption and transmission loss of the sandwich structure at frequencies near the natural frequency of the resonators. Analytical predictions for absorption closely match measured data. However, transmission loss predictions miss important features observed in the measurements. This suggests that higher-fidelity analytical or numerical models will be needed to supplement transmission loss predictions in the future.

  6. Experimental Investigation and Analytical Modeling of Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Sandwich Panels

    OpenAIRE

    BOURNAS DIONYSIOS; TORRISI Gonzalo; CRISAFULLI Francisco; Pavese, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of prefabricated reinforced concrete sandwich panels (RCSPs) was investigated experimentally and analytically in this study. Initially, tests were carried out on single full-scale RCSPs with or without openings, reproducing the behavior of lateral resisting cantilever and fixed-end walls. The performance and failure mode of all panels tested revealed coupling between the flexure and shear response. However due to their well-detailed reinforcement, all panels exhibited a relativel...

  7. Finite Element Analysis of the SciFi-Nomex-Sandwich Panels

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the SciFi-Nomex-sandwich panels has been carried out in order to investigate their thermo-mechanical properties. This does not include the cooling of the silicon photomultipliers but is restricted to the panels themselves. Two kinds of panels have been considered: panels with 40 mm thickness and panels with 50 mm thickness. Both versions are equipped with mats of six layers of scintillating fibers. The analyses were carried out for a series of mechanical and thermal loads which might occur during the production or installation of the detector. For both versions the stiffnesses prove to be sufficient and no critical stresses or strains are found.

  8. Study of compression-loaded and impact-damaged structurally efficient graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semisandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural efficiency of compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semisandwich composite panels is studied to determine their weight savings potential. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them and semisandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight designs for critical compressive load levels ranging from 3000 to 24,000 lb/in. Graphite-thermoplastic panels based on the optimal minimum weight designs were fabricated and tested. A finite element analysis of several test specimens was also conducted. The results of the optimization study, the finite element analysis, and the experiments are presented. The results of testing impact damage panels are also discussed.

  9. Distortion-free single point imaging of multi-layered composite sandwich panel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Andrew E; Mastikhin, Igor V; MacGregor, Rod P; Akl, Mohamad; LaPlante, Gabriel; Colpitts, Bruce G; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl; Balcom, Bruce J

    2004-05-01

    The results of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation concerning the effects of an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel on the B1 and B0 fields and on subsequent image quality are presented. Although the sandwich panel structure, representative of an aircraft composite material, distorts B0 and attenuates B1, distortion-free imaging is possible using single point (constant time) imaging techniques. A new expression is derived for the error caused by gradient field distortion due to the heterogeneous magnetic susceptibility within a sample and this error is shown not to cause geometric distortion in the image. The origin of the B0 distortion in the sample under investigation was also examined. The graphite-epoxy 'skin' of the panel is the principal source of the B0 distortion. Successful imaging of these structures sets the stage for the development of methods for detecting moisture ingress and degradation within composite sandwich structures.

  10. Evaluation of a Composite Sandwich Fuselage Side Panel with Damage and Subjected to Internal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Bodine, Jerry; Dopker, Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    The results from an experimental and analytical study of a composite sandwich fuselage side panel for a transport aircraft are presented. The panel has two window cutouts and three frames, and has been evaluated with internal pressure loads that generate biaxial tension loading conditions. Design limit load and design ultimate load tests have been performed on the graphite-epoxy sandwich panel with the middle frame removed to demonstrate the suitability of this two-frame design for supporting the prescribed biaxial loading conditions with twice the initial frame spacing of 20 inches. The two-frame panel was damaged by cutting a notch that originates at the edge of a cutout and extends in the panel hoop direction through the window-belt area. This panel with a notch was tested in a combined-load condition to demonstrate the structural damage tolerance at the design limit load condition. The two panel configurations successfully satisfied all design load requirements in the experimental part of the study, and the three-frame and two-frame panel responses are fully explained by the analysis results. The results of this study suggest that there is potential for using sandwich structural concepts with greater than the usual 20-in.-wide frame spacing to further reduce aircraft fuselage structural weight.

  11. Free Vibration and Hardening Behavior of Truss Core Sandwich Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic characteristics of simply supported pyramidal truss core sandwich beam are investigated. The nonlinear governing equation of motion for the beam is obtained by using a Zig-Zag theory. The averaged equations of the beam with primary, subharmonic, and superharmonic resonances are derived by using the method of multiple scales and then the corresponding frequency response equations are obtained. The influences of strut radius and core height on the linear natural frequencies and hardening behaviors of the beam are studied. It is illustrated that the first-order natural frequency decreases continuously and the second-order and third-order natural frequencies initially increase and then decrease with the increase of strut radius, and the first three natural frequencies all increase with the rise of the core height. Furthermore, the results indicate that the hardening behaviors of the beam become weaker with the increase of the rise of strut radius and core height. The mechanisms of variations in hardening behavior of the sandwich beam with the three types of resonances are detailed and discussed.

  12. Degradation of shear stiffness of Nomex honeycomb sandwich panel in laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Jiang, Houman; Wu, Lixiong; Zhu, Yongxiang; Wei, Chenghua; Ma, Zhiliang; Wang, Lijun

    2017-05-01

    Based on the overhanging beam three-point bending method, the experimental system was set up to measure the variety of shear stiffness of Nomex honeycomb sandwich panel in laser irradiation. The shear stiffness of the specimens under different laser power density was measured. The result shows that the thermal effect during the laser irradiation leads to the degradation of mechanical properties of Nomex honeycomb sandwich panel. High temperature rise rate in the specimen is another main reason for the shear stiffness degeneration. This research provides a reference for the degradation of mechanical properties of composite materials in laser irradiation and proposes a new method for the study of laser interaction with matter.

  13. Mechanical Response of All-composite Pyramidal Lattice Truss Core Sandwich Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Linzhi Wu; Li Ma; Bing Wang; Zhengxi Guan

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical performance of an all-composite pyramidal lattice truss core sandwich structure was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Sandwich structures were fabricated with a hot compression molding method using carbon fiber reinforced composite T700/3234. The out-of-plane compression and shear tests were conducted. Experimental results showed that the all-composite pyramidal lattice truss core sandwich structures were more weight efficient than other metallic lattice truss core sandwich structures. Failure modes revealed that node rupture dominated the mechanical behavior of sandwich structures.

  14. Standard Test Method for Dimensional Stability of Sandwich Core Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the sandwich core dimensional stability in the two plan dimensions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard Test Method for Shear Fatigue of Sandwich Core Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effect of repeated shear loads on sandwich core materials. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Buckling analysis of curved composite sandwich panels subjected to inplane loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Juan R.

    1993-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures are being considered for primary structure in aircraft such as subsonic and high speed civil transports. The response of sandwich structures must be understood and predictable to use such structures effectively. Buckling is one of the most important response mechanisms of sandwich structures. A simple buckling analysis is derived for sandwich structures. This analysis is limited to flat, rectangular sandwich panels loaded by uniaxial compression (N(sub x)) and having simply supported edges. In most aerospace applications, however, the structure's geometry, boundary conditions, and loading are usually very complex. Thus, a general capability for analyzing the buckling behavior of sandwich structures is needed. The present paper describes and evaluates an improved buckling analysis for cylindrically curved composite sandwich panels. This analysis includes orthotropic facesheets and first-order transverse shearing effects. Both simple support and clamped boundary conditions are also included in the analysis. The panels can be subjected to linearly varying normal loads N(sub x) and N(sub y) in addition to a constant shear load N(sub xy). The analysis is based on the modified Donnell's equations for shallow shells. The governing equations are solved by direct application of Galerkin's method. The accuracy of the present analysis is verified by comparing results with those obtained from finite element analysis for a variety of geometries, loads, and boundary conditions. The limitations of the present analysis are investigated, in particular those related to the shallow shell assumptions in the governing equations. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present analysis is considered.

  17. Elastic stability of superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns the elastic buckling behavior of a newly developed superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plate. Uniaxial buckling loads were calculated for this type of sandwich plate with simply supported edges by using orthotropic sandwich plate theory. The buckling behavior of this sandwich plate was then compared with that of an SPF/DB unidirectionally corrugated core sandwich plate under conditions of equal structural density. It was found that the buckling load for the former was considerably higher than that of the latter.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the FRP Shear Mechanism for Concrete Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Sopal, G.; Rizkalla, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the composite action of 46 segments representing precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSPs) using a fiber-reinforced polymer [FRP; specifically, a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)] grid/rigid foam as a shear mechanism. The experimental aspect of the research reported i...

  19. A More Sustainable Way for Producing RC Sandwich Panels On-Site and in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to assess if traditionally used welded connectors for joining the two skins of reinforced concrete (RC sandwich panels, used as structural walls and horizontal structural elements, can be substituted with bent ones. In this way, the scope of the effort is to reduce drastically the energy required during manufacturing, thus having a much more sustainable building product. Wire mesh on site production, in fact, requires a large amount of energy for the welding process, as stated by several Environmental Product Declaration (EPD. In addition, the production of sandwich panels with bent connectors requires a low level of automation and no qualified labor allowing the diffusion in developing countries. The procedures used to execute the work were both experimental and numerical. Structural performances were examined by testing full-scale sandwich panels under (axial and eccentric compression and flexural loads. Additionally, a Finite Element (FE study was developed to investigate and to optimize the dimension of welded mesh and the number of connectors. The major findings show that it is possible to substitute welded connectors with bent ones without compromising the structural performance of the tested RC sandwich panels, thus having a more sustainable way for producing these last ones.

  20. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded corrugated sandwich core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formulas and associated graphs for evaluating the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core, are presented. A comparison of structural stiffnesses of the sandwich core and a honeycomb core under conditions of equal sandwich core density was made. The stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (that is, triangular truss core) is lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former has higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  1. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  2. Non-Uniform Compressive Strength of Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøkkentved, Alexandros; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    debonds show a considerable strength reduction with increasing debond diameter, with failure mechanisms varying between fast debond propagation and wrinkling-introduced face compression failure for large and small debonds, respectively. Residual strength predictions are based on intact panel testing...

  3. Effects of debonds and face sheet damage in GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar;

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich construction with face sheets of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) and a core of polymer foam or balsa wood offer a lightweight construction that is well suited to naval and other vessels for high-speed operation or where payload considerations require that the structural weight be minimised......-core debonds and face sheet impact damage is being extended to cover sandwich lay-ups with non-crimp glass reinforcements, vinylester matrix materials and foam cores of both PVC and PMI. Cases with both compressive and (for face sheet impact damage) tensile loading are considered. Modelling approaches...

  4. Optimum stacking sequence design of composite sandwich panel using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Amarpreet Singh

    Composite sandwich structures recently gained preference for various structural components over conventional metals and simple composite laminates in the aerospace industries. For most widely used composite sandwich structures, the optimization problems only requires the determination of the best stacking sequence and the number of laminae with different fiber orientations. Genetic algorithm optimization technique based on Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest and evolution is most suitable for solving such optimization problems. The present research work focuses on the stacking sequence optimization of composite sandwich panels with laminated face-sheets for both critical buckling load maximization and thickness minimization problems, subjected to bi-axial compressive loading. In the previous studies, only balanced and even-numbered simple composite laminate panels have been investigated ignoring the effects of bending-twisting coupling terms. The current work broadens the application of genetic algorithms to more complex composite sandwich panels with balanced, unbalanced, even and odd-numbered face-sheet laminates including the effects of bending-twisting coupling terms.

  5. Analysis on Dynamic Response of Hard-Soft-Hard Sandwich Panel Under Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yongxiang; FENG Shunshan; JIN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Surface contact explosion experiments have been performed for the study of dynamic response of the hard-soft-hard sandwich panel under blast loading.Experimental results have shown that there are four damage modes,including explosion cratering,scabbing of the backside,radial cracking induced failure and circumferential cracking induced failure.It also illustrates that the foam material sandwiched in the multi-layered media has an important effect on damage patterns.The phenomena encountered have been analyzed by the calculation with ALE method.Meanwhile,the optimal analysis of foam material thickness and position in the sandwich panel were performed in terms of experimental and numerical analysis.The proper thickness proportion of the soft layer is about 20% to the thickness of sandwich panel and the thickness of the upper hard layer and lower hard layer is in the ratio of 7 to 3 under the condition in this paper when the total thickness of soft layer remains constant.

  6. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Care for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. Traditionally, these components have been fabricated using expensive materials such as light weight titanium alloys, polymeric composite materials and carbon-carbon composites. The present study investigates the use of P sandwich foam fan blade made up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a foam core. The resulting structure possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. Since the face sheets carry the applied bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of the sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and P detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of skin thickness and core volume %re presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  7. A High-Order Theory for the Analysis of Circular Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells with Transversely Compliant Core Subjected to External Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Omid; Khalili, S.M.R.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2012-01-01

    , in contrast to most of the available sandwich plate and shell theories, no prior assumptions are made with respect to the displacement field in the core. Herein the displacement and the stress fields of the core material are determined through a 3D elasticity solution. The performance of the present theory......A new model based on the high order sandwich panel theory is proposed to study the effect of external loads on the free vibration of circular cylindrical composite sandwich shells with transversely compliant core, including also the calculation of the buckling loads. In the present model...... is compared with that of other sandwich theories by the presentation of comparative results obtained for several examples encompassing different material properties and geometric parameters. It is shown that the present model produce results of very high accuracy, and it is suggested that the present model...

  8. Non-destructive inspection of drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels using active thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, R.; Venegas, P.; Guerediaga, J.; Vega, L.; López, I.

    2012-11-01

    The aerospace industry is in constant need of ever-more efficient inspection methods for quality control. Product inspection is also essential to maintain the safe operation of aircraft components designed to perform for decades. This paper proposes a method for non-destructive inspection of drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels. Honeycomb sandwich panels are extensively employed in the aerospace industry due to their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios. In order to attach additional structures to them, panels are reinforced by filling honeycomb cells and drilling holes into the reinforced areas. The proposed procedure is designed to detect the position of the holes within the reinforced area and to provide a robust measurement of the distance between each hole and the boundary of the reinforced area. The result is a fast, safe and clean inspection method for drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels that can be used to robustly assess a possible displacement of the hole from the center of the reinforced area, which could have serious consequences. The proposed method is based on active infrared thermography, and uses state of the art methods for infrared image processing, including signal-to-nose ratio enhancement, hole detection and segmentation. Tests and comparison with X-ray inspections indicate that the proposed system meets production needs.

  9. Study of the cracking of sandwich panels of plasterboard and rockwool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of plasterboard and rockwool sandwich panels cracking under flexural loading. These panels are usually used to perform interior partition walls and they frequently show cracking pathology due to excessive deflexion of the slabs. There are currently no reliable simulation models and experimental data for the study of this problem. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign aimed to characterize the fracture behaviour of sandwich panels and their individual components. In addition, the paper presents a cohesive model with embedded crack to simulate the fracture behaviour of the panel. Finally we present the results of tests for mixed mode fracture (tensile / shear commercial panels and their behaviour is reproduced with the cohesive model proposed, yielding a good fit.Este artículo presenta el estudio de la rotura de paneles sándwich de yeso laminado y lana de roca bajo solicitaciones de flexo-tracción dentro de su plano. Estos paneles se emplean para conformar tabiques interiores de edificación y con frecuencia se fisuran por flechas excesivas en los forjados. Actualmente no hay modelos de cálculo fiables ni datos experimentales que permitan estudiar este problema. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una campaña experimental encaminada a caracterizar el comportamiento en rotura de los paneles sándwich y de sus componentes individuales. Además, se presenta un modelo cohesivo con fisura embebida que permite simular el comportamiento en rotura del panel sándwich conjunto. Por último se presentan los resultados de los ensayos de fractura en modo mixto (tracción/cortante de paneles comerciales y se reproduce su comportamiento con el modelo cohesivo propuesto, obteniéndose un buen ajuste.

  10. Effects of Honeycomb Cell Size on Performances of Sandwich Panels%蜂窝体胞尺寸对夹芯板性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙士平; 赖余东

    2011-01-01

    Honeycomb sandwich panel was studied to reveal the effects of the cell size in the static analysis and the free vibration analysis. The response of the sandwich panel with the homogenized cores was used as the standard of comparison. The ratio of the responses of the detailed finite element models of sandwich panels to the corresponding comparison solutions was defined as a Size Influencing Index that reflects the influences of the size variation of different cell configuration. Based finite element technique, the static and the free variation response of honeycomb sandwich panels with the different cores and the homogenized cores were analyzed comparatively, under three typical boundary conditions, including the hexagonal, triangular and square honeycomb core. The computed results reveal the size effect of the honeycomb cell on the stiffness and the frequency behavior of sandwich panel. It is shown that when the ratio of the macrostructure size to the cell size is larger than 12, the influence of the cell size on the sandwich panel performances tends to gentle weakening. Meanwhile, when the cell size and macrostructure size are comparable with each other, the size effect is quite obvious, and the degree of influence is significantly dependent on the boundary condition and the cell configuration.%研究了周期性夹芯蜂窝体胞尺寸对夹芯板刚度性能、一阶频率的影响规律.以夹芯均匀化等效的夹芯板模型为基准,定义无量纲尺寸影响因子,描述不同蜂窝尺寸夹芯板性能相对均匀化等效模型基准值的变化趋势,量化蜂窝尺寸的影响程度.采用有限元数值方法,开展了不同尺寸、不同构型以及不同边界条件下蜂窝夹芯板性能的比较分析.计算结果表明:夹芯板的刚度性能与频率具有尺寸效应,当夹芯尺寸与蜂窝尺寸比值大于12,蜂窝尺寸的影响程度趋于平缓减弱,当蜂窝尺寸与夹芯尺寸相当时,蜂窝尺寸的影响非常明显,其影

  11. Experimental and analytical study about the compressive behavior of eps sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonari, G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed characterization of the behavior of EPS sandwich panels subject to normal load taking into account several variables. For that, two experimental programs were performed, leading to the proposal of an analytical formulation to estimate the maximum load resisted. The results obtained show how the height of the panel, the material properties, the position and configuration of the reinforcement may affect the resistance of panels. Special attention should be given to the eccentric position of the reinforcement, which may reduce considerably the maximum load resisted. Some recommendations about the optimum placement of the reinforcement are proposed.El presente estudio se centra en la caracterización del comportamiento de paneles tipo Sandwich con hormigón y EPS sometidos a cargas normales de compresión y teniendo en cuenta diferentes variables. Para ello, se han realizado campañas experimentales, cuyos resultados muestran que los aspectos geométricos, las propiedades de los materiales, la posición y la configuración del refuerzo influyen de manera significativa en la resistencia de los paneles. Asimismo se propone una formulación analítica para estimar la máxima carga resistida por los mismos. El estudio muestra que es especialmente importante definir la posición de las armaduras en la sección transversal ya que la excentricidad de las mismas reduce la resistencia a compresión de los paneles.

  12. Mechanical behavior of a sandwich with corrugated GRP core: numerical modeling and experimental validation

    OpenAIRE

    Tumino, D; T. Ingrassia; V. Nigrelli; G. Pitarresi; V. Urso Miano

    2014-01-01

    In this work the mechanical behaviour of a core reinforced composite sandwich structure is studied. The sandwich employs a Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP) orthotropic material for both the two external skins and the inner core web. In particular, the core is designed in order to cooperate with the GRP skins in membrane and flexural properties by means of the addition of a corrugated laminate into the foam core. An analytical model has been developed to replace a unit cell of this s...

  13. Experimental investigations of sandwich panels using high performance concrete thin plates exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    temperatures for panels with 30 mm thick plates stiffened by structural ribs, thick insulation layers, and steel shear connecting systems. Parametric variation assessing the role of each component of the sandwich structure was performed on unloaded specimens of reduced size. Full size walls were tested......Structural sandwich panels using thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates offer a possibility to address the modern environmental challenges faced by the construction industry. Fire resistance is a major necessity in structures using HPC. This paper presents experimental studies at elevated...... plate and one of them experienced heavy heat-induced spalling. Results highlighted insulation shear failure from differential thermal expansion at the interface with concrete. It suggests the existence of a high bond level between the two materials which might allow structural applications at early age...

  14. 激光焊接夹层板结构设计程序开发%Software delopment for laser-welded sandwich panels design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宗文; 刘昆; 张延昌; 王自力

    2015-01-01

    基于 U -I 型、U -IV 型、V -I 型、V -IV 型4种夹层板结构形式,利用 PCL ( Patran Command Language)语言对MSC. Patran进行二次开发,设计开发出折叠式夹层板结构设计程序( FEA-LASCOR)。该程序仅需设计者在用户界面简单操作即能够实现夹层板板格快速建模、屈服强度分析、结果处理等功能。验算分析表明FEA-LASCOR程序具有与传统数值仿真分析一样的精度,并缩短了繁琐的建模工作,显著提高设计分析效率,为夹层板船体结构设计高效、快捷的分析工具。%Based on the four types of folded sandwich panels(U-I, U-IV, V-I, V-IV), the redevelopment of MSC. Patran using Patran Command language is adapt to get a finite element analysis of LASer welded corrugated CORe steel sandwich panels program( FEA-LASCOR) . The program can realize the parametric modeling, analysis, result processing of sandwich panels by entering the Main structural parameters, displacement, load conditions which are needed in the mechanical analysis. Besides ensure the accuracy of the results, FEA - LASCOR can improve the efficiency of operations in the finite element analysis of folded sandwich panels. The FEA-LASCOR can be regard as an efficient and shortcut tool use for the design of sandwich panels.

  15. 轻质热防护系统波纹夹芯结构热力耦合分析%Structural Analysis of Corrugated-Core Sandwich Panels for Lightweight Thermal Protection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 吉庭武; 谢公南; 张卫红

    2013-01-01

    高超声速飞行器在出人大气层或持续在空间飞行时,将遭受严苛的气动加热载荷.对热防护系统进行传热分析是进行热力耦合分析的基础,而温度分布的特点直接影响到波纹夹芯结构的热应力等问题.首先对一体化热防护系统(integrated thermal protection system,ITPS)进行隔热性能分析,得到整个结构的温度场;然后采用顺序耦合的数值方法,模拟分析ITPS波纹夹芯结构单胞的热力耦合性能,给出波纹夹芯结构在静力载荷以及热力耦合载荷条件下的应力场、位移场,并对计算结果进行了讨论.结果表明波纹夹芯结构在初始尺寸及约束条件下,只满足在高温热流作用下飞行器低压区使用,而当气动压力大于等于15 000 Pa时,结构将发生破坏.%Hypersonic aircrafts enter across the atmosphere with high flight speed and over a long period of time, resulting in an intense aerodynamic heating load. Thermal analysis of ther-mal protection system (TPS) is the base of thermal-mechanical coupling analysis; and the char-acteristics of temperature distribution affect thermal stress of corrugated sandwich structure di-rectly. The analysis process was divided into three steps. The insulation performance of the in-tegrated thermal protection system (FTPS) was analyzed to get the temperature distribution firstly. Then a sequence coupled numerical method was used to simulate the thermo-mechanical coupling performance of ITPS. Finally the stress field and displacement field of the corrugated sandwich structure unit cell were obtained and results were discussed. The calculation results show that the structure with initial size and constraints only satisfy the use of low-pressure zone, and structure will fail when the pressure is greater than 15 000 Pa.

  16. Effects of face sheet damage on residual strength of GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    been obtained for a set of sandwich materials that are representative for the vessels in question. The face sheet materials are glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) with non-crimp fabrics and two different types of vinylester resin. The core materials are PVC foams. Impact damage by sharp and blunt objects...

  17. Damage Characteristics and Residual Strength of Composite Sandwich Panels Impacted with and Without Compression Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the impact damage characteristics and residual strength of composite sandwich panels impacted with and without a compression loading are presented. Results of impact damage screening tests conducted to identify the impact-energy levels at which damage initiates and at which barely visible impact damage occurs in the impacted facesheet are discussed. Parametric effects studied in these tests include the impactor diameter, dropped-weight versus airgun-launched impactors, and the effect of the location of the impact site with respect to the panel boundaries. Residual strength results of panels tested in compression after impact are presented and compared with results of panels that are subjected to a compressive preload prior to being impacted.

  18. Experimental investigation on vibration characteristics of sandwich beams with magnetorheological elastomers cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏克湘; 孟光; 张文明; 朱石沙

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich beam specimen was fabricated by treating with MR elastomers between two thin aluminum face-plates.Experiment was carried out to investigate the vibration responses of the sandwich beam with respect to the intensity of the magnetic field and excitation frequencies.The results show that the sandwich beams with MR elastomers cores have the capabilities of shifting natural frequencies and the vibration amplitudes decrease with the variation of the intensity of external magnetic field.

  19. 泡沫铝率相关本构模型及其在三明治夹芯板冲击吸能特性的应用研究%A RATE-DEPENDENT CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR ALUMINUM FOAMS AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE ENERGY ABSORPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT SANDWICH PANELS WITH ALUMINUM FOAM CORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇玉亮; 陈常青; 卢天建

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum foam sandwich structures with the excellent mechanical and physical properties as lightweight, high specific stiffness and strength, vibration damping and energy absorption, have been wildly applied in the energy absorption device under impact. In this paper, a transverse isotropic rate-dependent constitutive model for aluminum foams has been developed for the strain rate sensitive behavior of the foams. Numerical algorithm for computing the rate-dependent constitutive model in finite element method is presented and has been coded into the commercial software package ABAQUS/Explicit through the user subroutine interface VUMAT. The numerical stability and reliability of the code are verified using a single element model and compared to available experimental results. The implemented model is then used to study the energy absorption capacity of aluminum foam core sandwich panels subject to impact loading.The effect of strain rate of the foam core is explored. Obtained results show that, with the increase of rate sensitivity parameter the energy capacity of the foam core increases and the deformation of the bottom panel decreases.%高孔隙率泡沫铝芯体三明治板具有轻质、高比刚度和减振吸能等优良的力学特性和物理特性,被广泛地应用于碰撞吸能部件上.近年来,高孔隙率泡沫铝在动态压缩下是否具有应变率敏感性成为广大学者的研究焦点.论文建立了横观各向同性率相关本构模型来描述高孔隙率泡沫铝的应变率效应,给出了有限元的计算步骤,基于ABAQUS/Explicit平台开发了子程序VUMAT,并在单个单元模型中验证了计算结果的稳定性和可靠性.将其作为三明治板芯体的材料属性,研究了不同率敏感系数对整个结构冲击吸能能力的影响.结果表明,随着率敏感系数的增加,芯体吸收的能量也随之增加,而底面面板的变形会越小,再一次验证了该子程序可以用来描述泡沫铝的应变率

  20. PMI Foam Cored Sandwich Components Produced by Means of Different Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonhard Maier; HU Pei; Herman Seibert

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduced the structural applications with PMI (Polymethacrylimide) foams in sandwich components for rotor craft, launching vehicle and civil aircraft and discuss some typically used manufacturing methods, such as e. g.in-mould pressing, autoclave curing and resin infusion. The advantages of foam-cored sandwich design versus honeycombcored design will be discussed, focussing on manufacturing costs.

  1. Two dimensional dynamic analysis of sandwich plates with gradient foam cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Lin; Xiao, Deng Bao; Zhao, Guiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical structure Strength and Vibration, School of AerospaceXi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cho, Chong Du [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Present investigation is concerned about dynamic response of composite sandwich plates with the functionally gradient foam cores under time-dependent impulse. The analysis is based on a model of the gradient sandwich plate, in which the face sheets and the core adopt the Kirchhoff theory and a [2, 1]-order theory, respectively. The material properties of the gradient foam core vary continuously along the thickness direction. The gradient plate model is validated with the finite element code ABAQUS®. And the results show that the proposed model can predict well the free vibration of composite sandwich plates with gradient foam cores. The influences of gradient foam cores on the natural frequency, deflection and energy absorbing of the sandwich plates are also investigated.

  2. Effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structure is an attractive alternative that increasingly used in the transportation and aerospace industry. Corrugated-core with trapezoidal shape allows enhancing the damage resistance to the sandwich structure, but on the other hand, it changes the structural response of the sandwich structure. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure under compression loading. The corrugated-core specimen was fabricated using press technique, following the shape of trapezoidal shape. Two different materials were used in the study, glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP. The result shows that the mechanical properties of the core in compression loading are sensitive to the variation of a number of unit cells and the core thickness.

  3. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  4. Three-point bending properties of Zn-22Al foam sandwich panel%Zn-22A1泡沫夹芯复合板的三点弯曲性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家安; 于思荣; 朱先勇

    2012-01-01

    以Zn-22Al(ZA22)基泡沫材料为芯材,LY12铝板为面板制备了泡沫夹芯复合板。研究了泡沫夹芯复合板的三点弯曲行为,观察了复合板的破坏模式,分析了复合板弯曲性能的影响因素,运用层合梁刚度优化理论探讨了其机理。研究结果表明,ZA22泡沫夹芯复合板的三点弯曲载荷位移曲线可按线性段、非线性段和失稳段表示其特征;其弯曲极限载荷随孔隙率的增大而减小,并且泡沫夹芯复合板表现出明显的层合效果。三点弯曲载荷作用下,泡沫夹芯复合板的主要失效模式为芯材的剪切破坏。%The sandwich panel were fabricated using Zn-22A1 matrix foam as the core material and the LY12 aluminum panel as the shell. The bending behavior of the sandwich panel was studied by threepoint bending test. The failure mode of the sandwich panel was observed and the influencing factors were analyzed. Applying the stiffness optimization theory of sandwich panels, the deformation mechanism of the sandwich panels was discussed. The results showed that the bending curves of the sandwich panel can be divided into three regions, including the linear deformation region, the non- linear deformation region and the unsteady region. The ultimate load of the sandwich panel decreases when the porosity of the foam is rising. The sandwich panel shows a favorable cooperative effect on mechanical property. The primary failure mode of the sandwich panel is the core shearing.

  5. Stress Distribution on Sandwich Structure with Triangular Grid Cores Suffered from Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triangular grid reinforced by carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/EP was designed and manufactured. The sandwich structure was prepared by gluing the core and composite skins. The mechanical properties of the sandwich structure were investigated by the finite element analysis (FEA and three-point bending methods. The calculated bending stiffness and core shear stress were compared to the characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich structure. The results indicated that the triangular core ultimately failed under a bending load of 11000 N; the principal stress concentration was located at the loading region; and the cracks occurred on the interface top skin and triangular core. In addition, the ultimate stress bearing of the sandwich structure was 8828 N. The experimental results showed that the carbon fiber reinforced triangular grid was much stiffer and stronger than the honeycomb structure.

  6. Fracture Testing of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Composites Using the DCB-UBM Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2015-01-01

    of the face/core interface. In this paper, a novel test-rig exploiting the double cantilever beam-uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) concept is used to determine the fracture toughness of aircraft type honeycomb core sandwich composites as a function of the phase angle (mode-mixity), within the framework......Face/core debonds in sandwich structures cause loss of integrity of sandwich structures. The debond problem in honeycomb core sandwich composites has not been widely studied. A suitable fracture approach coupled with experimental validation is paramount to determine the fracture resistance...... of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). The Double Cantilever Beam subjected to Uneven Bending Moments (DCB-UBM) test set-up, which was introduced by Sørensen.et.al [1], circumvents any dependency of the pre-crack length in calculation of Gc. The new test setup is based on rotary actuators which...

  7. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  8. Geometrical parameters influence on behavior of the sandwich plates with corrugated core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoković Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geometric parameters on behavior and stiffness of sandwich plates with corrugated core is considered in this paper. The following parameters were analyzed: ratio of core sheet and facing sheet thickness and the ratio of the core’s pitch to the core’s depth, as well as the corrugation angle. It is shown that changes of these parameters can contribute to increase or decrease of the corrugated sandwich plate stiffness.

  9. The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments to Study the In-Plane Shear Behaviour of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical aspect of experimental study on the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel with intermediate layer. The study was aimed at providing information of how significant the contribution of intermediate layer to the in-plane shear behaviour of new developed sandwich panel. The investigation was designed as a single factor experimental design and the results were throughly analysed with statistics software; Minitab 15. The panels were tested by applying a tensile force along the diagonal of the test frame simulating pure shear using a 100 kN MTS servo-hydraulic UTM. The result shows that the incorporation of intermediate layer has sinificantly enhanced the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel. The statistical analysis shows that the value of F0 is much higher than the value of Ftable, which has a meaning that the improvement provided by the incorporation of intermediate layer is statistically significant.

  10. Regenerated thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile sandwich composite panels reinforced by jute fibre: structures and properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinglong Li; Qin Peng; Anrong Zeng; Junlin Li; Xiaole Wu; Xiaofei Liu

    2016-02-01

    Jute fibres-reinforced sandwich regenerated composite panels were fabricated using industrial waste thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) foam scraps via compression moulding for the purpose of recycling waste SAN foam and obtaining high physical performance. The jute fibres were, respectively, treated by heat, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (5.0 wt%), and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) in order to improve the mechanical properties of the composites. The structures and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The SAN matrix got compact and some crystalline region formed in SAN matrix via compression moulding. The composite reinforced by DMAc-treated jute fibres performed optimum mechanical properties among the regenerated panels whose impact strength, flexural strength, and compressive strength were 19.9 kJ m−2, 41.7 MPa, and 61.0 MPa, respectively. Good interfacial bonding between DMAc-treated fibres and SAN matrix was verified by peel test and exhibited in SEM photographs. Besides, the water absorption of DMAc-treated fibres composite was lower than other SAN/jute fibre-reinforced sandwich composite panels.

  11. Failure of uniformly compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels — An experimental and numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    /core debonds having three different diameters. The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the panel surface were monitored using the digital image correlation technique. Mixed mode bending tests were conducted to determine the fracture toughness of the face/core interface of the panels. Finite element...... results, but in a few cases up to 45% deviation is seen between numerical and experimental results. This can be ascribed to several factors such as the large scatter in the measured interface fracture toughness, differing crack tip details and crack growth mechanisms between the panels and the mixed mode...

  12. Composite sandwich construction with syntactic foam core - A practical assessment of post-impact damage and residual strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, C.; Dittman, D.; Ishai, O.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of an inspection method that has been successfully used to assess the postimpact damage and residual strength of syntactic (glass microspheres in epoxy matrix) foam-core sandwich panels with hybrid (carbon and glass fiber-reinforced) composite skins, which inherently possess high damage tolerance. SEM establishes that the crushing of the microspheres is responsible for the absorption of most of the impact energy. Damage tolerance is a function of the localization of damage by that high impact energy absorption.

  13. Evaluation of the Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Bonding Process for Ti3Al-Based Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Hoffman, Eric K.

    1998-01-01

    The suitability of using transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding to fabricate honeycomb core sandwich panels with Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt%) titanium aluminide (T3Al) face sheets for high-temperature hypersonic vehicle applications was evaluated. Three titanium alloy honeycomb cores and one Ti3Al alloy honeycomb core were investigated. Edgewise compression (EWC) and flatwise tension (FWT) tests on honeycomb core sandwich specimens and tensile tests of the face sheet material were conducted at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 F. EWC tests indicated that the honeycomb cores and diffusion bonded joints were able to stabilize the face sheets up to and beyond the face sheet compressive yield strength for all temperatures investigated. The specimens with the T3Al honeycomb core produced the highest FWT strengths at temperatures above 1000 F. Tensile tests indicated that TLP processing conditions resulted in decreases in ductility of the Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets. Microstructural examination showed that the side of the face sheets to which the filler metals had been applied was transformed from equiaxed alpha2 grains to coarse plates of alpha2 with intergranular Beta. Fractographic examination of the tensile specimens showed that this transformed region was dominated by brittle fracture.

  14. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...

  15. Low-energy impact resistance of graphite-epoxy plates and ALS honeycomb sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David

    1989-01-01

    Low energy impact may be potentially dangerous for many highly optimized stiff structures. Impact by foreign objects such as birds, ice, and runways stones or dropping of tools occur frequently and the resulting damage and stress concentrations may be unacceptable from a designer's standpoint. The barely visible, yet potentially dangerous dents due to impact of foreign objects on the Advanced Launch System (ALS) structure are studied. Of particular interest is the computation of the maximum peak impact force for a given impactor mass and initial velocity. The theoretical impact forces will be compared with the experimental dropweight results for the ALS face sheets alone as well as the ALS honeycomb sandwich panels.

  16. The optimum layer number of multi-layer pyramidal core sandwich columns under in-plane compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jia Feng; Lin-Zhi Wu∗; Guo-Cai Yu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the face thickness to core height ratio on different multi-layer pyramidal core sandwich columns under in-plane compression is investigated theoretically and numerically. Numerical simulation is in good agreement with theory. Results indicate that one specified face thickness to core height ratio corresponds to one optimum layer number of multi-layer pyramidal core sandwich columns in consideration of engineering application. This result can guide the sandwich structure design.

  17. Optimal Fuzzy and Dynamics Design of Ecological Sandwich Panel Vessel Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Martikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the basic engineering principles, goals, and constraints are all combined with fuzzy methodology and applied to optimally design sandwich panel circular plate roofs for large vessels loaded statically and dynamically. These panels are made up of two stiff, strong veneer skins separated by vertical and peripheral stiffener plates. Advantages are high strength, lightweight, and sustainability. In the present approach, first the goals and constraints of the end user are identified and expressed as decision variables which are formulated using the engineering variables for materials, geometry, and function. Then same consistent fuzzy satisfaction functions are formed over the desired ranges to suit the customer's desires. The risk of extreme dynamic loadings exciting resonance is studied by natural frequency and mode analysis by FEM and analytical models. The results show the most critical locations and give guidelines for innovative remedies of the concept before detailed FEM analyses to finalize the design.

  18. Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    application point (lever arm distance). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the mode‐mixity at the crack tip. The results showed that the face/core interface fracture toughness increased with increased mode II loading. Post failure analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the crack......Debonding of the core from the face sheets is a critical failure mode in sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental study on face/core debond fracture of foam core sandwich specimens under a wide range of mixed mode loading conditions. Sandwich beams with E‐glass fibre face sheets...... and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading...

  19. Design and Testing of an Active Core for Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    structures such as the Kagome truss (Hutchinson, Wicks et al. 2003; Symons, Hutchinson et al. 2005) holds potential in the design of morphing structures that...New Yourk, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hutchinson, R. G., N. Wicks, et al. (2003). " Kagome plate structures for actuation." International Journal of...Optimization 12(2): 18. Symons, D. D., R. G. Hutchinson, et al. (2005). "Actuation of the Kagome double layer grid part 1: Prediction of performance

  20. Free vibration analysis of simply supported sandwich beams with lattice truss core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Jia, E-mail: jiajia_smile@163.com [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3011, Science Park of HIT, No. 2 Yi-Kuang Street, Harbin 150080 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: mali@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3011, Science Park of HIT, No. 2 Yi-Kuang Street, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Lin-Zhi, E-mail: wlz@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3011, Science Park of HIT, No. 2 Yi-Kuang Street, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2012-11-20

    Free vibration of AISI 304 stainless steel sandwich beams with pyramidal truss core is investigated in the present paper. The lattice truss core is transformed to a continuous homogeneous material. Considering the deformation characteristics of the sandwich beam, the following assumptions are made: (1) the thickness of the sandwich beam remains constant during deformation; (2) for the thin face sheets, only bending deformation is considered, neglecting the effect of transverse shear deformation; (3) for the core, only shear deformation is considered as the core is too weak to provide a significant contribution to the bending stiffness of the sandwich beam. The shear stress is assumed to be constant along the thickness of the core. The governing equation of free vibration is derived from Hamilton's principle, and the natural frequencies are calculated under simply supported boundary conditions. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to get the mode shapes and natural frequencies. Our results show that the theoretical solutions agree well with the numerical results. It indicates the present method would be useful for free vibration analysis of sandwich beams with lattice truss core.

  1. Penetration of sandwich plates with hybrid-cores under oblique ballistic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changye Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The oblique penetration performance of lightweight hybrid-cored sandwich plates are investigated numerically. To compose the hybrid-core, ceramic prisms are inserted into pyramidal metal lattice trusses and fixed using epoxy resin. Three-dimensional finite element simulations are carried out for the hybridcored sandwich impacted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° obliquity by a hemispherical projectile. The ballistic limit, the energy absorbed by the constituting elements, and the critical oblique angle are quantified. The physical mechanisms underlying the failure and the influence of fundamental system parameters are explored. The angle of obliquity is found to have significant influence on the ballistic trajectory and erosion of the projectile, thus it is important for the impact response and penetration resistance of the sandwich. For oblique angles equal to or larger than 45°, the projectile moves mainly horizontally and can not effectively penetrate across the sandwich.

  2. Structural performance of complex core systems for FRP-balsa composite sandwich bridge decks

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Antwi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Based on current fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite construction principles, FRP decks fall into two categories: pultruded decks and sandwich decks. Sandwich decks comprise face sheets and either honeycombs or foams reinforced with internal FRP webs for shear resistance. The honeycomb structure and the webs cause debonding between the upper face sheets and the core due to the uneven support of the former. An alternative material that has high shear capacity and can provide uniform ...

  3. Numerical analysis of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbeck, Leszek [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics Piotrowo Street No. 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Paczos, Piotr [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics Jana Pawla IIStreet No. 24, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The strength problem of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending is presented.The beam are made of steel and formed by three mutually orthogonal corrugated layers. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the sandwich beam is performed with the use of the FEM system - ABAQUS. The relationship between the applied load and deflection in three-point bending is considered.

  4. Influence of weld stiffness on buckling strength of laser-welded web-core sandwich plates

    OpenAIRE

    Jelovica, Jasmin; Romanoff, Jani; Ehlers, Sören; Varsta, Petri

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of weld rotation stiffness on the global bifurcation buckling strength of laser-welded web-core sandwich plates. The study is carried out using two methods, the first is the equivalent single-layer theory approach solved analytically for simply supported plates and numerically for clamped plates. First-order shear deformation theory is used. The second method is the three-dimensional model of a sandwich plate solved with finite element method. Both approa...

  5. Face/core debond fatigue crack growth characterization using the sandwich mixed mode bending specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Face/core fatigue crack growth in foam-cored sandwich composites is examined using the mixed mode bending (MMB) test method. The mixed mode loading at the debond crack tip is controlled by changing the load application point in the MMB test fixture. Sandwich specimens were manufactured using H45...... critical load, at load ratios of R=0.1 and 0.2. The crack length was determined during fatigue testing using the analytical compliance expression and verified by visual measurements. Fatigue crack growth results revealed higher crack growth rates for mode I dominated loading. For specimens with H45 core...

  6. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel: Comparison of In- and Out-of-Autoclave Facesheet Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kellas, Sotiris; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration and the NASA Constellation Ares V programs. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.0 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections and tested under compressive loading. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yielded good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  7. Parametric study on nonlinear vibration of composite truss core sandwich plate with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-09-15

    Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.

  8. Residual dent in locally loaded foam core sandwich structures – Analysis and use for NDI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the residual denting in the face sheet and corresponding core damage in a locally loaded flat sandwich structure with foam core. The problem is analytically considered in the context of elastic bending of the face sheet accompanied by non-linear deformation of the crushed foam

  9. Flexural wave attenuation in a sandwich beam with viscoelastic periodic cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Pan, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The flexural-wave attenuation performance of traditional constraint-layer damping in a sandwich beam is improved by using periodic constrained-layer damping (PCLD), where the monolithic viscoelastic core is replaced with two periodically alternating viscoelastic cores. Closed-form solutions of the wave propagation constants of the infinite periodic sandwich beam and the forced response of the corresponding finite sandwich structure are theoretically derived, providing computational support on the analysis of attenuation characteristics. In a sandwich beam with PCLD, the flexural waves can be attenuated by both Bragg scattering effect and damping effect, where the attenuation level is mainly dominated by Bragg scattering in the band-gaps and by damping in the pass-bands. Affected by these two effects, when the parameters of periodic cores are properly selected, a sandwich beam with PCLD can effectively reduce vibrations of much lower frequencies than that with traditional constrained-layer damping. The effects of the parameters of viscoelastic periodic cores on band-gap properties are also discussed, showing that the average attenuation in the desired frequency band can be maximized by tuning the length ratio and core thickness to proper values. The research in this paper could possibly provide useful information for the researches and engineers to design damping structures.

  10. 几种金属面夹芯板的耐火性能测试%Test on fire resistance performance of several metal surface sandwich panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国山; 潘永红; 李晓增; 刘东发; 尹碧军

    2013-01-01

    The fire resistance performance of rockwool sandwich panel,EPS sandwich panel,polyurethane sandwich panel and phenolic sandwich panel with different thickness was carried out by the vertical element fire test furnace.The fire resistance test of rock wool combined with EPS or polyurethane showed that the fire resistance of 100 mm thick rock wool-EPS sandwich panel and rock wool-polyurethane sandwich panel were 85 min,90 min,respectively.The fire resistance of EPS sandwich panel and polyurethane sandwich panel was improved greatly.%用垂直构件耐火试验炉研究不同厚度的金属面岩棉夹芯板、EPS夹芯板、聚氨酯夹芯板、酚醛夹芯板的耐火性能.用岩棉与EPS、岩棉与聚氨酯进行组合进行耐火性能测试,100 mm厚的岩棉—EPS夹芯板、岩棉—聚氨酯的耐火极限分别达到85、90 min,较大提高了EPS夹芯板和聚氨酯夹芯板的耐火性能.

  11. Dynamic Instability of MRE Embedded Soft Cored Sandwich Beam with Non-Conductive Skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Dwivedy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the governing temporal equations of motions with complex coefficients have been derived for a three-layered unsymmetric sandwich beam with nonconductive skins and magnetorheological elastomer (MRE embedded soft-viscoelastic core subjected to periodic axial loads using higher order sandwich beam theory, extended Hamilton's principle, and generalized Galerkin's method. The parametric instability regions for principal parametric and combination parametric resonances for first three modes have been determined for various end conditions with different shear modulus, core loss factors, number of MRE patches and different skin thickness. This work will find application in the design and application of sandwich structures for active and passive vibration control using soft core and MRE patches.

  12. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 2; 6-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Meyers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Dixon, Genevieve D.

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panel types, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3- by 5-ft panel. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panels composed of 6-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to as Panels B-1 and B-2). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional (3-D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  13. Development of a High-fidelity Experimental Substructure Test Rig for Grid-scored Sandwich Panels in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Steffen; Lund, Erik; Kühlmeier, L.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines high-fidelity experimental substructure testing of sandwich panels which constitute the aerodynamic outer shell of modern wind turbine blades. A full-scale structural experimental and numerical characterisation of a composite wind turbine blade has been conducted. The developm...... of substructure tests for composite wind turbine blades. Furthermore, recommendations on the use of grid-scored sandwich structures in wind turbine blades are presented, which outline the sensitivity in terms of quasi-static strength to the established loading conditions.......This paper outlines high-fidelity experimental substructure testing of sandwich panels which constitute the aerodynamic outer shell of modern wind turbine blades. A full-scale structural experimental and numerical characterisation of a composite wind turbine blade has been conducted...

  14. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  15. Optimization process for thin-walled high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    with the specifications of the design constrains and variables. The tool integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation into a single system that would provide different costs for different HPCSP designs. The proposed multi-objective optimisation scheme results into derivation of basic......A Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on optimization processes in the sense of structurally and thermally efficient design with an optimal...... economical solution. The present paper aims to provide multi-objective optimisation procedure addressed to structural precast thin-walled High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP). The research aim is concerned with developing a tool that considers the cost of HPCSP materials along...

  16. Optimization process for thin-walled High Performance Concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    with the specifications of the design con-strains and variables. The tool integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation into a single system that would provide different costs for different HPCSP designs. The proposed multi-objective optimisation scheme results into derivation of basic......A Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy pol-icy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on opti-mization processes in the sense of structurally and thermally efficient design with an optimal...... economical solu-tion. The present paper aims to provide multi-objective optimisation procedure addressed to structural precast thin-walled High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP). The research aim is concerned with de-veloping a tool that considers the cost of HPCSP materials along...

  17. Effects of Core Softness and Bimodularity of Fibreglass Layers on Flexural Stiffness of Polymer Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuba Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the flexural stiffness of the sandwich structures based on fibreglass and polymeric foams. The influence of geometrical and material parameters on the resulting effective flexural stiffness of the sandwich structure is being studied experimentally, analytically and by using FEM models. The effective modulus of elasticity of the sandwich-structured element is being studied and its theoretical and model dependencies on the flexibility of the foam core and bimodularity of the fibreglass layers are being investigated. The achieved results are compared with the experimentally observed values. This study shows that it is necessary to pay special attention to the issue of flexural stiffness of the walls when designing sandwich shell products in order to prevent possible failures in the practical applications of these types of structures.

  18. Thermoelastic properties of sandwich materials with pin-reinforced foam cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pin-reinforced foam is a novel type of sandwich core materials formed by inserting pins(trusses) into a foam matrix to create a truss-like network reinforced foam core.Upon loading,the pins deform predominantly by local stretching whilst the deformation of foam is governed by local bending.This paper presents a theoretical study on the thermoelasticity of pin-reinforced foam sandwich cores.To calculate the effective thermoelastic properties of pin-reinforced foam cores,the energy-based homogenization approach is employed to develop a micromechanics-based model,calibrated by the existing experimental data.It is found that the stiffness of the sandwich core is mainly governed by pin reinforcements:the foam matrix contributes little to sandwich stiffness.Compared with traditional foam cores without pin reinforcements,the changes in inplane thermal expansion coefficients are not vigorous as a result of pin reinforcements,while the through-thickness thermal expansion coefficient changes significantly.It is also demonstrated that it is possible to design materials with zero or negative thermal expansion coefficients under such a context.

  19. Thermoelastic properties of sandwich materials with pin-reinforced foam cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU TianJian; LIU Tao; DENG ZiChen

    2008-01-01

    Pin-reinforced foam is a novel type of sandwich core materials formed by inserting pins (trusses) into a foam matrix to create a truss-like network reinforced foam core. Upon loading, the pins deform predominantly by local stretching whilst the defor-mation of foam is governed by local bending. This paper presents a theoretical study on the thermoelasllcity of pin-reinforced foam sandwich cores. To calculate the effective thermoelastic properties of pin-reinforced foam cores, the energy-based homogenization approach is employed to develop a micromechanics-based model, calibrated by the existing experimental data. It is found that the stiffness of the sandwich core is mainly governed by pin reinforcements: the foam matrix con-tributes little to sandwich stiffness. Compared with traditional foam cores without pin reinforcements, the changes in in-plane thermal expansion coefficients are not vigorous as a result of pin reinforcements, while the through-thickness thermal expansion coefficient changes significantly. It is also demonstrated that it is pos-sible to design materials with zerO or negative thermal expansion coefficients un-der such a context.

  20. Study of Debond Fracture Toughness of Sandwich Composites with Metal Foam Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinzhu Wang; Linzhi Wu; Shixun Wang

    2009-01-01

    Two types of experiments were designed and performed to evaluate the adhesive bond in metal foam composite sandwich structures. The tensile bond strength of face/core was determined through the flatwise tensile test (FWT). The test results show that the interfacial peel strength is lower than the interlaminar peel strength in FWT test. The mode I interfacial fracture toughness (GIC) of sandwich structures containing a pre-crack on the upper face/core interface is determined by modified cracked sandwich beam (MCSB) experiment. It is found that the crack propagates unsynchronously on the two side of the specimen and the propagation of interfacial debonding always stays on the face/core interface during the MCSB tests. In order to simulate the failure of metal foam composite sandwich structures, a computational model based on the Tsai-Hill failure criterion and cohesive zone model is used. By comparing with experiment results, it can be concluded that the computational model can validly simulate the interfacial failure of metal foam composite sandwich structures with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi, E-mail: paryanto-ds@yahoo.com; Sugiman,; Saputra, Yudhi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mataram, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  2. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi; Sugiman, Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  3. Application and Prospect of Steel Sandwich Panels in Warships%金属夹层结构的舰船应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杨科; 何书韬; 刘均; 操戈; 王虎; 罗刚; 徐峰

    2013-01-01

    As an innovative type of structure in future engineering applications,the steel sandwich panel already shows wide application prospect in shipbuilding and is in dire need of domestic systematical re-searches. By focusing on surface ship applications,the steel sandwich panel is reviewed in this paper in four aspects:basic types,the application in ships,mechanical property analysis,and current technical challenges. Through this analysis,four relevant problems have emerged:firstly,the systematic research of marine steel sandwich panels is urgently needed;secondly,the lightweight corrugated core sandwich pan-el,welded with laser beam,requires immediate and profound studies;thirdly,the design technique of steel sandwich panels on warships should be investigated based on pre-mentioned fundamental research-es;fourthly,a great number of experiments should be conducted to lower the design risk.%金属夹层结构作为一种未来工程应用的新型结构,在舰船领域有着广阔的应用前景。立足于水面舰船背景,从金属夹层结构的基本类型、在舰船中的应用、抗爆抗冲击性能分析以及目前存在的技术难点等几个方面进行综述,发现在此领域有4个方面的问题亟待解决:应系统地开展舰用金属夹层结构的相关基础研究;需尽快系统地开展关于波纹夹芯板的相关研究;在相关基础研究的基础上,开展设计技术研究;开展大量试验研究工作,降低设计风险。

  4. Dynamic Response of Soft Core Sandwich Beams with Metal-Graphene Nanocomposite Skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. R. Loja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are able to provide enhanced strength, stiffness, and lightweight characteristics, thus contributing to an improved overall structural response. To this sandwich configuration one may associate through-thickness graded core material properties and homogeneous or graded properties nanocomposite skins. These tailor-made possibilities may provide alternative design solutions to specific problem requisites. This work aims to address these possibilities, considering to this purpose a package of three beam layerwise models based on different shear deformation theories, implemented through Kriging-based finite elements. The viscoelastic behaviour of the sandwich core is modelled using the complex method and the dynamic problem is solved in the frequency domain. A set of case studies illustrates the performance of the models.

  5. Predictions of thermal buckling strengths of hypersonic aircraft sandwich panels using minimum potential energy and finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal buckling characteristics of hypersonic aircraft sandwich panels of various aspect ratios were investigated. The panel is fastened at its four edges to the substructures under four different edge conditions and is subjected to uniform temperature loading. Minimum potential energy theory and finite element methods were used to calculate the panel buckling temperatures. The two methods gave fairly close buckling temperatures. However, the finite element method gave slightly lower buckling temperatures than those given by the minimum potential energy theory. The reasons for this slight discrepancy in eigensolutions are discussed in detail. In addition, the effect of eigenshifting on the eigenvalue convergence rate is discussed.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Analysis, Numerical Modelling and Experimental Test on a Sandwich Panel with Plane and Profiled Facings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are remarkable products because they can be as strong as a solid material but with less weight. The analysis that is required to predict the stresses and deflections in panels with flat or lightly profiled facings is that of conventional beam theory but with the addition of shear deformation. Knowing that the profiled sheets bring an increase of the flexural stiffness, formulas showing the calculus of a panel with flat and profiled facings are established. A comparison between the results of a mathematical calculus, an experimental test and a numerical modelling is provided.

  7. Fabrication and compressive performance of plain carbon steel honeycomb sandwich panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu'an Jing; Shiju Guo; Jingtao Han; Yufei Zhang; Weijuan Li

    2008-01-01

    Plain carbon steel Q215 honeycomb sandwich panels were manufactured by brazing in a vacuum furnace. Their characteristic parameters, including equivalent density, equivalent elastic modulus, and equivalent compressive strength along out-of-plane (z-direction) and in-plane (x- and y-directions), were derived theoretically and then determined experimentally by an 810 material test system. On the basis of the experimental data, the compressive stress-strain curves were given. The results indicate that the measurements of equivalent Young's modulus and initial compressive strength are in good agreement with calculations, and that the maximum compressive strain near to solid can be up to 0.5-0.6 along out-of-plane, 0.6-0.7 along in-plane. The strength-to-density ratio of plain carbon steel honeycomb panels is near to those of Al alloy hexagonal-honeycomb and 304L stainless steel square-honeycomb, but the compressive peak strength is greater than that of Al alloy hexagonal-honeycomb.

  8. Failure characteristics of a thin metallic sandwich plate with metallic sheared dimple cores under low-velocity impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Woo Chul [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The functionality and the performance of a lightweight sandwich plate with periodic cellular metal (PCM) cores are influenced by failure characteristics of the lightweight sandwich plate. The goal of this paper is to investigate the failure characteristics of a thin metallic sandwich plate with metallic sheared dimple cores under low-velocity impact loading through nonlinear finite element analysis. The influence of the imperfection mode of the cores on the impact response of a thin sandwich plate is examined to obtain a proper simulation model. Repeated finite element analyses are performed to examine the failure modes of the sandwich plate for different impact conditions. Normalized impact parameters are defined in order to generalize a dynamic failure map (DFM). DFMs of the thin metallic sandwich plate have been estimated via the regression analysis of critical impact conditions for each failure mode. In addition, the influence of the normalized impact parameters on the failure mode has been investigated using the DFM.

  9. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Jang, Beom Seon; Kim, Yong Tai; Chun, Kwang San

    2013-09-01

    The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  10. 蜂窝层芯夹层板结构振动与传声特性研究%VIBROACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED HONEYCOMB SANDWICH PANELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任树伟; 辛锋先; 卢天健

    2013-01-01

    蜂窝层芯夹层板应用于飞行器、高速列车等交通工具的主体及底板结构时需要考虑其振动及隔声特性.针对声压激励下的四边简支蜂窝层芯夹层板结构,应用基于Reissner夹层板理论的结构振动方程建立了的声振耦合理论模型(声压以简支模态双级数的形式引入振动控制方程),结合流固耦合条件求解了声振耦合系统控制方程,应用有限元模拟对理论预测进行了验证.基于理论模型的数值计算结果,系统研究了蜂窝层芯夹层板结构的振动特性和传声特性,刻画了层芯厚度、蜂窝壁厚、夹层板面内尺寸和声压入射角度等关键系统参数对夹层板振动和传声特性的影响,为此类结构的工程优化设计提供了必要的理论参考.%Honeycomb sandwiches used as hulls and floor panels of high-speed train and other transportation vehicles require not only excellent mechanical stiffness/strength but also good sound insulation performance.The vibroacoustic performance of a finite rectangular honeycomb sandwich panel with simply supported boundary conditions is investigated analytically.The vibration governing equation of the structure is established by applying an equivalent method for the honeycomb core and Reissner's theory for sandwich panels.With sound pressure introduced into the vibroacoustic governing equation in the form of double Fourier series,the resultant equations are solved numerically in conjunction with fluid-structure coupling condition.Numerical simulation results with the method of finite elements are employed to validate the analytical model,with excellent good agreement achieved.The developed model is used to investigate the influence of several key system parameters on sound transmission of the structure,including the core thickness,honeycomb wall thickness,in-plane panel dimensions and sound incidence angles.The model presented here holds great practical potential for the optimization design

  11. Experimental Study of the Compression Response of Fluted-Core Composite Panels with Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Marc R.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Guzman, J. Carlos; McCarville, Douglas; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Fluted-core sandwich composites consist of integral angled web members spaced between laminate face sheets, and may have the potential to provide benefits over traditional sandwich composites for certain aerospace applications. However, fabrication of large autoclave-cured fluted-core cylindrical shells with existing autoclaves will require that the shells be fabricated in segments, and joined longitudinally to form a complete barrel. Two different longitudinal fluted-core joint designs were considered experimentally in this study. In particular, jointed fluted-core-composite panels were tested in longitudinal compression because longitudinal compression is the primary loading condition in dry launch-vehicle barrel sections. One of the joint designs performed well in comparison with unjointed test articles, and the other joint design failed at loads approximately 14% lower than unjointed test articles. The compression-after-impact (CAI) performance of jointed fluted-core composites was also investigated by testing test articles that had been subjected to 6 ft-lb impacts. It was found that such impacts reduced the load-carrying capability by 9% to 40%. This reduction is dependent on the joint concept, component flute size, and facesheet thickness.

  12. Novel strengthening methods for ultralightweight sandwich structures with periodic lattice cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of ultralightweight lattice-cored sandwiches is reviewed,with focus placed on various novel fabrication methods introduced to strengthen these structures,covering not only research results published in the Science China Series E-Tech Sci,but also those in other domestic and overseas scientific journals.

  13. Fundamental Frequency Analysis of Sandwich Beams with Functionally Graded Face and Metallic Foam Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is interested in assessing a way to analyze fundamental frequency of sandwich beams with functionally graded face sheet and homogeneous core. The face sheet, which is an exponentially graded material (EGM varying smoothly in the thickness direction only, is composed of a mixture of metal and ceramic. The core which is made of foam metal is homogeneous. The classical plate theory (CPT is used to analyze the face sheet and a higher-order theory (HOT is used to analyze the core of sandwich beams, in which both the transverse normal and shear strains of the core are considered. The extended Galerkin method is used to solve the governing equations to obtain the vibration equations of the sandwich beams suitable for numerical analysis. The fundamental frequency obtained by the theoretical model is validated by using the finite element code ABAQUS and comparison with earlier works. The influences of material and geometric properties on the fundamental frequency of the sandwich beams are analyzed.

  14. Effect of core density on deformation and failure in sandwich composites subjected to underwater impulsive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Avachat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of sandwich structures to underwater blast loading is analyzed. The analysis focuses on the effect of varying structural attributes on energy dissipation and deformation. The structures analyzed are simply-supported sandwich structures with PVC foam cores and fiber-reinforced polymer composite facesheets. For the analysis carried out, the material properties of the sandwich cores are varied and the total mass is kept constant. In conjunction with experiments, simulations account for underwater blast loading on structures in air-backed and water-backed conditions. Core crushing is accounted for through the Deshpande and Fleck model and facesheet failure is accounted for using the Hashin damage model. Results reveal a significant difference between the response of air-backed and water-backed/submerged structures. In general, thick and low-density cores provide superior blast mitigation and failure resistance. Scaling relations are developed to quantify the responses. These relations can be used to optimize the design of sandwich structures in critical parts of ships like keel, turbine-blades and rudders which involve different contact conditions with water.

  15. Study on the performance of infrared thermal imaging light source for detection of impact defects in CFRP composite sandwich panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sang [R and D, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong; Kwon, Koo Ahn; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety measurement center, Korea research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Chul [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Recently, composite materials have been mainly used in the main wings, ailerons, and fuselages of aircraft and rotor blades of helicopters. Composite materials used in rapid moving structures are subject to impact by hail, lightning, and bird strike. Such an impact can destroy fiber tissues in the composite materials as well as deform the composite materials, resulting in various problems such as weakened rigidity of the composite structure and penetration of water into tiny cracks. In this study, experiments were conducted using a 2 kW halogen lamp which is most frequently used as a light source, a 2 kW near-infrared lamp, which is used for heating to a high temperature, and a 6 kW xenon flash lamp which emits a large amount of energy for a moment. CFRP composite sandwich panels using Nomex honeycomb core were used as the specimens. Experiments were carried out under impact damages of 1, 4 and 8 J. It was found that the detection of defects was fast when the xenon flash lamp was used. The detection of damaged regions was excellent when the halogen lamp was used. Furthermore, the near-infrared lamp is an effective technology for showing the surface of a test object.

  16. A plastic indentation model for sandwich beams with metallic foam cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-You Xie; Ji-Lin Yu; Zhi-Jun Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Light weight high performance sandwich composite structures have been used extensively in various load bearing applications.Experiments have shown that the indentation significantly reduces the load bearing capacity of sandwiched beams.In this paper,the indentation behavior of foam core sandwich beams without considering the globally axial and flexural deformation was analyzed using the principle of virtual velocities.A concisely theoretical solution of loading capacity and denting profile was presented.The denting load was found to be proportional to the square root of the denting depth.A finite element model was established to verify the prediction of the model.The load-indentation curves and the profiles of the dented zone predicted by theoretical model and numerical simulation are in good agreement.

  17. Dynamic response of a cellular metallic sandwich panel subjected to metal foam projectile impact%泡沫金属子弹撞击载荷下多孔金属夹芯板的动态响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬霖; 王志华; 宋延泽; 赵隆茂

    2011-01-01

    The plastic dynamic response of a clamped cellular metallic sandwich panel was investigated experimentally using metal foam projectile. The deformation and failure modes of the sandwich panel subjected to impact load were discussed. Experimental results showed that the sandwich panel under impact loading can fail with several modes; indentation deformation, penetration failure, core compression and core shear. Based on experiments, the corresponding finite element simulations were done using LS-DYNA software. A good agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental results. The effects of face thickness, core thickness, relative density of core and applied impulse on the shock-resistance behaviors of the sandwich panel were studied. It was shown that the structural response of the sandwich panel is sensitive to its configuration and the permanent deflection of the back face decreases with increase in face-sheet and core thickness. The studying results were a reference for optimal design of cellular metallic sandwich structures.%应用泡沫金属子弹撞击加载的方式研究固支多孔金属夹芯板的塑性动力响应.讨论了多孔金属夹芯板在冲击载荷作用下的破坏模式.结果表明夹芯板的破坏主要表现在前面板的压痕与侵彻失效、芯层压缩和芯层剪切破坏.基于实验研究,应用LS-DYNA3D非线性动力学有限元分析软件对夹芯板动力响应进行有限元分析.数值研究结果与实验结果吻合较好.考察了加载冲量、面板厚度、芯层厚度及相对密度对多孔金属夹芯板抗撞击性能的影响.夹芯板的结构响应对其结构配置比较敏感,增加面板厚度或芯层厚度能够明显地减小后面板的挠度,提高夹芯板的抗撞击能力.研究结果对多孔金属夹芯板的优化设计具有一定的参考价值.

  18. A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W

    1956-01-01

    Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.

  19. Composite Behavior of Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels Subjected to Wind Pressure and Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insub Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A full-scale experimental test was conducted to analyze the composite behavior of insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (ICSWPs subjected to wind pressure and suction. The experimental program was composed of three groups of ICSWP specimens, each with a different type of insulation and number of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP shear grids. The degree of composite action of each specimen was analyzed according to the load direction, type of the insulation, and number of GFRP shear grids by comparing the theoretical and experimental values. The failure modes of the ICSWPs were compared to investigate the effect of bonds according to the load direction and type of insulation. Bonds based on insulation absorptiveness were effective to result in the composite behavior of ICSWP under positive loading tests only, while bonds based on insulation surface roughness were effective under both positive and negative loading tests. Therefore, the composite behavior based on surface roughness can be applied to the calculation of the design strength of ICSWPs with continuous GFRP shear connectors.

  20. Composite Behavior of Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels Subjected to Wind Pressure and Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Insub; Kim, JunHee; Kim, Ho-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    A full-scale experimental test was conducted to analyze the composite behavior of insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (ICSWPs) subjected to wind pressure and suction. The experimental program was composed of three groups of ICSWP specimens, each with a different type of insulation and number of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shear grids. The degree of composite action of each specimen was analyzed according to the load direction, type of the insulation, and number of GFRP shear grids by comparing the theoretical and experimental values. The failure modes of the ICSWPs were compared to investigate the effect of bonds according to the load direction and type of insulation. Bonds based on insulation absorptiveness were effective to result in the composite behavior of ICSWP under positive loading tests only, while bonds based on insulation surface roughness were effective under both positive and negative loading tests. Therefore, the composite behavior based on surface roughness can be applied to the calculation of the design strength of ICSWPs with continuous GFRP shear connectors. PMID:28788001

  1. Improved damage tolerant face/core interface design in sandwich structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar

    2009-01-01

    kinking behavior may be altered / avoided by changing the interface design by using Chopped Strand Mat (CSM), Continuous Filament Mat (CFM) and woven mats at the face/core interface as sources for fiber bridging, thus keeping and arresting the crack in the interface.......A face/core debond in a sandwich structure may propagate in the interface or kink into either the face or core depending on the mode-mixity of the loading. This study explores experimental methodologies for mapping the kinking behavior at various mode-mixities. Further, it is shown that the crack...

  2. Experimental and Numerical Study of Interface Crack Propagation in Foam Cored Sandwich Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Borum, Kaj Kvisgård

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the prediction of debonding between core and face sheet in foam-cored sandwich structures. It describes the development, validation, and application of a FEM-based numerical model for the prediction of the propagation of debond damage. The structural mechanics is considered...... to be geometrically nonlinear while the local fracture mechanics problem is assumed to be linear. The presented numerical procedure for the local fracture mechanics is a further development of the crack surface displacement method, here denoted as the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. The considered...... application example is to tear off one of the face laminates from the sandwich. This configuration can be found in many applications but is considered here to be occurring in a ship structure, particularly at the hard spot where the superstructure meets the deck. Face tearing experiments are carried out...

  3. On the Rigidity in Bending of a Sandwich with Thick CFRP Facings and Thin Soft Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, G.; Iaccarino, P.; Langella, A.; Lamboglia, A.

    2009-06-01

    Flexure tests in three-point bending were performed in the elastic domain on sandwich specimens whose facings were made of T800H/3900-2 laminates, and the core by a soft rubbery layer. The contribution of the shear and flexural deformations to the overall deflection was varied by varying the slenderness ratio. The rigidities yielded by the load-displacement curve were corrected for the indentation occurring at the points of load introduction, using an experimentally determined calibration curve. Due to the thinness of the sandwich, indentation negligibly affected the precision of the results, with the apparent rigidities differing from the actual ones by less than 2%. By an analytical formula previously developed for sandwich structures, a prediction of the rigidities in flexure was attempted, adopting elastic constants available in the literature. The correlation with the data points was poor, with the theoretical results largely overestimating the actual rigidities. However, the reliability of the closed-form formula was supported by finite element analysis, carried out modelling the facings by 2D plate elements, and the core by 3D brick elements. Through the formula, the core shear modulus was individuated as responsible of the discrepancies observed. Assuming a suitable value for this parameter, both the analytic solution and the finite element models were able to match with accuracy the rigidities measured.

  4. Study on the Out-plane Size Effects for Bending and Vibration Responses of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels%蜂窝夹芯板弯曲与振动响应的面外尺寸效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙士平; 赖余东

    2012-01-01

    A computational model, Tri- layer Unit Cell(TUC) model, which can reveal the out-plane size variation of sandwich panel unit cell, is proposed to study the out-plane size effects of honeycomb sandwich panels. In this model, based on homogenization method, the three dimensional unit cell of sandwich panel consisting of the upper and the lower skins and the homogenized core is constructed. It is compared with three methods, i. e, homogenization method, the finite element method and the classical laminated plate theory, to illustrate influences of the out-plane size variation on bending and vibration response of sandwich panel. Numerical results show that the proposed TUG model can characterize the out-plane size effects of sandwich panel with different configuration cores. Significant differences between the homogenization results and the solutions by the other two methods demonstrate the limitations of the homogenization method when the sandwich panel contains no more than three cell layers in out-plane direction.%针对蜂窝夹芯板的面外尺寸效应问题,提出了一种能揭示蜂窝夹芯板面外尺寸影响规律的“三层板体胞”计算模型;基于均匀化方法,建立了包含蒙皮和等效夹芯的夹芯板“三层板体胞”模型;采用有限元数值模拟与经典层合板理论公式,计算比较了在面外方向体胞数目变化时,不同蜂窝构型夹芯板弯曲响应和振动响应的变化规律.计算结果表明:夹芯板存在显著的面外尺寸效应,提出的“三层板体胞”模型能清晰地反映体胞面外尺寸对夹芯板性能的影响规律,当夹芯板在面外方向包含不多于3层体胞时,均匀化计算结果与有限元方法和层合板理论公式计算结果存在明显差异,反映了均匀化方法的局限性.

  5. Experimental Study on Sandwich Bridge Decks with GFRP Face Sheets and a Foam-Web Core Loaded under Two-Way Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Huo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the sandwich bridge decks with GFRP face sheets and light weight material core have been widely used in the world due to their advantages of low cost, high strength to weight ratios, and corrosion resisting. However, as the bridge decks, most of them are used in foot bridges rather than highway bridges because the ultimate bending strength and initial bending stiffness are relatively low. To address this issue and expand the scope of use, a simple and innovative sandwich bridge deck with GFRP face sheets and a foam-web core, manufactured by vacuum assisted resin infusion process, is developed. An experimental study was carried out to validate the effectiveness of this panel for increasing the ultimate bending strength and initial bending stiffness under two-way bending. The effects of face sheet thickness, foam density, web thickness, and web spacing on displacement ductility and energy dissipation were also investigated. Test results showed that, compared to the normal foam-core sandwich decks, an average approximately 657.1% increase in the ultimate bending strength can be achieved. Furthermore, the bending stiffness, displacement ductility, and energy dissipation can be enhanced by increasing web thickness, web height, and face sheet thickness or decreasing web spacing.

  6. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded rubber core and jute–epoxy skins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Doddamani; S M Kulkarni

    2013-04-01

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified physically by weight method. This paper addresses the effect of weight fraction of fly ash, core to thickness ratio (C/H) and orientation of jute on specific compressive modulus and strength. In each trial five replicates are tested with lower amount of fly ash below the upper skin of sandwich (rubber-up). Results of experimentation are subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find the influential factor governing the compressive behaviour. Furthermore piece-wise linear gradation is modeled in finite element and strength values are compared with experimental results. Sandwich sample with fly ash content of 40%, C/H of 0.4 and orientations of 30°/60° registered better performance. Specific strength is observed to increase upto 30% filler content followed by stabilization. Finite element results for strength match very well with experimental ones.

  7. Analysis of the Flexure Behavior and Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Core Sandwiched Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar H.K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, commercially available Fly Ash and Epoxy is used for the core material, woven glass fabric as reinforcing skin material, epoxy as matrix/adhesive materials used in this study for the construction of sandwich composite. Analysis is carried out on different proportions of epoxy and fly ash sandwiched composite material for determining the flexural strength and compressive strength, three different proportions of epoxy and fly ash used for the study. Those are 65%-35% (65% by weight fly ash and 35% by weight epoxy resin composite material, 60%-40% and 55%-45% composite material. 60%-40% composite material specimen shows better results in the entire test carried out i.e. Flexure and Compression. The complete experimental results are discussed and presented in this paper.

  8. Three-point bending behavior of aluminum foam sandwich with steel panel%钢面板泡沫铝夹心板的三点弯曲行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖国胤; 卢日环; 李小兵; 仲照阳; 马幸江; 韩明博; 姚广春

    2013-01-01

    采用胶粘法制备大尺寸钢质泡沫铝夹心板,测试夹心板的三点弯曲强度,分析面板厚度、芯层厚度对夹心板弯曲性能的影响规律,研究弯曲载荷作用下的夹心板失效机理。结果表明:钢质泡沫铝夹心板可承受很高的弯曲载荷,夹心板抗弯强度随着芯层泡沫铝厚度的提高而提高。增加钢面板的厚度,夹心板抗弯强度整体呈增强趋势。当面板厚度为8 mm、芯层厚度为50 mm时,夹心板的极限抗弯强度可达66.06 kN。芯层泡沫铝内泡壁表面的大尺寸裂纹是夹心板在弯曲载荷作用下失效的主要原因;采用熔体发泡法制备的泡沫铝板材,因冷却强度过大而导致的附加应力使泡壁的强度下降,也是影响夹心板力学性能的主要因素。%Static three-point bending tests of aluminum foam sandwiches with glued steel panel were performed. The deformation and failure of sandwich structure with different thicknesses of panel and foam core were investigated. The results indicate that the maximum bending load increases with the thickness of both steel panel and foam core. The failure of sandwich can be ascribed to the crush and shear damage of foam core and the delamination of glued interface at a large bending load. The crack on the foam wall developed in the melting foam procedure is the major factor for the failure of foam core. The sandwich structure with thick foam core and thin steel panel has the optimal specific bending strength. The maximum bending load of that with 8 mm panel and 50 mm foam core is 66.06 kN.

  9. Effects of external and gap mean flows on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sebastian, Alexis

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies analytically the effects of an external mean flow and an internal gap mean flow on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials, and the transfer matrix method with three types of boundary conditions is applied to solve the system simultaneously. The random incidence transmission loss in a diffuse field is calculated numerically, and the limiting angle of incidence due to total internal reflection is discussed in detail. The numerical predictions suggest that the sound insulation performance of such a double-wall panel is enhanced considerably by both external and gap mean flows particularly in the high-frequency range. Similar effects on transmission loss are observed for the two mean flows. It is shown that the effect of the gap mean flow depends on flow velocity, flow direction, gap depth and fluid properties and also that the fluid properties within the gap appear to influence the transmission loss more effectively than the gap flow. Despite the implementation difficulty in practice, an internal gap flow provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance of a double-wall sandwich panel and has great potential for active/passive noise control.

  10. Predicting method of local damage in reinforced concrete plate with absorber sandwiched between two concrete panels under hard projectile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Tetsuo; Kambayashi, Atsushi; Ueda, Masatoshi [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ohno, Tomonori; Ishikawa, Nobutaka

    1995-07-01

    The predicting method of local damage in reinforced concrete plate with absorber sandwiched between two concrete panels (double-layered RC plate) under the impact of hard projectile is studied in this paper. The results of high-velocity impact tests to investigate the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates are reported. To evaluate quantitatively the extent of local damage, the existing formulae and the alternative predicting formulae with the multivariate analysis presented here are employed. The prediction of the proposed formulae can agree reasonably well with the actual observed damage, thus can be a useful method in impact resistant design. (author).

  11. Study on the form of structure layer in sandwich wall panel%复合墙板结构层组合形式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同亿; 张兴虎; 于庆荣

    2001-01-01

    通过两种复合墙板拟静力试验,探讨了结构层组合形式对构件的破坏形态、变形性能、刚度以及承载力的影响,论证了两侧等厚结构层复合墙板抗震性能相对优越并对不等厚结构层复合墙板的极限承载力及应用范围进行了讨论.%Based on the quasi-static test of two kinds of sandwich wall panels, some behaviors such as the failure form, the deformation behavior, the stiffness, the intensity and the load bearing capacity of this sandwich wall panel are discussed. The calculation that the seismic behavior of sandwich wall panel with same thickness structure layer takes precedence over that of sandwich wall panel with different thickness structure layer is presented. The capacity and the application of sandwich wall panel with different thickness structure layer is discussed.

  12. Exploring Equivalent Elastic Constants of Functional Prismatic Sandwich Panel%功能型多孔夹层板的等效弹性常数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟俊苗; 邓子辰; 张凯; 周加喜

    2014-01-01

    Under the condition that the strain energy of the periodic representative volume element ( RVE ) is e-quivalent to the elastic solid RVE, we improve the method for calculating the equivalent elastic constants by consid-ering the in-plane shear effect of a functional prismatic sandwich panel. The prismatic core is equalized to the aniso-tropic and homogenous material with the macroscopically equivalent elastic constants that are derived from the rela-tionship between strain and macro-strain of the Timoshenko beam theory. The effectiveness of the method is verified by comparing the structural response and the first five natural frequencies of a square prismatic sandwich panel with those of an equivalent sandwich panel;the verification results, given in Figs. 4, 5 and Table 1, and their analysis show preliminarily that our method that considers the in-plane shear effect can caculate more accurately.%基于应变能等效原理,将功能型多孔夹层板的夹芯层等效为均匀的各向异性材料,并通过考虑夹芯层的面内剪切作用,即将构成代表体单元的基元杆件考虑为Timoshenko梁,建立Timoshenko梁单元的应变和宏观应变之间的关系,得到等效固体代表体单元的应变能密度与宏观应变的关系,从而,给出相应的宏观等效弹性常数。最后,通过有限元方法计算实际正方形蜂窝夹层板和等效夹层板的结构响应和低阶振动频率,验证该方法的有效性,对比分析得知该方法较原方法具有更高的精度,说明考虑面内剪切作用的必要性。

  13. An Investigation on Low Velocity Impact Response of Multilayer Sandwich Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jedari Salami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP and polyurethane rigid (PUR in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel’s behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location.

  14. Moisture absorption and mechanical degradation studies of PMI foam cored fiber/epoxy resin sandwich composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the result of hygrothermic aging of polymethacrylimide (PMI foam core sandwich composites immersed in different temperature deionized (DI and sea waters. The prepared specimens were tested for moisture up-take behavior and the resulting property degradation in terms of flexural and flat wise compressive strength. The results indicate that the saturated hygroscopic time of specimens immersed in low temperature water and high temperature water is about 480h and 720h, respectively. Due to the presence of ionic in sea water, the specimens immersed in sea water have higher compressive and flexural strength than specimens immersed in DI water.

  15. 钢丝桁架复合墙板抗弯及振动特性试验研究%Experimental investigations on the fiexural behavior and dynamic response of the composite sandwich panels with truss shear connectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯和涛; 马克峰; 李国强; 陈璐

    2011-01-01

    Energy-saving composite sandwich panels were composed of two wythes of concrete and a core layer of thermal insulation, which were connected to each other by truss shear connectors. Because of their advantages, such as the superior flexural resistance and stiffness, light weight and excellent thermal insulation, sandwich composite panels were widely employed in steel residential houses. In order to investigate how the arrangements of truss shear connectors affect the flexural behavior and dynamic response of the panels, two full-scale sandwich composite panels were built and tested. One specimen was a composite panel with the plane truss shear connectors, and the other was a CL ( composite light-weight) panel with the spatial truss shear connectors. Test results showed that the panels with the plane truss shear connectors had a higher ultimate flexural strength and higher-order mode damping ratios than the CL panel, but with a similar crack loads. The influence of the truss shear connector on the flexural strength and mode damping ratios of sandwich composite panel could be significant.%节能复合墙板是由两块钢筋混凝土面板和聚苯板芯层通过斜向钢丝可靠连接而成的复合板,具有抗弯刚度大、承载力高、自重轻和节能保温等特点,广泛应用于钢结构住宅.为研究斜向钢丝的布置对复合墙板抗弯承载力和振动模态的影响,本文分别对足尺平面钢丝桁架复合墙板和CL(composite light-weight)空间网架墙板进行了抗弯承载力和振动特性的试验研究,结果得出平面钢丝桁架复合墙板的极限抗弯承载力和一阶以上的阻尼比均高于CL墙板,而开裂荷载基本相同,表明斜向钢丝布置对复合墙板的抗弯承载力和阻尼比影响较大.

  16. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.

  17. Stability of the face layer of sandwich beams with sub-interface damage in the foam core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Skvortsov, Vitaly; Shipsha, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of local indentation/impact damage on the bearing capacity of foam core sandwich beams subjected to edgewise compression. The considered damage is in a form of through-width zone of crushed core accompanied by a residual dent in the face sheet. It is shown that such

  18. PENINGKATAN KETAHANAN BENDING KOMPOSIT HIBRID SANDWICH SERAT KENAF DAN SERAT GELAS BERMATRIK POLYESTER DENGAN CORE KAYU SENGON LAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menyelidiki pengaruh ketebalan core dan perlakuan alkali serat kenaf terhadap peningkatan kekuatan bending komposit hibrid sandwich kombinasi serat kenaf dan serat gelas bermatrix Polyester dengan core kayu sengon laut. Mekanisme perpatahan diamati dengan photo makro.Bahan yang digunakan adalah serat kenaf (acak, anyam, serat E-Glass (anyam, resin unsaturated polyester 157 BQTN (UPRs, kayu sengon laut, dan NaOH teknis. Hardener yang digunakan adalah MEKPO dengan konsentrasi 1%. Komposit dibuat dengan metode cetak tekan. Komposit  hibrid sandwich  tersusun  terdiri  dari dua lamina komposit hibrid dengan core ditengahnya. Lamina komposit hibrid sebagai skin terdiri  dari satu lamina serat gelas anyam dan 3 lamina serat kenaf (acak - anyam – acak. Fraksi volume serat komposit hibrid adalah 30%. Core yang digunakan adalah kayu sengon laut yang dipotong pada arah melintang. Variabel utama penelitian yaitu perlakuan alkali serat kenaf  (0 & 2 jam dan tebal core (5,10,15,20 mm. Spesimen dan prosedur pengujian bending mengacu pada standard ASTM C 393. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ketebalan core mampu meningkatkan kekuatan bending dan momen bending komposit hibrid sandwich. Perlakuan alkali pada serat kenaf menurunkan kekuatan bending pada komposit hybrid sandwich. Mekanisme patahan diawali oleh kegagalan komposit skin bagian tarik, core gagal geser, dan diakhiri oleh kegagalan skin sisi tekan. Pada bagian daerah batas core dan komposit skin menunjukkan adanya kegagalan delaminasi.

  19. Failure analysis of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabihpoor, M.; Moslemian, Ramin; Afshin, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents an effort to predict the bearing strength, failure modes, and failure load of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites. The studied joints have been used in a light full composite airplane. By using solid laminates, a new design for the joint zone is developed....... These solid laminates include a number of glass plies with total thickness equal to core thickness. The effect of solid laminate size and interface angle of foam -solid laminate in the bonding zone on the bearing strength, failure loads and type of modes are investigated. The numerical study is performed...... using 3D FEM in ANSYS commercial code. Tsai-Wu failure criterion is used in the failure analysis. The results indicate that the most important parameter in the proposed joint zone design is the foam -solid laminate interface angle which plays an important role on the value of failure criterion (damage...

  20. Numerical modeling of sandwich panel response to ballistic loading - energy balance for varying impactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøl; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2007-01-01

    thickness but significantly smaller than panel length dimensions. Experimental data for the total loss in impactor kinetic energy and momentum and estimated damage energy are described. For a selection of impactor tip shapes, the numerical model is used to evaluate different simplified force histories...... between the impactor and the panel during penetration. The force histories are selected from a primary criterion of conservation of linear momentum in the impactor-panel system, and evaluated according to agreement with the total measured energy balance....

  1. A Numerical Study on the Edgewise Compression Strength of Sandwich Structures with Facesheet-Core Disbonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Damage tolerant design approaches require determination of critical damage modes and flaw sizes in order to establish nondestructive evaluation detection requirements. A finite element model is developed to assess the effect of circular facesheet-core disbonds on the strength of sandwich specimens subjected to edgewise compressive loads for the purpose of predicting the critical flaw size for a variety of design parameters. Postbuckling analyses are conducted in which an initial imperfection is seeded using results from a linear buckling analysis. Both the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) and cohesive elements are considered for modeling disbond growth. Predictions from analyses using the VCCT and analyses using cohesive elements are in good correlation. A series of parametric analyses are conducted to investigate the effect of core thickness and material, facesheet layup, facesheet-core interface properties, and curvature on the criticality of facesheet-core disbonds of various sizes. The results from these analyses provide a basis for determining the critical flaw size for facesheet-core disbonds subjected to edgewise compression loads and, therefore, nondestructive evaluation flaw detection requirements for this configuration.

  2. Dynamic response of PVC foam sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading%空中爆炸载荷下PVC泡沫夹芯板动态响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天宇; 张攀; 程远胜; 刘均

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic response of PVC foam sandwich panel subjected to the air blast loading was simu-lated by using the software ABAQUS/EXPLICIT, and the influence of the face-sheet’s thickness, and TNT mass to the dy-namic response was evaluated. In addition, the absorption characteristics of sandwich panel were also analyzed. The simula-tion results showed that the structure responses of sandwich panel were sensitive to its configuration, and the permanent de-flection of the bottom face-sheet decreases with increase in top face-sheet and core thickness. The total energy absorbed by the sandwich panel was closely related to the top face-sheet thickness, and the absorption energy increases with the increase of the top face-sheet thickness, while the relativity of the absorption energy and the core thickness was not obvious. In the same load cases, the proportion of the energy absorbed by top face-sheet increased with increase of top face-sheet thickness, and the proportion of the energy absorbed by core increased with increase of core thickness. The local bending of the top face-sheet and the compression of the core were the dominant deformation modes when the TNT mass was relatively small, while the overall bending of the sandwich panel was the key deformation mode when the TNT mass was relatively large. Findings of this paper would provide a reference for optimal design of blast resistance of PVC sandwich panels.%基于 Abaqus/Explicit,计算分析 PVC夹芯板在空爆载荷作用下的动态响应,考察夹芯板上面板厚度、芯层高度及炸药当量对其抗爆性能的影响,并从能量吸收的角度分析不同工况下 PVC夹芯板的吸能特性。数值结果表明夹芯板的动态响应对其结构配置比较敏感,增加上面板厚度及芯层高度可以明显减小下面板挠度,从而提高结构的抗爆性能。夹芯板的总体吸能量与上面板厚度密切相关,与芯层高度没有明显关联,减小上

  3. Sandwich Structured Composites for Aeronautics: Methods of Manufacturing Affecting Some Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Krzyżak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are composites which consist of two thin laminate outer skins and lightweight (e.g., honeycomb thick core structure. Owing to the core structure, such composites are distinguished by stiffness. Despite the thickness of the core, sandwich composites are light and have a relatively high flexural strength. These composites have a spatial structure, which affects good thermal insulator properties. Sandwich panels are used in aeronautics, road vehicles, ships, and civil engineering. The mechanical properties of these composites are directly dependent on the properties of sandwich components and method of manufacturing. The paper presents some aspects of technology and its influence on mechanical properties of sandwich structure polymer composites. The sandwiches described in the paper were made by three different methods: hand lay-up, press method, and autoclave use. The samples of sandwiches were tested for failure caused by impact load. Sandwiches prepared in the same way were used for structural analysis of adhesive layer between panels and core. The results of research showed that the method of manufacturing, more precisely the pressure while forming sandwich panels, influences some mechanical properties of sandwich structured polymer composites such as flexural strength, impact strength, and compressive strength.

  4. 吸振夹层壁板颤振抑制的吸振器频率设计%Frequency design of dynamic vibration absorbers for flutter suppression of a sandwich panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 杨智春; 王巍

    2009-01-01

    为了完善在夹层壁板的芯层安装微型动力吸振器来抑制壁板颤振这一新方案,研究了吸振夹层壁板中悬臂梁式动力吸振器的频率设计方法.基于壁板颤振的模态耦合机理,分别以单频率设计和双频率设计原则来确定吸振夹层壁板的吸振器频率.结果表明,所有微型吸振器按单频率设计时,存在一个不等于原夹层壁板颤振耦合模态频率和颤振频率的吸振器最佳设计频率,使得吸振夹层壁板的颤振速度最大;微型吸振器按双频率设计时,吸振夹层壁板的最大颤振速度远大于按单频率设计的最大颤振速度.%A novel scheme for panel flutter suppression was proposed here. In this scheme the panel was designed as a sandwich panel incorporated with distributed micro beam-type dynamic absorbers acting as its core layer. To improve this scheme, the frequency design method for a dynamic absorber was investigated in the present study. Based on the mode-coupling mechanism of panel flutter, the frequency design of dynamic absorber was performed according to a single- frequency design scheme and a double-frequency design scheme, respectively. Numerical simulation results showed that when all the micro dynamic absorbers were designed with the single-frequency design scheme, a maximum flutter speed for the sandwich panel could be achieved at the optimal absorber frequency, which was different from the flutter frequency or the natural modal frequencies of the original sandwich panel; and when the micro dynamic absorbers were designed with the double-frequency design scheme, a maximum flutter speed of the sandwich panel was much bigger than that obtained using the single-frequency design scheme.

  5. Impact resistance performance of metallic sandwich panels under low velocity impact%低速冲击下金属面夹芯板性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪欣; 查晓雄; 余敏; 王锦文

    2014-01-01

    Tests,finite element simulations and theoretical analysis were performed here to study the impact resistance performance of metallic sandwich panels under low velocity impact.Firstly,the dynamic performance and damage situation of metallic sandwich panels under dropping hammer impact were analyzed with tests.Finite element method was used to simulate tests,and the applicability of finite element analysis was verified.Then,the total potential energy of the system was established with local deformation potential energy and external force work.The relationship between the concentrated force and local deformation was also obtained.The cracking impact force of the sandwich panels was obtained taking the tensile fracture of face sheets as the failure condition.Finally,the finite element model was established to calculate the cracking impact force of the panels,and the results were compared with those using the formula.It was shown that the cracking impact force of the panels increases with increase in strength and thickness of the face sheets,hammer radius and cracking strain,but hammer mass,strength and thickness of the core have little effect on the cracking impact force.%用实验、有限元及理论分析相结合方法对金属面夹芯板抗冲击性能进行研究。用实验方法研究金属面夹芯板在落锤冲击下的动力性能及破坏情况,并用有限元方法对实验进行模拟分析,验证有限元计算方法的适用性;用理论方法对夹芯板局部变形进行分析,将局部变形势能与外力功建立体系总势能,用势能驻值原理获得集中力与局部变形关系,以面板拉伸断裂为破坏条件,获得夹芯板开裂冲击力;建立有限元模型计算夹芯板开裂破坏时的冲击力,并与公式计算值比较。分析表明,夹芯板开裂冲击力随面板强度、厚度及锤头半径、开裂应变的增加而增大,落锤质量、芯材强度、芯材厚度对开裂冲击力基本无影响。

  6. A Robust Multifunctional Sandwich Panel Design with Trabecular Structures by the Use of Additive Manufacturing Technology for a New De-Icing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovanni Ferro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-ice systems assure a vital on-board function in most aircraft: ice prevention or de-icing is mandatory for all aerodynamic surfaces to preserve their performance, and for all the movable surfaces to allow the proper control of the plane. In this work, a novel multi-functional panel concept which integrates anti-icing directly inside the primary structure is presented. In fact, constructing the core of the sandwich with trabecular non-stochastic cells allows the presence of a heat exchanger directly inside the structure with a savings in weight and an improvement in thermal efficiency. This solution can be realized easily in a single-piece component using Additive Manufacturing (AM technology without the need for joints, gluing, or welding. The objective of this study is to preliminarily investigate the mechanical properties of the core constructed with Selective Laser Melting (SLM; through the Design of Experiment (DOE, different design parameters were varied to understand how they affect the compression behaviour.

  7. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel Part 1: 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets. Part 1; 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; Pineda, Evan J.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Space Launch Systems program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to predict the compressive response of the 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to Panel A). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber misalignments, and three-dimensional (3 D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  8. Fatigue characterization of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam core sandwich composite using the G-control method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from cyclic crack propagation tests performed on sandwich specimens with glass/epoxy face sheets and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam cores using the G-controlled cyclic energy release rate (ΔG) test procedure. The face material was tested in tension......, compression and shear to determine in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and shear modulus. These properties were then used in an analytical model of the mixed-mode bending sandwich specimen to calculate compliance and energy release rate. Finite element...... analysis was used to determine the mode-mixity of the crack loading. Experimental crack growth cyclic tests were carried out on pre-cracked mixed-mode bending sandwich specimens with H45, H100 and H160 PVC foam cores under two mode-mixities (mode I and mode II dominant). Post-mortem analysis was performed...

  9. Probabilistic fatigue life of balsa cored sandwich composites subjected to transverse shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    be controlled to the same extent as an industrial manufacturing processes. The large variance in the probabilistic model for fatigue life is reflected in the corresponding calibrated partial safety factors, which are higher thanthe factors usually associated with synthetic materials such as fiber......A probabilistic fatigue life model for end-grain balsa cored sandwich composites subjectedto transverse shear is proposed. The model is calibrated to measured three-pointbending constant-amplitude fatigue test data using the maximum likelihood method. Some possible applications of the probabilistic...... model are obtaining characteristic S–Ncurves corresponding to a given survival probability, and calibrating partial safety factorsfor material fatigue. The latter is demonstrated by a calibration performed using reliability analysis with the first-order reliability method. The measured variance in balsa...

  10. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Protective Performance of Folded Sandwich Panel%折叠式夹层板水下爆炸防护性能数值仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延昌; 王果; 周红; 王自力

    2013-01-01

      以某舰船船底板架为应用对象,以等质量为设计原则,设计了 V-I、V-IV、U-I、Y-I、X-II 及 CT-I 型六种夹层板的结构型式及尺寸。利用有限元软件 MSC.Dytran 数值仿真分析各种类型夹层板在水下爆炸冲击载荷下的动态响应特性,得到各种夹层板的动态响应特性及变形模式。通过流-固耦合压力峰值、比冲量、塑性位移及结构吸能等力学性能的分析,比较这六种夹层板结构的防护性能。研究表明,夹芯层结构变形模式是决定夹层板防护性能的关键因素;夹芯层结构减小了传递到上面板的冲击载荷,对减小结构变形起积极作用,改善了上面板的冲击环境。夹芯层结构的吸能效率较高,夹芯层塑性压皱变形吸收了大部分能量,起到很好的防护作用。六种夹层板的动态力学性能参数随冲击因子变化均呈现出相似的趋势,其中 X-II、U-I、V-I 型夹层板结构的防护性能较优,CT-II、V-IV、Y-I 型夹层板结构的防护性能相对较差。%  Taking a stiffened plate at warship bottom as an application object, six kinds of sandwich panels (V-I, V-IV, U-I, Y-I, X-II and CT-I) were designed based on equivalent mass principle. Based on MSC.Dytran, numerical simulation analysis of various sandwich panels subjected to underwater explosion load was made. Dynamic response characteristics and deformation modes of different sandwich panels were obtained. Protective performances of six kinds of sandwich panels, such as coupling pressure, impulse, plastic displacement and energy absorption was compared with each other. The results show that the core structure plays a key role in protective performance of sandwich panels. The impact environment of upper face was   improved, because the impact load acting on upper face was reduced by the core structure. The core structure has high of energy absorption efficiency. Dynamic behaviors of six kinds of

  11. Ultimate Failure of Debond Damaged Sandwich Panels Loaded with Lateral Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolma, Perttu; Segercrantz, Sebastian; Berggreen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    variation of all geometric and material entities. The fracture mechanics calculation uses crack flank displacements obtained from the finite element analysis solution and experimentally measured mixed-mode fracture toughness values to determine the ultimate failure load. The analysis tool is validated...... with a number of different ship type panels. Debond criticality is evaluated by using the developed tool and by comparing the test results from panel experiments. The comparison shows that the analysis tool predicts both failure load and failure mode well. The tool can be used to determine the residual strength...... of different damage cases and has a considerable potential for further development....

  12. Sandwich panels with high performance concrete thin plates at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    of a coupled heat and mass transfer (HMT) model to HPC thin plates to study their behaviour at elevated temperatures, predicting temperature and pore pressure distributions. The same model was applied to a sandwich structure including thin plate, stiffening rib, and insulation layer. A last simulation...... (PP) fibres for pressure release is recommended. Stress analysis showed the stiffening rib assumes the major load-carrying role. The thin plate was found largely sensitive to heat, its thermal bowing restrained by shear connectors creating high localised tensile stresses. It was suggested to anchor...... the shear connectors in the ribs. Geometric discontinuities were also found critical; therefore separation of rib and plate is advised for hazardous situations such as fire events....

  13. Analysis of Mixed Mode I/II/III Fracture in Foam Core Sandwich Structures Using Imposed Displacement Split Cantilever Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizov V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Static fracture in foam core sandwich structures under mixed mode I/II/III loading conditions was studied theoretically. In order to generate such loading conditions, a thread guide was used to impose in- plane displacements of the lower crack arm of a sandwich Split Cantilever Beam (SCB. The upper crack arm was loaded by a transverse force. A three-dimensional finite element model of the imposed displacement sandwich SCB configuration was developed. The fracture was studied applying the concepts of linear-elastic fracture mechanics. The strain energy release rate mode components distribution along the crack front was analyzed using the virtual crack closure technique. The influence of the imposed displacement magnitude and the crack length on the fracture was evaluated. The effect of the sandwich core material on the mixed-mode I/II/III fracture was studied. For this purpose, finite element simulations were carried-out assuming that the core is made by different rigid cellular foams. It was found that the strain energy release rate decreases when the foam density increases.

  14. On the Effect of Curvature in Debonded Sandwich Panels Subjected to Compressive Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Branner, Kim

    2008-01-01

    with a circular debond. The Crack Surface Displacement Extrapolation (CSDE) method is used to calculate fracture parameters in the interface. Compression tests were carried out on two types of debonded curved panels with different curvature using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements to determine the full-field...

  15. 四边简支条件下正交各向异性蜂窝夹层板的固有特性分析%Connatural characteristics analysis of rectangular orthotropic honeycomb sandwich panels with all edges simply supported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盛春; 邓兆祥; 沈卫东; 王攀; 曹友强

    2012-01-01

    The natural frequencies of rectangular orthotropic honeycomb sandwich panels with simply supported boundary conditions were investigated. With the transverse shear deformation taken into account and by using the Retssner-Mindlin shear deformation plate theory, a simple approach to reduce the governing equations of orthotropic honeycomb sandwich panels to a single equation containing only one displacement function was presented, and then the exact solutions of the natural frequencies of rectangular orthotropic honeycomb sandwich panels with all edges simply supported were obtained. The accuracy of the theoretical predictions was checked, comparing with existing experimental and analytical results, and good agreement was achieved. The influences of structural and material parameters of the face sheet and core on the natural frequencies of orthotropic honeycomb sandwich panels were then systematically studied and the regulation mechanism of parameters with respect to natural frequency was analyzed. The conclusions are instructive to applications of honeycomb panels in engineering.%以四边简支正交各向异性矩形蜂窝夹层板为研究对象,应用Reissner-Mindlin夹层板剪切理论,在考虑横向剪切变形的基础上,给出一种将夹层板弯曲控制方程组化为仅含一个位移函数的单一方程的方法,从而获得四边简支条件下矩形蜂窝夹层板弯曲振动固有频率的精确解,理论计算与数值和实验结果一致,从而验证了该方法的合理性;在此基础上研究面板、芯层的各项结构和材料设计参数对夹层板其固有频率的影响,并对各设计参数对夹层板固有频率的调控机理进行分析.研究结果对蜂窝夹层板的结构设计和工程应用具有指导意义.

  16. Sound Transmission Loss of Sandwich Panels Floor of High-speed Trains%高速列车夹芯地板结构隔声特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加平; 张丽荣; 孙海荣; 王志海; 王永成

    2014-01-01

    采用传递矩阵法,建立高速列车内地板的声学特性分析模型,探索不同三明治夹芯板材料和结构对高速列车内地板隔声特性的影响,并根据内地板结构的传递损失评价具有不同参数的三明治夹芯板的隔声性能。通过不同的表层材质(木材、铝材、钢材)、厚度和蜂窝夹层密度,进行了内地板隔声量变化规律的分析和比较。探寻拟定隔声性能优越的三明治夹芯板材料类型和结构型式。结果表明,(1)表层夹板厚度一定,钢材作为表层材料,内地板隔声量最好,其次是铝材,最后是木材;(2)表层厚度影响,木材夹层板,厚度每增加1 mm,各个频段隔声量增加1 dB~1.5 dB。铝材夹层板,厚度每增加1 mm,各个频段隔声量增加1 dB~3 dB。钢材夹层板,厚度每增加1 mm,各个频段隔声量增加1 dB~5 dB;(3)蜂窝板密度降低一半,内地板隔声量有增加趋势,但影响较小。%The model for analyzing the acoustic characteristics of interior floor of high-speed trains is established. The sandwich panels with three different materials, timber, aluminum and steel, and the honeycomb cores with different thicknesses and densities, are used for the interior floor. The transfer matrix method is employed for analyzing the model. The sound insulation effects of different materials and structures of the sandwich panels are evaluated and compared. The results show that (1) when the thickness of the surface layer of the sandwich panel keeps constant, the interior floor with steel as the surface layer has the best sound transmission loss effect, and followed by aluminum, and timber;(2) when the thickness of the surface layer is additionally increased by 1 mm, the transmission loss of the floor can be increased by 1 dB~1.5 dB for timber sandwich panel, 1 dB ~3 dB for aluminum sandwich panel and 1 dB ~5 dB for steel sandwich panel respectively;(3) the density

  17. 复合材料面板对简型基座整体抑振机制影响规律研究%Damping mechanism of sandwich panel on cylindrical foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志远; 杨坤; 邱家波

    2012-01-01

    A composite material foundation structure was presented, with the panel designed as sandwich structure. The effects of structure and material parameters of the panel on the foundation vibration were predicted theoretically through system impedance analysis. The static/dynamic characteristics of the sandwich panel were analysed. Using vibration level difference as evaluation index, the panel structure parameters affecting the foundation damping performance were studied by experiments. The results show that: at frequency ω < 400 Hz, the sandwich panel stiffness can effectively control the vibrtion reduction performance of the foundation. As the frequency increases, the effect of panel stiffness is reduced, while the high-frequency loss due to damping is enhanced. High-frequency damping properties of the foundation will be more strengthened by increasing the thickness of the panel core material rather than by increasing the thickness of surfaces. The damping capacity of the whole foundation contributed by faceplate is higher than that by damping material in canister wall.%提出一种新型复合材料筒型基座结构形式,其面板采用夹芯结构设计;通过系统阻抗特性分析理论预测面板结构及材料参数对基座减振性能的影响规律;针对夹芯面板开展静/动力学特性试验;以振级落差为减振效果评价指标,通过激振试验研究面板结构参数对基座抑振机制的影响规律.研究结果表明:在频段ω<400 Hz,夹芯面板刚度能有效控制基座减振性能,随着频率的增加,面板刚度抑振机制减弱,阻尼高频损耗抑振机制增强;夹芯面板芯材厚度的增加对基座高频抑振性能优于表层厚度增加;面板对基座减振耗能贡献高于环壁间阻尼芯材.

  18. Stochastic micro-vibration suppression of a sandwich plate using a magneto-rheological visco-elastomer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ye, S. Q.

    2014-02-01

    Magneto-rheological visco-elastomer (MRVE) is used to construct sandwich plates for micro-vibration control. The micro-vibration response of a sandwich plate with an MRVE core under stochastic support motion excitation is studied to evaluate the vibration suppression capability. The dynamic behavior of MRVE in micro-vibration is characterized by a non-homogeneous complex modulus dependent on the vibration frequency and controllable by an applied magnetic field, in which the effect of the localized magnetic field distribution is considered. The partial differential equations for the coupled transverse and longitudinal motions of the sandwich plate are derived from the dynamic equilibrium, constitutive and geometric relations. A frequency-domain solution method for the stochastic micro-vibration response of sandwich plates is developed based on the Galerkin method and random vibration theory. The partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential equations according to the Galerkin method. Then the expressions for the frequency-response function, response power spectral density and root-mean-square velocity spectrum in terms of the one-third octave frequency band for micro-vibration are obtained. Finally, numerical results are given to illustrate the high response reduction capacity of the MRVE sandwich plate under stochastic support motion excitation, and the influence of the MRVE parameters and localized magnetic field placement on the micro-vibration response.

  19. 75 FR 22816 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core Environmental Health Programs Through the Environmental... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Revitalizing...

  20. Buckling analysis of functionally graded sandwich cylindrical panels under axial compression%轴向压力下功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板的屈曲分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华东; 朱锡; 梅志远; 张颖军

    2012-01-01

    基于Reissner假设,研究了四边简支的功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板在轴向载荷作用下的屈曲问题.首先,根据功能梯度材料的本构方程,得出了芯材和表层的应力、位移及内力表达式;然后,根据曲板的平衡方程和协调方程,引用应力函数,得到了功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板的方程式;最后,将挠度、横向剪力及应力函数用双三角级数展开,给出了功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板轴向屈曲载荷的计算式.在算例中,通过与经典解及有限元解进行比较,证明了本文方法的正确性,并且分析了芯材上下表层弹性模量比及体积分数指数对功能梯度夹层板轴向屈曲载荷的影响.%Based on the Reissner assumptions, the buckling of simply supported functionally graded sandwich cylindrical panels under axial loads was studied. First, according to the constitutive equa- tions of functionally graded materials, the expressions of stresses, displacements and internal forces of the core and surface sheets were presented. Then, according to the equilibrium and compatibility e quations of cylindrical panels, with the introduction of stress function, the equation expressions for functionally graded sandwich cylindrical panels were obtained. Finally, the calculation formula of axial buckling load of functionally graded sanwich cylindrical panels were derived by expanding the deflec- tionw, transverse shearing force and stress functionwith double trigonometric series that satisfy the simply supported boundary conditions. The proposed solution is validated by comparing the results with the classical and finite element solutions, And the effects of the core's top-bottom Youngrs mod- ulus ratio and volume fraction exponent on the axial buckling loads of the functionally graded sandwich panels are examined.

  1. Signal and noise analysis of flat-panel sandwich detectors for single-shot dual-energy x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung; Youn, Hanbean; Yun, Seungman; Han, Jong Chul; Kim, Junwoo; Kam, Soohwa; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a novel sandwich-style single-shot (single-kV) detector by stacking two indirect-conversion flat-panel detectors for preclinical mouse imaging. In the sandwich detector structure, extra noise due to the direct x-ray absorption in photodiode arrays is inevitable. We develop a simple cascaded linear-systems model to describe signal and noise propagation in the flat-panel sandwich detector considering direct x-ray interactions. The noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) obtained from the front and rear detectors are analyzed by using the cascaded-systems model. The NPS induced by the absorption of direct x-ray photons that are unattenuated within the photodiode layers is white in the spatial-frequency domain like the additive readout noise characteristic; hence that is harmful to the DQE at higher spatial frequencies at which the number of secondary quanta lessens. The model developed in this study will be useful for determining the optimal imaging techniques with sandwich detectors and their optimal design.

  2. Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

  3. Data characterizing flexural properties of Al/Al2O3 syntactic foam core metal matrix sandwich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaseer Omar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural observations and flexural property datasets are provided for aluminum alloy matrix syntactic foam core sandwich composites. The tests are conducted in three-point bending configuration. The data supplied includes methods used for conducting microscopy and mechanical testing. Raw load–displacement data, which is used to plot stress–strain graphs, obtained during the flexural test is also included. Images from a DSLR camera are stitched together to form a detailed failure sequencing video. Failure of specimens is captured in sequential images using a digital camera. These images are stitched together to develop a video for visualization of failure mechanisms. Calculations are also included for a theoretical model that is used to estimate the flexural properties of the syntactic foam core sandwich.

  4. Composite Behavior of a Novel Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel Reinforced with GFRP Shear Grids: Effects of Insulation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunHee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A full-scale experimental program was used in this study to investigate the structural behavior of novel insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (SWPs reinforced with grid-type glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP shear connectors. Two kinds of insulation-expanded polystyrene (EPS and extruded polystyrene (XPS with 100 mm thickness were incased between the two concrete wythes to meet the increasing demand for the insulation performance of building envelope. One to four GFRP shear grids were used to examine the degree of composite action of the two concrete wythes. Ten specimens of SWPs were tested under displacement control subjected to four-point concentrated loads. The test results showed that the SWPs reinforced with GFRP grids as shear connectors developed a high degree of composite action resulting in high flexural strength. The specimens with EPS foam exhibited an enhanced load-displacement behavior compared with the specimens with XPS because of the relatively stronger bond between insulation and concrete. In addition, the ultimate strength of the test results was compared to the analytical prediction with the mechanical properties of only GRFP grids. The specimens with EPS insulation presented higher strength-based composite action than the ones with XPS insulation.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies into the stress-strain state of the purlin supported by sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Aleksandr Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors analyze the findings of the experimental and theoretical studies into the real behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed purlin as part of the roof structure made of sandwich panels. The roof structure fragment was tested; displacements and stresses, that the purlin was exposed to, were identified in respect of each loading increment. NASTRAN software was employed to perform the numerical analysis of the roof structure, pre-exposed to experimental tests, in the geometrically and physically non-linear setting. The finite element model, generated as a result (the numerical analysis pattern, is sufficiently well-set, given the proposed grid of elements, and it ensures reasonably trustworthy results. The diagrams describing the stress/displacement to the load ratio and obtained numerically are consistent with those generated experimentally. The gap between the critical loading values reaches 4%. Analytical and experimental findings demonstrate their close conformity, and this fact may justify the application of the numerical model, generated within the framework of this research project, in the course of any further research actions. The co-authors have identified that the exhaustion of the bearing capacity occurs due to the loss of the buckling resistance as a result of the lateral torsional buckling.

  6. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches for supersonic flutter control of honeycomb sandwich panels, using the NSGA-II method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezami, M.; Gholami, B.

    2016-03-01

    The active flutter control of supersonic sandwich panels with regular honeycomb interlayers under impact load excitation is studied using piezoelectric patches. A non-dominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is suggested to find the optimal locations for different numbers of piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs. Quasi-steady first order supersonic piston theory is employed to define aerodynamic loading and the p-method is applied to find the flutter bounds. Hamilton’s principle in conjunction with the generalized Fourier expansions and Galerkin method are used to develop the dynamical model of the structural systems in the state-space domain. The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is then used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system. The maximum flutter velocity and minimum voltage applied to actuators are calculated according to the optimal locations of piezoelectric patches obtained using the NSGA-II and then the proportional feedback is used to actively suppress the closed loop system response. Finally the control effects, using the two different controllers, are compared.

  7. Balsa芯材夹层梁的失效分析%FAILURE ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH BEAMS WITH BALSA CORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万里; 刘伟庆; 周叮; 方海

    2011-01-01

    The failure modes of sandwich beams with Balsa core are analyzed. The sandwich beams fail in several modes including the core shearing, the tensile/compressive failure of face sheet and the face sheet bulking.The tests demonstrate that the capacity of sandwich beams with Balsa core is greatly lower than that predicted theoretically and the failure modes are different from those of the common sandwich beams. The finite element analysis is performed considering the imperfection of the composite structure. Several FE models including the anisotropy and the initial imperfection are built up. The curve fittings of the numerical results are performed by means of the neutral network technique. The influence of the initial interfacial delaminations and the core cracks are investigated.%通过三点弯曲试验,分析了Balsa木芯材夹层梁的破坏模式.夹层梁发生了芯材剪切、面板拉伸/受压破坏、屈曲破坏.由测试结果发现,Balsa木火层梁的承载力远低于理论计算,且破坏模式也与一般情况有差别.采用有限元方法,考虑了夹层结构的初始缺陷和材料的各向异性,建立了一系列有限元分析模型,对夹层梁的承载失效问题进行了分析计算.计算结果采用神经网络算法进行拟合,分析了初始脱层和芯材缝隙裂纹对夹层梁承载能力的影响,为Balsa轻木夹层结构的制备、分析和设计提供参考.

  8. Nonlinear Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis of Polymer Foam Cored Sandwich Structures including Geometrical and Material Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Taher, Siavash Talebi;

    In this paper, polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads will be analysed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS® incorporating both material and geometrical nonlinearity. Large displacements and rotations ar...... are included in the analysis. The full nonlinear stress-strain curves up to failure will be considered for the polymer foams at different temperatures to study the effect of material nonlinearity in detail....

  9. Development Of Advanced Sandwich Core Topologies Using Fused Deposition Modeling And Electroforming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Steven M.

    New weight efficient materials are needed to enhance the performance of vehicle systems allowing increased speed, maneuverability and fuel economy. This work leveraged a multi-length-scale composite approach combined with hybrid material methodology to create new state-of-the-art additive manufactured sandwich core material. The goal of the research was to generate a new material to expands material space for strength versus density. Fused-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) was used to remove geometric manufacturing constraints, and electrodepositing was used to generate a high specific-strength, bio-inspired hybrid material. Microtension samples (3mm x 1mm with 250mum x 250mum gage) were used to investigate the electrodeposited coatings in the transverse (TD) and growth (GD) directions. Three bath chemistries were tested: copper, traditional nickel sulfamate (TNS) nickel, and nickel deposited with a platinum anode (NDPA). NDPA shows tensile strength exceeding 1600 MPa, significantly beyond the literature reported values of 60MPa. This strengthening was linked to grain size refinement into the sub-30nm range, in addition to grain texture refinement resulting in only 17% of the slip systems for nickel being active. Anisotropy was observed in nickel deposits, which was linked to texture evolution inside of the coating. Microsample testing guided the selection of 15mum layer of copper deposition followed by a 250 mum NDPA layer. Classical formulas for structural collapse were used to guide an experimental parametric study to establish a weight/volume efficient strut topology. Length, diameter and thickness were all investigated to determine the optimal column topology. The most optimal topology exists when Eulerian buckling, shell micro buckling and yielding failure modes all exist in a single geometric topology. Three macro-scale sandwich topologies (pyramidal, tetrahedral, and strut-reinforced-tetrahedral (SRT) were investigated with respect to strength-per-unit-weight. The

  10. New "sandwich" structures conformed from three dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba, Juan J.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor interlaminar properties as well as poor-skin-to-core adhesion properties are very often the common existing problems we find when designing with "sandwich" structures. A new type of 3D-fabric "sandwich" structure is being developed in order to avoid these problems. Although the manufacturing process is very simple, a very complex "sandwich" structure is obtained as a result of the complexity of the 3D-fabric used. This 3D-fabric is a 3D woven glass fabric produced on velvet weaving machines with glass yarns. It is an integrally woven "sandwich" laminate for all kinds of composite products. The strength of the vertical fibers makes, that also after impregnation with a resin matrix, the "sandwich" structure is maintained. The result is a laminate with high strength and stiffness and low weight. On each side of this "sandwich" laminate additional reinforcement materials can be laminated and a synthetic foam can be injected in the hollow structure. This will allow to establish the mechanical properties of a finished product.

    Las pobres propiedades, tanto interlaminares como de adhesión entre piel y núcleo, constituyen uno de los grandes problemas cuando se diseñan estructuras utilizando paneles tipo "sandwich". Un nuevo tipo de panel "sandwich", configurado a partir de tejidos tridimensionales, está siendo desarrollado en la actualidad con el objetivo de eliminar esos problemas. Aunque el proceso de fabricación es muy simple, el panel "sandwich" obtenido es de estructura compleja, como resultado de la complejidad del tejido tridimensional utilizado. Este tejido tridimensional (3D es un tejido de fibra de vidrio producido en máquinas de tejer especializadas. La resistencia de las fibras verticales hace que, después de la impregnación con una resina, se mantenga la configuración tipo "sandwich". El resultado es un laminado de alta resistencia, gran rigidez y bajo peso. Sobre cada uno de los lados del panel "sandwich" se pueden

  11. 蜂窝夹芯板表面加工的平整度分析%Surface Artifactitious Smoothness Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏盛来; 何景武; 王耀东

    2012-01-01

    Honeycomb sandwich structure with high specific strength, stiffness and light weight, etc. , are widely used in aerospace applications. Therefore, analysis of its mechanical properties has a great value in theoretical research and engineering application. Using the honeycomb sandwich panels that are commonly used for the satellite structure, sandwich panel test measured the surface roughness. According to theory, this paper deduced the equivalent material parameters of honeycomb sandwich structure, and also analyzed the panel surface roughness with finite element software MSC. Patran/ Nastran. Comparison between the test results and calculate results with the difference of 5. 9%, indicate the feasibility of theoretical derivation. According to the equivalent sandwich theory, proposed the establishment of the equivalent coefficient database about the cellular equivalent parameters which was the common specifications, facilitating the engineering applications of honeycomb sandwich structure.%蜂窝夹芯结构具有高的比强度、比刚度以及质量轻等优点,被广泛应用于航空航天领域.因此,对其进行力学特性分析具有理论研究和工程应用价值.针对卫星常用的蜂窝夹芯结构板,实验测得夹芯板的表面平整度.根据理论推导得出蜂窝夹芯结构的等效材料参数,利用有限元分析软件MSC.Patran/Nastran进行蜂窝夹芯板的表面平整度分析.对比发现,实验结果和计算分析结果相差为5.9%,表明理论推导的可行性.根据三明治等效理论,提出建立常用规格的蜂窝的等效参数的等效系数库,便于蜂窝夹芯结构的工程应用.

  12. Experimental study of partially-cured Z-pins reinforced foam core composites:K-Cor sandwich structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingying; Xiao Jun; Duan Mufeng; Li Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of a novel K-Cor sandwich structure rein-forced with partially-cured Z-pins. The influence of pultrusion processing parameters on Z-pins characteristics was studied and the effect of Z-pins on mechanical properties was disclosed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical microscopy (OM) methods were employed to determine the curing degree of as-prepared Z-pins and observe the implanted Z-pins in the K-Cor structure. These partially-cured Z-pins were treated with a stronger bonding link between face sheets and the foam core by means of a hot-press process, thereby decreasing burrs and cracking defects when the Z-pins were implanted into the Rohacell foam core. The results of the out-of-plane tensile tests and the climbing drum peel (CDP) tests showed that K-Cor structures exhibited superior mechanical performance as compared to X-Cor and blank foam core. The observed results of failure modes revealed that an effective bonding link between the foam core and face sheets that was provided from partially-cured Z-pins contributed to the enhanced mechan-ical performances of K-Cor sandwich structures.

  13. Experimental study of partially-cured Z-pins reinforced foam core composites: K-Cor sandwich structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yingying

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of a novel K-Cor sandwich structure reinforced with partially-cured Z-pins. The influence of pultrusion processing parameters on Z-pins characteristics was studied and the effect of Z-pins on mechanical properties was disclosed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical microscopy (OM methods were employed to determine the curing degree of as-prepared Z-pins and observe the implanted Z-pins in the K-Cor structure. These partially-cured Z-pins were treated with a stronger bonding link between face sheets and the foam core by means of a hot-press process, thereby decreasing burrs and cracking defects when the Z-pins were implanted into the Rohacell foam core. The results of the out-of-plane tensile tests and the climbing drum peel (CDP tests showed that K-Cor structures exhibited superior mechanical performance as compared to X-Cor and blank foam core. The observed results of failure modes revealed that an effective bonding link between the foam core and face sheets that was provided from partially-cured Z-pins contributed to the enhanced mechanical performances of K-Cor sandwich structures.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH ON GLASS FIBER SANDWICH COMPOSITE BY VARYING Z-PINS PITCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin*, Jeyapratha

    2016-01-01

    This paper ambit to evaluate the flexural strength of glass fiber sandwich panels with varying z-pins pitches. Failure of sandwich panel are delamination and core shear, to minimize the crack propagation, pins are inserted in z-direction, by varying pitches through its thickness. During the insertion of pin, may cause the material some damage. Despite the damage, flexural property does not affected due interpolation of pins. Although the experiment were pull out with a phenomenal results of z...

  15. Behavior of the sandwich beam subjected to bending as a function of the core density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich beam can be considered as the multi-layered structure with a symmetrical cross-section. In this paper is assumed that the structure is created by periodical repetition of a unit cell. The influence of its size on the beam’s static behavior in bending was analyzed. The variation of the unit cells number affects the size of the cell, so the static analysis was performed – the flexural stiffness and the beam’s deflection were determined as functions of the unit cells number. The two configurations of the sandwich beams were considered: the beam with the constant cross-section along its length and the beam with the periodically variable cross-section. The graphs of the beam’s flexural stiffness and deflection variations in terms of the unit cells number were obtained. It was concluded that after a certain number of the cells, the core’s density does not further influence the behavior of the sandwich beam, under the given loading conditions. The conclusion from comparison of the two configurations is that the sandwich beam with the variable cross-section behaves somewhat better than the beam with the constant cross-section. The FEM analysis has verified all the conclusions from the analytical solution about the sandwich beams behavior when subjected to bending.

  16. Data characterizing compressive properties of Al/Al2O3 syntactic foam core metal matrix sandwich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaseer Omar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural observations and compressive property datasets of metal matrix syntactic foam core sandwich composite at quasi-static and high strain rate (HSR conditions (525–845 s−1 are provided. The data supplied in this article includes sample preparation procedure prior to scanning electron and optical microscopy as well as the micrographs. The data used to construct the stress–strain curves and the derived compressive properties of all specimens in both quasi-static and HSR regions are included. Videos of quasi-static compressive failure and that obtained by a high speed image acquisition system during deformation and failure of HSR specimen are also included.

  17. 玻璃钢-聚氨酯泡沫夹层板弯曲失效研究%The bending failure of fiberglass-polyurethane foam sandwich panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁; 杨树兴; 魏传锋

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the bending failure mechanism of composite sandwich panels, the fiberglass-polyurethane foam sandwich panel is designed and manufactured by vacuum infusion. A theoretical model for its failure is built and the bending test is carried out, as well as the numerical simulation. The failure load is obtained, and two failure modes are revealed during the bending process. An explanation of two inflexion points observed in the load-deflection curve of the glass fiber-polyurethane foam sandwich panel is made. It is concluded that the first inflexion point, corresponding to the first failure mode, is owing to the tensile splitting of the surface glass fiber, and the second one, corresponding to the second failure mode, is due to the shear force splitting of the middle foam.%采用真空灌注方法研制了玻璃纤维-聚氨酯泡沫夹层板,通过理论推导、数值仿真及试验验证对该夹层板的弯曲失效特性进行了研究,得到了实际失效载荷以及两种失效模式。研究表明,玻璃纤维-聚氨酯泡沫夹层板的载荷变形曲线中会出现2处拐点:第一拐点对应第一失效模式,其表征为表层玻璃纤维被拉伸断裂;第二拐点对应第二失效模式,其表征为芯体泡沫被剪切开裂。

  18. 具有SMA层的夹层板的振动和阻尼特性分析%Analysis of Vibration and Damping of SandwichPanels with SMA Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦惠增; 李贵生; 任勇生

    2001-01-01

    The vibration responses and damping capacity of the sandwich panels with SMA layers are studied. The transverse vibration equation for a SMA sandwich panels is derived by using sandwich panel theory. The complex modulus approach is employed to predict the steady state vibration responses of the sandwich panel subjected to sinusoidal force. The piecewise linear model of stress-strain is used to describe superelastic constitutive behavior of SMA. The response characteristic and damping capacity of simply-supported sandwich panel are presented.%根据夹层板理论建立具有等厚SMA层的夹层矩形薄板的横向振动方程,利用复模量法分析SMA的超弹性效应对板的稳态受迫振动响应的影响,利用SMA分段线性应力-应变模型简化SMA的超弹性本构特征,通过数值计算分析结构的稳态响应特性和阻尼特性,及其各种参数的作用规律。

  19. Design for Metal Sandwich Panel Joints%金属三明治结构连接接头的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡玲; 荣翰

    2013-01-01

    金属三明治板的连接问题是应用三明治材料应解决的关键问题之一.应用大型通用有限元软件ABAQUS,针对特定尺寸的金属三明治结构,进行平行于芯板方向的纵向连接接头设计,选取外接平板和内嵌方框两种典型的接头形式,计算在施加面内载荷情况下,三明治接头的应力集中系数,得出最佳接头几何尺寸.%Metal sandwich panels,due to their excellent properties,can be used as structural elements of smooth flat ship hull like decks, walls and, in certain cases, side shells. Joints between the panels as well as those between the panels and other structures are among the more difficult problems associated with the structures. This paper presents the searching for process of optimum geometry of a panel-to-panel joint of longitudinal arrangement by means of the as-low-as possible values of geometrical stress concentration coefficients at acceptable mass and deformations of the structure.

  20. Cascaded-Systems Analysis of Flat-Panel Sandwich Detectors for Single-Shot Dual-Energy X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Junwoo; Youn, Hanbean [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    We have developed the cascaded-systems model to investigate the signal and noise characteristics in the flat-panel sandwich detector which was developed for the preclinical single-shot dual-energy x-ray imaging. The model incorporates parallel branches to include direct interaction of x-rays in photodiode that is unavoidable in the sandwich structure with a corresponding potential increase in image noise. The model has been validated in comparison with the experimental. The cascaded-systems analysis shows that direct x-ray interaction noise behaves as additive electronic noise that is white in the frequency domain; hence it is harmful to the DQE at higher frequencies where the number of secondary quanta lessens. Even at zero frequency, the direct x-ray interaction noise can reduce the DQE of the detectors investigated in this study by ∼20% for the 60 kV x-ray spectrum. The DQE of rear detector in the sandwich structure is sensitive to additive electronic noise because of the enhancement in the number of electronic noise quanta relative to that of x-ray quanta that are attenuated through the front layers including the intermediate filter layer (i.e. incident photon fluence times transmission factor)

  1. Development, testing, and numerical modeling of a foam sandwich biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachra, Ricky

    This study develops a novel sandwich composite material using plant based materials for potential use in nonstructural building applications. The face sheets comprise woven hemp fabric and a sap based epoxy, while the core comprises castor oil based foam with waste rice hulls as reinforcement. Mechanical properties of the individual materials are tested in uniaxial compression and tension for the foam and hemp, respectively. The sandwich composite is tested in 3 point bending. Flexural results are compared to a finite element model developed in the commercial software Abaqus, and the validated model is then used to investigate alternate sandwich geometries. Sandwich model responses are compared to existing standards for nonstructural building panels, showing that the novel material is roughly half the strength of equally thick drywall. When space limitations are not an issue, a double thickness sandwich biocomposite is found to be a structurally acceptable replacement for standard gypsum drywall.

  2. Water- and Temperature-Triggered Reversible Structural Transformation of Tetranuclear Cobalt(II) Cores Sandwiched by Polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Yosuke; Kikukawa, Yuji; Suzuki, Kosuke; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2016-03-14

    Although stimuli-responsive structural transformations of inorganic materials have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use as functional switchable materials, multinuclear metal cores frequently suffer from unexpected dissociation of metal cations and/or irreversible transformations into infinite structures. In this study, we describe the successful demonstration of the water- and temperature-triggered reversible structural transformation between cubane- and planar-type tetranuclear Co(II) cores sandwiched by polyoxometalates. The arrangements and coordination geometries of the Co(II) cations were interconverted by simple hydration and dehydration, resulting in the manipulation of the magnetic and optical properties of these compounds. Moreover, this system showed unique thermochromism through temperature-dependent reversible structural interconversion.

  3. Design Optimization and Testing of an Active Core for Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    repeatedly linked cells. Certain unit cell structures such as the Kagome truss (Symons, Hutchinson et al. 2005) holds potential in the design of...34Actuation of the Kagome double layer grid part 1: Prediction of performance of the perfect structure." Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids

  4. The elastic response of sandwich structures to local loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Skvortsov, Vitaly; Krahmalev, Sergey; Shipsha, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The paper addresses the elastic response of sandwich panels to local static and dynamic loading. The bottom face is assumed to be clamped, so that the overall bending is eliminated. The governing equations are derived using the static Lamé equations for the core and the thin plate Kirchoff–Love

  5. Experimental study on mechanical properties of aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels under different conditions have been exprimentally studied in this research to increase the knowledge of aircraft sandwich panel structures and facilitate design criteria for aircraft structures. Tests were concentrated on the honeycomb sandwich structures under different loads including flexural, insert shear, flat wise tension and compression loads. Furthermore, effect of core density and face material on mechanical behavior of different samples were investigated and compared with analytical and FEM method. Effects of skin thickness on strength of honycomb sandwhich panels under shear pull out and moments have also been considerd in this study. According to this investigation, insert strength and flexural test under different load conditions is strongly affected by face thickness, but compression and tearoff (falt wise tensile properties of a sandwich panel depends on core material. The study concludes that the correlation between experimental results and the analytical predictions will enable the designer to predict the mechanical behaviour and strength of a sandwich beam; however, applied formula may lead engineers to unreliable results for shear modulus.

  6. The Influence of Face Sheet Wrinkle Defects on the Performance of FRP Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Carl Christian; Pettersson, Robert

    2005-01-01

    reported here, the influence of wrinkle defects on the in-plane compressive strength of quasiisotropic CFRP laminates used in PVC foam-cored sandwich panels has been investigated by three approaches: testing of sandwich beam specimens in fourpoint bending, testing of sandwich panels with in......Wrinkle defects may reduce the compressive strength of a face laminate for inplane loading applied perpendicularly to the line of the wrinkle. To be able to decide whether a repair is needed it is necessary to know the magnitude of the strength reduction for a given wrinkle geometry. In the studies...

  7. Theory of Moderately Large Deflections of Sandwich Shells Having a Transversely Soft Core and Reinforced Along Their Contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.

    2017-03-01

    Variants of sandwich structural elements in the form of plates and shells with a transversely soft core are analyzed. Their outer, load-carrying layers are reinforced along their outer contour with elastic bars to ensure the transfer of loads to the layers during their interaction with other structural elements. For such structures, at small strains and moderate displacements, a refined geometrically nonlinear a theory is constructed that allows one to describe their subcritical deformation and reveal all possible buckling modes (cophasal, antiphasal, mixed flexural, mixed shear-flexural, and arbitrary modes including all the listed ones) of the load-carrying layers and the reinforcing elements (flexural, shear-flexural, and pure shear ones at various subcritical stressstrain states). This theory is based on considering the interaction forces of outer layers with the core and of the layers and core with the reinforcing bars as unknowns. To derive the basic equations of static equilibrium, boundary conditions for the shell and stiffening bars, the conditions of kinematic conjunction of outer layers with the core and of the outer layers and core with the reinforcing bars, and the generalized Lagrange variational principle proposed earlier are utilized. The theory suggested differs from all known variants by a high degree of accuracy and maningfulness at a minimum number of unknown two-dimensional functions for the shells, one-dimensional functions for the reinforcing bars, and one and two-dimensional contact forces of interaction between structural elements.

  8. Evaluation of Thin Kevlar-Epoxy Fabric Panels Subjected to Shear Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental investigation of 4-ply Kevlar-49-epoxy panels loaded by in-plane shear are presented. Approximately one-half of the panels are thin-core sandwich panels and the other panels are solid-laminate panels. Selected panels were impacted with an aluminum sphere at a velocity of either 150 or 220 ft/sec. The strength of panels impacted at 150 ft/sec was not reduced when compared to the strength of the undamaged panels, but the strength of panels impacted at 220 ft/sec was reduced by 27 to 40 percent. Results are presented for panels that were cyclically loaded from a load less than the buckling load to a load in the postbuckling load range. The thin-core sandwich panels had a lower fatigue life than the solid panels. The residual strength of the solid and sandwich panels cycled more than one million cycles exceeded the baseline undamaged panel strengths. The effect of hysteresis in the response of the sandwich panels is not significant. Results of a nonlinear finite element analysis conducted for each panel design are presented.

  9. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel Part II : Proposal of a method to use shell element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jae Woong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I-core sandwich panel that has been used more widely is assembled using high power CO₂laser welding. Kim et al. (2013 proposed a circular cone type heat source model for the T-joint laser welding between face plate and core. It can cover the negative defocus which is commonly adopted in T-joint laser welding to provide deeper penetration. In part I, a volumetric heat source model is proposed and it is verified thorough a comparison of melting zone on the cross section with experiment results. The proposed model can be used for heat transfer analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation that occurs during laser welding. In terms of computational time, since the thermal elasto-plastic analysis using 3D solid elements is quite time consuming, shell element model with multi-layers have been employed instead. However, the conventional layered approach is not appropriate for the application of heat load at T-Joint. This paper, Part II, suggests a new method to arrange different number of layers for face plate and core in order to impose heat load only to the face plate.

  10. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel Part II : Proposal of a method to use shell element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Jang, Beom Seon; Kang, Sung Wook

    2014-06-01

    I-core sandwich panel that has been used more widely is assembled using high power CO-laser welding. Kim et al. (2013) proposed a circular cone type heat source model for the T-joint laser welding between face plate and core. It can cover the negative defocus which is commonly adopted in T-joint laser welding to provide deeper penetration. In part I, a volumetric heat source model is proposed and it is verified thorough a comparison of melting zone on the cross section with experiment results. The proposed model can be used for heat transfer analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation that occurs during laser welding. In terms of computational time, since the thermal elasto-plastic analysis using 3D solid elements is quite time consuming, shell element model with multi-layers have been employed instead. However, the conventional layered approach is not appropriate for the application of heat load at T-Joint. This paper, Part II, suggests a new method to arrange different number of layers for face plate and core in order to impose heat load only to the face plate.

  11. Innovative use of wood-plastic-composites (WPC) as a core material in the sandwich injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Martin, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The demand for materials based on renewable raw materials has risen steadily in recent years. With society's increasing interest for climate protection and sustainability, natural-based materials such as wood-plastic-composites (WPC) have gained market share thanks to their positive reputation. Due to advantages over unreinforced plastics such as cost reduction and weight savings it is possible to use WPC in a wide area of application. Additionally, an increase in mechanical properties such as rigidity and strength is achieved by the fibers compared to unreinforced polymers. The combination of plastic and wood combines the positive properties of both components in an innovative material. Despite the many positive properties of wood-plastic-composite, there are also negative characteristics that prevent the use of WPC in many product areas, such as automotive interiors. In particular, increased water intake, which may result in swelling of near-surface particles, increased odor emissions, poor surface textures and distortion of the components are unacceptable for many applications. The sandwich injection molding process can improve this situation by eliminating the negative properties of WPC by enclosing it with a pure polymer. In this case, a layered structure of skin and core material is produced, wherein the core component is completely enclosed by the skin component. The suitability of WPC as the core component in the sandwich injection molding has not yet been investigated. In this study the possibilities and limitations of the use of WPC are presented. The consideration of different fiber types, fiber contents, skin materials and its effect on the filling behavior are the focus of the presented analysis.

  12. Composite Sandwich Technologies Lighten Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Leveraging its private resources with several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with both NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense, WebCore Technologies LLC, of Miamisburg, Ohio, developed a fiber-reinforced foam sandwich panel it calls TYCOR that can be used for a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. Testing at Glenn Research Center?s Ballistic Impact Facility demonstrated that the technology was able to exhibit excellent damage localization and stiffness during impact. The patented and trademarked material has found use in many demanding applications, including marine, ground transportation, mobile shelters, bridges, and most notably, wind turbines.

  13. Examination of Sandwich Materials Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, K.K.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2004-01-01

    The air-coupled ultrasonic techniques have been improved drastically in recent years. Better equipment has made this technique much more useful. This paper focuses on the examination of sandwich materials used in naval ships. It is more convenient to be able to make the measurements directly...... in atmospheric air instead of using immersion technique. The air-coupled techniques have been used in through-transmission mode using separate sender and receiver transducer. The frequency was either 50 kHz or 120 kHz. Laboratory tests on glass fibre/PVC foam core sandwich panels showed that debonds between core...... and skin laminate could be found by the air-coupled technique. It was therefore decided to use this technique in-situ during mechanical testing of sandwich panels. These tests were done in order to verify a developed FEM code using interfacial fracture mechanics and illustrated on a superstructure...

  14. Research on the thermal performances of reinforced concrete sandwich wall-panel%混凝土夹芯复合墙板热工性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金梁; 干钢

    2011-01-01

    结合浙江省等夏热冬冷地区的节能设计标准,研究开发了一种自保温混凝土夹芯复合墙板,并重点研究了混凝土夹芯复合墙板在不同保温层厚度、斜向钢筋含量和混凝土层厚度情况下,其热工性能指标的变化规律.结果表明,在不采取额外保温措施的情况下,混凝土夹芯复合墙板的热工性能能满足夏热冬冷地区节能设计标准要求.研究成果与实际工程联系紧密,具有较高的实用价值.%In combination with the standard of energy conservation in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Regiona like Zhejiang Province,a kind of aelf-insulation reinforced concrete sandwich wall-panel is exploited Influence on thermal performances of reinforce concrete sandwich wall-panel,due to the difference in thickness of concrete layer,the thickness of heat insulation layer and the ratio of oblique tie bar,are analyzed. The investigation reveals that under the condition of not taking additional thermal insulation measures the thermal performances of concrete wall-panel meet the requirements of standard of energy conservation in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Regions. The findings of this paper are tightly related to the engineering practice and have relatively higher use value

  15. Energy-release rate and mode mixity of face/core debonds in sandwich beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardomateas, George A.; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2013-01-01

    Closed-form algebraic expressions for the energy-release rate and the mode mixity are obtained for a debonded sandwich (trimaterial). The most general case of an "asymmetric" sandwich is considered (i.e., the bottom face sheet not necessarily of the same material or thickness as the top facesheet......).The energy-release rate is obtained by use of the J-integral,and the expression is derived interms of the forces and moments at the debond section.Regarding the mode mixity, a closed-form expression is derived in terms of the geometry, material, and applied loading, and it is proven that, in the trimaterial...... case, just as in the bimaterial case, the mode mixity can be obtained in terms of a single scalar quantityω,which is independent of loading;theωvalue for a particular geometry and material can be extracted from a numerical solution for one loading combination. Thus, this analysis extends the existing...

  16. Development and Mechanical Behavior of FML/Aluminium Foam Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştürk, S. B.; Tanoğlu, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the Fiber-Metal Laminates (FMLs) containing glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) and aluminum (Al) sheet were consolidated with Al foam cores for preparing the sandwich panels. The aim of this article is the comparison of the flexural properties of FML/Al foam sandwich panels bonded with various surface modification approaches (silane treatment and combination of silane treatment with polypropylene (PP) based film addition). The FML/foam sandwich systems were fabricated by laminating the components in a mould at 200 °C under 1.5 MPa pressure. The energy absorbtion capacities and flexural mechanical properties of the prepared sandwich systems were evaluated by mechanical tests. Experiments were performed on samples of varying foam thicknesses (8, 20 and 30 mm). The bonding among the sandwich components were achieved by various surface modification techniques. The Al sheet/Al foam sandwiches were also consolidated by bonding the components with an epoxy adhesive to reveal the effect of GFPP on the flexural performance of the sandwich structures.

  17. Full-field ultrasonic inspection for a composite sandwich plate skin-core debonding detection using laser-based ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, See Yenn; Victor, Jared J.; Todd, Michael D.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a full-field ultrasonic guided wave method is proposed to inspect a composite sandwich specimen made for an aircraft engine nacelle. The back skin/core interface of the specimen is built with two fabricated disbond defects (diameters of 12.7 mm and 25.4 mm) by removing areas of the adhesive used to bond the back skin to the core. A laser ultrasonic interrogation system (LUIS) incorporated with a disbond detection algorithm is developed. The system consists of a 1-kHz laser ultrasonic scanning system and a single fixed ultrasonic sensor to interrogate ultrasonic guided waves in the sandwich specimen. The interest area of 400 mm × 400 mm is scanned at a 0.5 mm scan interval. The corresponding full-field ultrasonic data is obtained and generated in the three-dimensional (3-D) space-time domain. Then, the 3-D full-field ultrasonic data is Fourier transformed and the ultrasonic frequency spectra are analyzed to determine the dominant frequency that is sensitive to the disbond defects. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is implemented as a single-frequency bandpass filter to filter the full-field ultrasonic data in the 3-D space-time domain at the selected dominant frequency. The LUIS has shown the ability to detect the disbond with diameters of 11 mm and 23 mm which match to the pre-determined disbond sizes well. For future research, a robust signal processing algorithm and a model-based matched filter will be investigated to make the detection process autonomous and improve detectability

  18. Predicting the behaviour of a wide sandwich beam under pressure loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.; Bigourdan, B.; Chaudot, P.; Choqueuse, D.; Ferreira, A.; Karjalainen, J.P.; Hildebrand, M.; Mustakangas, M.; Gaarder, R.; Carli, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van; Sargent, J.P.; Adams, R.D.; Broughton, J.; Beevers, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results from analytical and finite elenent modelling of the response of a wide foam core sandwich beam to uniform pressure loading. New tests have been performed using an image analysis system which allows core shear strain mapping. Predicted panel displacenpnts and strains are c

  19. Honeycomb core material for sandwich construction - with common hexagonal walls bonded by thermoplastic resin and free walls carrying layer of resin and masking agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    unknown

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of NL 8902116 (A) In a honeycomb core material for a sandwich construction, the common hexagonal walls are bonded together by a thermoplastic resin, and the free hexagonal walls carry a layer of the same resin and also a masking agent. - A number of plates of raw material are given strips

  20. Honeycomb core material for sandwich construction - with common hexagonal walls bonded by thermoplastic resin and free walls carrying layer of resin and masking agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    unknown

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of NL 8902116 (A) In a honeycomb core material for a sandwich construction, the common hexagonal walls are bonded together by a thermoplastic resin, and the free hexagonal walls carry a layer of the same resin and also a masking agent. - A number of plates of raw material are given strips

  1. Sandwich construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A.

    A form of composites known as structural sandwich construction is presented in terms of materials used, design details for solving edging and attachment problems, and charts of design material analysis. Sandwich construction is used in nearly all commercial airliners and helicopters, and military air and space vehicles, and it is shown that this method can stiffen a structure without causing a weight increase. The facing material can be made of 2024 or 7075 aluminum alloy, titanium, or stainless steel, and the core material can be wood or foam. The properties of paper honeycomb and various aluminum alloy honeycombs are presented. Factors pertaining to adhesive materials are discussed, including products given off during cure, bonding pressure, and adaptability. Design requirements and manufacturing specifications are resolved using numerous suggestions.

  2. The Influence of Face Sheet Wrinkle Defects on the Performance of FRP Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Carl Christian; Pettersson, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Wrinkle defects may reduce the compressive strength of a face laminate for inplane loading applied perpendicularly to the line of the wrinkle. To be able to decide whether a repair is needed it is necessary to know the magnitude of the strength reduction for a given wrinkle geometry. In the studies...... reported here, the influence of wrinkle defects on the in-plane compressive strength of quasiisotropic CFRP laminates used in PVC foam-cored sandwich panels has been investigated by three approaches: testing of sandwich beam specimens in fourpoint bending, testing of sandwich panels with in......-plane compression, and finite element simulation. Wrinkles involving different numbers of plies have been considered. Two different sandwich lay-ups typical of deck and hull bottom panels in a naval ship have been included....

  3. The Effect of Face Sheet Wrinkle Defects on the Strength of FRP Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Pettersson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Wrinkle defects may reduce the compressive strength of a face laminate for in-plane loading applied perpendicularly to the line of the wrinkle. To be able to decide whether a repair is needed, it is necessary to know the magnitude of the strength reduction for a given wrinkle geometry....... In the studies reported here, the influence of wrinkle defects on the in-plane compressive strength of quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates used in PVC foam-cored sandwich panels has been investigated by three approaches: testing of sandwich beam specimens in four-point bending......, testing of sandwich panels with inplane compression, and finite element simulation. Wrinkles involving different numbers of plies have been considered. Two different sandwich lay-ups typical of deck and hull bottom panels in naval ships have been included....

  4. Flow behavior in grooves with foam walls for sandwich panels%泡沫夹芯结构板泡沫壁流道内的流动特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷波; 周持兴; 俞炜; 张羽; 周华; 王健

    2012-01-01

    沟槽型真空辅助树脂传递模塑成型工艺(VARTM)是一种新型的泡沫夹芯结构板成型方法,利用实验探明了泡沫夹芯结构板芯材上不可渗泡沫壁流道内的流动行为.实验结果表明,液体在泡沫壁流道的流动能力大幅降低,只有光滑壁流道的60%左右,泡沫壁流道的粗糙内表面是造成这种现象的主要原因.提出了相应的压力驱动流动方程,并采用等效渗透率来表征液体在泡沫壁流道内的流动能力,得到了考虑粗糙表面影响的等效渗透率计算公式,提出了一个正确计算不可渗泡沫壁流道内流动的处理方法.%Foam core sandwich panels are widely used in many technical fields, especially in aerospace and wind power structures, due to their high specific strength and high specific stiffness. Among the various manufacturing processes for sandwich panels, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is used extensively for manufacturing large composite structures. The success of VARTM depends upon the complete filling of the mold with adequate wetting of the fiber preform. The addition of grooves on the surface of the low-density core is used to shorten the fill time, because of the high permeability of grooves. Therefore, the resin flow through the grooves is an important step to ensure that the resin infusion process can be finished before the resin gels. The flow characteristics in grooves with impermeable foam walls for sandwich panels were investigated through experimental observations. An empirical equation for the volume flow rate in a glass tube and cylindrical grooves with impermeable foam walls was obtained. It was shown that the volume flow rate was a function of pressure drop, pipe dimension and fluid viscosity. When compared to pipe flow with no-slip boundary conditions, the flow ability in grooves dropped by about 40%. This was ascribed to the rough surface of grooves and demonstrated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which

  5. 四边固支蜂窝夹层板1:3内共振非线性动力学分析%ANALYTIC STUDY ON 1:3 INTERNAL RESONANCE NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF HONEYCOMB SANDWICH PANELS WITH COMPLETED CLAMPED SUPPORTED BOUNDARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 张英杰; 李锋

    2012-01-01

    基于经典叠层板理沦和几何大变形理沦,将铝基蜂窝芯层等效为一正交异性层,等效弹性参数由修正后的Gibson公式得出,对四边固支蜂窝夹层板非线性动力学特性进行了分析.考虑横向阻尼的影响,建立了四边固支蜂窝夹层板受横向激振力作用的受迫振动微分方程,通过振型正交化将蜂窝夹层板受迫振动微分方程简化成双模态下的动力学控制方程,利用同伦分析方法对双模态下蜂窝夹层板的动力学控制方程进行研究,得到了1∶3内共振下的幅频特性曲线,研究了不同结构尺寸对动力学特性的影响以及蜂窝夹层板作稳态运动时的稳定性问题.论文得到的结果为蜂窝夹层板的设计和实际应用提供了理论依据和数值参考.%Based on the classical plate theory and the large deformation, the honeycomb core of cells was modeled as a layer of orthotropic material whose physical and the mechanical properties were determined by using the corrected Gibson's formula. The governing equations of motion were established for the honeycomb sandwich panels subjected to the transversal excitation force by using the Hamilton's principle. The transversal damping was taken into consideration. The method of normalization was utilized to transform the forced vibration differential equations for the honeycomb sandwich panels to dynamic control equations with double modes of freedom. Using the homotopy analysis method (HAM) solved the nonlinear dynamic control equations of the honeycomb sandwich panels and analyzed the change of amplitude with excitation frequency and vibration parameters. The case of the 1:3 internal resonance was considered. In addition, motion stability analysis of honeycomb sandwich panels was studied in this thesis. The results of the study can provide the theoretical foundation and the numerical reference for the design and the practical application of Honeycomb Sandwich.

  6. Performance of Composite Sandwich Beam with AI Foam Core in Bending%铝泡沫复合材料夹芯梁的弯曲性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广涛; 王新筑

    2011-01-01

    Composite sandwich beams comprising composite faces and Al cores have been designed and manufactured by the autoclave cure process. The quasi-static three-point bending response of simply supported composite sandwich beams is measured by experiment. This investigation is concerned with the collapse response and flexural stiffness of simply supported composite sandwich beams with metal foam cores, the deformation and failure behavior is also explored. The experimental investigation reveals that the failure mode of sandwich beams is face yield. Compared to the other three common metal foam sandwich structures with metal faces, the bending specific stiffness of metal foam sandwich structure with composite faces is higher.%设计并采用热压罐方法生产了由复合材料面板和铝泡沫芯子组成的复合材料夹芯梁,对其在简支边界条件和三点弯曲受载下的失效模式及弯曲刚度进行了实验研究。研究发现:与其他3种常见的金属泡沫芯子金属面板夹芯结构相比,自行设计的面板为层合板的金属泡沫复合材料夹芯结构具有较高的弯曲比刚度、明显的重量优势及可设计性。

  7. Optimal design of anti-shock capability of sandwich panel under explosion loading inside closed cabin%舱室内爆载荷作用下夹层板优化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈攀; 刘志忠

    2016-01-01

    舱室内战斗部爆炸产生的冲击波是舱室结构板架承受的主要载荷之一,舱室内爆冲击波在舱室内部将发生多次反射,并在舱室内部形成持续时间较长的准静态压力,在此过程中舱室板架承受多次冲击波反射载荷。本文以舱室典型加筋板为对象进行夹层板概念设计,选取面板厚度、背板厚度、夹芯壁厚及夹芯间距4个参数作为试验参数,以抗爆综合评价指标最小为目标,采用正交试验优化设计方法得到该加筋板结构在舱室内爆冲击波载荷作用下最优抗爆性能的夹层板结构,并对比最优夹层板与普通加筋板在舱室内爆载荷作用下的响应特征。研究表明,经过优化设计后的夹层板具有更好抵抗冲击波载荷的能力,正交试验设计能较好适用于夹层板结构优化设计。%Explosive loading is one of the loadings of warship structural under anti-ship missile, in case of explosive in-side closed cabin, except for the first shock wave, warship structural suffer multiple reflection shock waves, and for enclosed environment of cabin, quasi-static pressure will continue for some time. Optimal design of square hole honeycomb sandwich panel by orthogonal test under explosion loading inside closed cabin was done, the panel thickness, backing plate thickness, sandwich thickness and sandwich space are acted test parameters, the minimum comprehensive performance evaluation in-dex of anti-shock capability is the target, and to get the best anti-shock capability sandwich panel, the response of the best sandwich panel and stiffened plate under explosion loading inside closed cabin were compared, the research shows that the optimal sandwich panel has better anti-shock capability, and orthogonal test can be used for design of sandwich panel.

  8. Numerical simulation of honeycomb sandwich panel under hypervelocity impact of ice particle%冰粒超高速撞击蜂窝板的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单立; 郑世贵; 闫军

    2014-01-01

    With the orbital debris environment worsening,research on the hypervelocity im-pact phenomena of orbital debris attracts more and more interests of investigators all over the world.The density of some orbital debris is close to ice.Honeycomb sandwich panels are the im-portant component parts of spacecraft structures and protect equipments inside.Therefore,re-search on honeycomb sandwich panel under hypervelocity impact of ice particle is very imperative and necessary.In this study,we used numerical simulation method to study honeycomb sand-wich panels which are impacted by ice particles and evaluated their performance of resisting the hypervelocity impact of ice particles.The results show that ice particles can penetrate honeycomb sandwich panels.The ice particle of 1mm in diameter penetrated the honeycomb sandwich panel at the velocity of 12km/s;the ice particle of 2mm in diameter penetrated the honeycomb sand-wich panel at the velocity of 11km/s or 12km/s;the ice particle of 3mm in diameter penetrated the honeycomb sandwich panel at the velocity of 5km/s and above;the ice particle of 4mm or 5mm in diameter penetrated the honeycomb sandwich panel at the velocity of 3km/s and above. When the honeycomb sandwich panels are penetrated,a lot of debris dash out through the hole of the rare panel and will destroy equipments inside the spacecraft.Additionally,when the kinetic energy of ice particles are close,the diameters of the ice particles will affect the simulation results.%随着人类航天活动日益增多,空间碎片环境逐渐恶化,对航天器在轨安全运行造成严重威胁,各国学者开展了空间碎片超高速撞击数值模拟研究。目前的研究中一般采用铝弹丸代替空间碎片,但是还有部分空间碎片的密度接近冰的密度,对于冰粒的超高速撞击研究还很少且不透彻。蜂窝板是构成航天器舱壁的主要结构,对航天器内部设备起到保护作用,有必要开展冰粒超高速撞

  9. Behavior and Failure Modes of Sandwich T-Joint Using Cohesive Zone Material Model and Contact Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S. M. R.; Ghaznavi, A.

    2013-02-01

    One of the significant concerns of sandwich panels is their joints. T-joint is one the most common joint in sandwich structures. This paper deals with the numerical study of triangle T-joint under static loading. The results of numerical solution obtained by ANSYS modeling are verified with the results of experimental tests obtained in the literature. In general, the results obtained for anticipated failure load by numerical solution with the results of experimental test is in good agreement. Contact elements and cohesive zone material model are used to model the adhesive layer, hence debonding and fracture of adhesive is observed by the numerical modeling. Also, by using a written macro code in the ANSYS software, the ability of damage is explained for the core of sandwich panels; thus both the modes in fracture of T-joints (core shear failure in base panel and debonding of adhesive) are modeled. Core materials consist of Divinycell H100, H160, H250, and HCP70 are used for modeling sandwich panels, so that the function of joint is studied under different conditions of the sandwich core material. Nine different geometrical models are created by changing the base angle of the core triangle. The absorbed energy associated with different segments of the T-joint are used to investigate the effect of joint geometry and core material on the load transfer and failure mode of the T-joint.

  10. Experimental study on the sound insulation property of integrated hollow core sandwich composites%整体中空复合材料隔声性能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿顺; 钱坤; 曹海建; 俞科静; 李文敏

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨整体中空复合材料结构与隔声性能之间的关系,设计并制备了不同高度、不同面板厚度以及不同芯材的玻璃纤维整体中空织物/环氧树脂复合材料。采用混响室-消声室法对其隔声性能进行了测试分析。研究表明:整体中空复合材料的结构对其隔声性能有明显的影响。复合材料的隔声性能随着结构高度的增加逐渐提高,面板厚度对材料的隔声效果影响较大,芯材排列形式对其隔声性能影响相对较小;8形整体中空复合材料的隔声性能略高于88形和X形。%In order to study the relationship between the composite structure and sound insulation property of integrated hollow core sandwich composites,the glass fabric/epoxy resin composites with different heights,panel thicknesses and core structures were fabricated.The experiments for sound insulation property were carried out in a reverberation-anechoic chambers measuring system.The results show that the structure of glass fabric has an obvious influence on the sound insulation property of integrated hollow core sandwich composites.The sound properties of the composites increase gradually with the increase in height.The panel thickness has a greater impact on the sound insulation properties of the composites,and the effect of core structure is relatively weak.The sound insulation property of the composites with 8 shaped core structure is slightly higher than that of the composites with 88 shaped and X shaped core structure.

  11. 六层金字塔点阵夹芯板结构在水下近距爆炸载荷下的冲击实验%Impact experiment of six-layer pyramidal lattices sandwich panels subjected to near field underwater explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振华; 牛闯; 钱海峰; 王媛欣

    2016-01-01

    为研究多层金字塔点阵夹芯板结构在水下近距爆炸载荷下的抗爆性能,加工制作了六层金字塔点阵夹芯板结构模型,通过水下爆炸实验,揭示了多层金字塔点阵夹芯板结构的变形模式,并对模型结构进行数值仿真,分析了夹芯板结构的吸能情况.上面板呈整体下沉变形模式;金字塔点阵夹芯结构存在动态屈曲变形模式;屈曲芯层之间的夹层板呈波浪褶皱变形;下面板呈平台变形模式,靠弯曲和拉伸变形吸能.实验结果表明:夹芯结构的第1层和第6层破坏较为严重,同时由于夹芯层的吸能作用,对下面板起到了一定的缓冲防护作用.%To investigate the explosion resistance of multilayered pyramidal lattices panels subjected to near field underwater explosion(UNDEX), the UNDEX experiment is carried out, the distortional energy of the model is simulated, which reveals the deformation mode of multilayered pyramidal lattices. The whole pyramidal lattices structure presents dynamic buckling deformation, and in particular, the thicker upper panel is seen to have integral settlement deformation, sandwich panels between buckling cores present wave wrinkle deformation, and the bottom panel absorbs energy through bending and tensile deformation. The results show that though the first and sixth sandwich cores are more severely damaged, the energy ab?sorption of sandwich cores protects the bottom panel to a certain extent.

  12. Experimental investigation of fiberglass sandwich composite bending behaviour after severe aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Carla; Lertora, Enrico; Mandolfino, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sandwich panels are increasing their application as structural and non-structural components in all kinds of construction. By varying the material and thickness of core and face sheets, it is possible to obtain sandwich structures with different properties and performance. In particular, their advantages as lightweight and high mechanical properties make them extremely suitable for the transport industry. One of the most critical aspects regarding composite materials for engineering application is their performance after hygrothermal aging. The panels used in this study are composed of low density core, made by thermosetting resin foam with microspheres and glass fibers rolled until obtaining the required thickness, and two face sheets of the same material but realized in high density. In this study, the authors focused on the bending behaviour of this kind of sandwich panel, as received and after severe aging cycles.

  13. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction

  15. Buckling delamination of the circular sandwich plate with piezoelectric face and elastic core layers under rotationally symmetric external pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, Surkay D.; Cafarova, Fazile I.; Yahnioglu, Nazmiye

    2017-02-01

    The axisymmetric buckling delamination of the piezoelectric circular sandwich plate with piezoelectric face and elastic (metal) core layers around the interface penny-shaped cracks is investigated. The case is considered where short-circuit conditions with respect to the electrical potential on the upper and lower and also lateral surfaces of face layers are satisfied. It is assumed that the edge surfaces of the cracks have an infinitesimal rotationally symmetric initial imperfection and the development of this imperfection with rotationally symmetric compressive forces acting on the lateral surface of the plate is studied by employing the exact geometrically non-linear field equations and relations of electro-elasticity for piezoelectric materials. Solution to the considered nonlinear problem is reduced to solution of the series boundary value problems derived by applying the linearization procedure with respect to small imperfection of the sought values. Numerical results reveal the effect of piezoelectricity as well as geometrical and material parameters on the critical values are determined numerically by employing finite element method (FEM).

  16. 预制混凝土夹芯复合墙板的应用与住宅产业化%The Application of Concrete Sandwich Composite Panel and Housing Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖力光; 范雪

    2015-01-01

    论述了住宅产业化及其在我国的发展,分析了预制混凝土夹芯复合墙板的特点和国内外研究现状,指出发展预制混凝土夹芯复合墙板是实现住宅产业化的重要支撑,发展预制混凝土夹芯复合墙板可以有效实现建筑节能,应进一步推广这种新型节能保温墙体材料的应用。%This article expounds the development of the housing industrialization in China, analyses the characteris-tics and the current situation of the concrete sandwich composite panel, points out that the development of the con-crete sandwich composite panel is the important support to realize the housing industrialization, and puts forward the development of the concrete sandwich composite panel can achieve the energy conservation in building effectively, so as to extend the application of this new type of energy-saving insulation panel.

  17. Manufacturing and characterisation of PMMA-graphene oxide (GO nanocomposite sandwich films with electrospun nano-fibre core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharyya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nanocomposite materials, comprising of polymer matrices and nano-sized reinforcements, exhibit significantly enhanced mechanical and functional properties at extremely low filler loading. In recent years, graphene oxide (GO has emerged as a new class of low cost nano-filler with high mechanical strength and stiffness, and alterable electrical properties. For nano-fillers with layered structure like GO, complete exfoliation and uniform dispersion of filler in the polymer matrices is essential to enhance the matrix-filler interaction and in turn the mechanical and/or functional property improvement. Conventional nanocomposite manufacturing methods including in-situ polymerisation and solvent processing encounter the problem of agglomeration of GO films. Additionally, its low bulk density presents difficulties in handling, and the energy requirement for mechanical mixing and extrusion processes is very high. In this work, we report manufacturing of poly(methyl methacrylate–graphene oxide (PMMA-GO nano-fibre mat using relatively novel approach of employing electrospinning technique. The manufactured electrospun core was inserted between plain polymer layers to prepare a robust and easy to handle sandwich film. Morphology and structure of the PMMA-GO nano-fibre cores was evaluated with scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The manufactured nano-fibre mat samples exhibited uniform diameter and dispersion. The functional parameters including thermal stability and gas barrier were evaluated with differential scanning calorimetry and oxygen permeation testing, and these functional properties were observed to be superior to that of monolithic polymer counterparts.

  18. Enhanced Performance of Sandwich Structures by Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, Georgios

    The PhD thesis investigates the enhancement of the damage tolerance of sandwich structures by the embedding of a new type of core inserts that act as face/core interface crack stopping elements. The thesis presents series of experimental investigations where the new crack stopping elements...... are embedded in both sandwich beam and panel specimens. The experimental observations form the basis for evaluating the efficiency of the proposed crack stopping inserts. For the experiments, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to characterize the measure the local strain fields and overall deformation...... behaviour around the new crack stopper elements. In support for the experimental investigations, a Finite Element (FE) analysis based methodology, including fracture mechanics analysis and the so-called ‘cycle jump’ technique, was developed to predict the progression of damage in sandwich specimens...

  19. Highly sensitive curvature sensor based on a multicladding fiber sandwiched dual no-core fibers structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanhui; Ma, Lin; Kang, Zexin; Bai, Yunlong; Yin, Bin; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a simple, compact, and highly sensitive optical fiber curvature sensor. It consists of dual no-core fibers for coupling energy from the lead-in single-mode fiber (SMF), and recoupling the energy into the lead-out SMF. The sensing section is constituted by multicladding fiber with a length of 5 cm. In the experiment, the spectrum shows a blueshift, and the energy corresponding to the resonant wavelength shows a cosine series with a bending of the sensing segment. The curvature sensitivity around the wavelength of 1550 nm shows -39.02 nm/m(-1) within the curvature range from 0.3 to 2.14 m(-1). The temperature sensitivity is 78.2 pm/°C in the temperature range of 10 °C-60 °C. It implies the possibility of temperature measurement.

  20. Analysis on Mechanical and Damping Properties of Vitreous Floss Sandwich Core%玻璃纤维夹芯材料力学性能与阻尼特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉; 邓华; 王宸

    2013-01-01

    对大跨度建筑用复合金属屋面板的玻璃纤维夹芯材料的力学性能进行了试验测定.测得了玻璃纤维棉层压方向和顺纹方向的拉压强度、弹性模量和泊松比等基本力学参数,结果表明层压方向和顺纹方向的力学性质不相同.采用振动梁法进行了阻尼特性试验,得到了材料损耗因子的值,并根据试验数据拟合出了玻璃纤维棉损耗因子-频率的曲线,在测试频率范围内材料的损耗因子值为0.5左右,表明该材料为高阻尼材料.进一步以一块玻璃纤维夹芯复合金属板为算例,采用模态应变能法对其阻尼特性进行了数值分析.玻璃纤维夹芯复合屋面板的各阶模态损耗因子在0.3~0.5左右,表明玻璃纤维夹芯复合金属板具有较高的结构阻尼,在大跨度结构风振计算中将玻璃纤维夹芯复合金属屋面板看作刚性板是不正确的.%Mechanical tests were carried out for the vitreous floss which is widely used as sandwich core of metal composite roof panel in large-span structures.Basic mechanical parameters such as tensile and compressive strength,elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio along both laminate and fiber directions were obtained,.The results show that the mechanical properties are different in the two directions.The damping property,e.g.the material loss factor of the vitreous floss,was measured by the vibrating beam method.The curve,loss factor vs frequency,was fitted according to the testing results.The loss factor of the vitreous floss is around 0.5 in the test frequency range,indicating that the vitreous floss is a high damping material.Furthermore,taking a vitreous floss sandwich composite metal panel as an example,modal strain energy method was employed to calculate the modal loss factor.The value of modal loss factor is between 0.3 and 0.5,suggesting that the vitreous floss sandwich metal composite panel has a high structural damp.It may be concluded that to treat the glass fiber

  1. Sandwiched composites in aerospace engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, J. P.; Silva,J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers sandwiched composites used in aerospace applications. Typical sandwich composites consist of two thin, stiff, high-strength facing skins separated by a thick and light core. New developments in the type of face and core materials, production methods and joining and repair techniques are discussed in this chapter. It also discusses various properties as well as their main design methods for existing and future applications of sandwiched composites.

  2. The Lateral Compressive Buckling Performance of Aluminum Honeycomb Panels for Long-Span Hollow Core Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of critical buckling in the structural analysis and design of the new long-span hollow core roof architecture proposed in this paper (referred to as a “honeycomb panel structural system” (HSSS, lateral compression tests and finite element analyses were employed in this study to examine the lateral compressive buckling performance of this new type of honeycomb panel with different length-to-thickness ratios. The results led to two main conclusions: (1 Under the experimental conditions that were used, honeycomb panels with the same planar dimensions but different thicknesses had the same compressive stiffness immediately before buckling, while the lateral compressive buckling load-bearing capacity initially increased rapidly with an increasing honeycomb core thickness and then approached the same limiting value; (2 The compressive stiffnesses of test pieces with the same thickness but different lengths were different, while the maximum lateral compressive buckling loads were very similar. Overall instability failure is prone to occur in long and flexible honeycomb panels. In addition, the errors between the lateral compressive buckling loads from the experiment and the finite element simulations are within 6%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the nonlinear finite element analysis and provides a theoretical basis for future analysis and design for this new type of spatial structure.

  3. 舰用钢质夹层结构连接节点研究现状综述%Review on the Connection Issues Regarding Steel Sandwich Panels on Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 何书韬; 周心桃; 凌昊

    2014-01-01

    激光焊接钢质夹层结构的连接节点,是钢质夹层结构在舰船应用中的关键问题之一。梳理了钢质夹层结构之间、钢质夹层结构与传统船体结构之间的典型连接节点;阐述了钢质夹层结构连接节点的必要性和重要性,分析了连接节点设计需考虑的多种因素:连接强度、制造工艺和结构重量;汇总了平面对接的连接形式的现有研究成果,并总结了2种高效的有限元分析方法:平面应变模型的分析方法和壳-体连接结合子模型的分析方法。%When utilizing the steel sandwich panel in ship structures,the proper connection is one of the key issues to be addressed. In this paper,the connection between steel sandwich panels,as well as the connections between steel sandwich panel and traditional hull structures are summarized. The necessity and significance of the steel sandwich panel joint are discussed,with the design requirements being ana-lyzed,including connection strength,manufacture convenience,and structure mass. The research achieve-ments on several typical joints of flat connection are also summarized. Two efficient analysis techniques, namely the plane strain model and the sub model of shell-solid assembly together,are finally presented.

  4. Non-stationary oscillations of sandwich plates under local dynamic loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, Vitaly; Krakhmalev, Sergey; Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the elastic response of composite sandwich panels to local dynamic loading. The plane and axisymmetric formulations are considered; no overall bending is assumed. The governing equations are derived using the static Lamé equations for the core and the plate Kirchoff-Love dynamic

  5. The inelastic quasi-static response of sandwich structures to local loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey; Rizov, Victor

    2004-01-01

    The paper addresses the inelastic quasi-static response of sandwich beams and panels with foam core to localized loads. The plane and axisymmetric formulations for local indentation or local low-velocity impact by a rigid body are considered; no overall bending is assumed. The governing equations

  6. Study of fire safety distance between color steel sandwich panel houses and tents%彩钢夹芯板房和帐篷的防火间距研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓勇

    2011-01-01

    Structure and fire performance of color steel polystyrene (EPS) and polyurethane (PU) sandwich panels, commonly used to build up board rooms in transitional settlements of disaster areas, has been analyzed. The materials and combustion performance of tents in transitional settlements has also been described. Based on fire experiments of color steel sandwich panel houses which results were analyzed and verified by using fire cased and FDS simulation methods, fire safety distance of color steel sandwich panel houses and tents was determined.%对灾区过渡安置点搭设板房常用的彩钢聚苯乙烯(EPS)夹芯板和聚氨酯(PU)夹芯板结构、防火性能进行分析,同时对安置点内帐篷材质、燃烧性能进行介绍.在彩钢夹芯板房火灾实验基础上,用火灾案例和FDS模拟方法验证分析实验结论,研究确定彩钢夹芯板房和帐篷的防火间距.

  7. Properties of Co-Curing Composite Panel/Aluminium Honeycomb Sandwich Structure%共固化复合材料/铝蜂窝夹层结构性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玲英; 孙宏杰; 尹亮; 林娜; 杨智勇

    2012-01-01

    采用共固化工艺制备了碳纤维增强复合材料面板/铝蜂窝夹层结构.通过考察固化压力对复合材料面板性能的影响确定了共固化的成型压力,对比分析了不同规格铝蜂窝及其夹层结构的力学性能.结果表明,对于薄面板,成型压力对面板力学性能的影响较小,规格为0.04 mm×4 mm 的铝蜂窝制备的夹层结构具有更高的比强度和比刚度,且成型工艺性好.%Composite panel/aluminium sandwich structure was fabricated by the co-curing process. The effect of processing pressure on the properties of composite panel was investigated to determine the co-curing pressure. The properties of aluminium honeycomb with different dimension parameter and their sandwich structures were also tested and analyzed. The results show that the processing pressure has little effect on the properties of thin composite panel. The sandwich structure fabricated by the aluminium honeycomb of 0. 04 mm×4 mm has high specific strength and modulus, and is easier to fabricate. Therefore, it has more widely potential applications.

  8. Electrochemical Fabrication of Monolithic Electrodes with Core/Shell Sandwiched Transition Metal Oxide/Oxyhydroxide for High-Performance Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shaozhong; Pu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Du, Hongxiu; Zhou, Qingwen; Liu, Ziqiang; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Huigang

    2016-10-05

    Transition metal oxides/oxyhydroxides (TMOs) are promising high-capacity materials for electrochemical energy storage. However, the low rate and poor cyclability hinder practical applications. In this work, we developed a general electrochemical route to fabricate monolithic core/shell sandwiched structures, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of TMO electrodes by electrically wiring the insulating active materials and alleviating the adverse effects caused by volume changes using engineered porous structures. As an example, a lithium ion battery anode of porous MnO sandwiched between CNT and carbon demonstrates a high capacity of 554 mAh g(-1) even after 1000 cycles at 2 A g(-1). An all-solid-state symmetric pseudocapacitor consisting of CNT@MnOOH@polypyrrole exhibits a high specific capacitance of 148 F g(-1) and excellent capacitance retention (92% after 10000 cycles at 2 A g(-1)). Several other examples and applications have further confirmed the effectiveness of improving the electrochemical properties by core/shell sandwiched structures.

  9. Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Sandwiched Slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Pachpande, Jivan Vilas

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents the details of the findings of a study focused on evaluating the structural behavior of three-dimensional (3D) cementitious sandwich panels with Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) foam core for two-way slab applications. In this study, both theoretical and finite element numerical analysis procedures were adopted to predict the performance of such slabs under out-of-plane loading conditions. The results from theoretical and finite element analysis were verified by compariso...

  10. Sensitive Glycoprotein Sandwich Assays by the Synergistic Effect of In Situ Generation of Raman Probes and Plasmonic Coupling of Ag Core-Au Satellite Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoshuang; Li, Xueyuan; Chen, Dong; Du, Xuezhong

    2016-05-01

    Sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assays of glycoproteins have been proposed using p-aminothiophenol (PATP)-embedded Ag core-Au satellite nanostructures modified with p-mercaptophenylboronic acid (PMBA) and the self-assembled monolayer of PMBA on a smooth gold-coated wafer. The apparent Raman probe PATP on the surfaces of the Ag cores underwent a photodimerization to generate 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) in situ upon excitation of laser, and the in situ generated DMAB acted as the actual Raman probe with considerably strong SERS signals, which was further enhanced by the plasmonic coupling of the Ag core-Au satellite nanostructures due to the synergistic effect. The sandwich assays of glycoproteins showed high sensitivity and excellent selectivity against nonglycoproteins. The Ag core-Au satellite SERS nanostructures can be used for highly sensitive SERS assays of other analytes.

  11. Multiscale Finite-Element Modeling of Sandwich Honeycomb Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Dimitrienko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a developed multi-scale model of sandwich honeycomb structures. The model allows us both to calculate effective elastic-strength characteristics of honeycomb and forced covering of sandwich, and to find a 3D stress-strain state of structures using the threedimensional elastic theory for non- homogeneous media. On the basis of finite element analysis it is shown, that under four-point bending the maximal value of bending and shear stresses in the sandwich honeycomb structures are realized in the zone of applied force and plate support. Here the local stress maxima approximately 2-3 times exceed the “engineering” theoretical plate values of bending and shear stresses in the middle of panel. It is established that at tests for fourpoint bending there is a failure of the honeycomb sandwich panels because of the local adhesion failure rather than because of the covering exfoliation off the honeycomb core in the middle of panel.

  12. 大尺寸C/E面板铝蜂窝夹层结构筒形件成型工艺%Forming Process of Cylinder With A Large Size of C/E Panel Aluminum Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Cylindrical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智彬; 蒋文革; 李健芳; 张娅婷; 付平俊

    2013-01-01

    对某大尺寸MT300碳纤维/648环氧树脂面板蜂窝夹层结构筒形件成型工艺进行研究,介绍了内外面板成型工艺、“F”形前后金属端框与铝蜂窝夹芯插接工艺以及“F”形前后金属端框、内外面板与蜂窝夹芯的组装整体固化技术.通过模具设计优化大尺寸夹层结构筒形件尺寸满足设计要求,并解决了内外面板-蜂窝夹芯-前后金属框组装整体固化技术成型难点.%The forming process of carbon fiber MT300/648 epoxy panel honeycomb sandwich structure cylindrical with a large size is investigated in the paper.The forming process of internal and external panel,the plug-in process of aluminum honeycomb with "F" shape metal frames and the assembly co-curing technology of panels-aluminum honeycomb-metal frames are introduced.The size of honeycomb sandwich structure cylindrical achieve the requirements by the mold design optimization,and the difficulty of panel-honeycomb-frames assembly technology is resolved.

  13. Mechanics properties of paulownia core sandwich composites%泡桐木夹层结构材料的力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海; 刘伟庆; 陆伟东; 万里

    2011-01-01

    Green paulownia sandwich composite material was manufactured by using paulownia tree. The mechanics properties of paulownia were better than that of balsa wood except weight, and it was low-cost. The light-weight high-performance paulownia core sandwich composites were manufactured by vacuum infusion molding process. The sandwich beams with different ratios of span to thickness were researched by three-point and four-point flexural test. The typical failure modes and the mechanism of innovative sandwich specimens were investigated. The flexural stiffness and the ultimate bearing capacity of sandwich composites were studied by ordinary sandwich beam theory. The analysis result agreed well with test result. The design method was presented based on the intensity demand.%选用泡桐木为原料,制备出夹层结构用泡桐木绿色夹芯材料,其木质纤维具有天然蜂窝形状,结构类似于目前航空航天领域常用的蜂窝芯材;泡桐木芯材除密度略高于Balsa轻木外,其他力学性能测试指标均优于轻木,同时在价格上占有绝对的优势.采用真空导入成型工艺,成功制备出轻质高强的泡桐木夹层复合材料,通过不同跨高比试件的三点与四点弯试验,研究其典型受力破坏形态与机制;利用经典夹层梁理论预佑试件抗弯刚度和受弯极限承载力,理论值与实测值符合较好,并以此为基础,提出了基于强度的优化设计方法.

  14. 钢筋混凝土双向密肋夹芯保温叠合板研究%Research on reinforced concrete dense-rib sandwich insulation composite panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪云希; 刘学武; 唐义军; 关凤林

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete two-way dense-rib sandwich insulation panel is composed of precast pre-stressed concrete floor, insulation sandwich and cast-in-situ concrete surface layer. The stress state of pre-stresded concrete floor board in the construction phase and use phase was analyzed. Design method of reinforced concrete two-way dense-rib sandwich insulation panels was proposed. The proposed requirements of construction technology and quality inspection of this kind of element were suggested.%钢筋混凝土双向密肋夹芯保温叠合板由预制预应力混凝土底板、保温隔热夹芯和现浇混凝土面层组成.分析了预应力混凝土底板在施工阶段和使用阶段的受力状态,提出了钢筋混凝土双向密肋夹芯保温叠合板的设计计算方法,并对其施工工艺及质量检验提出了要求.

  15. Orthogonal model and experimental data for analyzing wood-fiber-based tri-axial ribbed structural panels in bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of 3-dimensional engineered structural panels (3DESP) made from wood-fiber-based laminated paper composites. Since the existing models for calculating the mechanical behavior of core configurations within sandwich panels are very complex, a new simplified orthogonal model (SOM) using an equivalent element has been developed. This model...

  16. Analytical Model of Localized Indentation of Sandwich Panels under Point Load%点载荷作用下夹芯板局部压入响应的理论分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢中友

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich structures have excellent properties, such as light weight, high specific strength, high specific rigidity and seis-mic resistance. These structures are used widely in various industries, including aerospace, watercraft, transportation, construction etc. Subjected to concentrated loads, sandwich constructions are prone to cause more local indentation. In the paper, indentation response of sandwich panels under point load is analyzed, and relations of indenter load and structural deformation to indenter displacement are ob-tained based on principle of virtual velocity. Present achievement can be used for structural design of sandwich constructions, and con-tribute reference to study on more complicated mechanical behavior of sandwich constructions.%  夹芯结构具有质量轻、高比强度、比刚度、抗震性能好等优点,在航空航天、船舶、交通运输、建筑等行业都有着广泛的应用。在受到集中荷载作用时,夹芯结构易于产生较大的局部压入变形。本研究了夹芯板在点荷载作用下的结构响应,根据虚速度原理,得到压入载荷及结构变形随压头位移的变化关系。该研究成果可用于夹芯结构的结构设计,并为夹芯结构其它更为复杂的力学行为的研究提供参考。

  17. Numerical analysis of the vacuum infusion process for sandwich composites with perforated core and different fiber orientations.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Sánchez, Francisco José; Sánchez Kaiser, Antonio; Viedma Robles, Antonio; Díaz, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    The vacuum infusion is a process usually applied to manufacture large structures of composite materials, such as wind turbine blades. The specific stiffness and weight ratio required by these structures can be achieved by manufacturing sandwich composites. The forecast by numerical simulation of the resin infusion flow is an indispensable tool to design and optimize the manufacturing process of composite. Present work analyzes by numerical simulation the mold filling process of...

  18. Behaviour of Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS) under both short-term and long-term loadings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs), as a load-bearing construction material, have recently attracted continuingly growing interest. They are structurally sufficient, energy efficient, easy to use in construction and more sustainable. SIPs are a composite sandwich panel system, typically made of two oriented strand board (OSB) panels and one insulation core material such as expanded polystyrene (EPS) or polyurethane (PUR). They have high strength-to-weight ratio and can resist axial, transvers...

  19. 三明治型电磁屏蔽功能复合板材的制备及性能研究∗%Processing and properties of electromagnetic shielding sandwich composite panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立霞; 刘君妹; 王瑞; 王慧霞; 关礼争

    2015-01-01

    Stainless steel filaments were added in the faces of the woven spacer fabrics which were made from high-strength technical polyester filaments.Then new type of electromagnetic shielding sandwich composite panels was built by filling foam in woven spacer fabric and combining the epoxy resin on the surface.The elec-tromagnetic shielding,flatwise compressive property and flexural property of each type of sandwich composite panels were tested.The analysis indicated that the panels with stainless steel filament grids get good shielding effectiveness in the range of high frequencies.The panels with filament grids in two face exhibited better shiel-ding effectiveness than the panels with grids in one face and the shielding effectiveness exceeded 30 dB in some frequency.The introduction of the stainless steel filaments did not influence the mechanical property of the new type sandwich panels.%以高强涤纶工业丝和不锈钢长丝配伍织制的机织间隔织物为增强体,在间隔织物空间中进行泡沫填充,织物表面进行树脂复合,制备了三明治型功能复合板材。对不锈钢长丝网格配置对板材的电磁屏蔽性能的影响进行了实验分析,并对比分析了不锈钢长丝网格的引入对三明治型复合板材的力学性能的影响。研究表明,面层中添加不锈钢长丝网格后,复合板材具有了电磁屏蔽效能,双面添加不锈钢长丝网格的板材屏蔽效能明显优于只单面添加不锈钢长丝网格的板材,在高频区域屏蔽效能达到了30 dB 以上。不锈钢网格的添加未对复合板材的整体力学性能造成显著影响。

  20. Sandwich Panels Parameters Investigation of the Sound Transmission Loss Property of High Speed Train’S Interior Floor%高速列车三明治夹芯板内地板结构隔声特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加平; 张丽荣; 孙海荣; 王志海; 王永成

    2013-01-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method, the acoustic characteristics analysis model of interior floor of high speed train is established. Different sandwiches sandwich materials and structures of interior floor are studied. The sound effect of different sandwiches is evaluated under the sound insulation performance. To explore the superior sound insulation sandwich material type and structure type, many factors are invested. They are different surface materials (wood, aluminum, steel), thickness, and honeycomb sandwich density. The results show that, firstly, when the thickness of surface plate is constant and material is varied, the best sound transmission of interior floor is steel, followed by aluminum, and finally the timber. Secondly, the influence of the surface thickness is studied. The thickness of each additional 1mm, for the timber sandwich plate, the surface thickness is studied. The thickness of each additional 1mm, for the timber sandwich plate, the transmission loss of floor improve 1~1.5 dB for all frequency band. For Aluminum sandwich panels, the improvement is 1~3 dB. For steel sandwich panel, the improvement is 1~5 dB. Lastly, the density of honeycomb board has a low influence on the transmission loss of interior floor. The density reduced a half, the sound transmission of floor has a tendency of increase, but not obvious.%基于传递矩阵法,建立高速列车内地板声学特性分析模型,研究高速列车内地板,选用不同三明治夹芯板材料和结构时对内地板隔声特性的影响,根据内地板结构的传递损失来评价不同参数的三明治夹芯板的隔声性能。分别分析,表层材质不同(木材、铝材、钢材)、厚度和蜂窝夹层密度不同,内地板隔声量变化规律。探寻隔声性能优越的三明治夹芯板材料类型和结构型式。结果表明,(1)表层夹板厚度一定,钢材作为表层材料,内地板隔声量最好,其次是

  1. A variable transverse stiffness sandwich structure using fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Lotfi, Amir; Shan, Ying; Wang, K. W.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Bakis, Charles E.

    2008-03-01

    Presented in this paper is the development of a novel honeycomb sandwich panel with variable transverse stiffness. In this structure, the traditional sandwich face sheets are replaced by the fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) tube layers developed in recent studies. The F2MC layers, combined with the anisotropic honeycomb core material properties, provide a new sandwich structure with variable stiffness properties for transverse loading. In this research, an analytical model is derived based on Lekhitskii's anisotropic pressurized tube solution and Timoshenko beam theory. Experimental investigations are also conducted to verify the analytical findings. A segmented multiple-F2MC-tube configuration is synthesized to increase the variable stiffness range. The analysis shows that the new honeycomb sandwich structure using F2MC tubes of 10 segments can provide a high/low transverse stiffness ratio of 60. Segmentation and stiffness control can be realized by an embedded valve network, granting a fast response time.

  2. 基于响应面方法的碳纤维蜂窝板有限元模型修正%RSM-based FEM model updating for a carbon fiber honeycomb sandwich panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉灵; 孔宪仁; 罗文波

    2011-01-01

    A honeycomb sandwich panel with high strength and light weight is a special composite material which is widely used in satellite and other spacecrafts. There are no honeycomb material paremeters in FEM software, such as, MSC/NASTRAN and ANSYS, and the simplified equivalent structure parameters of a honeycomb sandwich panel are used, they result in the differences between the test data and the FEM data. The RSM-based model updating method avoids calling FEM program in every iteration, it improves the calculation efficiency. Here, the equivalent parameters of a honeycomb sandwich panel were calculated based on the honeycomb sandwich theory, the FEM of a multi-layer carbon fiber sandwich panel was established using SHELL91 in ANSYS. And the test data under all factors and effects were obtained based on uniform design method, the quadratic polynominal response surface model was established and the PSO with mutation factor was used to update the equivalent paremeters of the honeycomb sandwich panel, the updated paremeters were substituted into the FEM model, the FEM model calculation quality was effectively improved.%蜂窝板是一种特殊的高强度轻质复合材料,在卫星等航天器结构中应用广泛.MSC/NASTRAN和ANSYS等大型通用有限元软件中没有蜂窝结构单元库,只能用蜂窝板等效结构参数进行计算,等效过程中的简化导致有限元计算结果与试验测量值之间存在差异.基于响应面的模型修正方法可以避免每次迭代都调用有限元程序,提高计算效率.依据三明治夹芯板理论计算蜂窝芯等效结构参数,用ANSYS中的SHELL91单元建立多铺层碳纤维蜂窝板模型,用基于均匀设计的试验设计方法进行试验设计,获得蜂窝板在各因素和水平下的试验数据,构造二次多项式响应面,并用带变异算子的改进粒子群算法对蜂窝芯结构等效参数进行修正,修正后参数代人有限元模型,能有效改善模型计算质量.

  3. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  4. Spacecraft Shielding: An Experimental Comparison Between Open Cell Aluminium Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures and Whipple Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, D. L. S.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Spacecraft shielding is generally provided by metallic plates in a Whipple shield type configuration [1] where possible. However, mission restrictions such as spacecraft payload mass, can prevent the inclusion of a dedicated protective structure for prevention against impact damage from micrometeoroids. Due to this, often the spacecraft's primary structure will act as the de facto shield. This is commonly an aluminium honeycomb backed with either glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) or aluminium faceplates [2]. Such materials are strong, lightweight and relatively cheap due to their abundance used within the aerospace industry. However, these materials do not offer the best protection (per unit weight) against hypervelocity impact damage. A new material for shielding (porous aluminium foam [3]) is suggested for low risk space missions. Previous studies by NASA [4] have been performed to test this new material against hypervelocity impacts using spherical aluminium projectiles. This showed its potential for protection for satellites in Earth orbit, against metallic space debris. Here we demonstrate the material's protective capabilities against micrometeoroids, using soda-lime glass spheres as projectiles to accurately gauge its potential with relation to silicatious materials, such as micrometeoroids and natural solar system debris. This is useful for spacecraft missions beyond Earth orbit where solar system materials are the dominant threat (via hypervelocity impacts) to the spacecraft, rather than manmade debris.

  5. Cost performance analysis of precast concrete sandwich facade panels%预制混凝土夹心保温外墙板性价比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东华; Rk Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    介绍了预制混凝土夹心保温外墙板的制作工艺,从性能和造价两方面,对预制混凝土夹心保温外墙板与传统砌筑墙体进行了对比,从而体现出预制混凝土夹心保温外墙板具有良好的社会经济效益。%This paper introduced the production process of precast concrete sandwich insulation outer wallboard,from the performance and cost two aspects,compared the precast concrete sandwich insulation outer wallboard and traditional masonry walls,so as to reflect the precast concrete sandwich insulation outer wallboard had good social and economic benefits.

  6. Research Progress of Heat Transfer of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Used in Spacecraft%航天用蜂窝夹层板传热特性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍然; 许忠旭; 张春元; 付仕明

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer of honeycomb sandwich panels used in aerospace industry is a main characteristic. Its research history and recent development are introduced systemically. The methods of heat transfer research include the Swann-Pittman semi-empirical relationship and its improved approach, FVM, thermal resistance analysis, improved thermal lamination theory , FEM, heat flow analysis and thermal experiment. The problems related to their precision in calculation and applications are also discussed. Finally, it is recommended that the progress trends of heat transfer of honeycomb sandwich panels will be focused on calculating the transient thermal performance, the 3-D anisotropy and several variables thermal experiment.%传热特性是蜂窝夹层板的一个主要性能指标.该研究结合空间应用的特殊性,介绍了蜂窝夹层板传热性能的研究方法,主要包括Swann-Pittman类方法、有限体积法、宏观热阻法、热叠层理论等效方法、有限元方法、净热流法和试验分析.讨论了它们各自存在的问题.并提出了需要进一步完善的方法:瞬态特性求解方法及不同方向/多变量的试验研究.

  7. Numerical Simulation Analysis on the Protective Performance of U-shape Folded Sandwich Panel Subjected to Underwater Non-Contact Explosion%U型折叠式夹层板抗水下非接触爆炸性能数值计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敌; 吴广明

    2016-01-01

    金属折叠式夹层板在舰船结构的应用逐渐增多,对其抗水下非接触爆炸冲击性能的研究具有实际工程意义。以U型折叠式夹层板为研究对象,基于ABAQUS计算传统加筋板和夹层板在典型水下非接触爆炸工况下的响应,对变形模式、速度加速度响应及吸能模式进行对比分析,最后分别改变夹层板结构参数,研究夹层板结构参数对抗爆性能的影响。结果表明:U型夹层板的抗爆性能优于加筋板结构;增加夹层板面板厚度和芯层板厚能增强其抗爆性能,但吸能效率降低;芯层-面板夹角>60°时,抗爆性能相对优秀;在不超过特定尺寸时,芯层单元宽度影响较小。%As more and more metal folded sandwich panel are used in ship structures, the study on the protective performance of the panel subjected to the underwater non-contact explosion becomes practically important for engineering. When U-shape folded sandwich panel is taken as the research object, both the responses of conventional stiffened panel and sandwich panel subjected to typical underwater non-contact explosion are computed with ABAQUS to analyze and compare the deformation, velocity and acceleration responses as well as energy absorption modes. Finally, the structural parameters of the sandwich panel are changed to study the influence on the panel protective performance against explosion. The result shows that U-shape sandwich panel has better anti-explosion performance than the stiffened structure. Increasing the thickness of plate layer and sandwich layer can enhance the anti-explosion performance, but it will reduce the energy absorption efficiency. When the angle between the sandwich layer and the plate layer is larger than 60°, the anti-explosion performance is relatively good. In case the specific dimension is not exceeded, there is little influence on the width of the sandwich layer unit.

  8. An Analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Polymer Matrix Composite Sandwich Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Roberts, Gary D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Zheng, Diahua; Averbeck, Timothy; Roth, Donald J.; Jeanneau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Structural sandwich materials composed of triaxially braided polymer matrix composite material face sheets sandwiching a foam core are being utilized for applications including aerospace components and recreational equipment. Since full scale components are being made from these sandwich materials, it is necessary to develop proper inspection practices for their manufacture and in-field use. Specifically, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques need to be investigated for analysis of components made from these materials. Hockey blades made from sandwich materials and a flat sandwich sample were examined with multiple NDE techniques including thermographic, radiographic, and shearographic methods to investigate damage induced in the blades and flat panel components. Hockey blades used during actual play and a flat polymer matrix composite sandwich sample with damage inserted into the foam core were investigated with each technique. NDE images from the samples were presented and discussed. Structural elements within each blade were observed with radiographic imaging. Damaged regions and some structural elements of the hockey blades were identified with thermographic imaging. Structural elements, damaged regions, and other material variations were detected in the hockey blades with shearography. Each technique s advantages and disadvantages were considered in making recommendations for inspection of components made from these types of materials.

  9. Failure Predictions of Out-of-Autoclave Sandwich Joints with Delaminations Under Flexure Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordendale, Nikolas A.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Lundgren, Eric C.; Patel, Dhruv N.; Farrokh, Babak; Jones, Justin; Fischetti, Grace; Segal, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis and a test program was conducted to investigate the damage tolerance of composite sandwich joints. The joints contained a single circular delamination between the face-sheet and the doubler. The coupons were fabricated through out-of-autoclave (OOA) processes, a technology NASA is investigating for joining large composite sections. The four-point bend flexure test was used to induce compression loading into the side of the joint where the delamination was placed. The compression side was chosen since it tends to be one of the most critical loads in launch vehicles. Autoclave cure was used to manufacture the composite sandwich sections, while the doubler was co-bonded onto the sandwich face-sheet using an OOA process after sandwich panels were cured. A building block approach was adopted to characterize the mechanical properties of the joint material, including the fracture toughness between the doubler and face-sheet. Twelve four-point-bend samples were tested, six in the sandwich core ribbon orientation and six in sandwich core cross-ribbon direction. Analysis predicted failure initiation and propagation at the pre-delaminated location, consistent with experimental observations. A building block approach using fracture analyses methods predicted failure loads in close agreement with tests. This investigation demonstrated a small strength reduction due to a flaw of significant size compared to the width of the sample. Therefore, concerns of bonding an OOA material to an in-autoclave material was mitigated for the geometries, materials, and load configurations considered.

  10. Dual spiral sandwiched magnetic thin film inductor using Fe-Hf-N soft magnetic films as a magnetic core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H.; Yoo, D.W.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.; Han, S.H. E-mail: sukhan@kist.re.kr; Kim, H.J

    2002-02-01

    Dual spiral sandwiched magnetic thin film inductors are fabricated using as-deposited Fe-Hf-N soft magnetic thin films. The hard axis of the magnetic film is aligned transverse to the direction of coil conductor current, which is expected to result in high inductance values as well as excellent frequency response. The inductance, Q factor and resistance are measured using impedance analyzer from 1 to 10 MHz. The inductance of fabricated thin film inductors are obtained within the range of 1.1-1.5 {mu}H. Also, the quality factor and coil resistance is obtained in the range of 3-38 at 8 MHz and 1-2.5 {omega}, respectively.

  11. Local slamming impact of sandwich composite hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Z; Batra, R.C

    2009-01-01

    We develop a hydroelastic model based on a {3,2}-order sandwich composite panel theory and Wagner's water impact theory for investigating the fluid-structure interaction during the slamming process...

  12. Investigation on Stake Welding Method of T-joints for Metal Sandwich Panel%金属夹芯结构制造中的T型接头Stake焊接方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷侃锋; 魏强; 赵明扬

    2012-01-01

    The Stake welding method of T-joints is a critical technology for making metal sandwich panels. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of making metal sandwich panels with welding method, three welding methods, including laser welding, gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding, and laser-TIG hybrid welding with cold welding wire, were investigated experimentally on Stake welding method of titanium alloy thin sheet T-joints. The weld forming properties of the T-joints and some affecting factors were analyzed under this three welding methods. The results show that the laser-TIG hybrid welding with cold welding wire method is an ideal technical for the Stake welding method of T-joints for making metal sandwich panels, which has more advantages than the laser welding method and the gas tungsten arc(TIG) welding method in the microstructure of welded joint, efficiency of welding, weld shaping and adaptability of weld gap.%T型接头的Stake焊接方法是实现金属夹芯板焊接制造的关键技术之一.为了论证焊接制造金属夹芯板的可行性,本文通过实验对比研究了在单一激光、TIG电弧和激光-TIG电弧复合等三种焊接工艺下,钛合金薄板T型接头Stake焊接焊缝成形特点及影响因素.结果表明,激光-TIG电弧焊是实现钛合金薄板T型接头Stake焊接的理想工艺,在焊缝组织、焊接效率、焊缝成形、间隙适应性等方面比单一激光或TIG焊接工艺有明显的优势,可以应用于金属夹芯板的焊接制造.

  13. Development of Aircraft Sandwich Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Křena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the design and development process of sandwich parts. A spoiler plate and a main landing gear door are developed. Sandwich parts are made of C/E composite facings and a foam core. FE models have been used for optimization of structures. Emphasis has been placed on deformations of parts under a few load cases. Experimental tests have been used for a verification of structure parts loaded by concentrated forces.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and visible-light driven photocatalysis by differently structured CdS/ZnS sandwich and core-shell nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, Nida; Pirzada, Bilal Masood; Umar, Khalid; Mehraj, Owais; Muneer, M.; Sabir, Suhail

    2015-11-01

    CdS/ZnS sandwich and core-shell nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple and modified Chemical Precipitation method under ambient conditions. The synthesized composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDAX and FTIR. Optical properties were analyzed by UV-vis. Spectroscopy and the photoluminescence study was done to monitor the recombination of photo-generated charge-carriers. Thermal stability of the synthesized composites was analyzed by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). XRD revealed the formation of nanocomposites as mixed diffraction peaks were observed in the XRD pattern. SEM and TEM showed the morphology of the nanocomposites particles and their fine particle size. EDAX revealed the appropriate molar ratios exhibited by the constituent elements in the composites and FTIR gave some characteristic peaks which indicated the formation of CdS/ZnS nanocomposites. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was done to study charge transfer properties along the nanocomposites. Photocatalytic properties of the synthesized composites were monitored by the photocatalytic kinetic study of Acid Blue dye and p-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation. Results revealed the formation of stable core-shell nanocomposites and their efficient photocatalytic properties.

  15. The High Combustion Efficient Analysis of a Novel Metal Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Combustor%新型金属蜂窝板燃烧器的高效燃烧现象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿声; 朱冬生; 蓝少健

    2011-01-01

    新型金属蜂窝板燃烧器是通过采用双层或多层金属薄片制成,能有效地解决普通燃气灶具燃烧器存在的不足,使产品结构更加合理完善,性能更加稳定可靠,能效更加优越。本文以红外燃气灶具的核心部件—新型金属蜂窝板燃烧器为研究对象,利用红外摄像仪对红外燃气灶具和普通燃气灶具进行了对比研究。结果表明,红外燃气灶的火焰集中,温度分布均匀,燃烧效率比普通燃气灶高12.7%。%A novel metal honeycomb sandwich panel combustor is made of multi-layer sheet metals. It can solve the problems effectively that the atmospheric gas range have,make the products more reasonable,stable and effective.In this paper,we study on the performances of an infrared gas range which is made from the novel metal honeycomb sandwich panel combustor.Using the infrared video camera to comparatively study the performances of the infrared gas range and the atmospheric gas range.The results show that the flame and temperature distribution of the infrared gas range is dense and homogeneous.The combustion efficiency of the infrared gas range is 12.7%higher than the atmospheric gas range.

  16. 预制夹芯保温墙体FRP连接件应用进展%STATE-OF-THE-ART OF FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC CONNECTORS IN PRECAST CONCRETE SANDWICH WALL PANELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳林; 薛伟辰

    2012-01-01

    Precast concrete sandwich wall panel is a new type of insulation wall which performs well both in structural bearing and thermal insulation. It is consisted of internal and external concrete wall-board, insulating layers and connectors, etc. According to different material, connector can be divided into three categories: common reinforced connector, alloy metal connector and fiber reinforced plastic ( FRP) connector. FRP connector has the property of low thermal conductivity, good durability and high strength. Which can decrease the heat transfer coefficient of sandwich wall panel, and has bright foreground in engineering applications. This paper introduces classification,research and application, standards and specifications of FRP connector, and offers the prospect for research trend of FRP connector in future.%预制混凝土夹芯保温墙体是集承载与保温一体化的新型预制保温墙体,该墙体由内外层混凝土墙板、中间保温层及连接件等组成.按照材料的不同,连接件主要分为普通钢筋连接件、金属合金连接件和纤维塑料(FRP)连接件三种.FRP连接件具有导热系数低、耐久性好、强度高的特点,可有效降低墙体的传热系数,具有广阔的工程应用前景.本文介绍了预制混凝土夹芯保温墙体FRP连接件分类、国内外研究与应用进展和技术规范情况,并对今后FRP连接件研究工作进行了展望.

  17. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  18. 复合材料点阵夹芯结构的换热特性%Heat transfer characteristics of composite sandwich structure with lattice cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雨果; 高亮

    2011-01-01

    采用FLUENT软件模拟了受一恒定温度载荷的复合材料点阵夹芯结构在辅助流体强制对流作用下的热行为和热传输特性。对流体的压力场、速度场、温度场等场分布规律及特征进行了分析,详细地阐述了点阵夹芯结构本身的构型对胞元内近壁流动和热传输类型的影响。采用雷诺数Re、努塞尔数Nu、压降损失系数KCell三个以胞元特征长度为度量的无量纲参数对结构的换热性能进行了表征与评价;并引入温度最小渗透率、最大渗透率和水平渗透率的概念,更加直观地表征结构的换热性能。结果表明,强制对流下结构的换热性能明显提高,有利于其轻质多功能化的%Thermal behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a composite sandwich structures with lattice cores under loading with a constant temperature field were simulated by computational fluid dynamics FLUENT software during forced convection with auxiliary fluid.The distribution and characteristics of flow field,such as the fields of pressure,velocity and temperature,were analyzed.The influence of structural morphology on the inner end-wall and heat transfer patterns in a unit cell was described in details.Three dimensionless parameters Reynolds number,Nusselt number and pressure drop coefficient,scaling by the characteristic length of unit cell were used to characterize and assess the heat transfer performance of structure.Furthermore,by introducing concepts of the minimum permeability,maximum permeability and horizontal permeability of temperature,the heat transfer performance of structure was visually characterized.The analytic results indicate that heat transfer performance of this lattice-cores sandwich structure can be evidently improved in the case of forced convection,and therefore reveal the structure is more suitable for the mulitifunctionalities of lightweight structure achievement in the future.

  19. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Formulae and the associated graphs are presented for contrasting the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core and a honeycomb sandwich core. The results used in the comparison of the structural properties of the two types of sandwich cores are under conditions of equal sandwich density. It was found that the stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (i.e., triangular truss core) was lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former had higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  20. 复合材料蜂窝夹芯板低速冲击损伤研究%Studies on Low-velocity Impact damage of Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进亚; 许希武; 毛春见

    2012-01-01

    A 3D dynamic finite element model is proposed to predict the progressive damage of composites honeycomb core sandwich due to low impact. The core of this model was equivalent to a uniform orthogonal anisotropic materials. This model consists of Hashin damage criterion and Yeh failure criterion for face-plate, and deg-radate the material property which is damaged. Combined with the user-defined material constitutive program of Abaqus , the failure criterion and degra dation of material property are simulated . The dynamic response and dam-age propagation of comp osites honeycomb core sandwich due to low impact were simulated with this method. The numerical results is compared with the experiment results, it prove that the method was reasonable. The effects of the parameters on the dynamic response and damage evolution of composites honeycomb core sandwich are discussed in this paper.%通过三维动力学有限元建立了复合材料蜂窝夹芯板在低速冲击作用下的渐进损伤分析模型.该模型中将蜂窝夹芯等效为均匀的正交各项异性材料.采用基于应变的Hashin三维失效准则和Yeh分层失效准则对面板损伤进行判断.使用部分刚度折减对损伤材料性能进行退化.利用用户子程序将损伤判据和刚度折减方案引入到ABAQUS软件中.模拟了复合材料蜂窝夹芯板低速冲击损伤渐进过程,并与试验结果进行验证.证明了该方法的合理性,最后讨论了各种参数对冲击响应和冲击损伤的影响.

  1. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambric, Stephen; Shepherd, Micah; Koudela, Kevin; Wess, Denis; Snider, Royce; May, Carl; Kendrick, Phil; Lee, Edward; Cai, Liang-Wu

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft roof sandwich panel has been redesigned to optimize sound power transmission loss (TL) and minimize structure-borne sound for frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz where gear meshing noise from the transmission has the most impact on speech intelligibility. The roof section, framed by a grid of ribs, was originally constructed of a single honeycomb core/composite face sheet panel. The original panel has coincidence frequencies near 700 Hz, leading to poor TL across the frequency range of 1 to 4 kHz. To quiet the panel, the cross section was split into two thinner sandwich subpanels separated by an air gap. The air gap was sized to target the fundamental mass-spring-mass resonance of the double panel system to less than 500 Hz. The panels were designed to withstand structural loading from normal rotorcraft operation, as well as 'man-on-the-roof' static loads experienced during maintenance operations. Thin layers of VHB 9469 viscoelastomer from 3M were also included in the face sheet ply layups, increasing panel damping loss factors from about 0.01 to 0.05. Measurements in the NASA SALT facility show the optimized panel provides 6-11 dB of acoustic transmission loss improvement, and 6-15 dB of structure-borne sound reduction at critical rotorcraft transmission tonal frequencies. Analytic panel TL theory simulates the measured performance quite well. Detailed finite element/boundary element modeling of the baseline panel simulates TL slightly more accurately, and also simulates structure-borne sound well.

  2. C@SiNW/TiO2 core-shell nanoarrays with sandwiched carbon passivation layer as high efficiency photoelectrode for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarapalli, Rami Reddy; Debgupta, Joyashish; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K; Shelke, Manjusha V

    2014-05-09

    One-dimensional heterostructure nanoarrays are efficiently promising as high performance electrodes for photo electrochemical (PEC) water splitting applications, wherein it is highly desirable for the electrode to have a broad light absorption, efficient charge separation and redox properties as well as defect free surface with high area suitable for fast interfacial charge transfer. We present highly active and unique photoelectrode for solar H2 production, consisting of silicon nanowires (SiNWs)/TiO2 core-shell structures. SiNWs are passivated to reduce defect sites and protected against oxidation in air or water by forming very thin carbon layer sandwiched between SiNW and TiO2 surfaces. This carbon layer decreases recombination rates and also enhances the interfacial charge transfer between the silicon and TiO2. A systematic investigation of the role of SiNW length and TiO2 thickness on photocurrent reveals enhanced photocurrent density up to 5.97 mA/cm(2) at 1.0 V vs.NHE by using C@SiNW/TiO2 nanoarrays with photo electrochemical efficiency of 1.17%.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Three-Layer Sandwich Beams with Thick Viscoelastic Damping Core for Finite Element Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cortés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of constrained layer damping (CLD beams with thick viscoelastic layer. A homogenised model for the flexural stiffness is formulated using Reddy-Bickford’s quadratic shear in each layer, and it is compared with Ross-Kerwin-Ungar (RKU classical model, which considers a uniform shear deformation for the viscoelastic core. In order to analyse the efficiency of both models, a numerical application is accomplished and the provided results are compared with those of a 2D model using finite elements, which considers extensional and shear stress and longitudinal, transverse, and rotational inertias. The intermediate viscoelastic material is characterised by a fractional derivative model, with a frequency dependent complex modulus. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are obtained from an iterative method avoiding the computational problems derived from the frequency dependence of the stiffness matrices. Also, frequency response functions are calculated. The results show that the new model provides better accuracy than the RKU one as the thickness of the core layer increases. In conclusion, a new model has been developed, being able to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of thick CLD beams, reducing storage needs and computational time compared with a 2D model, and improving the results from the RKU model.

  4. Strength analysis of concrete sandwich panel with wire mesh under axial loading%钢丝网架混凝土夹芯墙板轴心受压承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢群; 王帅; 刘春

    2015-01-01

    Concrete sandwich panels with steel wire mesh are widely used in multi-storey residential buildings and office buildings with the advantages of low self-weight,high strength as well as convenient construction.To better understand the structural behavior and ensure application safety, three typical methods recommended by different codes for strength prediction of panels subjected to axial compressive loading have been presented with the assumption of full composite section character. The analysis results which have been compared with the existing experimental results show that the parameter of slenderness ratio has great effect on the compressive behavior of concrete sandwich panel and all the three methods are not expected to be applicable any more in the cases that slenderness ratio is more than 25 for the sake of poor structural safety.The ratio of predicted ultimate strength obtained from recommended formula of domestic codes to the peak load in experimental analysis ranges from 0.75 to 1.3 which means that the strength is much overestimated with big divergence and these methods couldn’t be applied to strength analysis for the sake of structural safety.While the strength arising from ACI318 -11 method could reach 70% ~90% the testing value which provides satisfactory result with more reliability and better agreement with testing data for concrete sandwich panel structural design.%钢丝网架混凝土夹芯墙板作为一种轻质、高强、施工便捷的构件已广泛应用于多层住宅和办公楼,研究该类墙板的受力性能可有效确保其结构使用安全。文章选用三种代表性的计算方法对该类墙板的轴压承载力进行了理论分析,并将计算结果与已有的试验数据进行了对比研究。结果表明:高厚比对墙板受压性能影响较大,当墙板高厚比超过25时,现有的理论不再适用于轴压承载力计算;三种计算方法的结果对比可知,采用国家规范 GB 50010—2010

  5. 预制夹芯保温墙体板缝抗火性能试验研究%Experimental research on fire-resistance behavior of precast sandwich insulation wall panel joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志杰; 秦桁; 刘国权; 薛伟辰

    2012-01-01

    According to the test methods of the national standard Plastics—Determination of burning characteristics—Horizontal and vertical test(GB/T 2408—2008),experimental research on fire-resistance behavior for three kinds of wall panel joints about the precast sandwich insulation wall panels(including no filler material wall panel joint,filling PE foam wall panel joint and filling rock wool wall panel joint) were done using the Bunsen burner.The results indicate that when no filler material wall panel joint was fired 30 minutes(the maximum flame temperature is 957℃),the highest temperature of FRP connector is 132℃ in internal wall panel and 97℃ in the external wall panel,respectively.It exceeds the glass transition temperature 93℃ of the FRP material.The XPS material burnt strongly and melting at this moment.It proves that fire-resistance behavior of no filler material wall panel joint is poorer,and can not satisfy the requirement of fire safety.After fired 60 minutes,the highest flame temperature is about 970℃.The FRP connectors are remain intact for filling PE foam wall panel joint and filling rock wool wall panel joint.The highest temperature of filling PE foam wall panel joint is 78℃ in the internal wall panel and 42℃ in the external wall panel,respectively.The highest temperature of filling rock wool wall panel joint is 47℃ in the internal wall panel and 36℃ in the external wall panel,respectively.The XPS material for the two kinds of wall panel joints does not produce flame or drop things at this moment.It shows that wall panel joints filled with PE foam or filled with rock wool have good fire-resistance behavior,and are applicable in the practical projects.%按照国家标准《塑料燃烧性能的测定水平法和垂直法》(GB/T 2408—2008)的有关试验方法,采用本生灯对预制夹芯保温墙体的3种板缝构造(无填充材料、填充PE棒泡沫条以及填充岩棉条)的抗火性能进行了试验研究。研究

  6. Finite Element Simulation and Assessment of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Prediction Methodology for Insulated Concrete Sandwich Panels Subjected to Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    can be either conventionally reinforced or prestressed. Reinforcement allows the concrete to reach its full flexural strength and resist lateral...panels each having only one of the shear transfer mechanisms. Research showed that solid concrete sections provided the most strength and stiffness...models, accurately describing the transfer of shear between concrete wythes, incorporating strain rate effects on material behavior, and simulating

  7. Bending and Twisting Springback Prediction in the Punching of the Core for a Lattice Truss Sandwich Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenchun JIANG; Bin YANG; Xuewei GUAN; Yun LUO

    2013-01-01

    The finite element method was used to study the springback induced by the punching of the core.In order to simulate the springback accurately,a mixed isotropic-nonlinear kinematic hardening model is used to define the material mechanical behavior during plastic deformation.The effects of the friction coefficient,the plate thickness and the die radius have been investigated.The results show that the springback of the sheet with diamond hole is different from the homogenous sheet.Not only bending springback,but also a twisting springback along the truss is generated because of the non-uniform distribution of the bending stress along the truss length.The plate thickness should be around 1.3 mm with larger friction coefficient and smaller die radius,which is useful to decrease the bending and twisting springback.

  8. Standard Terminology of Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This terminology covers terms necessary for a basic uniform understanding and usage of the language peculiar to structural sandwich constructions. The simplest structural sandwich is a three layered construction formed by bonding a thin layer (facing) to each side of a thick layer (core).

  9. Comparisons of SHM Sensor Models with Empirical Test Data for Sandwich Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    propagation in a honeycomb sandwich panel was done by Metis Design Inc. in collaboration with ARC NASA . The sandwich panel fabricated for this test...structures. Sandwich type composites are being studied for use in NASAs new heavy lift launch vehicle and flaw detection is crucial for safety and for...and at the Marshall Space Flight Center to examine acoustic wave propagating and the ability to detect intrinsic faults in sandwich type composite

  10. Nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic sandwich panel's vibration under supersonic airflow%超声速气流下黏弹性夹层壁板非线性颤振分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海炜; 李映辉; 李中华; 李亮

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Kelvin-Voigt constitutive law, the governing equations for the flutter vibration of the viscoelastic sandwich panel are established with consideration of the von-Karmen thin plate large deflection and the nonlinear piston theory. By using the method of the Galerkin truncation, the nonlinear dynamical characteristics of the viscoelastic sandwich panel under the supersonic flow and with the simple supports on four sides are analyzed. For the equation of the first-order Galerkin truncation, the equilibrium of the system and its stability are studied, the critical flow of the static bifurcation is obtained; for the equation of the second-order Galerkin truncation, the critical flow of the Hopf bifurcation is obtained by applying the Hopf bifurcation criterion, the dynamical behavior with the varying flow conditions is observed by employing the diagram of the response and phase portrait.%基于Kelvin-Voigt黏弹性本构模型、von-Karmen薄板大变形理论和三阶气动力活塞理论建立了三维黏弹性夹层壁板的气动弹性颤振方程.使用Galerkin截断方法,对超声速气流下,四边简支黏弹性夹层壁板颤振的非线性特性进行了研究.对于非线性一阶截断方程,研究了它的平衡点及稳定性随来流速度的变化情况,得到了系统发生静态分叉时的临界速度;对于非线性二阶截断方程,使用数值仿真分析方法,得到了系统发生Hopf分叉时的临界速度,并利用响应、相图等手段研究得到黏弹性夹层板随来流速度变化的动力学特性.

  11. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay.

  12. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes....... The analysis facilitates selection of the appropriate geometry for the MMB sandwich specimen to promote debond failure. An experimental study is performed using MMB sandwich specimens with a H100 PVC foam core and E-glass–polyester faces. The results reveal that debond propagation is successfully achieved...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  13. Core Practices for Teaching History: The Results of a Delphi Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogo, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Recent education literature and research has focused on identifying effective core teaching practices to inform and help shape teacher education and professional development. Although a rich literature on the teaching and learning of history has continued to develop over the past decade, core practice research has largely overlooked…

  14. Core Practices for Teaching History: The Results of a Delphi Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogo, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Recent education literature and research has focused on identifying effective core teaching practices to inform and help shape teacher education and professional development. Although a rich literature on the teaching and learning of history has continued to develop over the past decade, core practice research has largely overlooked…

  15. Investigation of failure mechanisms in GFRP sandwich structures with face sheet wrinkle defects used for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Martin Klitgaard; Overgaard, Lars C. T.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2012-01-01

    Wrinkle defects can be formed during the production of wind turbine blades consisting of composite monolithic and sandwich laminates. Earlier studies have shown that the in-plane compressive strength of a sandwich panel with wrinkle defects may decrease dramatically. This study focuses on the fai......Wrinkle defects can be formed during the production of wind turbine blades consisting of composite monolithic and sandwich laminates. Earlier studies have shown that the in-plane compressive strength of a sandwich panel with wrinkle defects may decrease dramatically. This study focuses...... on the failure modes of sandwich specimens consisting of thick GFRP face sheets with a wrinkle defect and a balsa wood core subjected to in-plane compression loading. Three distinct modes of failure were found, and the strain distributions leading up to these failures were established by use of digital image...... correlation (DIC). Finite element analyses were subsequently conducted to model the response of the test specimens prior to failure, and generally a very good agreement was found with the DIC measurements, although slight differences between the predicted and measured strain fields were observed in the local...

  16. Experimental research on mechanical properties of vitreous floss and its sandwich panel%玻璃丝棉及其夹芯板力学性能的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 秦培成; 查晓雄

    2011-01-01

    A series of quasi static tensile and compression tests on specimens of vitreous floss were carried out with speed of 2 mm/min to study its mechanical properties, and get some mechanical parameters as elastic modulus strength etc.What's more, vacuum loading tests on single and double spans vitreous floss sandwich panel were carried out to achieve its destroy form and bearing capacity, which provides reference for speciality design.%为了研究玻璃丝棉材料力学性能特性,对材料试件在室温下进行了加载速率为2mm/min准静态拉伸、压缩试验,得到了材料的弹性模量及强度等力学参数.同时,为了掌握其夹芯板的性能,对单跨及双跨玻璃丝棉屋面夹芯板进行了真空加载试验,获得了其破坏形式及承载力等,为行业的设计提供了参考依据.

  17. Development of assembly techniques for fire resistant aircraft interior panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ten NASA Type A fire resistant aircraft interior panels were fabricated and tested to develop assembly techniques. These techiques were used in the construction of a full scale lavatory test structure for flame propagation testing. The Type A panel is of sandwich construction consisting of Nomex honeycomb filled with quinone dioxime foam, and bismaleimide/glass face sheets bonded to the core with polyimide film adhesive. The materials selected and the assembly techniques developed for the lavatory test structure were designed for obtaining maximum fire containment with minimum smoke and toxic emission.

  18. Design and test of lightweight sandwich T-joint for naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, H.; Lystrup, Aa.

    2005-01-01

    modelling and results from tests on the existing T-joint design. The numerical simulations are used to perform a comparison of stresses from different T-joint configurations along a pathway 0.5 mm from the border in the filler and 1 mm inside the remaining parts - core triangle, base panel core, etc...... of panels joined by filler and overlaminates of the same thickness as the skin laminates. Various improved T-joints have been designed and investigated. Some with focus on improved strength (survivability), and others with focus on reduced weight. This paper describes the design and test of a sandwich T...... triangles). A method for a finite element (FE) parameter study is developed and used for selection of a promising (strong) configuration of the T-joint. Tensile (pull-out) tests are performed to load the core triangles and filler in tension and the strength and failure mode are compared both with the FE...

  19. SIFAT FISIS DAN MEKANIS KOMPOSIT SERAT LIMBAH PATI ONGGOK SANDWICH DENGAN CORE SERAT ACAK DARI BAHAN LIMBAH SEKAM PADI DENGAN MATRIK RESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngafwan Ngafwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature composite from skin rice fibre and palm sago fibre have different mechanical and physycs properties characteristic , that have done from result of our researh before. Therefore there is many research that can composse the properties of materials above. The methode of compossing two fiber use poliester that have 20%, 30%, and 40% volume fraction of that matrice, compossing with sandwich layer. Caracterizing properties testing used are thermal conductivity test, and bending test. The result are, at high thermal condition the conductivity was decrease for all above materials. The decreasing of conductivity of this sandwich compsite is more significant. The sandwich composite more tough than skin rice fibre composite. The resume is the mechanical properties ( bending toughness more less significant of the thermal conductivity that more better.

  20. Application of Metallic Strip Gratings for Enhancement of Electromagnetic Performance of A-sandwich Radome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendranath U. Nair

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of the electromagnetic (EM performance characteristics of A-sandwich radome wall over X-band using metallic strip gratings is presented in this work. Equivalent transmission line method in conjunction with equivalent circuit model (ECM is used for modeling the A-sandwich radome panel with metallic strip gratings and the computation of radome performance parameters. Metallic strip grating embedded in the mid-plane of the core and those in the skin-core interface are the configurations considered in the present work. For a given thickness of metallic strip grating, its width and pitch are optimized at different angles of incidence such that the new radome wall configuration offers superior EM performance over the entire X-band as compared to the conventional A-sandwich wall. The EM analysis shows that the superior EM performance of A-sandwich with metallic strip gratings makes it suitable for the design of normal incidence and streamlined airborne radomes.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.508-514, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2458

  1. 预制夹芯保温墙体FRP连接件抗拔性能试验研究%PULL-OUT TESTS FOR EVALUATIONS OF ANTI-PULLING BEHAVIOR OF FRP CONNECTORS IN PRECAST SANDWICH INSULATION WALL PANELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟辰; 杨佳林; 王君若

    2012-01-01

    预制夹芯保温墙体是集承载与保温一体化的新型预制保温墙体.该墙体由内外叶钢筋混凝土板、中间保温层及纤维增强塑料(FRP)连接件组成,其中FRP连接件是连接内外叶钢筋混凝土板的关键部件,其受力性能直接影响墙体的安全性.本文以上海市某安居工程为背景,基于拔出试验对FRP连接件的抗拔承载力、破坏形态、荷载-滑移关系及荷载-应变关系等进行了较为系统的研究.研究表明,试件均发生了混凝土劈裂破坏;试件的抗拔承载力为23.5kN,为抗拔荷载设计值的14.3倍,满足工程设计要求,并具有较大的安全储备.最后,提出了预制保温墙体FRP连接件的抗拔承载力计算方法.%Precast sandwich insulation wall panel is a new type of insulation wall which performs well both in structural bearing and thermal insulation. This kind of wall is consisted of internal and external concrete wythes, insulating layers and the key component-FRP connectors, which ties two concrete wythes together to provide a distributed fastening system. Taking the model from a practical project in Shanghai as a reference, a series of tests including three pull-out specimens, with emphasis on FRP connectors' pull-out capacity, failure pattern and load-slip curve etc. , were presented. All the tests were terminated by the concrete fracture, and the average pull-out capacity of the connectors was 23. 5kN, about 14. 3 times of the design pull-out load. This means the connector could meet the requirements of the design in the practical project, and has a great safety margin as well. In addition, the calculation method to compute the pull-out capacity of FRP connectors in precast concrete sandwich wall is proposed.

  2. Design and manufacturing of bio-based sandwich structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, Maya J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chapter is to discuss the design and manufacturing of bio-based sandwich structures. As the economic advantages of weight reduction have become mandatory for many advanced industries, bio-based sandwich panels have emerged...

  3. 纤维增强复合材料三明治板破片穿甲数值仿真%Numerical simulation on fragment armor-piercing against sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐豫新; 戴文喜; 王树山; 赵晓旭

    2014-01-01

    The energy transform in the process of fragment armor-piercing against a sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores (made up of superimposed steel plate,composite material plate and steel plate laminated)was considered .The fragment simulation projectile (FSP)penetrating into different kinds of sandwich plates with high velocity were numerically simulated and the ballistic limits of fragment piercing 16 kinds of sandwich plates were obtained.The credibility of the numerical simulation method was verified by comparing its results with the experimental ones.Under critical fragment perforation,the correlation between the energy absorption ratio of the each part of the sandwich plate and the structural size was studied by analyzing the numerical simulation results.The results show that the energy absorption ratio is constant for different thickness core plate(for aramid fiber core,10.41%,for glass fiber core,2.68%),the internal energy in core plate is quadratically increased with the increase of its thickness.On this basis,the calculation method for ballistic limit velocity of fragment penetrating into sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores was obtained.%研究破片对(由钢板、纤维增强复合材料板及钢板叠合而成)纤维增强复合材料三明治板穿甲过程中能量转化规律。进行破片模拟弹丸(FSP)对不同结构三明治板高速穿甲数值仿真,获得FSP弹丸对16种三明治板的弹道极限,并与实验结果对比验证数值仿真的可信度。通过分析数值仿真结果,进一步研究破片临界贯穿条件下纤维增强复合材料三明治板各组成部分吸能比率与结构尺寸相关性。结果表明,不同厚度夹层板的吸能比率恒定(芳纶纤维10.41%,玻璃纤维2.68%),夹层板内能随厚度的增加呈二次函数增加。由此获得破片对纤维增强复合材料三明治板弹道极限速度计算方法。

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of advanced titanium structural panels for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L.

    1977-01-01

    Flightworthy primary structural panels were designed, fabricated, and tested to investigate two advanced fabrication methods for titanium alloys. Skin-stringer panels fabricated using the weldbraze process, and honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated using a diffusion bonding process, were designed to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 research aircraft. The investigation included ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale panels, and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Test results obtained on full-scale panels and structural element specimens indicate that both of the fabrication methods investigated are suitable for primary structural applications on future civil and military supersonic cruise aircraft.

  5. New "sandwich" structures conformed from three dimensional

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Poor interlaminar properties as well as poor-skin-to-core adhesion properties are very often the common existing problems we find when designing with "sandwich" structures. A new type of 3D-fabric "sandwich" structure is being developed in order to avoid these problems. Although the manufacturing process is very simple, a very complex "sandwich" structure is obtained as a result of the complexity of the 3D-fabric used. This 3D-fabric is a 3D woven glass fabric produced on velvet weaving machi...

  6. Sandwich DIY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖蕾

    2006-01-01

    我们都知道sandwich是一种方便食品,就是在两片面包中加上一些肉和蔬菜。Sandwich这个名字来源于英国的一位桑威治伯爵(Earl of Sandwich)。据说这位伯爵嗜赌如命,就是到吃饭的时候也不愿停下来。于是他就叫侍者把肉、蛋、菜夹在面包片中,让他拿在手上边赌边吃。后来人们就把这种夹馅面包叫做sandwich。现在sandwich已成为风靡世界的快餐食品(snack)了。Sandwich的做法其实很简单。如果你有两片面包,你几乎可以在这两片面包之间夹上任何食物来给自己做一个三明治。下面就让我们试一试,做一个三明治来吃。第一步:在一片面包上抹上黄油(butter)或植物黄油,在另一片面包上抹上蛋黄酱(mayonnaise)和芥末酱(mustard)。喜欢吃番茄酱(catsup)也可以放番茄酱!第二步:把花生酱(peanut butter)或者乳酪片(cream)、熟肉片放在涂了黄油的面包片上。想吃什么肉就放什么肉,香肠也可以!第三步:在乳酪上面放酸黄瓜片、番茄片和生菜。也可以根据个人的口味再放些乳酪、芥末酱和(或)番茄酱、洋葱、辣椒、盐、黑胡椒和醋。第四步:将第二片面包盖在上面,就做成了一个sand...

  7. Analytical determination of the ultimate strength of sandwich beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theotokoglou, Efstathios E.

    1996-09-01

    An analytical determination of the ultimate strength of a typical GRP/PVC sandwich beam has been performed. These beams represent common building practise in marine applications. Equations describing the behaviour of a sandwich panel under beam loading and various failure modes have been developed. The method has been applied to predict the ultimate load for a simple supported sandwich beam. The critical loads have been compared with those from the experimental investigation of a typical bulkhead-to-hull GRP/PVC sandwich T-joint under pull out forces.

  8. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  9. Interface fatigue crack propagation in sandwich X-joints – Part I: Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, face/core fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints is investigated numerically and experimentally. The work presented here covers Part I of the study which includes an experimental investigation of fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints and characterization of the face/core int......In this study, face/core fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints is investigated numerically and experimentally. The work presented here covers Part I of the study which includes an experimental investigation of fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints and characterization of the face....../core interface of the joints. Sandwich tear test specimens with a face/core debond representing a debonded sandwich X-joint were tested under cyclic loading. Fatigue tests were conducted on the sandwich tear test specimens with H45, H100 and H250 PVC cores and glass/polyester face sheets. The Digital Image...

  10. Real-time X-ray investigation of aluminum foam sandwich production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banhart, J.; Stanzick, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. for Advanced Materials, Bremen (Germany); Helfen, L.; Baumbach, T. [Fraunhofer-Inst. for Non-Destructive Testing, Dresden (Germany); Nijhof, K. [Honsel-Werke AG, Meschede (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    The authors study the foaming behavior of Al-based sandwich panels using X-ray radioscopy. X-ray radioscopy is a suitable tool for observing the metal foaming process in general and the production of aluminum foam sandwich panels in particular. The internal structure of the foam can be resolved clearly. (orig.)

  11. Influence of core splicing on mechanical property of radome sandwich plate%芯材拼接对天线罩夹芯板力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚熊亮; 王伟; 杨娜娜; 方岱宁

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of core splicing on mechanical properties of warship composite radome sandwich plate ,a series of comparative tests were designed to study its influence on ultimate bearing capacity ,complex stability and failure modes of sandwich plate .It is found that core splicing has a great influence on failure modes and failure load of the structure .In the first group of contrastive tests ,delamination is apt to be induced on account of core splicing ,resulting in skin ten‐sile fracture and 11 .5% decrement in ultimate bearing capacity .The main failure modes in complex stability test is penetrative and local skin compressive fracture and the effect of core splicing on failure modes is the difference from the former ,which shows the difference of damage position and the decre‐ment of complex buckling load with 28 .6% .Beside ,the complication of technology makes the dis‐creteness of the mechanical properties of sandwich plate increase .%为考查芯材拼接对舰船复合材料天线罩夹芯板力学性能的影响,设计系列试验对比研究芯材拼接对夹芯板的极限承载能力、复杂稳定性和破坏模型的影响.结果发现:芯材拼接主要影响结构的破坏模式和破坏载荷;极限承载试验中芯材拼接易诱发分层破坏,进而导致蒙皮拉伸断裂,且使承载极限降低11.5%;复杂稳定性试验的主要破坏模式为贯穿型和局部型蒙皮压缩破坏,芯材拼接对破坏模式的影响表现为破坏位置的差异,且复杂屈曲载荷降低28.6%;工艺的复杂化使夹芯板力学性能的离散性升高.

  12. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    panels as well as single-skin panels, the effect of shear is included. The finite difference method is used solving the system of governing plate equations. Laterally loaded panels are analysed with respect to mid-point deflections and stresses. The numerical results are discussed in the light of 'Det......A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...

  13. Buckling driven debonding in sandwich columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    A compression loaded sandwich column that contains a debond is analyzed using a geometrically non-linear finite element model. The model includes a cohesive zone along one face sheet/core interface whereby the debond can extend by interface crack growth. Two geometrical imperfections are introduced......; a global imperfection of the sandwich column axis and a local imperfection of the debonded face sheet axis. The model predicts the sandwich column to be very sensitive to the initial debond length and the local face sheet imperfection. The study shows that the sensitivity to the face sheet imperfection...... results from two mechanisms: (a) interaction of local debond buckling and global buckling and (b) the development of a damaged zone at the debond crack tip. Based on the pronounced imperfection sensitivity, the author predicts that an experimental measurement of the strength of sandwich structures may...

  14. Advanced Mechanical Testing of Sandwich Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Jenstrup, Claus

    2008-01-01

    An advanced digital optical system has been used to measure surface strains on sandwich face and core specimens tested in a project concerned with improved criteria for designing sandwich X-joints. The face sheet specimens were of glass reinforced polyester and were tested in tension. The core...... specimens were of PVC foam and were tested in compression. The tests were performed in order to validate the use of the measurement system on these materials and to obtain material data for use in numerical simulations. While some limitations were identified, the optical system performed well and appears...

  15. 梯度铝泡沫夹层结构抗爆性能仿真与优化%Simulation and optimization for blast-resistant performances of a graded aluminum foam sandwich structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓昌; 杨丽君; 杨姝

    2013-01-01

    Blast-resistant performances of a sandwich structure consisting of aluminum alloy front panel,graded aluminum foam core,and armor steel back panel were investigated using the dynamic explicit finite element method.Areal specific energy absorption (ASEA) and the maximum back panel deformation (MaxD) were taken as performance indexes.The effects of relative density arrangement of graded aluminum foam core on the blast-resistant behavior of the sandwich structure were analyzed.The performance of a uniform-density aluminum foam sandwich panel (UAFSP) was also examined for the comparison purpose.Meanwhile,the response surface model (RSM) for blast-resistant performance prediction was established based on radial basis functions (RBF).Muhiobjective design optimization (MDO) was performed for the sandwich structure based on RSM.The results showed that the density rank of aluminum foam core has great influence on the blast-resistant behavior of the sandwich structure,and the graded aluminum foam sandwich panel is superior to the UAF panel; MDO of the graded aluminum foam sandwich structure can further improve its blast-resistant performance.%采用动力显式有限元方法,以面比吸能和背板最大变形量为评价指标,研究了铝合金面板一梯度铝泡沫芯体—装甲钢背板夹层结构的抗爆性能.分析了芯体密度梯度排布对结构抗爆性能的影响,并与均匀密度铝泡沫夹层板进行了对比.同时,基于径向基函数建立了夹层结构抗爆性能预测响应面模型,在此基础上对夹层结构进行了多目标优化设计.结果表明,铝泡沫芯体相对密度排布顺序对夹层结构抗爆性影响明显;具有最佳芯体密度梯度排布的铝泡沫夹层结构的抗爆性能明显优于等质量的均匀密度铝泡沫夹层结构;多目标优化可进一步提高梯度铝泡沫夹层结构的综合抗爆性能.

  16. Kagome点阵夹层板吸能性能的数值模拟%Numerical Simulations of Absorption Energy Capacity of Sandwich Panel with Kagome Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永雄; 石少卿; 张忠; 刘盈丰

    2009-01-01

    建立了Kagome点阵夹层板在爆炸冲击荷载作用下的数值模拟模型,计算分析了夹层板的面板厚度、夹芯层杆件半径以及爆炸冲击荷载峰值压力和作用时间对Kagome点阵夹层板吸能性能的影响.发现在给定的爆炸冲击荷载作用下,夹层板只有在合适的几何尺寸下才能使夹芯层的塑性变形能占整个结构塑性变形能的大部分,从而体现出该夹层板主要由夹芯层塑性变形耗能的优势.

  17. RESEARCH ON IMPULSE-RESISTANT PERFORMANCE OF SANDWICH PANELS WITH KAGOME TRUSS CORE%Kagome点阵夹芯板的抗冲击性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华勇; 吴林志; 马力; 王新筑

    2007-01-01

    Kagome点阵夹芯结构是近年来提出的一种力学性能十分优异的新型点阵夹芯结构.建立了3D-Kagome点阵夹芯板在理想冲击载荷作用下的分析模型,将含有大量周期性单胞的芯子等效为实体板,得到了Kagome芯子的等效本构关系,给出了芯子的等效强度和刚度.采用有限元方法模拟3D-Kagome夹芯板在理想冲击载荷作用下的响应,研究了板的最大挠度随芯子相对密度、芯子的厚度参数和冲击载荷大小的变化规律,得出了该结构抗冲击的最优化设计方案.与相同重量的实体板比较发现,3D-Kagome点阵夹芯板在抵抗冲击、能量吸收和耗散等方面具有很大的优势.

  18. Multifunctional design of sandwich panels with Kagome-like cores%Kagome蜂窝夹层平板的多功能优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 王斌; 程耿东

    2007-01-01

    采用"等效介质模型",分析了复合材料夹层蜂窝平板的整体换热系数.在此基础上,针对轻质蜂窝(相对密度小于0.3),选取蜂窝面内等效剪切刚度表征夹层结构的承载能力,综合考虑散热能力和结构承载能力,比较了Kagome蜂窝与传统的正三角形、正方形和正六边形蜂窝的性能.结果显示Kagome蜂窝不但散热性能很好,而且通过对蜂窝相对密度和尺寸的优化,在结构质量相同的情况下,Kagome蜂窝的综合性能比传统蜂窝具有明显优势.

  19. Impact damage behavior of sandwich composite with aluminum foam core%泡沫铝芯三明治型复合材料的冲击损伤行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moon Sik HAN; Jae Ung CHO

    2014-01-01

    Impact property of the sandwich composite with aluminum foam core was investigated by experiment and simulation analysis. Impact energies of 50, 70 and 100 J were applied to the specimens in impact tests. The results show that the striker penetrates the upper face sheet, causing the core to be damaged at 50 J test but the lower face sheet remains intact with no damage. At 70 J test, the striker penetrates the upper face sheet and the core,and causes the lower face sheet to be damaged. Finally at 100 J test, the striker penetrates both the upper face sheet and the core, and even the lower face sheet. The experimental and simulation results agree with each other. By the confirmation with the experimental results, all these simulation results can be applied on structure study of real sandwich composite with aluminum foam core effectively.%通过实验和模拟分析研究泡沫铝芯三明治型复合材料的冲击性能。在冲击测试时,试件所受冲击能分别为50、70和100 J。结果表明,在冲击能为50 J的冲击测试中,冲头穿透了试件的上部面板,使芯部受到损伤,但下部面板完好无损;在70 J 的冲击测试中,冲头穿透了试件的上部面板和芯部,并使下部面板受到损伤;在100 J 的冲击测试中,冲头不但穿透了试件的上部面板和芯部,还穿透了下部面板。实验结果与模拟结果互相吻合。实验结果的验证表明,所有模拟结果均可有效地应用于真实泡沫铝芯三明治型复合材料的结构研究。

  20. Ultralight X-type lattice sandwich structure(I):Concept,fabrication and experimental characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new type of ultra-lightweight metallic lattice structure (named as the X-type structure) is reported. This periodic structure was formed by two groups of staggered struts in the traditional pyramid strurture, and fabricated by folding expanded metal sheet along rows of offset nodes and then brazing the folded structure (as the core) with top and bottom facesheets to form sandwich panels. The out-of-plane compressive and shear properties of the X-type lattice sandwich structure were investigated experimentally and compared to those of the sandwich having a pyramidal truss core. It is found that the formation of the 2-dimensional staggered nodes can effectively make the X-type structure more resistant to inelastic and plastic buckling under both compression and shear loading than the pyramidal lattice truss. Obtained results show that the compressive and shear peak strengths of the X-type lattice structure are about 30% higher than those of the pyramidal lattice truss having the same relative density.

  1. Ultralight X-type lattice sandwich structure(I):Concept,fabrication and experimental characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG QianCheng; HAN YunJie; CHEN ChangQing; LU TianJian

    2009-01-01

    A new type of ultra-lightweight metallic lattice structure(named as the X-type structure)is reported.This periodic structure was formed by two groups of staggered struts in the traditional pyramid structure,and fabricated by folding expanded metal sheet along rows of offset nodes and then brazing the folded structure(as the core)with top and bottom facesheets to form sandwich panels.The out-ofplane compressive and shear properties of the X-type lattice sandwich structure were investigated experimentally and compared to those of the sandwich having a pyramidal truss core.It is found that the formation of the 2-dimensional staggered nodes can effectively make the X-type structure more resistant to inelastic and plastic buckling under both compression and shear loading than the pyramidal lattice truss.Obtained results show that the compressive and shear peak strengths of the X-type lattice structure are about 30% higher than those of the pyramidal lattice truss having the same relative density.

  2. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  3. Measuring Cohesive Laws for Interfaces in Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2006-01-01

    Extraction of cohesive laws are conducted for interfaces in sandwich structures. Separation between face and core are driven by pure bending moments applied to double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. By varying the ratio between moments applied to the beams the test is conducted for different mode...... mixities. The sandwich specimens consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core with a pre-crack between face and core made with teflon film. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich faces with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide...

  4. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  5. Measuring Cohesive Laws for Interfaces in Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2006-01-01

    Extraction of cohesive laws are conducted for interfaces in sandwich structures. Separation between face and core are driven by pure bending moments applied to double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. By varying the ratio between moments applied to the beams the test is conducted for different mode...... mixities. The sandwich specimens consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core with a pre-crack between face and core made with teflon film. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich faces with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide...

  6. Fracture Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Columns Under Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, A.; Avilés, F.; Berggreen, Christian

    A sandwich structure consists of two strong and stiff face sheets bonded to a weak low density core. The large separation between the face sheets provides increased bending rigidity and strength at low weight cost. Thus, sandwich structures frequently present better mechanical properties than mon...

  7. Fracture Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Columns Under Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, A.; Avilés, F.; Berggreen, Christian

    A sandwich structure consists of two strong and stiff face sheets bonded to a weak low density core. The large separation between the face sheets provides increased bending rigidity and strength at low weight cost. Thus, sandwich structures frequently present better mechanical properties than mon...

  8. The sandwich sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Mahomed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich sign refers to the sandwiching of mesenteric vessels and fat by enlarged mesenteric nodes on cross-sectional imaging, commonly occurring in lymphoma, but not specific to lymphoma. The sign is radiologically indistinguishable from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. The radiological significance of the sandwich sign is in suggesting the diagnosis of lymphoma so that appropriate treatment may be initiated early as the tumour has a rapid growth pattern.

  9. Identification of honeycomb sandwich properties by high-resolution modal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebillat M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed to identify the mechanical properties of the skin and core materials of honeycomb sandwich. All the elastic coefficients and loss-factors that matter in the dynamics of a panel in the thick-plate approximation are identified. To this end, experimental natural modes (i.e. eigenmodes of the damped system are compared to the numerical modes of a large sandwich panel (lx,y/h ≃ 80. The chosen generic model for the visco-elastic behaviour of the materials is E (1 + jη. The numerical modes are computed by means of a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure and their dampings are predicted according to the visco-elastic model. The frequencies and dampings of the natural modes of the panel are estimated experimentally by means of a high-resolution modal analysis technique. An optimisation procedure yields the desired coefficients. A sensitivity analysis assess the reliability of the method.

  10. Modelling the behaviour of composite sandwich structures when subject to air-blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Arora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP sandwich structures (1.6 m x 1.3 m were subject to explosive air blast (100 kg TNT equivalent at stand-off distances of 14 m. Digital image correlation (DIC was used to obtain full-field data for the rear-face of each deforming target. A steel plate of comparable mass per unit area was also subjected to the same blast conditions for comparison. The experimental data was then verified with finite element models generated in Abaqus/Explicit. Close agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental results, confirming that the CFRP panels had a superior blast performance to the GFRP panels. Moreover all composite targets sustained localised failures (that were more severe in the GFRP targets but retained their original shape post blast. The rear-skins remained intact for each composite target with core shear failure present.

  11. Forced vibration of a shear thickening fluid sandwich beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minghai; Hu, Gang; Jin, Lu; Lin, Kun; Zou, Dujian

    2016-05-01

    The forced vibration of a sandwich beam integrating a shear thickening fluid (STF) core and with conductive skins subjected to a periodic excitation was investigated theoretically in this study. The rheological properties of the STF material including viscosity, plasticity, and elasticity may be changed under the periodic vibration, and hence they were considered. The governing equation of motion was derived based on the complex stiffness method and some key parameters were derived based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Effects of the excitation frequency, the excitation amplitude, the excitation location, and the skin/core thickness ratio on the nature frequency of the sandwich beam were investigated. It was found that the STF core has a significant effect on the dynamic property of the sandwich beam. Based on the findings, integrating the STF core in a sandwich beam can reduce the vibration of the beam.

  12. Evaluation of barely visible indentation damage (BVID) in CF/EP sandwich composites using guided wave signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Samir; Ye, Lin; Dong, Xingjian; Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki

    2016-08-01

    Barely visible indentation damage after quasi-static indentation in sandwich CF/EP composites was assessed using ultrasonic guided wave signals. Finite element analyses were conducted to investigate the interaction between guided waves and damage, further to assist in the selection process of the Lamb wave sensitive modes for debonding identification. Composite sandwich beams and panels structures were investigated. Using the beam structure, a damage index was defined based on the change in the peak magnitude of the captured wave signals before and after the indentation, and the damage index was correlated with the residual deformation (defined as the depth of the dent), that was further correlated with the amount of crushing within the core. Both A0 and S0 Lamb wave modes showed high sensitivity to the presence of barely visible indentation damage with residual deformation of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, barely visible indentation damage was assessed in composite sandwich panels after indenting to 3 and 5 mm, and the damage index was defined, based on (a) the peak magnitude of the wave signals before and after indentation or (b) the mismatch between the original and reconstructed wave signals based on a time-reversal algorithm, and was subsequently applied to locate the position of indentation.

  13. 环氧树脂基轻质芯材夹层复合吸声结构的水声性能%Underwater Acoustic Properties of Sound Absorption Structure of Sandwich Composites Based on Light Epoxy Resin Core Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 梅志远; 朱锡

    2011-01-01

    Sound absorption structure of light sandwich composite based on epoxy resin (EPS) was synthesized from glass fiber, vinyl ester resins, epoxy resin, hollow glass microsphere. The underwater acoustical properties of EPS specimen were measured in the sound pulse tube and anechoic tank. The experiment results indicate that underwater acoustic properties of EPS are affected by the technological parameters of core material such as proportion of matrix, content of polyether amine curing agent and proportion of upper and lower layer. The underwater sound absorption coefficient of EPS is not less than 0.5 at 5 kHz ~ 30 kHz with the relative density 0.8 + 0.05 and thickness 25 mm of core material by regulating the technological parameters. EPS has a low density and excellent underwater sound stealth properties. The application range of sound absorption structure of sandwich composite will be enlarged. Then, sound absorption mechanism of EPS was analyzed.%用玻璃纤维、乙烯基树脂、环氧树脂和空心玻璃微珠等为原料合成了环氧树脂基轻质夹层复合吸声结构(EPS),在脉冲声管和消声水池中测试了EPS试件的反射系数和吸声系数,测试结果表明,EPS的水声性能受到芯材基体比例、聚醚胺固化剂含量及分层比例等工艺参数的影响,通过合理控制这些参数,可以使芯材相对密度0.8±0.05、厚度25 mm的EPS在5kHz~30kHz频段内平均吸声系数不低于0.5,具有质轻和良好的水下声隐身能力,扩大了夹层复合吸声结构的使用范围.最后对EPS的吸声机理进行了分析.

  14. Sandwich classification theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Stepanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present note arises from the author's talk at the conference ``Ischia Group Theory 2014''. For subgroups FleN of a group G denote by Lat(F,N the set of all subgroups of N , containing F . Let D be a subgroup of G . In this note we study the lattice LL=Lat(D,G and the lattice LL ′ of subgroups of G , normalized by D . We say that LL satisfies sandwich classification theorem if LL splits into a disjoint union of sandwiches Lat(F,N G (F over all subgroups F such that the normal closure of D in F coincides with F . Here N G (F denotes the normalizer of F in G . A similar notion of sandwich classification is introduced for the lattice LL ′ . If D is perfect, i.,e. coincides with its commutator subgroup, then it turns out that sandwich classification theorem for LL and LL ′ are equivalent. We also show how to find basic subroup F of sandwiches for LL ′ and review sandwich classification theorems in algebraic groups over rings.

  15. Buckling failure investigation of composite material sandwich beam with face/core debond%含面芯脱粘缺陷复合材料夹芯梁屈曲失效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦; 朱锡; 李华东; 朱子旭

    2016-01-01

    为研究面芯脱粘缺陷对复合材料夹层结构屈曲特性的影响,对含贯穿矩形面芯脱粘缺陷的复合材料夹芯梁进行了试验和仿真研究.轴向压缩试验发现:试件破坏模式为混合屈曲失效,承载过程可划分为轴向压缩、局部屈曲、混合屈曲和坍塌失效四个阶段.在试验基础上,基于A baqus非线性弧长算法,对复合材料夹芯梁的极限载荷及后屈曲路径进行模拟.采用三维内聚力单元模拟预制脱粘缺陷,从破坏模式和极限载荷两个方面与试验结果进行对比,误差为6.51%,验证了数值计算方法的可靠性.有限元分析发现:随芯层模量增加,极限荷载先非线性增长后线性增长;当缺陷因子为0.052时,极限荷载为完整结构的80%,为确保结构的承载特性,应在缺陷因子达到0.05前及时进行脱粘区域修补.%In order to research the effect of face/core debond on buckling behaviors of composite sand‐wich beam ,an experimental and numerical study of the in‐plane compressive failure mechanism of sandwich beam with an implanted through‐width rectangle face/core debond was presented .The re‐sponse of the specimens show that main failure mode was mixed buckling , and the load bearing process could be divided into axial compression ,local buckling ,mixed buckling and collapse failure stages .Based on the experimental results ,a finite element model was established to simulate the ca‐pability of load bearing and post‐buckling behaviors of composite sandwich beams by the nonlinear RIKS algorithm .The implanted through‐width rectangle face/core debond was simulated by cohesive elements .Comparisons of experimental and numerical ultimate loads assoicated with failure modes showed a good agreement .The error was 6 .51% which proved the model was accurate .The error was 6 .51% ,which proved the reliability of the model .The study results show that with the increase

  16. A Panel of Recombinant Mucins Carrying a Repertoire of Sialylated O-Glycans Based on Different Core Chains for Studies of Glycan Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeja Maria Cherian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sialylated glycans serve as key elements of receptors for many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins. The microbial recognition and their binding specificity can be affected by the linkage of the terminal sugar residue, types of underlying sugar chains, and the nature of the entire glycoconjugate. Owing to the pathobiological significance of sialylated glycans, we have engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells to secrete mucin-type immunoglobulin-fused proteins carrying terminal α2,3- or α2,6-linked sialic acid on defined O-glycan core saccharide chains. Besides stably expressing P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1/mouse immunoglobulin G2b cDNA (PSGL-1/mIgG2b, CHO cells were stably transfected with plasmids encoding glycosyltransferases to synthesize core 2 (GCNT1, core 3 (B3GNT6, core 4 (GCNT1 and B3GNT6, or extended core 1 (B3GNT3 chains with or without the type 1 chain-encoding enzyme B3GALT5 and ST6GAL1. Western blot and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of core 1, 2, 3, 4, and extended core 1 chains carrying either type 1 (Galb3GlcNAc or type 2 (Galb4GlcNAc outer chains with or without α2,6-linked sialic acids. This panel of recombinant mucins carrying a repertoire of sialylated O-glycans will be important tools in studies aiming at determining the fine O-glycan binding specificity of sialic acid-specific microbial adhesins and mammalian lectins.

  17. Modelling of Debond and Crack Propagation in Sandwich Structures Using Fracture and Damage Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, C.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    Skin-core de-bonding or core crack propagation will often be dominating mechanisms in the collapse modes of sandwich structures. This paper presents two different methods for prediction of crack propagation in a sandwich structure: a fracture mechanics approach, where a new mode-mix method...

  18. Failure Investigation of Debonded Sandwich Columns: An Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2009-01-01

    Failure of compression loaded sandwich columns with an implanted through-width face/core debond is examined. Compression tests were conducted on sandwich columns containing implemented face/core debonds. The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were monitored using the di...

  19. Failure Investigation of Debonded Sandwich Columns: An Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2009-01-01

    Failure of compression loaded sandwich columns with an implanted through-width face/core debond is examined. Compression tests were conducted on sandwich columns containing implemented face/core debonds. The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were monitored using the di...

  20. Failure modes of composite sandwich beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gdoutos E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough investigation of failure behavior of composite sandwich beams under three-and four-point bending was undertaken. The beams were made of unidirectional carbon/epoxy facings and a PVC closed-cell foam core. The constituent materials were fully characterized and in the case of the foam core, failure envelopes were developed for general two-dimensional states of stress. Various failure modes including facing wrinkling, indentation failure and core failure were observed and compared with analytical predictions. The initiation, propagation and interaction of failure modes depend on the type of loading, constituent material properties and geometrical dimensions.