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Sample records for core combined erbia

  1. Oxygen semi-permeability of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Kruidhof, H.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Gellings, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The isothermal permeability of oxygen through sintered dense disks of bismuth oxide stabilized with 25 mol% erbia (BE25) has been studied at 610–810°C and oxygen pressures of 0.0001–1 atm. It is concluded that the permeating flux is rate limited both by solid state diffusion of electron holes and by

  2. Thickness dependence of oxygen permeation through erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide-silver composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.S.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide-silver (40 v/o) composite membranes in the range of thickness of 1.60–0.23 mm and temperature of 850–650 °C. Air was fed at one side of the membranes while permeated oxygen on the other side was swept away with helium. A

  3. Neutronics characterization of an erbia fully poisoned PWR assembly by means of the APOLLO2 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergreffi Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing demands on the reduction of fuel cycle costs have led to higher burnup fuel designs. According to the erbia-credit super high burnup fuel concept, developed by mixing low content of erbia to UO2 powder directly after reconversion process so that all fuel pins in a given fuel assembly are homogeneously doped, the present study aims to characterize, from a neutronic point of view, a 17 × 17 pressurized water reactor assembly enriched to 10.27 wt.% in 235U with an erbia content of 1 at.% (i.e. 0.7 wt.% by means of the deterministic neutronic code APOLLO2. For this purpose, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effects on fuel thermal conductivity of adding erbia to uranium oxide. The results obtained allow to conclude that an Er-doped assembly enriched to >5 wt.% in 235U represents an advantageous solution for very long fuel cycles, and it is so suited for very high burnups.

  4. Novel erbia-yttria co-doped zirconia fluorescent thermal history sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, E. B.; Massol, X.; Amiel, S.; Sentenac, T.; Le Maoult, Y.; Lours, P.

    2017-01-01

    Thermochromic pigments are commonly used for off-line temperature mapping on components from systems operating at a temperature higher than 1073 K. However, their temperature resolution is often limited by the discrete number of color transitions they offer. This paper investigates the potential of erbia-yttria co-doped zirconia as a florescent thermal history sensor alternative to thermochromic pigments. Samples of yttria-stabilized zirconia powder (YSZ, 8.3 mol% YO1.5) doped with 1.5 mol% ErO1.5 and synthesized by a sol-gel route are calcined for 15 minutes under isothermal conditions between 1173 and 1423 K. The effects of temperature on their crystal structure and room temperature fluorescence properties are then studied. Results show a steady increase of the crystallinity of the powders with temperature, causing a significant and permanent increase of the emission intensity and fluorescence lifetime which could be used to determine temperature with a calculated theoretical resolution lower than 1 K for intensity. The intensity ratio obtained using a temperature insensitive YSZ:Eu3+ reference phosphor is proposed as a more robust parameter regarding experimental conditions for determining thermal history. Finally, the possibilities for integrating this fluorescent marker into sol-gel deposited coatings for future practical thermal history sensing applications is also discussed.

  5. Coherent combining in an Yb doped double core fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Boullet, Johan; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Kermène, Vincent; Pagnoux, Dominique; Roy, Philippe; Dussardier, Bernard; Blanc, Wilfried; 10.1364/OL.30.001962

    2012-01-01

    Coherent combining is demonstrated in a clad pumped Yb doped double core fiber laser. A slope efficiency of more than 70 % is achieved with 96 % of the total output power on the fundamental mode of one of the two cores. This high combining efficiency is obtained when both cores are coupled via a biconical fused taper in a Michelson interferometer configuration.

  6. Combining nutation and surface gravity observations to estimate the Earth's core and inner core resonant frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Yann; Lambert, Sébastien; Rosat, Séverine; Nurul Huda, Ibnu; Bizouard, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Nutation time series derived from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and time varying surface gravity data recorded by superconducting gravimeters (SG) have long been used separately to assess the Earth's interior via the estimation of the free core and inner core resonance effects on nutation or tidal gravity. The results obtained from these two techniques have been shown recently to be consistent, making relevant the combination of VLBI and SG observables and the estimation of Earth's interior parameters in a single inversion. We present here the intermediate results of the ongoing project of combining nutation and surface gravity time series to improve estimates of the Earth's core and inner core resonant frequencies. We use VLBI nutation time series spanning 1984-2016 derived by the International VLBI Service for geodesy and astrometry (IVS) as the result of a combination of inputs from various IVS analysis centers, and surface gravity data from about 15 SG stations. We address here the resonance model used for describing the Earth's interior response to tidal excitation, the data preparation consisting of the error recalibration and amplitude fitting for nutation data, and processing of SG time-varying gravity to remove any gaps, spikes, steps and other disturbances, followed by the tidal analysis with the ETERNA 3.4 software package, the preliminary estimates of the resonant periods, and the correlations between parameters.

  7. Combining Slater-type orbitals and effective core potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Michał; Tucholska, Aleksandra M.; Moszynski, Robert

    2017-05-01

    We present a general methodology to evaluate matrix elements of the effective core potentials (ECPs) within a one-electron basis set of Slater-type orbitals (STOs). The scheme is based on translation of individual STO distributions in the framework of the Barnett-Coulson method. We discuss different types of integrals which naturally appear and reduce them to a few basic quantities which can be calculated recursively or purely numerically. Additionally, we consider evaluation of the STOs matrix elements involving the core polarization potentials and effective spin-orbit potentials. Construction of the STOs basis sets designed specifically for use with ECPs is discussed and differences in comparison with all-electron basis sets are briefly summarized. We verify the validity of the present approach by calculating excitation energies, static dipole polarizabilities, and valence orbital energies for the alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba). Finally, we evaluate interaction energies, permanent dipole moments, and ionization energies for barium and strontium hydrides, and compare them with the best available experimental and theoretical data.

  8. Core-Shell-structured Dendritic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Combined Photodynamic Therapy and Antibody Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaraju, Prasanna Lakshmi; Yang, Yannan; Yu, Meihua; Fu, Jianye; Xu, Chun; Yu, Chengzhong

    2017-07-04

    Multifunctional core-shell-structured dendritic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a fullerene-doped silica core, a dendritic silica shell and large pores have been prepared. The combination of photodynamic therapy and antibody therapeutics significantly inhibits the cancer cell growth by effectively reducing the level of anti-apoptotic proteins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  10. Facile preparation of hybrid core-shell nanorods for photothermal and radiation combined therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaoyao; Li, Erdong; Cheng, Xiaju; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Shuanglong; Ge, Cuicui; Gu, Hongwei; Pan, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09102k

  11. Chinese massage combined with core stability exercises for nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Tang, Shujie; Chen, Guangmin; Liu, Yuanmei

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of Chinese massage combined with core stability exercises on nonspecific low back pain. In the prospective study, ninety-two participants with nonspecific low back pain were divided into experimental and control group at random, and 46 in each. The experimental group were treated using Chinese massage combined with core stability exercises, while the control group were treated using Chinese massage alone. The two groups were evaluated using visual analog scale and Oswestry disability index at baseline, immediately after two and eight weeks. In addition, the recurrence rate of nonspecific low back pain was evaluated one year after the last intervention. Two weeks after treatment, both VAS and ODI scores decreased significantly in two groups (p0.05). Eight weeks later, the VAS and ODI scores decreased significantly in both groups (pCore stability exercises can improve the therapeutic effect of Chinese massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart micelle@polydopamine core-shell nanoparticles for highly effective chemo-photothermal combination therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruirui; Su, Shishuai; Hu, Kelei; Shao, Leihou; Deng, Xiongwei; Sheng, Wang; Wu, Yan

    2015-11-01

    In this investigation, we have designed and synthesized a novel core-shell polymer nanoparticle system for highly effective chemo-photothermal combination therapy. A nanoscale DSPE-PEG micelle encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox-M) was designed as a core, and then modified by a polydopamine (PDA) shell for photothermal therapy and bortezomib (Btz) administration (Dox-M@PDA-Btz). The facile conjugation of Btz to the catechol-containing PDA shell can form a reversible pH-sensitive boronic acid-catechol conjugate to create a stimuli-responsive drug carrier system. As expected, the micelle@PDA core-shell nanoparticles exhibited satisfactory photothermal efficiency, which has potential for thermal ablation of malignant tissues. In addition, on account of the PDA modification, both Dox and Btz release processes were pH-dependent and NIR-dependent. Both in vitro and in vivo studies illustrated that the Dox-M@PDA-Btz nanoparticles coupled with laser irradiation could enhance the cytotoxicity, and thus combinational therapy efficacy was achieved when integrating Dox, Btz, and PDA into a single nanoplatform. Altogether, our current study indicated that the micelle@polydopamine core-shell nanoparticles could be applied for NIR/pH-responsive sustained-release and synergized chemo-photothermal therapy for breast cancer.In this investigation, we have designed and synthesized a novel core-shell polymer nanoparticle system for highly effective chemo-photothermal combination therapy. A nanoscale DSPE-PEG micelle encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox-M) was designed as a core, and then modified by a polydopamine (PDA) shell for photothermal therapy and bortezomib (Btz) administration (Dox-M@PDA-Btz). The facile conjugation of Btz to the catechol-containing PDA shell can form a reversible pH-sensitive boronic acid-catechol conjugate to create a stimuli-responsive drug carrier system. As expected, the micelle@PDA core-shell nanoparticles exhibited satisfactory photothermal efficiency, which has

  13. Investigation of Combining Plant Genotypic Values and Molecular Marker Information for Constructing Core Subsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Cheng Wang; Jin Hu; Ning-Ning Liu; Hai-Ming Xu; Sheng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a strategy was proposed for constructing plant core subsets by clusters based on the combination of continuous data for genotypic values and discrete data for molecular marker information. A mixed linear model approach was used to predict genotypic values for eliminating the environment effect.The "mixed genetic distance" was designed to solve the difficult problem of combining continuous and discrete data to construct a core subset by cluster. Four commonly used genetic distances for continuous data (Euclidean distance, standardized Euclidean distance, city block distance, and Mahalanobis distance)were used to assess the validity of the continuous data part of the mixed genetic distance; three commonly used genetic distances for discrete data (cosine distance, correlation distance, and Jaccard distance) were used to assess the validity of the discrete data part of the mixed genetic distance. A rice germplasm group with eight quantitative traits and information for 60 molecular markers was used to evaluate the validity of the new strategy. The results suggest that the validity of both parts of the mixed genetic distance are equal to or higher than the common genetic distance. The core subset constructed on the basis of a combination of data for genotypic values and molecular marker information was more representative than that constructed on the basis of data from genotypic values or molecular marker information alone. Moreover, the strategy of using combined data was able to treat dominant marker information and could combine any other continuous data and discrete data together to perform cluster to construct a plant core subset.

  14. Combining models of behaviour with operational data to provide enhanced condition monitoring of AGR cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Graeme M., E-mail: graeme.west@strath.ac.uk; Wallace, Christopher J.; McArthur, Stephen D.J.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Combining laboratory model outputs with operational data. • Isolation of single component from noisy data. • Better understanding of the health of graphite cores. • Extended plant operation through leveraging existing data sources. - Abstract: Installation of new monitoring equipment in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is often difficult and expensive and therefore maximizing the information that can be extracted from existing monitoring equipment is highly desirable. This paper describes the process of combining models derived from laboratory experimentation with current operational plant data to infer an underlying measure of health. A demonstration of this process is provided where the fuel channel bore profile, a measure of core health, is inferred from data gathered during the refuelling process of an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) nuclear power plant core. Laboratory simulation was used to generate a model of an interaction between the fuel assembly and the core. This model is used to isolate a single frictional component from a noisy input signal and use this friction component as a measure of health to assess the current condition of the graphite bricks that comprise the core. In addition, the model is used to generate an expected refuelling response (the noisy input signal) for a given set of channel bore diameter measurements for either insertion of new fuel or removal of spent fuel, providing validation of the model. This benefit of this work is that it provides a greater understanding of the health of the graphite core, which is important for continued and extended operation of the AGR plants in the UK.

  15. CORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Hundebøll, Martin

    2013-01-01

    different flows. Instead of maintaining these approaches separate, we propose a protocol (CORE) that brings together these coding mechanisms. Our protocol uses random linear network coding (RLNC) for intra- session coding but allows nodes in the network to setup inter- session coding regions where flows...... intersect. Routes for unicast sessions are agnostic to other sessions and setup beforehand, CORE will then discover and exploit intersecting routes. Our approach allows the inter-session regions to leverage RLNC to compensate for losses or failures in the overhearing or transmitting process. Thus, we...... increase the benefits of XORing by exploiting the underlying RLNC structure of individual flows. This goes beyond providing additional reliability to each individual session and beyond exploiting coding opportunistically. Our numerical results show that CORE outperforms both forwarding and COPE...

  16. CORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Hundebøll, Martin

    2013-01-01

    different flows. Instead of maintaining these approaches separate, we propose a protocol (CORE) that brings together these coding mechanisms. Our protocol uses random linear network coding (RLNC) for intra- session coding but allows nodes in the network to setup inter- session coding regions where flows...... intersect. Routes for unicast sessions are agnostic to other sessions and setup beforehand, CORE will then discover and exploit intersecting routes. Our approach allows the inter-session regions to leverage RLNC to compensate for losses or failures in the overhearing or transmitting process. Thus, we...... increase the benefits of XORing by exploiting the underlying RLNC structure of individual flows. This goes beyond providing additional reliability to each individual session and beyond exploiting coding opportunistically. Our numerical results show that CORE outperforms both forwarding and COPE...

  17. Combining geochemical proxies in Porites coral cores from Chuuk Lagoon, Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. J.; Zivkovic, J.; Anderson, D.; Umling, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Chuuk Lagoon (7°N, 152°E), part of the Federated States of Micronesia, is centrally located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and provides an ideal location for studies of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Warm Pool processes. The WPWP is a key aspect of the global climate, exchanging heat and carbon with the atmosphere as well as with the surrounding ocean and the underlying water masses. Recent work has indicated long-term changes in the WPWP, including freshening and warming, that have been attributed to climate change. This region also experiences large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature due to interannual oscillations in ENSO. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from corals provides insight into the isotopic ratio of the water in which the corals grew their aragonitic skeletons. However, the oxygen isotope ratio of seawater varies with both changes in temperature and salinity. Sr/Ca ratios vary with seawater temperature and, when combined with δ18O, can be used to interpret both temperature and salinity variations. Three coral cores from large Porites lobata coral heads were collected from Chuuk Lagoon in June 2011, and one additional core was collected in 2008. Two cores (one in 2008 and another in 2011) were collected near the main island within the lagoon where they are subject to large precipitation and temperature variability due to fluctuations in ENSO. The remaining two cores were collected at the outer edge of the atoll, just inside of the barrier reef. These cores were collected in less than 3 m of water and were constantly being flushed with water from the open ocean warm pool. Seasonal variability in temperature and salinity are expected to be very low at this site. Stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) and trace element (Sr/Ca) analyses for the upper portion of these cores will be presented and compared to ENSO variability and observed trends in the WPWP. An adjacent lagoon coral is valuable in developing the lagoon history, while the

  18. Doxorubicin/gold-loaded core/shell nanoparticles for combination therapy to treat cancer through the enhanced tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungim; Oh, Keun Sang; Park, Dal Yong; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Beom Suk; Kim, In San; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Sang, Yoon Kim; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2016-04-28

    A combination therapy consisting of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is performed using the core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) containing gold NPs and doxorubicin (DOX). Gold NPs in the core/shell NPs were utilized as a radiosensitizer. To examine the morphology and size distribution of the core/shell NPs, transmittance electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used. The in vitro release behavior, cellular uptake and toxicity were also observed to verify the functionality of the core/shell NPs as a nanocarrier. To demonstrate the advantage of the core/shell NPs over traditional gold NPs reported in the combination therapy, we evaluated the accumulation behavior of the core/shell NPs at the tumor site using the biodistribution. Antitumor efficacy was observed with and without radiation to evaluate the role of gold NPs as a radiosensitizer.

  19. Unfolding communities in large complex networks: Combining defensive and offensive label propagation for core extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.036103

    2011-01-01

    Label propagation has proven to be a fast method for detecting communities in large complex networks. Recent developments have also improved the accuracy of the approach, however, a general algorithm is still an open issue. We present an advanced label propagation algorithm that combines two unique strategies of community formation, namely, defensive preservation and offensive expansion of communities. Two strategies are combined in a hierarchical manner, to recursively extract the core of the network, and to identify whisker communities. The algorithm was evaluated on two classes of benchmark networks with planted partition and on almost 25 real-world networks ranging from networks with tens of nodes to networks with several tens of millions of edges. It is shown to be comparable to the current state-of-the-art community detection algorithms and superior to all previous label propagation algorithms, with comparable time complexity. In particular, analysis on real-world networks has proven that the algorithm ...

  20. Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Transverse Flux Motor Using a Combined-Type Stator Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An external rotor transverse flux motor using a combined-type stator core is proposed for a direct drive application in this paper. The stator core is combined by two kinds of components that can both be manufactured conveniently by generic laminated silicon steel used in traditional motors. The motor benefits from the predominance of low manufacturing cost and low iron loss by using a silicon-steel sheet. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principles of the proposed motor are introduced. Secondly, the expressions of the electromagnetic torque and the cogging torque are deduced by theoretical analysis. Thirdly, the basic characteristics such as permanent magnet flux linkage, no-load back electromotive force, cogging torque and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by a three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM. Then, the influence of structure parameters on the torque density is investigated, which provides a useful foundation for optimum design of the novel motor. Finally, the torque density of the proposed motor is calculated and discussed, and the result shows that the proposed motor in this paper can provide considerable torque density by using few permanent magnets.

  1. Combined exposure to big endothelin-1 and mechanical loading in bovine sternal cores promotes osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Luisa A; Johnson, Michael G; Cullen, Diane M; Vivanco, Juan F; Blank, Robert D; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn; Smith, Everett L

    2016-04-01

    Increased bone formation resulting from mechanical loading is well documented; however, the interactions of the mechanotransduction pathways are less well understood. Endothelin-1, a ubiquitous autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule promotes osteogenesis in metastatic disease. In the present study, it was hypothesized that exposure to big endothelin-1 (big ET1) and/or mechanical loading would promote osteogenesis in ex vivo trabecular bone cores. In a 2×2 factorial trial of daily mechanical loading (-2000με, 120cycles daily, "jump" waveform) and big ET1 (25ng/mL), 48 bovine sternal trabecular bone cores were maintained in bioreactor chambers for 23days. The bone cores' response to the treatment stimuli was assessed with percent change in core apparent elastic modulus (ΔEapp), static and dynamic histomorphometry, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. Two-way ANOVA with a post hoc Fisher's LSD test found no significant treatment effects on ΔEapp (p=0.25 and 0.51 for load and big ET1, respectively). The ΔEapp in the "no load + big ET1" (CE, 13±12.2%, p=0.56), "load + no big ET1" (LC, 17±3.9%, p=0.14) and "load + big ET1" (LE, 19±4.2%, p=0.13) treatment groups were not statistically different than the control group (CC, 3.3%±8.6%). Mineralizing surface (MS/BS), mineral apposition (MAR) and bone formation rates (BFR/BS) were significantly greater in LE than CC (p=0.037, 0.0040 and 0.019, respectively). While the histological bone formation markers in LC trended to be greater than CC (p=0.055, 0.11 and 0.074, respectively) there was no difference between CE and CC (p=0.61, 0.50 and 0.72, respectively). Cores in LE and LC had more than 50% greater MS/BS (p=0.037, p=0.055 respectively) and MAR (p=0.0040, p=0.11 respectively) than CC. The BFR/BS was more than two times greater in LE (p=0.019) and LC (p=0.074) than CC. The PGE2 levels were elevated at 8days post-osteotomy in all groups and the treatment groups remained elevated compared to the CC group on days 15

  2. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J.; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-01

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  3. Phononic band gap design in honeycomb lattice with combinations of auxetic and conventional core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel design of a honeycomb lattice geometry that uses a seamless combination of conventional and auxetic cores, i.e. elements showing positive and negative Poisson’s ratio. The design is aimed at tuning and improving the band structure of periodic cellular structures. The proposed cellular configurations show a significantly wide band gap at much lower frequencies compared to their pure counterparts, while still retaining their major dynamic features. Different topologies involving both auxetic inclusions in a conventional lattice and conversely hexagonal cellular inclusions in auxetic butterfly lattices are presented. For all these cases the impact of the varying degree of auxeticity on the band structure is evaluated. The proposed cellular designs may offer significant advantages in tuning high-frequency bandgap behaviour, which is relevant to phononics applications. The configurations shown in this paper may be made iso-volumetric and iso-weight to a given regular hexagonal topology, making possible to adapt the hybrid lattices to existing sandwich structures with fixed dimensions and weights. This work also features a comparative study of the wave speeds corresponding to different configurations vis-a vis those of a regular honeycomb to highlight the superior behaviour of the combined hybrid lattice.

  4. Core Analysis Combining MT (TIPPER) and Dielectric Sensors (Sans EC) in Earth and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Michael C.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    On terrestrial planets and moons of our solar system cores reveal details about a geological structure's formation, content, and history. The strategy for the search for life is focused first on finding water which serves as a universal solvent, and identifying the rocks which such solvent act upon to release the constituent salts, minerals, ferrites, and organic compounds and chemicals necessary for life. Dielectric spectroscopy measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency. Reflection measurements in the frequency range from 300 kHz to 300 MHz were carried out using RF and microwave network analyzers interrogating SansEC Sensors placed on clean geological core samples. These were conducted to prove the concept feasibility of a new geology instrument useful in the field and laboratory. The results show that unique complex frequency spectra can be acquired for a variety of rock core samples. Using a combination of dielectric spectroscopy and computer simulation techniques the magnitude and phase information of the frequency spectra can be converted to dielectric spectra. These low-frequency dielectric properties of natural rock are unique, easily determined, and useful in characterizing geology. TIPPER is an Electro-Magnetic Passive-Source Geophysical Method for Detecting and Mapping Geothermal Reservoirs and Mineral Resources. This geophysical method uses distant lightning and solar wind activity as its energy source. The most interesting deflections are caused by the funneling of electrons into more electrically conductive areas like mineralized faults, water or geothermal reservoirs. We propose TIPPER to be used with SansEC for determining terrain/ocean chemistry, ocean depth, geomorphology of fracture structures, and other subsurface topography characteristics below the ice crust of Jovian moons. NASA envisions lander concepts for exploration of these extraterrestrial icy surfaces and the oceans beneath. One such concept would use a

  5. Classification of Promoters Based on the Combination of Core Promoter Elements Exhibits Different Histone Modification Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume-Kitatani, Yayoi; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Four different histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4; two subunits each) constitute a histone octamer, around which DNA wraps to form histone-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Amino acid residues in each histone are occasionally modified, resulting in several biological effects, including differential regulation of transcription. Core promoters that encompass the transcription start site have well-conserved DNA motifs, including the initiator (Inr), TATA box, and DPE, which are collectively called the core promoter elements (CPEs). In this study, we systematically studied the associations between the CPEs and histone modifications by integrating the Drosophila Core Promoter Database and time-series ChIP-seq data for histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3) during development in Drosophila melanogaster via the modENCODE project. We classified 96 core promoters into four groups based on the presence or absence of the TATA box or DPE, calculated the histone modification ratio at the core promoter region, and transcribed region for each core promoter. We found that the histone modifications in TATA-less groups were static during development and that the core promoters could be clearly divided into three types: i) core promoters with continuous active marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac), ii) core promoters with a continuous inactive mark (H3K27me3) and occasional active marks, and iii) core promoters with occasional histone modifications. Linear regression analysis and non-linear regression by random forest showed that the TATA-containing groups included core promoters without histone modifications, for which the measured RNA expression values were not predictable accurately from the histone modification status. DPE-containing groups had a higher relative frequency of H3K27me3 in both the core promoter region and transcribed region. In summary, our analysis showed that there was a systematic link between the existence of the CPEs and the dynamics, frequency and influence

  6. Classification of Promoters Based on the Combination of Core Promoter Elements Exhibits Different Histone Modification Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani

    Full Text Available Four different histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4; two subunits each constitute a histone octamer, around which DNA wraps to form histone-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Amino acid residues in each histone are occasionally modified, resulting in several biological effects, including differential regulation of transcription. Core promoters that encompass the transcription start site have well-conserved DNA motifs, including the initiator (Inr, TATA box, and DPE, which are collectively called the core promoter elements (CPEs. In this study, we systematically studied the associations between the CPEs and histone modifications by integrating the Drosophila Core Promoter Database and time-series ChIP-seq data for histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 during development in Drosophila melanogaster via the modENCODE project. We classified 96 core promoters into four groups based on the presence or absence of the TATA box or DPE, calculated the histone modification ratio at the core promoter region, and transcribed region for each core promoter. We found that the histone modifications in TATA-less groups were static during development and that the core promoters could be clearly divided into three types: i core promoters with continuous active marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, ii core promoters with a continuous inactive mark (H3K27me3 and occasional active marks, and iii core promoters with occasional histone modifications. Linear regression analysis and non-linear regression by random forest showed that the TATA-containing groups included core promoters without histone modifications, for which the measured RNA expression values were not predictable accurately from the histone modification status. DPE-containing groups had a higher relative frequency of H3K27me3 in both the core promoter region and transcribed region. In summary, our analysis showed that there was a systematic link between the existence of the CPEs and the dynamics, frequency

  7. Combination pipe-rupture mitigator and in-vessel core catcher. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, R.W.; Markowski, F.J.

    1982-03-09

    A device is described which mitigates against the effects of a failed coolant loop in a nuclear reactor by restricting the outflow of coolant from the reactor through the failed loop and by retaining any particulated debris from a molten core which may result from coolant loss or other cause. The device reduces the reverse pressure drop through the failed loop by limiting the access of coolant in the reactor to the inlet of the failed loop. The device also spreads any particulated core debris over a large area to promote cooling.

  8. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu [Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Kakizawa, Hideaki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Naka-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Toyoda, Naoyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); National Hospital Organisation Kure Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  9. Benefit of hepatitis C virus core antigen assay in prediction of therapeutic response to interferon and ribavirin combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hidetsugu; Higashimoto, Makiko; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive second-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and first-phase kinetics between commercially available core antigen (Ag) assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag (Lumipulse-Ag), and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, version 2 (Amplicor M), to estimate the predictive benefit of a sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 44 genotype 1b patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. HCV core Ag negativity could predict SVR on day 1 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 85.0%, accuracy = 86.4%), whereas RNA negativity could predict SVR on day 7 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 87.2%, accuracy = 88.6%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core Ag or RNA on day 14 achieved SVR (specificity = 100%). The predictive accuracy on day 14 was higher by RNA negativity (93.2%) than that by core Ag negativity (75.0%). The combined predictive criterion of both viral load decline during the first 24 h and basal viral load was also predictive for SVR; the sensitivities of Lumipulse-Ag and Amplicor-M were 45.5 and 47.6%, respectively, and the specificity was 100%. Amplicor-M had better predictive accuracy than Lumipulse-Ag in 2-week disappearance tests because it had better sensitivity. On the other hand, estimates of kinetic parameters were similar regardless of the detection method. Although the correlations between Lumipulse-Ag and Amplicor-M were good both before and 24 h after IFN administration, HCV core Ag seemed to be relatively lower 24 h after IFN administration than before administration. Lumipulse-Ag seems to be useful for detecting the HCV concentration during IFN therapy; however, we still need to understand the characteristics of the assay.

  10. Permeability Estimation of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada by Statistically Combining Well-logs and Core Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Permeability estimation in carbonate reservoirs is quite challenging since they are very heterogeneous. Moreover, the amount of core measurement data is commonly limited. In this paper, we present permeability maps for Grosmont formation in Canada with very limited permeability data, using bi-variated probability density function (porosity and permeability) conditioned to geological information. Grosmont formation consists of four units: Lower Grosmont (LG); Upper Grosmont (UG1); Upper Grosmont 2 (UG2); and Upper Grosmont 3 (UG3). From the previous studies, UG2 and UG3 are more promising reservoir units since they have larger porosity and permeability with vuggy pores and fractures by diagenesis (dolomitization and karstification). Thus, we applied our method to these two units. We first investigated core measurement data (porosity and permeability) and compared them to local geological aspects, such as the degree of diagenesis and vicinity of unconformity. Then we could divide the study area into 6 groups, and we established a bivariated probability density function (pdf) for each group and each unit (total of 12 pdfs) with core measurements of porosity and permeability. In the next step, we created porosity maps using well-log data for UG2 and UG3. The final step is to generate permeability maps for UG2 and UG3 by drawing a permeability value from the bivariated pdf conditioned to porosity. The final results show more realistic permeability maps for Grosmont formation when compared to conventional kriging results. Moreover, the strengths of this approach is (1) that it can use geological information and (2) that it can handle the variability of permeability, which can be naturally occurred in carbonate reservoirs. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2008RER11P0430302009).

  11. Additives and Protein-DNA Combinations Modulate the Humoral Immune Response Elicited by a Hepatitis C Virus Core-encoding Plasmid in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Lajonchere Liz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Humoral and cellular immune responses are currently induced against hepatitis C virus (HCV core following vaccination with core-encoding plasmids. However, the anti-core antibody response is frequently weak or transient. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of different additives and DNA-protein combinations on the anti-core antibody response. BALB/c mice were intramuscularly injected with an expression plasmid (pIDKCo, encoding a C-terminal truncated variant of the HCV core protein, alone or combined with CaCl2, PEG 6000, Freund's adjuvant, sonicated calf thymus DNA and a recombinant core protein (Co.120. Mixture of pIDKCo with PEG 6000 and Freund's adjuvant accelerated the development of the anti-core Ab response. Combination with PEG 6000 also induced a bias to IgG2a subclass predominance among anti-core antibodies. The kinetics, IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and epitope specificity of the anti-core antibody response elicited by Co.120 alone or combined with pIDKCo was different regarding that induced by the pIDKCo alone. Our data indicate that the antibody response induced following DNA immunization can be modified by formulation strategies.

  12. A Metropolis algorithm combined with Nelder-Mead Simplex applied to nuclear reactor core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Wagner F. [Depto. de Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Alberto Rangel, s/n, P.O. Box 972285, Nova Friburgo, RJ 28601-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: wfsacco@iprj.uerj.br; Filho, Hermes Alves; Henderson, Nelio [Depto. de Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Alberto Rangel, s/n, P.O. Box 972285, Nova Friburgo, RJ 28601-970 (Brazil); Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    A hybridization of the recently introduced Particle Collision Algorithm (PCA) and the Nelder-Mead Simplex algorithm is introduced and applied to a core design optimization problem which was previously attacked by other metaheuristics. The optimization problem consists in adjusting several reactor cell parameters, such as dimensions, enrichment and materials, in order to minimize the average peak-factor in a three-enrichment-zone reactor, considering restrictions on the average thermal flux, criticality and sub-moderation. The new metaheuristic performs better than the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and the Metropolis algorithms PCA and the Great Deluge Algorithm, thus demonstrating its potential for other applications.

  13. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyoda, Naoyuki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. • CT-guided needle biopsy is a well-established diagnostic technique. • Touch imprint cytological evaluation on site is helpful in improving quality of CT-guided biopsy. • The rate of diagnosing malignant lymphoma specifically with cytological examination is relatively low. • The rate of specific diagnosis of benign lesion in musculoskeletal regions is low.

  14. Material combinations and parametric study of thermal and mechanical performance of pyramidal core sandwich panels used for hypersonic aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Lorenzini, Giulio; Xie, Gongnan

    2016-11-01

    A novel kind of lightweight integrated thermal protection system, named pyramidal core sandwich panel, is proposed to be a good safeguard for hypersonic aircrafts in the current study. Such system is considered as not only an insulation structure but also a load-bearing structure. In the context of design for hypersonic aircrafts, an efficient optimization should be paid enough attention. This paper concerns with the homogenization of the proposed pyramidal sandwich core panel using two-dimensional model in subsequent research for material selection. According to the required insulation performance and thermal-mechanical properties, several suitable material combinations are chosen as candidates for the pyramidal core sandwich panel by adopting finite element analysis and approximate response surface. To obtain lightweight structure with an excellent capability of heat insulation and load-bearing, an investigation on some specific design variables, which are significant for thermal-mechanical properties of the structure, is performed. Finally, a good balance between the insulation performance, the capability of load-bearing and the lightweight has attained.

  15. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models for accretion of terrestrial bodies involve metal-silicate equilibrium as the metallic core formed during growth. Most elements considered are either refractory or well studied elements for which effects of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metallic liquid composition are well known. There are a large number of elements that are both siderophile and volatile, whose fate in such models is unknown, largely due to a lack of data at comparable conditions and com-positions (FeNi core with light elements such as S, C, Si, and O). We have focused on Ge, In, As, Sb and determined the effect of Si and C on metal-silicate partitioning, and developed a thermo-dynamic model that allows application of these new data to a wide range of planetary bodies. New experiments: We have previously carried out experiments with FeSi metallic liquid at C-saturated conditions at 1600 and 1800 C [4]. In a new series of experiments we investigate the effect of Si in carbon-free systems at 1600 C for comparison. Experiments were carried out at 1 GPa in MgO capsules using the same basaltic starting composition as in previous studies. The MgO capsule reacts with the silicate melt to form more MgO-rich liquids that have 22-26 wt% MgO. Experimental met-als and silicates were analyzed using a combination of electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS. Results: The new results can be interpreted by considering Ge as an example, in the simple exchange equilibrium Fe + GeO = FeO + Ge, where the equilibrium constant Kd can be examined as a function of Si content of the metal. The slope of lnKd vs. (1-XSi) for this new series allows derivation of the epsilon interaction parameter for each of these four elements and Si (both C-saturated and C-free).All four elements have positive epsilon values, indicating that Si causes a decrease in the partition coefficients; values are 6.6, 6.5, 27.8 and 25.2 for In, Ge, As, and Sb, respectively, at 1 GPa and 1600 C. As an example of

  16. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic coupling for 3D reactor core modeling combining MCB and fluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Królikowski Igor P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional simulations of neutronics and thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors are a tool used to design nuclear reactors. The coupling of MCB and FLUENT is presented, MCB allows to simulate neutronics, whereas FLUENT is computational fluid dynamics (CFD code. The main purpose of the coupling is to exchange data such as temperature and power profile between both codes. Temperature required as an input parameter for neutronics is significant since cross sections of nuclear reactions depend on temperature. Temperature may be calculated in thermal hydraulics, but this analysis needs as an input the power profile, which is a result from neutronic simulations. Exchange of data between both analyses is required to solve this problem. The coupling is a better solution compared to the assumption of estimated values of the temperatures or the power profiles; therefore the coupled analysis was created. This analysis includes single transient neutronic simulation and several steady-state thermal simulations. The power profile is generated in defined points in time during the neutronic simulation for the thermal analysis to calculate temperature. The coupled simulation gives information about thermal behavior of the reactor, nuclear reactions in the core, and the fuel evolution in time. Results show that there is strong influence of neutronics on thermal hydraulics. This impact is stronger than the impact of thermal hydraulics on neutronics. Influence of the coupling on temperature and neutron multiplication factor is presented. The analysis has been performed for the ELECTRA reactor, which is lead-cooled fast reactor concept, where the coolant fl ow is generated only by natural convection

  17. What is the added value of combined core biopsy and fine needle aspiration in the diagnostic process of renal tumours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwari, K; Kummerlin, I P; ten Kate, F J; Algaba, F; Trias, I; Wijkstra, H; De la Rosette, J J; Laguna, P

    2013-08-01

    Non-diagnostic results still hinder the routine use of core biopsy (CB) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnostic process of renal tumours. Furthermore, substantial interobserver variability has been reported. We assessed the added value of combining the results of CB and FNA by five pathologists in the ex vivo diagnosis of renal mass. Two ex vivo core biopsies were taken followed by two FNA passes from extirpated tumours. All samples were evaluated by five blinded pathologists. A consensus diagnosis of the surgical specimen was the index for comparison. For each pathologist, the number of non-diagnostic (non-conclusive or undetermined biology and failed biopsies), correct and incorrect scored cases of each technique was assessed. When a non-diagnostic CB or FNA had a correct diagnostic counterpart, this was considered as of added value. Of the 57 assessed tumours, 53 were malignant. CB was non-diagnostic in 4-10 cases (7-17.5%). FNA established the correct diagnosis in 1-7 of these cases. FNA was non-diagnostic in 2-6 cases (3.5-10.5%), and the counterpart CB established the correct diagnosis in 1-6 of these cases. For the 5 pathologists, accuracy of CB and FNA varied between 82.5-93% and 89.5-96.5%, respectively. Combination of both types of biopsy resulted in 55-57 correct results (accuracy 96.5-100%), i.e., an increase in accuracy of 3.5-14%. Combining the result of CB and FNA in renal mass biopsy leads to a higher diagnostic accuracy. Recommendations on which technique used should be adapted to local expertise and logistic possibilities.

  18. Core-shell nanoscale coordination polymers combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to potentiate checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunbai; Duan, Xiaopin; Guo, Nining; Chan, Christina; Poon, Christopher; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of only 12% for patients with the metastatic disease. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as the antibodies inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, are among the most promising immunotherapies for patients with advanced colon cancer, but their durable response rate remains low. We herein report the use of immunogenic nanoparticles to augment the antitumour efficacy of PD-L1 antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy. Nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) core-shell nanoparticles carry oxaliplatin in the core and the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-lipid conjugate (pyrolipid) in the shell (NCP@pyrolipid) for effective chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Synergy between oxaliplatin and pyrolipid-induced PDT kills tumour cells and provokes an immune response, resulting in calreticulin exposure on the cell surface, antitumour vaccination and an abscopal effect. When combined with anti-PD-L1 therapy, NCP@pyrolipid mediates regression of both light-irradiated primary tumours and non-irradiated distant tumours by inducing a strong tumour-specific immune response.

  19. Core-shell nanoscale coordination polymers combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to potentiate checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunbai; Duan, Xiaopin; Guo, Nining; Chan, Christina; Poon, Christopher; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-17

    Advanced colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of only 12% for patients with the metastatic disease. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as the antibodies inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, are among the most promising immunotherapies for patients with advanced colon cancer, but their durable response rate remains low. We herein report the use of immunogenic nanoparticles to augment the antitumour efficacy of PD-L1 antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy. Nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) core-shell nanoparticles carry oxaliplatin in the core and the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-lipid conjugate (pyrolipid) in the shell (NCP@pyrolipid) for effective chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Synergy between oxaliplatin and pyrolipid-induced PDT kills tumour cells and provokes an immune response, resulting in calreticulin exposure on the cell surface, antitumour vaccination and an abscopal effect. When combined with anti-PD-L1 therapy, NCP@pyrolipid mediates regression of both light-irradiated primary tumours and non-irradiated distant tumours by inducing a strong tumour-specific immune response.

  20. A Fault-Cored Anticline Boundary Element Model Incorporating the Combined Fault Slip and Buckling Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a folding boundary element model in a medium containing a fault and elastic layers to show that anticlines growing over slipping reverse faults can be significantly amplified by mechanical layering buckling under horizontal shortening. Previous studies suggested that folds over blind reverse faults grow primarily during deformation increments associated with slips on the fault during and immediately after earthquakes. Under this assumption, the potential for earthquakes on blind faults can be determined directly from fold geometry because the amount of slip on the fault can be estimated directly from the fold geometry using the solution for a dislocation in an elastic half-space. Studies that assume folds grown solely by slip on a fault may therefore significantly overestimate fault slip. Our boundary element technique demonstrates that the fold amplitude produced in a medium containing a fault and elastic layers with free slip and subjected to layer-parallel shortening can grow to more than twice the fold amplitude produced in homogeneous media without mechanical layering under the same amount of shortening. In addition, the fold wavelengths produced by the combined fault slip and buckling mechanisms may be narrower than folds produced by fault slip in an elastic half space by a factor of two. We also show that subsurface fold geometry of the Kettleman Hills Anticline in Central California inferred from seismic reflection image is consistent with a model that incorporates layer buckling over a dipping, blind reverse fault and the coseismic uplift pattern produced during a 1985 earthquake centered over the anticline forelimb is predicted by the model.

  1. Preliminary Core Analysis of a Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Chang Keun; Chang, Jongwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Venneri, Francesco [Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation, Los Alamos (United States); Hawari, Ayman [NC State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) will be 'melt-down proof'(MDP) under all circumstances, including the complete loss of coolant, and will be easily transportable and retrievable, and suitable for use with very little site preparation and Balance of Plant (BOP) requirements for a variety of applications, from power generation and process heat applications in remote areas to grid-unattached locations, including ship propulsion. The Micro Modular Reactor design proposed in this paper has 3 meter diameter core (2 meter active core) which is suitable for 'factory manufactured' and has few tens year of service life for remote deployment. We confirmed the feasibility of long term service life by a preliminary neutronic analysis in terms of the excess reactivity, the temperature feedback coefficient, and the control margins. We are able to achieve a reasonably long core life time of 5 ∼ 10 years under typical thermal hydraulic condition of a helium cooled reactor. However, on a situation where longer service period and safety is important, we can reduce the power density to the level of typical pebble bed reactor. In this case we can design 10 MWt MMR with core diameter for 10 ∼ 40 years core life time without much loss in the economics. Several burnable poisons are studied and it is found that erbia mixed in the compact matrix seems reasonably good poison. The temperature feedback coefficients were remaining negative during lifetime. Drum type control rods at reflector region and few control rods inside core region are sufficient to control the reactivity during operation and to achieve safe cold shutdown state.

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with core decompression and bone grafting in the repair of osteonecrosis of femoral head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Wang Nan; Yang Li-feng; Ma Ji; Li Zhi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Core decompression alone for osteonecrosis of femoral head easily causes fovea of femoral head and colapse of inner microstructure. Therefore, autologous bone is needed for filing and supporting. Moreover, bone marrow stem cel transplantation can decrease the incidence of femoral head colapse. OBJECTIVE:To discuss the clinical effects of core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels for osteonecrosis of femoral head. METHODS: A total of 33 patients were treated by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels in the Fourth Department of Bone Surgery, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical Colege in China from December 2012 to May 2013. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After the treatment by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels, Harris hip function score increased and pain disappeared in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head. They could do various labors. Radiographs or CT examination displayed normal femoral head in 30 hips, accounting for 79%. Pain significantly reduced. Normal or slight limp walking was found in 15 hips, accounting for 40%. There were 35 hips in patients, whose walking distance was extended, accounting for 92%. 24 hips dysfunction was improved markedly, accounting for 63%. Al results suggested that core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels improved the local blood supply of femoral head, and played a positive role in promoting the necrotic bone absorption and bone repairing.

  3. A versatile method for combining different biopolymers in a core/shell fashion by 3D plotting to achieve mechanically robust constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkineni, Ashwini Rahul; Ahlfeld, Tilman; Lode, Anja; Gelinsky, Michael

    2016-10-07

    Three-dimensional extrusion of two different biomaterials in a core/shell (c/s) fashion has gained much interest in the last couple of years as it allows for fabricating constructs with novel and interesting properties. We now demonstrate that combining high concentrated (16.7 wt%) alginate hydrogels as shell material with low concentrated, soft biopolymer hydrogels as core leads to mechanically stable and robust 3D scaffolds. Alginate, chitosan, gellan gum, gelatin and collagen hydrogels were utilized successfully as core materials-hydrogels which are too soft for 3D plotting of open-porous structures without an additional mechanical support. The respective c/s scaffolds were characterized concerning their morphology, mechanical properties and swelling behavior. It could be shown that core as well as shell part can be loaded with growth factors and that the release depends on core composition and shell thickness. Neither the plotting process nor the crosslinking with 1M CaCl2 denatured the proteins. When core and shell were loaded with different growth factors (VEGF and BMP-2, respectively) a dual release was achieved. Finally, live human endothelial cells were integrated in the core material, demonstrating that this new strategy can be used for bioprinting purposes as well.

  4. A Key to Improved Ion Core Confinement in the JET Tokamak: Ion Stiffness Mitigation due to Combined Plasma Rotation and Low Magnetic Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P.; Challis, C.; Peeters, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    New transport experiments on JET indicate that ion stiffness mitigation in the core of a rotating plasma, as described by Mantica et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 175002 (2009)] results from the combined effect of high rotational shear and low magnetic shear. The observations have important implicatio...

  5. Alpine ice cores and ground penetrating radar: combined investigations for glaciological and climatic interpretations of a cold Alpine ice body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisen, Olaf; Nixdorf, Uwe [Alfred-Wegener-Inst. fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Keck, Lothar; Wagenbach, Dietmar [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2003-11-01

    Accurate interpretation of ice cores as climate archives requires detailed knowledge of their past and present geophysical environment. Different techniques facilitate the determination and reconstruction of glaciological settings surrounding the drilling location. During the ALPCLIM1 project, two ice cores containing long-term climate information were retrieved from Colle Gnifetti, Swiss-Italian Alps. Here, we investigate the potential of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, in conjunction with ice core data, to obtain information about the internal structure of the cold Alpine ice body to improve climatic interpretations. Three drill sites are connected by GPR profiles, running parallel and perpendicular to the flow line, thus yielding a three-dimensional picture of the subsurface and enabling the tracking of internal reflection horizons between the locations. As the observed reflections are of isochronic origin, they permit the transfer of age-depth relations between the ice cores. The accuracy of the GPR results is estimated by comparison of transferred timescales with original core datings, independent information from an older ice core, and, based on glaciological surface data, findings from flow modeling. Our study demonstrates that GPR is a mandatory tool for Alpine ice core studies, as it permits mapping of major transitions in physical-chemical properties, transfer of age-depth relations between sites, correlate signals in core records for interpretation, and establish a detailed picture of the flow regime surrounding the climate archive.

  6. Benefit of Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen Assay in Prediction of Therapeutic Response to Interferon and Ribavirin Combination Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hidetsugu; Higashimoto, Makiko; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive second-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and first-phase kinetics between commercially available core antigen (Ag) assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag (Lumipulse-Ag), and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, version 2 (Amplicor M), to estimate the predictive benefit of a sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 44 genotype 1b patients treated with interferon (IFN) ...

  7. Effect of cyclic loading on fracture strength and microleakage of a quartz fiber dowel with different adhesive, cement and resin core material combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Ozcan, M; Melilli, D; Valandro, L F

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of different adhesive-cement-core combinations coupled with quartz fiber dowels after cyclic loading and fracture strength tests and assessed the microleakage using dye penetration method. Forty maxillary canines (N=10 per group) were restored with fiber dowels (Quartz fiber DT Light Post) and four adhesive-cement-core material combinations (Group 1: All-Bond 2+C&B [root]/All-Bond 2+Biscore [core]; Group 2: All-Bond 2+Bisfil 2B [root]/All-Bond 2+Bisfil 2B [core]; Group 3: Scotchbond 1+RelyX ARC [root]/Scotchbond 1+Supreme [core]; Group 4: RelyX Unicem [root]/Scotchbond 1+Filtek Supreme [core]). The specimens were initially cyclic loaded (x2,000,000, 8 Hz, 3 to 100 N at 45 °C under 37±3 °C water irrigation) and then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37 °C for 24 hours for dye penetration and interface failure detection. The failure surfaces were observed under the stereomicroscope (x100 magnification). Circumferential and centripetal dye penetration was scored at the buccal and lingual sites. Only three specimens failed macroscopically during cyclic loading. No significant difference was found among the groups for the number of resisted cycles (P=0.9). Mean fracture strength between the groups were also not statistically significant (213±63-245±71 N) (P=0.740) (ANOVA). All four groups showed high values of dye penetration along the restoration interfaces being not significant from each other (P=0.224) (Kruskal-Wallis). The lingual sides of the teeth where the load applied, showed significantly higher incidence of detachment between the core and the dentin (100%, 90%, 100%, 90% for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively) compared to the buccal side (30%, 30%, 60%, 40%) (P=0.032, c2 test). In 13 specimens (32.5%) crack lines at the coronal area were observed. Fracture strength was not significantly correlated with dye penetration (P=0.1803, r=-0.2162, Linear Regression and Correlation test). Different combinations of adhesive

  8. Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Alone or in Combination: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Management of Renal Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, Frances; Kapp, Meghan E; Arnold, Shanna A; Gellert, Lan L; Hameed, Omar; Clark, Peter E; Wile, Geoffrey; Coogan, Alice; Giannico, Giovanna A

    2017-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration with and without concurrent core needle biopsy is a minimally invasive method to diagnose and assist in management of renal masses. We assessed the pathological accuracy of fine needle aspiration compared to and associated with core needle biopsy and the impact on management. We performed a single institution, retrospective study of 342 cases from 2001 to 2015 with small and large renal masses (4 or less and greater than 4 cm, respectively). Diagnostic and concordance rates, and the impact on management were analyzed. Adequacy rates for fine needle aspiration only, core needle biopsy only and fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy were 21%, 12% and 8% (aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p aspiration plus biopsy group adding aspiration to biopsy and biopsy to aspiration reduced the inadequacy rate from 23% to 8% and from 27% to 8% for a total reduction rate of 15% and 19%, respectively, corresponding to 32 cases (9.3%). Rapid on-site examination contributed to a 22.5% improvement in fine needle aspiration adequacy rates. In this cohort 30% of aspiration only, 5% of biopsy only and 12% of aspiration plus biopsy could not be subtyped (aspiration vs biopsy p aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p biopsy vs aspiration plus biopsy p = 0.06). The diagnostic concordance rate with surgical resection was 99%. Conversion of an inadequate specimen to an adequate one by a concurrent procedure impacted treatment in at least 29 of 32 patients. Limitations include the retrospective design and accuracy measurement based on surgical intervention. Fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy vs at least fine needle aspiration alone may improve diagnostic yield when sampling renal masses but it has subtyping potential similar to that of core needle biopsy only. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Effects of Novel Nanoscaled Core Decompression Rods Combined with Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Treatment of Early Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is one of the most common diseases in orthopedics. In this study, we investigated the clinical effects of novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with mesenchymal stem cells on the treatment of the ONFH. 12 adult patients with early ONFH (at the stage of Ficat II received the treatment using the implantation of novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. The grade of the patients’ hip was scored by Harris marking system before and after the surgery, and then paired t-test was done. We assessed the curative efficiency based on the change of the patients before and after the surgery. In particular, the survival rate of femoral head was assessed at 12 months after the surgery. The results demonstrated that according to the standard of Harris Scoring, the average grade of hip joint before the surgery was 54.16 ± 4.23 points while average grade of hip joint at 12 months after the surgery was 85.28 ± 3.65 points. So, the implantation of the novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with mesenchymal stem cells had satisfactory clinical effects, suggesting that this implantation should be effective to treat early ONFH.

  10. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  11. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging using 320 row detector computed tomography: design and implementation of the CORE320 multicenter, multinational diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavere, Andrea L; Simon, Gregory G; George, Richard T; Rochitte, Carlos E; Arai, Andrew E; Miller, Julie M; Di Carli, Marcello; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Zadeh, Armin A; Dewey, Marc; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Laham, Roger; Rybicki, Frank J; Schuijf, Joanne D; Paul, Narinder; Hoe, John; Kuribyashi, Sachio; Sakuma, Hajime; Nomura, Cesar; Yaw, Tan Swee; Kofoed, Klaus F; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Clouse, Melvin E; Brinker, Jeffrey; Cox, Christopher; Lima, Joao A C

    2011-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8 countries worldwide. CT has the potential to assess both anatomy and physiology in a single imaging session. The co-primary aim of the CORE320 study is to define the per-patient diagnostic accuracy of the combination of coronary CTA and myocardial CTP to detect physiologically significant coronary artery disease compared with (1) the combination of conventional coronary angiography and SPECT-MPI and (2) conventional coronary angiography alone. If successful, the technology could revolutionize the management of patients with symptomatic CAD.

  12. New insights into micro/nanoscale combined probes (nanoAuger, μXPS) to characterize Ag/Au@SiO2 core-shell assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeuil, J B; Uhart, A; Soulé, S; Allouche, J; Dupin, J C; Martinez, H

    2014-10-01

    This work has examined the elemental distribution and local morphology at the nanoscale of core@shell Ag/Au@SiO2 particles. The characterization of such complex metal/insulator materials becomes more efficient when using an initial cross-section method of preparation of the core@shell nanoparticles (ion milling cross polisher). The originality of this route of preparation allows one to obtain undamaged, well-defined and planar layers of cross-cut nano-objects. Once combined with high-resolution techniques of characterization (XPS, Auger and SEM), the process appears as a powerful way to minimize charging effects and enhance the outcoming electron signal (potentially affected by the topography of the material) during analysis. SEM experiments have unambiguously revealed the hollow-morphology of the metal core, while Auger spectroscopy observations showed chemical heterogeneity within the particles (as silver and gold are randomly found in the core ring). To our knowledge, this is the first time that Auger nano probe spectroscopy has been used and successfully optimized for the study of some complex metal/inorganic interfaces at such a high degree of resolution (≈12 nm). Complementarily, XPS Au 4f and Ag 3d peaks were finally detected attesting the possibility of access to the whole chemistry of such nanostructured assemblies.

  13. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    extensions. Combined with the fact that the language definition does not provide a formal semantics, it is an arduous task to work formally with the language (e.g. to give an implementation). In this paper we identify a core subset of the language, called Core BPEL, which has fewer and simpler constructs......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...... formally with WS-BPEL, as one, without loss of generality, need only consider the much simpler Core BPEL. This report may also be viewed as an addendum to the WS-BPEL standard specification, which clarifies the WS-BPEL syntax and presents the essential elements of the language in a more concise way...

  14. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    extensions. Combined with the fact that the language definition does not provide a formal semantics, it is an arduous task to work formally with the language (e.g. to give an implementation). In this paper we identify a core subset of the language, called Core BPEL, which has fewer and simpler constructs......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...... formally with WS-BPEL, as one, without loss of generality, need only consider the much simpler Core BPEL. This report may also be viewed as an addendum to the WS-BPEL standard specification, which clarifies the WS-BPEL syntax and presents the essential elements of the language in a more concise way...

  15. Treating low back pain resulted from lumbar degenerative instability using Chinese Tuina combined with core stability exercises: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shujie; Qian, Xiuling; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Yuanmei

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic effect of Tuina combined with core stability exercises on low back pain resulted from lumbar degenerative instability is unclear. This article aims to evaluate whether core stability exercises can improve the effect of Tuina in this regard. This trial was designed as a randomized controlled trial and carried out in Qingzhou hospital of Traditional Chinese medicine between June 2011 and June 2013. Eighty-eight patients with low-grade lumbar degenerative instability were included and divided randomly into experimental and control groups, 44 in each. The experimental group were treated using Tuina combined with core stability exercises, but the control group using Tuina alone. The evaluation of Visual analogue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores (JOA) and recurrence rate were performed. Two weeks after treatment, JOA scores increased (p0.05) between the two groups. At the end of six weeks, VAS scores (pcore stability exercises has better effect than Tuina alone in treating low back pain resulted from low-grade lumbar degenerative instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined Analysis of Variation in Core, Accessory and Regulatory Genome Regions Provides a Super-Resolution View into the Evolution of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Alan; Oren, Yaara; Kelly, Darren; Sreecharan, Tristan; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Prentice, Michael B.; Ashour, Amgad; Avram, Oren; Pupko, Tal; Literak, Ivan; Guenther, Sebastian; Schaufler, Katharina; Wieler, Lothar H.; Zhiyong, Zong; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Corander, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could provide unparalleled detail of the evolution of a bacterial population. Here we demonstrate this principle by applying it to a worldwide multi-host sample of the important pathogenic E. coli lineage ST131. Our approach reveals the existence of multiple circulating subtypes of the major drug–resistant clade of ST131 and provides the first ever population level evidence of core genome substitutions in gene regulatory regions associated with the acquisition and maintenance of different accessory genome elements. PMID:27618184

  17. Predicting the density of structural timber members in service. The combine use of wood cores and drill resistance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Condea, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Drilling devices is used to get information about the cross-section properties and internal defects of structural members. Drill resistance is correlated with density which is often used to predict the mechanical properties of timber elements. However in situ a regression curve cannot be obtained and pre-existent curves provides unreliable predictions. The present paper proposes a procedure for in situ “calibration” of drill resistance data. The “calibration” is based on density values from wood cores taken in the close vicinity of drill holes. Two approaches were tested. One approach based on a regression curve built using wood cores density and drill resistance values obtained from a limited number of members. The other approach uses the information of one wood core to “calibrate” the drill resistance profile taken at the same member. Following this procedure a density prediction is obtained showing a low mean percentage error and a medium coefficient of determination.Los dispositivos de perforación se utilizan a menudo para obtener información sobre las propiedades de la sección transversal y defectos internos de los elementos estructurales de madera. La resistencia a la perforación se correlaciona con la densidad que, a menudo, se utiliza para obtener la predicción de las propiedades mecánicas de los elementos de madera. Sin embargo, una curva de regresión no puede ser obtenida in situ y las curvas de preexistentes proporcionan predicciones poco fiables. En el presente trabajo se propone un procedimiento de “calibración” in situ de los datos de resistencia de perforación obtenidos en cada caso. La “calibración” se basa en los valores de densidad de pequeñas probetas de madera tomadas en las inmediaciones de los taladros. Para ello se plantean 2 métodos: Un primer enfoque basado en obtener una curva de regresión a partir de los valores de densidad de pequeñas probetas de madera y los valores de resistencia a

  18. Properties of grain boundary networks in the NEEM ice core analyzed by combined transmission and reflection optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Tobias; Weikusat, Ilka; Garbe, Christoph; Svensson, Anders; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2014-05-01

    Microstructure analysis of ice cores is vital to understand the processes controlling the flow of ice on the microscale. To quantify the microstructural variability (and thus occurring processes) on centimeter, meter and kilometer scale along deep polar ice cores, a large number of sections has to be analyzed. In the last decade, two different methods have been applied: On the one hand, transmission optical microscopy of thin sections between crossed polarizers yields information on the distribution of crystal c-axes. On the other hand, reflection optical microscopy of polished and controlled sublimated section surfaces allows to characterize the high resolution properties of a single grain boundary, e.g. its length, shape or curvature (further developed by [1]). Along the entire NEEM ice core (North-West Greenland, 2537 m length) drilled in 2008-2011 we applied both methods to the same set of vertical sections. The data set comprises series of six consecutive 6 x 9 cm2 sections in steps of 20 m - in total about 800 images. A dedicated method for automatic processing and matching both image types has recently been developed [2]. The high resolution properties of the grain boundary network are analyzed. Furthermore, the automatic assignment of c-axis misorientations to visible sublimation grooves enables us to quantify the degree of similarity between the microstructure revealed by both analysis techniques. The reliability to extract grain boundaries from both image types as well as the appearance of sublimation groove patterns exhibiting low misorientations is investigated. X-ray Laue diffraction measurements (yielding full crystallographic orientation) have validated the sensitivity of the surface sublimation method for sub-grain boundaries [3]. We introduce an approach for automatic extraction of sub-grain structures from sublimation grooves. A systematic analysis of sub-grain boundary densities indicates a possible influence of high impurity contents (amongst

  19. A method for combined Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic analysis of <10 mg dust samples: implication for ice core science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Gabor; Wegner, Wencke; Klötzli, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Aeolian mineral dust particles below the size of 10-20 μm often experience longer distance transport in the atmosphere, and thus Aeolian dust is considered an important tracer of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Since ice core dust is purely Aeolian in origin, discrimination of its potential source region(s) can contribute to a better understanding of past dust activity and climatic/environmental causes. Furthermore, ice core dust source information provides critical experimental constraints for model simulations of past atmospheric circulation patterns [1,2]. However, to identify dust sources in past dust archives such as ice cores, the mineralogy and geochemistry of the wind-blown dust material must be characterized. While the amount of dust in marine cores or common terrestrial archives is sufficient for different types of analyses and even for multiple repeat measurements, dust content in ice cores is usually extremely low even for the peak dusty periods such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (5-8 mg dust/kg ice; [3]). Since the most powerful dust fingerprinting methods, such as REE composition and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses are destructive there is a clear need to establish sequential separation techniques of Sr, Nd, Pb and other REEs to get the most information out of small (5-10 mg) dust samples recovered from ice cores. Although Hf isotopes have recently been added as a robust tool of aerosol/dust source discrimination (e.g. [4,5,6,7]), precise Hf isotopic measurements of small (Central Europe (NUS), China (BEI) and the US (JUD) were processed (all acetic acid treated for carbonate removal, i.e. aluminosilicate fractions were analysed). Sr isotopic compositions varied between the aliquots within a range of ˜0.00007 for the three samples. Comparison of these values with previously obtained 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios from the same samples (different acid/sample amounts) reveals that these values are very sensitive to the acetic acid treatment (acid

  20. Hot-melt co-extrusion for the production of fixed-dose combination products with a controlled release ethylcellulose matrix core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynckier, A-K; Dierickx, L; Saerens, L; Voorspoels, J; Gonnissen, Y; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2014-04-10

    In this study, hot-melt co-extrusion was evaluated as a technique for the production of fixed-dose combination products, using ethylcellulose as a core matrix former to control the release of metoprolol tartrate and a polyethylene oxide-based coat formulation to obtain immediate release of hydrochlorothiazide. By lowering the concentration of the hydrophilic additive polyethylene oxide in the plasticized ethylcellulose matrix or by lowering the drug load, the in vitro metoprolol tartrate release from the core was substantially sustained. The in vitro release of hydrochlorothiazide from the polyethylene oxide/polyethylene glycol coat was completed within 45 min for all formulations. Tensile testing of the core/coat mini-matrices revealed an adequate adhesion between the two layers. Raman mapping showed no migration of active substances. Solid state characterization indicated that the crystalline state of metoprolol tartrate was not affected by thermal processing via hot-melt extrusion, while hydrochlorothiazide was amorphous in the coat. These solid state characteristics were confirmed during the stability study. Considering the bioavailability of metoprolol tartrate after oral administration to dogs, the different co-extruded formulations offered a range of sustained release characteristics. Moreover, high metoprolol tartrate plasma concentrations were reached in dogs allowing the administered dose to be halved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles for synergistic antimicrobial effect studies in combination with doxycycline on burn specific pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Tahami, Shiva; Naji, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    Nano-medicine is a breakthrough discovery in the healthcare sector. Doxycycline is a new generation antibiotic which is proved to be a boon in the treatment of patients with complicated skin infections. We have tried to explore the benefits of synthesized bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles in combination with new generation antibiotic for burn infections. The bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by core-shell method were characterized using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The calculated average particle sizes of the Ag-Au NPs were found to be 27.5nm. The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs show a characteristic Plasmon peak at 525nm which is broad and red shifted. The synergistic antimicrobial activity of doxycycline conjugated bimetallic nanoparticles was investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. This combined therapeutic agent showed greater bactericidal activity. Synergy of antibiotic with bimetallic nanoparticles is quite promising for significant application in burn healing therapy. The mechanism of the antibacterial activity was studied through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was later suppressed with antioxidant to establish correlation with the Ag-Au NPs antimicrobial activity. Ag-Au NPs showed effective antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of interface combination of RGO-photosensitized SnO2@RGO core-shell structures on their photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoru; Duan, Libing; Liu, Ruidi; Wu, Hongjing; Hou, Tian; Jiang, Xianwu; Gao, Haodi

    2017-01-01

    SnO2@reduced graphene oxide (RGO) core-shell structures were successfully synthesized by two different strategies (electrostatic interaction method and direct chemical bonding reaction method). The investigation of morphologies and microstructures showed that RGO was wrapped tightly on the surface of SnO2 microspheres with different interface combinations, i.e., electrostatic interaction and chemical bonding. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrated that graphene as a photosensitizer could transfer photogenerated electrons to the conduction band (CB) of SnO2 and receive holes from the valence band (VB) of SnO2, resulting in the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized composites was evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. It was found that SnO2@RGO with chemical bonding interface combination exhibited higher photodegradation rate (k = 0.038 min-1) than those with electrostatic interaction interface combination (k = 0.021 min-1) and pure SnO2 (k = 0.010 min-1). The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the photosensitization of RGO and the intimate interface combination between SnO2 and RGO.

  3. Clinical use of a combined grasping and locking core suture technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2013-12-01

    Previous authors have used either a grasping or a locking technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II. A combined (grasping and locking) 10-strand repair was used by the author in 22 adults (n = 28 fingers) with lacerations of both flexor tendons in zone II. The combined repair is known to be strong (mean tensile strength of 164 N), and the technique was used in selected cases who were thought to be at higher risk of rupture either because of excessive digital oedema (in early tendon repairs) or because of tendon retraction (in late primary tendon repairs). The 10-strand repair was bulky and, hence, only the profundus tendon was repaired; and "venting" of the pulley system was done proximal to the repair site as recommended by other authors. Supervised early active mobilisation was done immediately after the operation. At final follow-up, the outcome was calculated using the original Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures and the final outcome was considered excellent in 19 patients (n = 25 fingers), good in two patients (n = 2 fingers), and fair in the remaining patient (n = 1 finger). It was concluded that the bulky 10-strand repair may be used for zone II finger flexor tendon lacerations as long as a profundus-(?) only repair and "venting" of the pulley system are performed.

  4. Combining Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion by Computed Tomography in the Identification of Flow-Limiting Stenosis – The CORE320 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Tiago A.; Kishi, Satoru; George, Richard; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Vavere, Andrea; Cox, Christopher; Matheson, Matthew B.; Miller, Julie; Brinker, Jeffrey; Di Carli, Marcelo; Rybicki, Frank J.; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Clouse, Melvin; Lima, João A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) is gaining increasing acceptance, but a standardized approach to be implemented in the clinical setting is necessary. Objectives To investigate the accuracy of a combined coronary CTA and myocardial CTP comprehensive protocol compared to coronary CTA alone, using a combination of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as reference. Methods Three-hundred eighty-one patients included in CORE320 trial were analyzed in this study. Flow-limiting stenosis was defined as the presence of ≥50% stenosis by ICA with a related perfusion deficit by SPECT. The combined CTA+CTP definition of disease was the presence of a ≥50% stenosis with a related perfusion deficit. All data sets were analyzed by two experienced readers, aligning anatomical findings by CTA with perfusion deficits by CTP. Results Mean patient age was 62±6 years (66% male), 27% with prior history of myocardial infarction. In a per-patient analysis, sensitivity for CTA alone was 93% specificity was 54%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 55%; negative predictive value (NPV) 93% and overall accuracy was 69%. After combining CTA and CTP, sensitivity was 78%, specificity 73%, NPV 64%; PPV 0.85% and overall accuracy was 75%. In a per-vessel analysis, overall accuracy of CTA alone was 73%as compared to 79% for the combination of CTA and CTP (pcoronary CTA and myocardial CTP findings through a comprehensive protocol is feasible. While sensitivity is lower, specificity and overall accuracy are higher than assessment by coronary CTA when compared against a reference standard of stenosis with an associated perfusion deficit. PMID:25977111

  5. Structural and optical nanoscale analysis of GaN core-shell microrod arrays fabricated by combined top-down and bottom-up process on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Wen, Baomei; Blanchard, Paul; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew R.; Davydov, Albert V.; Christen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Large arrays of GaN core-shell microrods were fabricated on Si(111) substrates applying a combined bottom-up and top-down approach which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of patterned GaN films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and selective overgrowth of obtained GaN/Si pillars using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The structural and optical properties of individual core-shell microrods have been studied with a nanometer scale spatial resolution using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) directly performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). SEM, TEM, and CL measurements reveal the formation of distinct growth domains during the HVPE overgrowth. A high free-carrier concentration observed in the non-polar \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} HVPE shells is assigned to in-diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate. In contrast, the HVPE shells directly grown on top of the c-plane of the GaN pillars reveal a lower free-carrier concentration.

  6. Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Metformin Combined with Liraglutide or Exenatide for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the CORE Diabetes Model Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhang

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with β cell impairment. Agonists of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor (such as liraglutide and exenatide can increase the number of pancreatic β cells and improve cell function. These drugs contribute to the long-term control of T2DM.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of metformin combined with liraglutide or exenatide in Chinese patient with T2DM.Patients with T2DM from the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University were treated with oral metformin combined with liraglutide (0.6 mg/day, could be increased by 0.6 mg weekly until 1.2 or 1.8 mg or exenatide (5 μg bid for four weeks, increased to 10 μg bid. The computer simulation model CORE was used to calculate the 30-year expected life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALY, direct costs, HbA1c levels, body mass index (BMI, and the incidence of cardiovascular, renal, and ocular complications of T2DM. Patients were followed up for 52 weeks. Medication costs were calculated according to retail prices in China. A 3% annual discount was adopted in this study.The 30-year simulation showed that the total direct medical costs were lower using liraglutide compared to exenatide by 2130 RMB/QALY yearly, while the expected life expectancy and QALY were increased by 0.471 years and 0.388, respectively, using liraglutide with an incremental cost-effectiveness of -11,550 RMB/QALYs.Liraglutide 1.2 mg/day was superior to exenatide 10 μg bid with respect to cost-effectiveness in Chinese patients with T2DM.

  7. Combined geophysical surveys and coring data to investigate the pattern of the Watukosek fault system around the Lusi eruption site, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein, Alwi; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Mauri, Guillaume; Kemna, Andreas; Hadi, Soffian; Santosa, Bagus

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption is located in the Sidoarjo area, Indonesia and is continuously erupting hot mud since its birth in May 2006. The Watukosek fault system originates from the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex extending towards the NE of Java. After the 27-06-2006 M 6.3 earthquake this fault system was reactivated and hosted numerous hot mud eruptions in the Sidoarjo area. Until now, no targeted investigations have been conducted to understand the geometry of the faults system crossing the Lusi eruption site. A comprehensive combined electrical resistivity and self-potential (SP) survey was performed in the 7 km2 area inside the Lusi embankment that had been built to contain the erupted mud and to prevent flooding of the surrounding roads and settlements. The goal of the geophysical survey is to map the near-surface occurrence of the Watukosek fault system upon which Lusi resides, delineate its spatial pattern, and monitor its development. We completed six lines of resistivity measurements using Wenner configuration and SP measurements using roll-along technique. Three subparallel lines were located to the north and to the south of the main crater. Each line was approximately W-E oriented extending for ~1.26 km. The surveyed regions consist of mud breccia (containing clayey-silty-sandy mixture with clast up to ~10 cm in size). The geophysical data have been complemented with a N-S oriented profile consisting of 6 cores (~30m long) drilled in the dry area inside the Lusi embankment. The resistivity data were inverted into 2-D resistivity images with a maximum penetration depth of almost 200 m. These images consistently reveal a region of about 300 m in width (between 30-90 m depth) characterized by anomalous resistivities, which are lower than the values observed in the surrounding area. The results of the SP data correspond well with the resistivity profiles in the anomalous parts, which suggests that their origin is related to fluid flow paths in the

  8. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  9. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in...

  10. Diagnosis of intrathoracic lesions: are sequential fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB) combined better than either investigation alone?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviram, G. [Department of Radiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail: aviramgalit@hotmail.com; Greif, J. [Department of Pulmonology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Man, A. [Department of Pulmonology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schwarz, Y. [Department of Pulmonology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Marmor, S. [Department of Pathology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Graif, M. [Department of Radiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blachar, A. [Department of Radiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of sequential computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) in comparison with FNA and CNB performed separately for diagnosing intrathoracic lesions. Subjects and methods: Five hundred and eighty-two consecutive patients with thoracic lesions who underwent same-session sequential CT-guided FNA and CNB procedures were studied. The final diagnosis, which was achieved by either agreement of percutaneous procedures with clinical follow-up, bronchoscopy or thoracotomy was available for all cases. The diagnostic yield of the combined FNA + CNB procedures was compared with that of each alone. Results: Adequate samples were obtained in 541 (93%) of FNAs and 513 (88%) of CNBs. Of 582 lesions, 419 (72%) were malignant and 163 (28%) were benign. For malignant lesions, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the procedures were: 376/419 (89.7%), 136/163 (83.4%), and 88% for FNA; 317/419 (75.6%), 138/163 (84.7%), and 78% for CNB; 400/419 (95.5%), 154/163 (94.5%), and 95% for FNA + CNB. The sequential procedures showed significantly better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy compared with either FNA or CNB separately (p < 0.003). For the 163 benign lesions, 76 (47%) had a specific benign pathological diagnosis. The diagnosis was obtained in 16/76 (21%) by FNA, in 54/76 (71%) by CNB, and in 60/76 (79%) by FNA + CNB. There was no significant difference between the results of the sequential procedures and CNB alone (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Sequential FNA and CNB improve the diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous CT-guided procedures in malignant lesions. There was only mild improvement, which was not statistically significant, for the diagnosis of benign specific lesions by the sequential procedures compared with the yield of CNB alone.

  11. Multiple-pressure-tapped core holder combined with X-ray computed tomography scanning for gas-water permeability measurements of methane-hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Jin, Yusuke; Uchiumi, Takashi; Nagao, Jiro

    2013-06-01

    We present a novel setup for measuring the effective gas-water permeability of methane-hydrate-bearing sediments. We developed a core holder with multiple pressure taps for measuring the pressure gradient of the gas and water phases. The gas-water flooding process was simultaneously detected using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. We successfully measured the effective gas-water permeability of an artificial sandy core with methane hydrate during the gas-water flooding test.

  12. Core shroud corner joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  13. Combining RAFT polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction for core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 nanodielectrics with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high energy storage capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Xingyi; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Liyuan; Tanaka, Toshikatsu; Jiang, Pingkai

    2014-02-12

    Nanodielectric materials with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high energy storage capability are highly desirable in modern electric and electronics industries. It has been proved that the preparation of core-shell structured dielectric polymer nanocomposites via "grafting from" method is an effective approach to these materials. However, by using this approach, the deep understanding of the structure-dielectric property relationship of the core-shell structured nanodielectrics has been limited because of the lack of detailed information (e.g., molecular weight, grafting density) about the macromolecules grafted onto the nanoparticle surfaces. In this work, by the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction, two types of core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 (polymer@BT) nanocomposites with high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss were successfully prepared via a "grafting to" method. Compared with the "grafting from" method, this "grafting to" method has two merits: the molecular weight of the polymer chains in the shell layer can be easily controlled and the grafting density can be tailored by changing the molecular weight of the grafting polymer. Moreover, a clear insight into the relationship among the dielectric properties and energy storage capability of the core-shell structured polymer@BT nanocomposites, the molecular weight of the polymer chains, and the grafting density of the core-shell structured nanoparticles was achieved. The study provides new insights into the design and preparation of nanodielectric materials with desirable dielectric properties.

  14. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  15. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  16. Effects of electron-withdrawing group and electron-donating core combinations on physical properties and photovoltaic performance in D-pi-A star-shaped small molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luponosov, Yuriy N.; Min, Jie; Solodukhin, Alexander N.; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Obrezkova, Marina A.; Peregudova, Svetlana M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Chvalun, Sergei N.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    The first representatives of star-shaped molecules having 3-alkylrhodanine (alkyl-Rh) electron-withdrawing groups, linked through bithiophene pi-spacer with electron-donating either triphenylamine (TPA) or tris(2-methoxyphenyl)amine (m-TPA) core were synthesized. The physical properties and photovol

  17. Application of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry combined with in-core measurements for correction of neutron source used for RPV fluence calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N. [Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety SEC NRS, Malaya Krasnoselskaya ul., 2/8, Bld. 5, 107140 Moscow (Russian Federation); Konheiser, J. [Helmholz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with calculated and semi-analytical evaluations of VVER-1000 reactor core neutron source distributions and their influence on measurements and calculations of the integral through-vessel neutron leakage. Neutron activation measurements analyzed in the paper were carried out in an ex-vessel air cavity at different nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 during different fuel cycles. The time-integrated neutron source distributions used for DORT calculations were prepared via two different approaches based on (a) calculated fuel burnup (standard routine procedure) and (b) in-core measurements by means of self-powered detectors (SPDs) and thermocouples (TCs) (new approach). Considering that fuel burnup distributions in operating VVER may be evaluated now by the use of analytical methods (calculations) only, it is necessary to develop new approaches for the testing and correction of calculated evaluations of a neutron source. The results presented in this paper allow one to consider the reverse task of the alternative estimation of fuel burnup distributions. The proposed approach is based on the adjustment (fitting) of time-integrated neutron source distributions, and thus fuel burnup patterns, in some part of the reactor core, taking into account neutron leakage measurements, neutron-physical calculations, and in-core SPD and TC measurement data. (authors)

  18. Fracture strength and nanoleakage of weakened roots reconstructed using relined glass fiber-reinforced dowels combined with a novel prefabricated core system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rania A; Mandour, Mona H; Abd El-Ghany, Ossama Saleh

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture strength and nanoleakage of endodontically treated weakened teeth after being restored with relined glass fiber-reinforced dowels and two types of cores. Sixty sound human decoronated and endodontically treated teeth were embedded in epoxy resin blocks, then divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the method of root reconstruction. Group 1 (control): nonweakened roots were restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels (UNIC); group 2: weakened roots restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels relined with composite resin; group 3: weakened roots restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels and a thick layer of luting cement. Dowels were cemented using Corposit, a dual-cured adhesive resin cement, then each group was assigned into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the type of core used; subgroup a: custom-made core using the same luting cement, subgroup b: prefabricated glass fiber-reinforced core (UNIC). Half the specimens of each subgroup were individually mounted at 45° angles and statically compressed until fracture at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed with a 5 kN load cell. The type of failure was assessed using a magnification lens. The other half of the specimens were removed from the block, placed in silver nitrate solution for 24 hours followed by photo developer for 8 hours, then examined using environmental scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive analytical X-ray for nanoleakage evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed. The nonweakened group recorded the highest fracture strength values. The composite relined group showed significantly higher fracture strength values than the cement group. The prefabricated core yielded higher fracture strength values than the custom-made core. All groups showed a degree of nanoleakage, with higher scores recorded for the composite group. The fracture resistance of wide root canals can be improved by using glass fiber-reinforced dowels relined with composite

  19. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  20. Repairing rabbit radial defects by combining bone marrow stroma stem cells with bone scaffold material comprising a core-cladding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Liu, G H; Wu, Q; Yu, B

    2015-10-05

    We prepared a bone scaffold material comprising a PLGA/β-TCP core and a Type I collagen cladding, and recombined it with bone marrow stroma stem cells (BMSCs) to evaluate its potential for use in bone tissue engineering by in vivo and in vitro experiments. PLGA/β-TCP without a cladding was used for comparison. The adherence rate of the BMSCs to the scaffold was determined by cell counting. Cell proliferation rate was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The osteogenic capability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity. The scaffold materials were recombined with the BMSCs and implanted into a large segmental rabbit radial defect model to evaluate defect repair. Osteogenesis was assessed in the scaffold materials by histological and double immunofluorescence labeling, etc. The adherence number, proliferation number, and alkaline phosphatase expression of the cells on the bone scaffold material with core-cladding structure were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold material (P cladding structure completely degraded at the bone defect site and bone formation was completed. The rabbit large sentimental radial defect was successfully repaired. The degradation and osteogenesis rates matched well. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure exhibited better osteogenic activity and capacity to repair a large segmental bone defect compared to the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure has excellent physical properties and biocompatibility. It is an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Interleaved Core Assignment for Bidirectional Transmission in Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We study interleaved core assignment for bidirectional transmission in multi-core fibers. By combining it with heterogeneous core structure in an 18-core fiber, the transmission distance is extended by 10 times compared to homogeneous core structure with unidirectional transmission, achieving...

  2. Interleaved Core Assignment for Bidirectional Transmission in Multi-Core Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We study interleaved core assignment for bidirectional transmission in multi-core fibers. By combining it with heterogeneous core structure in an 18-core fiber, the transmission distance is extended by 10 times compared to homogeneous core structure with unidirectional transmission, achieving a total capacity of 1 Pb/s per direction.

  3. Interleaved Core Assignment for Bidirectional Transmission in Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We study interleaved core assignment for bidirectional transmission in multi-core fibers. By combining it with heterogeneous core structure in an 18-core fiber, the transmission distance is extended by 10 times compared to homogeneous core structure with unidirectional transmission, achieving a t...

  4. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  5. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  6. Study of blind thrust faults underlying Tokyo and Osaka urban areas using a combination of high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and continuous coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miura

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and continuously cored boreholes to evaluate active flexures produced by major blind thrust fault systems within two densely populated Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins in Japan: the Fukaya Fault System near Tokyo in the Kanto Basin and the Uemachi Fault System in the Osaka Basin. The high-resolution seismic reflection survey made clear the length, geometry and growth history of fault-related folds, or flexures formed above the two blind thrusts. Continuously cored boreholes linked with high-resolution seismic profiles enabled us to estimate the uplift rate as defined by shallow stratigraphic horizons and constrain the age of the most recent growth of the flexures during earthquakes on the Fukaya and Uemachi fault systems. Even with the high quality of the data we collected, it is still not possible to exactly constrain the age of the most recent blind thrust earthquake recorded by flexure of these fault-related folds. Data presented in this paper form the basis for future efforts aimed at mechanical and kinematic models for fault growth to evaluate the activity of blind thrusts underlying urban areas.

  7. Numerical analysis of the damage on Ⅰ-core sandwich panels subjected to combined blast and fragment loading%冲击波和破片联合作用下Ⅰ型夹层板毁伤仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新峰; 程远胜; 张攀; 刘均; 李勇

    2015-01-01

    基于非线性有限元软件LS-DYNA,通过在TNT炸药底部布置预制破片模拟战斗部爆炸产生的冲击波与破片联合作用载荷,计算3种TNT炸药当量下Ⅰ型夹层板的毁伤响应,分析冲击波单独作用及冲击波与破片联合作用下Ⅰ型夹层板失效模式的差异,研究夹层板芯层配置以及上、下面板厚度配置对其失效模式的影响,并与等效实体板的抗毁伤性能进行对比.同时,从吸能的角度分析不同载荷工况下Ⅰ型夹层板的吸能特性.数值仿真结果表明:在冲击波与破片联合作用下,结构的毁伤程度远大于冲击波单独作用时;当载荷强度较小时,I型夹层板的抗毁伤性能优于等效实体板;载荷强度、载荷类型(冲击波单独作用或冲击波与破片联合作用)及上、下面板厚度配置对Ⅰ型夹层板的失效模式有较大影响;从吸能特性来看,在冲击波单独作用下,上面板和芯层是主要的吸能构件,而在冲击波与破片联合作用下,上面板和下面板是主要的吸能构件.%In this paper, the combined blast and fragment loads due to close-in warhead explosion is simu-lated by placing prefabricated fragments at the bottom of bare TNT explosive, and the corresponding dam-age on Ⅰ-core sandwich panels are evaluated using the software LS-DYNA. The differences of failure modes of sandwich panels subjected to only blast and combined blast and fragment loads are analyzed, and the effects of core configuration and thickness configuration between the front and back plates on the fail-ure modes are studied. The anti-damage performance of sandwich panels is then compared with that of the equivalent solid plate. In addition, the energy absorption characteristics of Ⅰ-core sandwich panels under different loads are also analyzed. Numerical results show that the overall damage of both the sandwich pan-els and solid plates subjected to combined blast and fragment loads is more severe than that caused

  8. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  9. Core benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    This SPEC Kit explores the core employment benefits of retirement, and life, health, and other insurance -benefits that are typically decided by the parent institution and often have significant governmental regulation...

  10. Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling combined with cold saline as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention For the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction (The CHILL-MI trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    : In a multicenter study, 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (care. Hypothermia was initiated...... incidence of heart failure and a possible effect in patients with early anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions need confirmation. (Efficacy of Endovascular Catheter Cooling Combined With Cold Saline for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction [CHILL-MI]; NCT01379261)....

  11. CT-guided core biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung: Can these procedures be combined without an increase in complication rate or decrease in technical success?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Interventional Radiology, 2799 West Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Sheiman, Robert, E-mail: rsheiman@bidmc.harvard.edu [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Brook, Olga R. [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [King' s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, SE1 7EH London (United Kingdom); Mahadevan, Anand [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Radiation Oncology, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Siewert, Bettina [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To determine if concomitant CT-guided biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung can be performed in a selective patient population without increased complication or decreased success rates compared to either procedure alone. Materials and methods: An IRB approved retrospective analysis of 285 consecutive patients that underwent CT-guided placement of fiducial seeds in the lung alone (N = 63), with concomitant core biopsy (N = 53) or only core biopsy (N = 169) was performed. Variables compared included: patient demographics, lesion size, depth from pleura, needle size, number of passes through pleura, number and size of core biopsies, number of seeds placed and technical success rates. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate pair-wise comparisons. Results: A pathologic diagnosis of malignancy was confirmed in all cases undergoing seed placement alone and seed placement with concurrent biopsy, and in 144 of the biopsy alone lesions. On univariate analysis, major complication rates were similar for all three groups as were lesion size, depth, number of pleural passes, and technical success. Pair-wise comparisons of the remaining variables demonstrated a significant younger age and smaller needle size in the biopsy only group, and less minor complications in the fiducial only group. Overall there were 80/285 (28.1%) minor and 29/285 (10.2%) major complications. All major complications leading to admission consisted of either pneumothorax or hemothorax, while minor complications included asymptomatic stable or resolving pneumothoraces, transient hemoptysis or small hemothoraces. Conclusions: A combined procedure of percutaneous pulmonary core biopsy and stereotactic seed placement can be performed without additional risk of a major complication when compared to performing these separately.

  12. The Association of Substitutions in the Hepatitis C Virus Subtype 1b Core Gene and IL28B Polymorphisms With the Response to Peg-IFNα-2a/RBV Combination Therapy in Azerbaijani Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokharaei-Salim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has been identified as a leading cause of progressive liver diseases worldwide. Despite new treatment strategies, pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFNα-2a, in combination with ribavirin (RBV, still represents the gold standard of therapy for hepatitis C in developing countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association of substitutions in the HCV subtype 1b (HCV-1b core protein and the rs12979860 polymorphism in the interleukin 28B gene (IL28B with the response to Peg-IFNα-2a/RBV combination therapy in Azerbaijani patients. Patients and Methods A total of fifty-one chronically HCV-1b-infected Azerbaijani patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from March 2010 to June 2015. After RNA extraction from pre-treatment plasma, the core region of the HCV genome was amplified using the nested reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR method, followed by standard sequencing. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC specimens, and the rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was identified using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. Results In this study, a significant association was observed between the non-responders and relapsers to antiviral therapy and substitutions in the HCV-1b core region at positions 43 (R43K, P = 0.047, 70 (R70Q, P < 0.001, 91 (M91L, P = 0.037, and 106 (S106N, P = 0.018. Concerning the IL28B polymorphism, the results showed that sustained virological response was significantly associated with homozygous CC patients (P = 0.009 as compared with other genotypes, while homozygous TT subjects were associated with HCV relapse after therapy (P = 0.006. Conclusions The data of the present study suggest that amino acid substitutions at position 43, 70, 91, and 106 in the HCV-1b core protein are correlated with the response to the Peg-IFNα-2a/RBV treatment in

  13. 套管跟进与绳索取心组合钻探技术的应用%Application of the Combined Drilling Technology of Drilling with Casing and Wire-line Coring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥虹

    2014-01-01

    针对贵州省清镇市犁倭乡红花寨、白浪坝铝土矿破碎、漏孔、坍塌掉块的灰岩地层,采用了套管跟进与绳索取心组合钻探技术,克服了常规钻探技术方法钻进困难的问题,顺利完成了ZK3369孔钻探任务,取得了良好的效果。在分析施工难点的基础上,介绍了在破碎、漏失、坍塌掉快地层中套管跟进与绳索取心组合钻探技术施工工艺。%According to the broken, leaking, clasping and block falling limestone formations of the bauxite in Guizhou, the combined drilling technology of drilling with casing and wire-line coring was used to overcome the difficulties of conventional drilling methods, ZK3369 hole drilling was successfully completed with good result.On the basis of the analysis on the con-struction difficulties, the paper introduces the combined drilling technology of drilling with casing and wire-line coring in the broken, leaking, clasping and block falling formations.

  14. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  15. FIRST INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBINED IMPACT OF IONIZING RADIATION AND MOMENTUM WINDS FROM A MASSIVE STAR ON A SELF-GRAVITATING CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoumou, Judith; Hubber, David; Dale, James E.; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: ngoumou@usm.uni-muenchen.de [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars shape the surrounding interstellar matter (ISM) by emitting ionizing photons and ejecting material through stellar winds. To study the impact of the momentum from the wind of a massive star on the surrounding neutral or ionized material, we implemented a new HEALPix-based momentum-conserving wind scheme in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code SEREN. A qualitative study of the impact of the feedback from an O7.5-like star on a self-gravitating sphere shows that on its own, the transfer of momentum from a wind onto cold surrounding gas has both a compressing and dispersing effect. It mostly affects gas at low and intermediate densities. When combined with a stellar source's ionizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, we find the momentum-driven wind to have little direct effect on the gas. We conclude that during a massive star's main sequence, the UV ionizing radiation is the main feedback mechanism shaping and compressing the cold gas. Overall, the wind's effects on the dense gas dynamics and on the triggering of star formation are very modest. The structures formed in the ionization-only simulation and in the combined feedback simulation are remarkably similar. However, in the combined feedback case, different SPH particles end up being compressed. This indicates that the microphysics of gas mixing differ between the two feedback simulations and that the winds can contribute to the localized redistribution and reshuffling of gas.

  16. Ability of combined Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Intravascular Ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) imaging to detect lipid core plaques and estimate cap thickness in human autopsy coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, S. J.; Su, J. L.; Greiner, C. A.; Saybolt, M. D.; Wilensky, R. L.; Raichlen, J. S.; Madden, S. P.; Muller, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to determine plaque cap thickness during catheterization is thought to be of clinical importance for plaque vulnerability assessment. While methods to compositionally assess cap integrity are in development, a method utilizing currently available tools to measure cap thickness is highly desirable. NIRS-IVUS is a commercially available dual imaging method in current clinical use that may provide cap thickness information to the skilled reader; however, this is as yet unproven. Ten autopsy hearts (n=15 arterial segments) were scanned with the multimodality NIRS-IVUS catheter (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx, Inc.) to identify lipid core plaques (LCPs). Skilled readers made predictions of cap thickness over regions of chemogram LCP, using NIRS-IVUS. Artery segments were perfusion fixed and cut into 2 mm serial blocks. Thin sections stained with Movat's pentachrome were analyzed for cap thickness at LCP regions. Block level predictions were compared to histology, as classified by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 arterial segments, 117 chemogram blocks were found by NIRS to contain LCP. Utilizing NIRSIVUS, chemogram blocks were divided into 4 categories: thin capped fibroatheromas (TCFA), thick capped fibroatheromas (ThCFA), pathological intimal thickening (PIT)/lipid pool (no defined cap), and calcified/unable to determine cap thickness. Sensitivities/specificities for thin cap fibroatheromas, thick cap fibroatheromas, and PIT/lipid pools were 0.54/0.99, 0.68/0.88, and 0.80/0.97, respectively. The overall accuracy rate was 70.1% (including 22 blocks unable to predict, p = 0.075). In the absence of calcium, NIRS-IVUS imaging provided predictions of cap thickness over LCP with moderate accuracy. The ability of this multimodality imaging method to identify vulnerable coronary plaques requires further assessment in both larger autopsy studies, and clinical studies in patients undergoing NIRS-IVUS imaging.

  17. 新Bobath疗法对脑瘫患儿独坐能力的影响%Analysis of the Effect of New Bobath Therapy Combined with Core Stability Training on Sitting Ability of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 田磊; 黄煜; 邓纬洋; 姜南

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of new Bobath therapy combined with core stability training on sitting ability of children with cerebral palsy.Methods:60 children with cerebral palsy were selected and divided randomly into 2 groups with 30 in each.The con-trol group received traditional bobath therapy.The observational group received the new Bobath therapy combined with core stability train-ing.The treatment lasts 3 months with 1 time each day and 5 times weekly.Both of the two groups were evaluated with GMFM-88( zone B) before and after the treatment on the sitting ability.Results:After the 3 months treatment, the scores on the GMFM-88(zone B) of both groups were improved significantly (P<0.05).The outcome of the observational group is significantly better than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The new Bobath therapy combined with core stability training is more efficient on improving sitting ability of chil-dren with cerebral palsy.%目的:探讨引入核心稳定性训练的新Bobath疗法对脑瘫患儿独坐能力的影响。方法:将60例脑性瘫痪儿童随机分为2组,每组30例。对照组采用传统的Bobath疗法,观察组采用引入核心稳定性训练的新Bobath疗法进行治疗。每天1次,每次40分钟,每周治疗5次,共治疗3个月。采用粗大运动功能量表( GMFM-88项)-B区对2组患儿治疗前后独坐能力的功能进行评估,并进行统计学分析。结果:治疗3个月后,2组患儿治疗后的GMFM ~B区评分均较治疗前提高( p<0.05),观察组的疗效优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(p<0.05)。结论:引入核心稳定性训练的新Bobath疗法对改善脑瘫患儿坐位能力效果更加显著。

  18. Treatment of femoral head necrosis by core decompression and stem cells transplantation combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine%髓芯减压植骨干细胞移植联合中药治疗股骨头坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁椿; 洪澜; 黄志辉; 崔华明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨髓芯减压植骨自体骨髓干细胞移植联合中药治疗股骨头坏死(ANFH)的的疗效.方法 股骨头坏死患者30例按治疗方法不同分为三组:髓芯减压植骨组(A组)10例,12髋;髓芯减压自体骨髓干细胞移植组(B组)10例,13髋;髓芯减压自体骨髓干细胞移植联合中药组(C组)10例,10髋.观察三组X线平片、CT及M砌检查、Harris评分(HHS)、疗效.结果 三组接受治疗的Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ期病例,3、6、12个月未出现股骨头变形及塌陷等病情恶化;术后12个月Harriss评分为93分明显高于术前57.5分(X2=5.81,P<0.05);术前MRI检查,测量低信号区所占股骨头体积比为42%.术后股骨头坏死区消失;B、C组总有效率高于A组(X2=3.81,X2=3.98,均P<0.05).结论髓芯减压植骨自体骨髓干细胞移植联合中药治疗股骨头坏死具有损伤小、简便、准确、有效的优点.%Objective To study curative effect of core decompression and autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation combined with traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of early femoral head necrosis (ANFH).Methods 30 patients with femoral head necrosis treated by different methods were divided into 3 groups: core decompression A group) 10 cases(12 hips) ;core decompression pus stem cells transplantation(B group) 10 cases(13 hips) ;core decompression pus stem cells transplantation combined with traditional Chinese medicine(C group) 10 ca-ses( 10 hips) ;The X-ray 、CT MRI、Harris score( HHS) .curative effect were observed.Results The phase of Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,in 3 groups didn't appear deformation and collapse at 3,6,12 months;The score of Harris after 12 months 93 points were higher than that preoperatively 57.5 points(χ 2= 5.81 ,P<0.05) ;The signal ratio of femoral head volume in MRI was 42% before treatment,disappearance of femoral head necrosis after treatment;Total curative effect of B,C group,werehighter than that Agroup(χ2 =3.81,χ2 =3.98,P<0.05).Conclusion The operative

  19. First Investigation of the Combined Impact of Ionizing Radiation and Momentum Winds from a Massive Star on a Self-Gravitating Core

    CERN Document Server

    Ngoumou, Judith; Dale, James E; Burkert, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars shape the surrounding ISM by emitting ionizing photons and ejecting material through stellar winds. To study the impact of the momentum from the wind of a massive star on the surrounding neutral or ionized material, we implemented a new HEALPix-based momentum conserving wind scheme in the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code SEREN. A qualitative study of the impact of the feedback from an O7.5-like star on a self gravitating sphere shows that, on its own, the transfer of momentum from a wind onto cold surrounding gas has both a compressing and dispersing effect. It mostly affects gas at low and intermediate densities. When combined with a stellar source's ionizing UV radiation, we find the momentum driven wind to have little direct effect on the gas. We conclude that, during a massive star's main sequence, the UV ionizing radiation is the main feedback mechanism shaping and compressing the cold gas. Overall, the wind's effects on the dense gas dynamics and on the triggering of star formati...

  20. Development of a 24-locus multiplex system to incorporate the core loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the European Standard Set (ESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Tian, Huaizhou; Jin, Ping; Jiang, Xianhua

    2014-01-01

    The 24-locus multiplex system allows co-amplification and fluorescent detection of 24 loci (23 STR loci and Amelogenin), including STR loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the ESS (European Standard Set) as well as five additional loci (D2S1338, D6S1043, D19S433, Penta D and Penta E) commonly used in commercial kits. It facilitates data sharing and minimizes adventitious matches within national or between international DNA databases. Additionally, the system can amplify directly from blood and buccal samples spotted on filter paper and swabs and reduce the cycling time to less than one hour and a half. Primers, internal size standard, allelic ladders and matrix standard set were designed and created in-house with a design strategy to work in this multiplex. Developmental validation experiments followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) and the Chinese National Standard (GA/T815-2009) guidelines. The system was evaluated by species specificity, sensitivity, stability, precision and accuracy, case-type samples, population, mixture and PCR-based studies. The results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex system is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing.

  1. Core Java

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2013-01-01

    Fully updated to reflect Java SE 7 language changes, Core Java™, Volume I—Fundamentals, Ninth Edition, is the definitive guide to the Java platform. Designed for serious programmers, this reliable, unbiased, no-nonsense tutorial illuminates key Java language and library features with thoroughly tested code examples. As in previous editions, all code is easy to understand, reflects modern best practices, and is specifically designed to help jumpstart your projects. Volume I quickly brings you up-to-speed on Java SE 7 core language enhancements, including the diamond operator, improved resource handling, and catching of multiple exceptions. All of the code examples have been updated to reflect these enhancements, and complete descriptions of new SE 7 features are integrated with insightful explanations of fundamental Java concepts.

  2. 结合颜色和纹理特征的岩心荧光图像含油级别判定%Determination of the Oil-bearing Grade of Core Fluorescent Image by Combining Color and Texture Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹磊; 卿粼波; 滕奇志; 何海波

    2016-01-01

    It is of practical significance for petroleum exploration to determine the oil‐bearing grade of core fluorescence image .Oil‐bearing grades of core have different color and texture features .By selecting sample image of oil‐bearing grade as a template ,image similarity is computed and then oil‐bearing grade of the fluorescent image is determined by combining color and texture features .Firstly ,according to the major colors ,non‐uniform quantization of HSV color histogram is done .Sec‐ondly ,LBP code is used to generate the LBP image and obtain the GLCM characteristic values of the LBP image to describe the texture feature of image .Finally ,the color similarity and texture similarity of fluorescent image are calculated respective‐ly using the Bhattacharyya distance ,and comprehensive similarity of multi‐feature fusion .Experimental results show that combining color and texture feature can improve the accuracy of the oil‐bearing grade of core fluorescence image .%判定岩心荧光图像的含油级别对石油勘探研究具有重要的实际应用价值。不同的含油级别表现为一定的颜色和纹理特征。通过选定含油级别示例图像作为模板,结合颜色和纹理特征计算待判定图像与模板图像间相似度,进而判定荧光图像的含油级别。首先,根据主要颜色非均匀量化 HSV 颜色直方图提取荧光图像的颜色特征。然后,利用 LBP 算子生成 LBP 图像,并对 LBP 图像求取 GLCM 特征值,来描述荧光图像的纹理特征。最后,使用巴氏距离分别计算待判定图像的颜色相似度和纹理相似度,并多特征融合得出综合相似度。实验结果表明,结合颜色和纹理特征能够提高岩心荧光图像含油级别判定的准确性。

  3. Effect of core decompression combined with stem cells transplantation for early femoral head necrosis%髓芯减压联合干细胞移植治疗早期股骨头坏死疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵运亮; 余进伟; 陈旭; 赵庆; 李德荣; 王斌; 白伟; 朱光普

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨髓芯减压联合干细胞移植治疗早期股骨头坏死的临床疗效.方法 对18例早期股骨头坏死患者行髓芯减压联合干细胞移植治疗,并观察临床疗效.结果 18例患者均顺利完成手术,平均手术时间(35.4±5.2) min;术后平均住院(8.5±1.2)d.术前Harris评分50.2±3.3,术后Harris评分为85.6±4.2,术后Harris评分显著高于术前(P<0.05).术前股骨头坏死中心区MRI影像低信号区所占比例为(26.2±6.3)%,术后为(11.3±4.3)%,术后股骨头坏死中心1 a MRI影像低信号区较术前明显减少(P<0.05).结论 髓芯减压联合干细胞移植治疗早期股骨头坏死疗效确切.%Objective To study the clinical effect of core decompression combined with stem cells transplantation for treatment of early femoral head necrosis. Methods Eighteen patients with early femoral head necrosis were treated with core decompression and stem cells transplantation, and the clinical effect was observed. Results The operations were successful in eighteen patients,the average operation time was (35.4±5.2) minutes,and the average hospital stay was (8.5 ±1.2) days. The Harris scores was 50. 2 ±3. 3 and 85. 6 ±4. 2 before and after treatment,the score after treatment was significantly higher than that before treatment ( P < 0. 05) . The ratio of low signal area of the central area of necrosis in MR] images was (26.2 ± 6.3)% and (11.3 ±4.3)% before and after treatment,the ratio after treatment was significantly lower than that before treat-ment(P<0. 05). Conclusion Core decompression combined with stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for early femoral head necrosis.

  4. Core stability training combined with alternating electromagnetic field therapy for treatment of central coordination disorder%核心稳定性训练联合交变电磁场治疗中枢性协调障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪菲; 赵晓冬; 徐明; 陈艳红; 季菊花; 张文

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of the core stability training combined with alternating electromagnetic field therapy for treatment of central coordination disorder. Methods:Ninety-five children with central coordination disorder of the spastic type were randomly divided into four groups:traditional group( n=23 cases) ,observation group( n=26 cases) ,training group( n=24 cases) and alternating electromagnetic field ( EMF ) group ( n =22 cases ) . The children in the traditional group were given only the routine rehabilitation training;the observation group received the core stability training combined with alternating electromagnetic field therapy, the training group received the core stability training and the EMF group received the alternating electromagnetic field therapy,all in addition to the routine rehabilitation training. The effect was evaluated by Bayley motor development index( PDI) and motor function. Results:The PDI of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the training group and the EMF group(P<0. 01);the PDI of the training group and the electromagnetic field group was significantly higher than that of the traditional group(P<0. 01). The follow-up results showed that the motor function index of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the traditional group (P<0. 01);The rates of normal head-raising in the training group and normal popliteal angle in the electromagnetic field group were higher than those in the traditional group(P<0. 01). Conclusions:Traditional rehabilitation therapy in combination with core stability training and alternating electromagnetic field therapy is more effective than traditional rehabilitation therapy alone in treatment of central coordination disorder.%目的:探讨核心稳定性训练联合交变电磁场治疗中枢性协调障碍的效果。方法:95例中枢性协调障碍痉挛型患儿随机分为传统组23例、观察组26例、训练组24例和电磁场组22

  5. A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.

  6. Aspects of functioning and environmental factors in medical work capacity evaluations of persons with chronic widespread pain and low back pain can be represented by a combination of applicable ICF Core Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical work capacity evaluations play a key role in social security schemes because they usually form the basis for eligibility decisions regarding disability benefits. However, the evaluations are often poorly standardized and lack transparency as decisions on work capacity are based on a claimant’s disease rather than on his or her functional capacity. A comprehensive and consistent illustration of a claimant’s lived experience in relation to functioning, applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the ICF Core Sets (ICF-CS), potentially enhances transparency and standardization of work capacity evaluations. In our study we wanted to establish whether and how the relevant content of work capacity evaluations can be captured by ICF-CS, using disability claimants with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and low back pain (LBP) as examples. Methods Mixed methods study, involving a qualitative and quantitative content analysis of medical reports. The ICF was used for data coding. The coded categories were ranked according to the percentage of reports in which they were addressed. Relevance thresholds at 25% and 50% were applied. To determine the extent to which the categories above the thresholds are represented by applicable ICF-CS or combinations thereof, measures of the ICF-CS’ degree of coverage (i.e. content validity) and efficiency (i.e. practicability) were defined. Results Focusing on the 25% threshold and combining the Brief ICF-CS for CWP, LBP and depression for CWP reports, the coverage ratio reached 49% and the efficiency ratio 70%. Combining the Brief ICF-CS for LBP, CWP and obesity for LBP reports led to a coverage of 47% and an efficiency of 78%. Conclusions The relevant content of work capacity evaluations involving CWP and LBP can be represented by a combination of applicable ICF-CS. A suitable standard for documenting such evaluations could consist of the Brief ICF-CS for CWP, LBP, and

  7. Aspects of functioning and environmental factors in medical work capacity evaluations of persons with chronic widespread pain and low back pain can be represented by a combination of applicable ICF Core Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwegler Urban

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical work capacity evaluations play a key role in social security schemes because they usually form the basis for eligibility decisions regarding disability benefits. However, the evaluations are often poorly standardized and lack transparency as decisions on work capacity are based on a claimant’s disease rather than on his or her functional capacity. A comprehensive and consistent illustration of a claimant’s lived experience in relation to functioning, applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and the ICF Core Sets (ICF-CS, potentially enhances transparency and standardization of work capacity evaluations. In our study we wanted to establish whether and how the relevant content of work capacity evaluations can be captured by ICF-CS, using disability claimants with chronic widespread pain (CWP and low back pain (LBP as examples. Methods Mixed methods study, involving a qualitative and quantitative content analysis of medical reports. The ICF was used for data coding. The coded categories were ranked according to the percentage of reports in which they were addressed. Relevance thresholds at 25% and 50% were applied. To determine the extent to which the categories above the thresholds are represented by applicable ICF-CS or combinations thereof, measures of the ICF-CS’ degree of coverage (i.e. content validity and efficiency (i.e. practicability were defined. Results Focusing on the 25% threshold and combining the Brief ICF-CS for CWP, LBP and depression for CWP reports, the coverage ratio reached 49% and the efficiency ratio 70%. Combining the Brief ICF-CS for LBP, CWP and obesity for LBP reports led to a coverage of 47% and an efficiency of 78%. Conclusions The relevant content of work capacity evaluations involving CWP and LBP can be represented by a combination of applicable ICF-CS. A suitable standard for documenting such evaluations could consist of the Brief ICF

  8. Effect of Molecular Guest Binding on the d-d Transitions of Ni(2+) of CPO-27-Ni: A Combined UV-Vis, Resonant-Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy, and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erik; Gorelov, Evgeny; Guda, Alexander A; Bugaev, Aram L; Bonino, Francesca; Borfecchia, Elisa; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Gianolio, Diego; Chavan, Sachin; Lamberti, Carlo

    2017-10-04

    We used Ni K-edge resonant-valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (RVtC-XES, also referred to as direct RIXS), an element-selective bulk-sensitive synchrotron-based technique, to investigate the electronic structure of the CPO-27-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) upon molecular adsorption of significant molecular probes: H2O, CO, H2S, and NO. We compare RVtC-XES with UV-vis spectroscopy, and we show that the element selectivity of RVtC-XES is of strategic significance to observe the full set of d-d excitations in Ni(2+), which are partially overshadowed by the low-energy π-π* transitions of the Ni ligands in standard diffuse-reflectance UV-vis experiments. Our combined RVtC-XES/UV-vis approach provides access to the whole set of d-d excitations, allowing us a complete discussion of the changes undergone by the electronic configuration of the Ni(2+) sites hosted within the MOF upon molecular adsorption. The experimental data have been interpreted by multiplet ligand-field theory calculations based on Wannier orbitals. This study represents a step further in understanding the ability of the CPO-27-Ni MOFs in molecular sorption and separation applications.

  9. Parotid incidentaloma identified by combined {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose whole-body positron emission tomography and computed tomography: findings at grayscale and power Doppler ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core-needle biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Rho, Byung Hak [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea); Won, Kyoung Sook [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    Twelve parotid incidentalomas in 10 consecutive subjects (nine with a known malignancy elsewhere and one presumptively healthy subject) identified by combined {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose whole-body positron emission tomography and computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) were investigated, with the aim of calculating maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of each FDG-avid focus, and identifying corresponding sonographic and pathologic findings. The results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) (n = 9) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) (n = 3) were Warthin tumor in 10 cases, and pleomorphic adenoma and chronic inflammation in one each. SUV{sub max} was 7.0-21.0 g/mL (average 13.7 g/mL) for Warthin tumor, 6.8 g/mL for pleomorphic adenoma, and 7.3 g/mL for chronic inflammation. Each FDG-avid focus corresponded to ovoid (n = 11) or lobulated (n = 1) hypoechoic mass on grayscale ultrasonography (US) and hypervascular mass, except one with chronic inflammation, on power Doppler (PD) US. Parotid incidentaloma identified by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT during workup of various malignancies elsewhere does not necessarily signify primary or metastatic malignancy, but indicates a high likelihood of benign lesions, particularly Warthin tumor. Such lesions should be evaluated thoroughly by US and ultrasound-guided FNAB or CNB if parotid disease would change the patient's treatment plan. (orig.)

  10. 联合检测丙型肝炎抗体和核心总抗原的临床价值探讨%Clinical value of combined detection of hepatitis C virus antibody and core antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 夏先考; 白驹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨联合检测丙型肝炎抗体和核心总抗原(HCV-cAg)在临床中的应用价值.方法 用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)法联合检测HCV抗体和HCV-cAg,并与荧光定量PCR法检测丙型肝炎核酸(HCV-RNA)的结果进行对照.结果 157例患者中共检出HCV抗体阳性149例、HCV-cAg阳性99例、HCV-RNA阳性115例;5例HCV抗体阴性而HCV-cAg阳性的患者,经HCV-RNA证实为HCV感染;共检出HCV抗体或HCV-cAg阳性154例,另外3例经HCV-RNA排除HCV感染.结论 联合检测HCV抗体和HCV-cAg提高了HCV感染的检出效率,可有效避免漏检,适合在普通医疗机构推广使用.%Objective To discuss the clinical application value of combined detection of hepatitis C virus antibody and core antigen(HCV-cAg).Methods Serum sample were combined tested for HCV antibody and HCV-cAg by enzyme-linked immnosorbent assy(ELISA)kit,then the results were compared with those detected by fluores-cent quantitation PCR for hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid(HCV-RNA).Results Among the 157 patients,149 were positive for HCV-Ab,99 positive for HCV-cAg and 115 for HCV-RNA.Respectively:5 patients who were negative for HCV antibody and positive for HCV-cAg were confirmed to be HCV infection by HCV-RNA.154 patients were positive for HCV antibody or HCV-cAg,the other 3 were excluded from HCV infection.Conclusion Combined detection of HCV antibody and HCV-cAS can improve the detection rate of HCV infection,avoid omission effectively,and is suitable for promotion in common medical institutions.

  11. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters.

  12. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  13. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  14. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  15. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  16. Core strength training using a combination of home exercises and a dynamic sling system for the management of low back pain in pre-professional ballet dancers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Jessica Beckmann; Krauss, John R; Maher, Sara F; Qu, Xianggui

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of low back pain prevalence in USA ballet dancers range from 8% to 23%. Lumbar stabilization and extensor muscle training has been shown to act as a hypoalgesic for low back pain. Timing and coordination of multifidi and transverse abdominis muscles are recognized as important factors for spinal stabilization. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of training methods using home exercises and a dynamic sling system on core strength, disability, and low back pain in pre-professional ballet dancers. Five participants were randomly assigned to start a traditional unsupervised lumbar stabilization home exercise program (HEP) or supervised dynamic sling training to strengthen the core and lower extremities. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6 for disability using the patient specific functional scale (PSFS), pain using the Numerical Pain Rating System (NPRS), core strength and endurance using timed plank, side-plank, and bridge positions, and sciatic nerve irritability using the straight leg raise (SLR). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. From initial to final measurements, all participants demonstrated an improvement in strength and SLR range, and those with initial pain and disability reported relief of symptoms. These results suggest that dynamic sling training and a HEP may help to increase strength, decrease pain, and improve function in dancers without aggravating sciatic nerve irritation.

  17. Comodules over semiperfect corings

    CERN Document Server

    Caenepeel, S

    2011-01-01

    We discuss when the Rat functor associated to a coring satisfying the left $\\alpha$-condition is exact. We study the category of comodules over a semiperfect coring. We characterize semiperfect corings over artinian rings and over qF-rings.

  18. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  19. Banded transformer cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  20. 丙肝抗体联合丙肝核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的意义%The significance of hepatitis C antibody combined hepatitis C virus core antigen test in the early diagnosis of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜坤; 毛元英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丙肝抗体联合丙肝核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的意义。方法:选取2013年1月到2014年12月在我院进行体检的人群23771例,所有体检者都进行了丙肝抗体检测,而21928例体检者进行了丙肝核心抗原检测,检测方法都为ELISA法。结果:ELISA法对于丙肝抗体与丙肝核心抗原的检测阳性率分别为0.70%和0.10%。结论:丙肝抗体联合丙肝核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的应用能有效判定丙型肝炎的传染性,值得推广应用。%Objective To discuss the significance of hepatitis C antibody combined hepatitis C virus core antigen test in the early diagnosis of hepatitis C.Methods We selected 23771 cases of physical examination from January 2013 to December 2014 in our hospital, all subjects were detected for hepatitis C antibody, 21928 subjects were tested for hepatitis C core antigen, detection method is ELISA. Results ELISA method was used to detect the positive rate for hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis C core antigen were 0.70% and 0.10%. Conclusion Hepatitis C antibody combined hepatitis C virus core antigen test can determine effectively hepatitis C infectivity in the early diagnosis of hepatitis C, it is worthy of popularization and application.

  1. Beyond core knowledge: Natural geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelke, Elizabeth; Lee, Sang Ah; Izard, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    For many centuries, philosophers and scientists have pondered the origins and nature of human intuitions about the properties of points, lines, and figures on the Euclidean plane, with most hypothesizing that a system of Euclidean concepts either is innate or is assembled by general learning processes. Recent research from cognitive and developmental psychology, cognitive anthropology, animal cognition, and cognitive neuroscience suggests a different view. Knowledge of geometry may be founded on at least two distinct, evolutionarily ancient, core cognitive systems for representing the shapes of large-scale, navigable surface layouts and of small-scale, movable forms and objects. Each of these systems applies to some but not all perceptible arrays and captures some but not all of the three fundamental Euclidean relationships of distance (or length), angle, and direction (or sense). Like natural number (Carey, 2009), Euclidean geometry may be constructed through the productive combination of representations from these core systems, through the use of uniquely human symbolic systems. PMID:20625445

  2. The core paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  3. K-core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander L. Wolman

    2011-01-01

    K-core inflation is a new class of underlying inflation measures. The two most popular measures of underlying inflation are core inflation and trimmed mean inflation. The former removes fixed categories of goods and services (food and energy) from the inflation calculation, and the latter removes fixed percentiles of the weighted distribution of price changes. In contrast, k-core inflation specifies a size of relative price change to be removed from the inflation calculation. Thus, the catego...

  4. 13CO Cores in Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Lei; Goldsmith, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Young stars form in molecular cores, which are dense condensations within molecular clouds. We have searched for $^{13}$CO $J=1\\to 0$ cores in the Taurus molecular cloud and studied their properties. Our data set has a spatial dynamic range (the ratio of linear map size to the pixel size) of about 1000 and spectrally resolved velocity information. We use empirical fit to the CO and CO$_2$ ice to correct the depletion. The core mass function (CMF) can be fitted better with a log-normal function than with a power law function. We also extract cores and calculate the CMF based on the integrated intensity of $^{13}$CO and the extinction from 2MASS. We demonstrate that there exists core blending, i.e. combined structures that are incoherent in velocity but continuous in column density. The resulting core samples based on 2D and 3D data thus differ significantly from each other. In particular, the cores derived from 2MASS extinction can be fitted with a power-law function, but not a log-normal function. The core ve...

  5. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments. DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  6. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  7. Core Forensics: Earth's Accretion and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badro, J.; Brodholt, J. P.; Siebert, J.; Piet, H.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    estimate outer-core density and bulk sound velocity, and combine it with seismology to define a range of possible compositions of the core that satisfies the observations, (3) a refined core formation model bringing together the continuousness of the overall process with the discreetness of the final impacts, and equilibrium thermodynamics with the non-equilibrium nature of certain processes (giant impacts, deep magma ocean). We propose a few strong constraints that come out from our models: (1) the Earth accreted in a rather oxidizing environment, (2) yielding an oxygen-rich core, in a (3) deep magma ocean (~1500 km) that could have (4) never been fully molten or fully equilibrated, at least during core extraction, despite the giant impacts.

  8. Design, synthesis and applications of core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle multifunctional nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Habila, Mohamed A; Labis, Joselito Puzon; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alhoshan, Mansour; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    With the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnology, studies have been focused on manipulating nanoparticle properties through the control of their size, composition, and morphology. As nanomaterial research has progressed, the foremost focus has gradually shifted from synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of properties to the investigation of function and the utility of integrating these materials and chemical sciences with the physical, biological, and medical fields, which therefore necessitates the development of novel materials that are capable of performing multiple tasks and functions. The construction of multifunctional nanomaterials that integrate two or more functions into a single geometry has been achieved through the surface-coating technique, which created a new class of substances designated as core-shell nanoparticles. Core-shell materials have growing and expanding applications due to the multifunctionality that is achieved through the formation of multiple shells as well as the manipulation of core/shell materials. Moreover, core removal from core-shell-based structures offers excellent opportunities to construct multifunctional hollow core architectures that possess huge storage capacities, low densities, and tunable optical properties. Furthermore, the fabrication of nanomaterials that have the combined properties of a core-shell structure with that of a hollow one has resulted in the creation of a new and important class of substances, known as the rattle core-shell nanoparticles, or nanorattles. The design strategies of these new multifunctional nanostructures (core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle) are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, different synthesis and fabrication approaches for multifunctional core-shell, hollow core-shell and rattle core-shell architectures are highlighted. Finally, in the last part of the article, the versatile and diverse applications of these nanoarchitectures in

  9. Design, synthesis and applications of core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle multifunctional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Habila, Mohamed A.; Labis, Joselito Puzon; Alothman, Zeid A.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Zhang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    With the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnology, studies have been focused on manipulating nanoparticle properties through the control of their size, composition, and morphology. As nanomaterial research has progressed, the foremost focus has gradually shifted from synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of properties to the investigation of function and the utility of integrating these materials and chemical sciences with the physical, biological, and medical fields, which therefore necessitates the development of novel materials that are capable of performing multiple tasks and functions. The construction of multifunctional nanomaterials that integrate two or more functions into a single geometry has been achieved through the surface-coating technique, which created a new class of substances designated as core-shell nanoparticles. Core-shell materials have growing and expanding applications due to the multifunctionality that is achieved through the formation of multiple shells as well as the manipulation of core/shell materials. Moreover, core removal from core-shell-based structures offers excellent opportunities to construct multifunctional hollow core architectures that possess huge storage capacities, low densities, and tunable optical properties. Furthermore, the fabrication of nanomaterials that have the combined properties of a core-shell structure with that of a hollow one has resulted in the creation of a new and important class of substances, known as the rattle core-shell nanoparticles, or nanorattles. The design strategies of these new multifunctional nanostructures (core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle) are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, different synthesis and fabrication approaches for multifunctional core-shell, hollow core-shell and rattle core-shell architectures are highlighted. Finally, in the last part of the article, the versatile and diverse applications of these nanoarchitectures in

  10. Ice Core Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  11. Making an Ice Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  12. Ice Core Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  13. Iowa Core Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  14. Mercury's core evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deproost, Marie-Hélène; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing data of Mercury's surface by MESSENGER indicate that Mercury formed under reducing conditions. As a consequence, silicon is likely the main light element in the core together with a possible small fraction of sulfur. Compared to sulfur, which does almost not partition into solid iron at Mercury's core conditions and strongly decreases the melting temperature, silicon partitions almost equally well between solid and liquid iron and is not very effective at reducing the melting temperature of iron. Silicon as the major light element constituent instead of sulfur therefore implies a significantly higher core liquidus temperature and a decrease in the vigor of compositional convection generated by the release of light elements upon inner core formation.Due to the immiscibility in liquid Fe-Si-S at low pressure (below 15 GPa), the core might also not be homogeneous and consist of an inner S-poor Fe-Si core below a thinner Si-poor Fe-S layer. Here, we study the consequences of a silicon-rich core and the effect of the blanketing Fe-S layer on the thermal evolution of Mercury's core and on the generation of a magnetic field.

  15. A fully automated and fast method using direct sample injection combined with fused-core column on-line SPE-HPLC for determination of ochratoxin A and citrinin in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotská, Ivona; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-05-01

    A new fast and sensitive method based on on-line solid-phase extraction on a fused-core precolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) determination in lager beer samples. Direct injection of 100 μL filtered beer samples into an on-line SPE-HPLC system enabled fast and effective sample extraction including separation in less than 6 min. Preconcentration of OTA and CIT from beer samples was performed on an Ascentis Express RP C18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase of methanol/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The flow switch from extraction column to analytical column in back-flush mode was set at 2.0 min and the separation was performed on the fused-core column Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 in a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 335/497 nm. The accuracy of the method, defined as the mean recoveries of OTA and CIT from light and dark beer samples, was in the range 98.3-102.1%. The method showed high sensitivity owing to on-line preconcentration; LOQ values were found to be 10 and 20 ng L(-1) for OTA and CIT, respectively. The found values of OTA and CIT in all tested light, dark and wheat beer samples were significantly below the maximum tolerable limits (3.0 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 2000 μg kg(-1) for CIT) set by the European Union.

  16. Mars' core and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D J

    2001-07-12

    The detection of strongly magnetized ancient crust on Mars is one of the most surprising outcomes of recent Mars exploration, and provides important insight about the history and nature of the martian core. The iron-rich core probably formed during the hot accretion of Mars approximately 4.5 billion years ago and subsequently cooled at a rate dictated by the overlying mantle. A core dynamo operated much like Earth's current dynamo, but was probably limited in duration to several hundred million years. The early demise of the dynamo could have arisen through a change in the cooling rate of the mantle, or even a switch in convective style that led to mantle heating. Presently, Mars probably has a liquid, conductive outer core and might have a solid inner core like Earth.

  17. The t-core of an s-core

    OpenAIRE

    Fayers, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We consider the $t$-core of an $s$-core partition, when $s$ and $t$ are coprime positive integers. Olsson has shown that the $t$-core of an $s$-core is again an $s$-core, and we examine certain actions of the affine symmetric group on $s$-cores which preserve the $t$-core of an $s$-core. Along the way, we give a new proof of Olsson's result. We also give a new proof of a result of Vandehey, showing that there is a simultaneous $s$- and $t$-core which contains all others.

  18. The t-core of an s-core

    OpenAIRE

    Fayers, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We consider the $t$-core of an $s$-core partition, when $s$ and $t$ are coprime positive integers. Olsson has shown that the $t$-core of an $s$-core is again an $s$-core, and we examine certain actions of the affine symmetric group on $s$-cores which preserve the $t$-core of an $s$-core. Along the way, we give a new proof of Olsson's result. We also give a new proof of a result of Vandehey, showing that there is a simultaneous $s$- and $t$-core which contains all others.

  19. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  20. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  1. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  2. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  3. Rich-cores in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Athen

    2014-01-01

    A core is said to be a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behavior of a network. Profiling this meso--scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex, and have scalability issues when dealing with very large networks. As a result, we are yet to fully understand its impact on network properties and dynamics. Here we introduce a simple method to profile this structure by combining the concepts of core/periphery and rich-club. The key challenge in addressing such association of the two concepts is to establish a way to define the membership of the core. The notion of a "rich-club" describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. Interestingly, the definition of a rich-club naturally emphasizes high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Our approach theoretically couples the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a rand...

  4. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  5. Dense Molecular Cores Being Externally Heated

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our study on eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3-160 {\\micron}) imaging observations with \\textit{AKARI} telescope and molecular line (HCN and N$_2$H$^+$) mapping observations with \\textit{KVN} telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to mm continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosity of $\\sim0.3-4.4$ L$_{\\odot}$. The other six cores are found to remain as starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3-6 K towards the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an over-dominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory mot...

  6. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  7. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  8. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  9. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  10. NICHD Zebrafish Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The core[HTML_REMOVED]s goal is to help researchers of any expertise perform zebrafish experiments aimed at illuminating basic biology and human disease mechanisms,...

  11. iPSC Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) Core was created in 2011 to accelerate stem cell research in the NHLBI by providing investigators consultation, technical...

  12. Reference: -300CORE [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -300CORE Forde BG, Heyworth A, Pywell J, Kreis M Nucleotide sequence of a B1 hordein gene and the identifica...tion of possible upstream regulatory elements in endosperm storage protein genes fr

  13. INTEGRAL core programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Schoenfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission is described with emphasis on the INTEGRAL core program. The progress made in the planning activities for the core program is reported on. The INTEGRAL mission has a nominal lifetime of two years with a five year extension option. The observing time will be divided between the core program (between 30 and 35 percent during the first two years) and general observations. The core program consists of three main elements: the deep survey of the Galactic plane in the central radian of the Galaxy; frequent scans of the Galactic plane in the search for transient sources, and pointed observations of several selected sources. The allocation of the observation time is detailed and the sensitivities of the observations are outlined.

  14. Focusing on Core Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China is regulating state-owned enterprises that are investing outside of their core business realms, concerned that poor investment decisions could lead to loss of state-owned assets, but some doubt the effect of the new regulation

  15. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  16. An efficient chemical analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in raw propolis by microwave-assisted extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography using the fused-core technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    A closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was optimized for the first time for the extraction of polyphenols from raw propolis. The results obtained by means of response surface experimental design methodology showed that the best global response was reached when the extraction temperature was set at 106 °C, the solvent composition close to EtOH-H2O 80:20 (v/v), with an extraction time of 15 min. In comparison with other techniques, such as maceration, heat reflux extraction (HRE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), the extraction with MAE was improved by shorter extraction time and lower volume of solvent needed. The HPLC analyses of propolis extracts were carried out on a fused-core Ascentis Express C18 column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D., 2.7 μm), with a gradient mobile phase composed by 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Detection was performed by DAD and MS. The method validation indicated that the correlation coefficients were >0.999; the limit of detection was in the range 0.5-0.8 μg/ml for phenolic acids and 1.2-3.0 μg/ml for flavonoids; the recovery range was 95.3-98.1% for phenolic acids and 94.1-101.3% for flavonoids; the intra- and inter-day %RSD values for retention times and peak areas were ≤ 0.3 and 2.2%, respectively. The quali- and quantitative analysis of polyphenols in Italian samples of raw propolis was performed with the validated method. Total phenolic acids ranged from 5.0 to 120.8 mg/g and total flavonoids from 2.5 to 168.0mg/g. The proposed MAE procedure and HPLC method can be considered reliable and useful tools for the comprehensive multi-component analysis of polyphenols in propolis extracts to be used in apitherapy.

  17. Core Physics and Kinetics Calculations for the Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C.; Albright, D.

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient, compact nuclear reactors would provide high specific impulse spacecraft propulsion. This analysis and numerical simulation effort has focused on the technical feasibility issues related to the nuclear design characteristics of a novel reactor design. The Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor (FPCR) is a shockwave-driven gaseous-core nuclear reactor, which uses Magneto Hydrodynamic effects to generate electric power to be used for propulsion. The nuclear design of the system depends on two major calculations: core physics calculations and kinetics calculations. Presently, core physics calculations have concentrated on the use of the MCNP4C code. However, initial results from other codes such as COMBINE/VENTURE and SCALE4a. are also shown. Several significant modifications were made to the ISR-developed QCALC1 kinetics analysis code. These modifications include testing the state of the core materials, an improvement to the calculation of the material properties of the core, the addition of an adiabatic core temperature model and improvement of the first order reactivity correction model. The accuracy of these modifications has been verified, and the accuracy of the point-core kinetics model used by the QCALC1 code has also been validated. Previously calculated kinetics results for the FPCR were described in the ISR report, "QCALC1: A code for FPCR Kinetics Model Feasibility Analysis" dated June 1, 2002.

  18. Novel Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder cores with ultra-low core losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous magnetic alloy powders were prepared from bulk metallic glasses Fe74Cr2Mo2Sn2P10Si4B4C2 with supercooled liq-uid region of 32 K by water atomization.Amorphous magnetic powder core precursor was produced from a mixture of the amorphous alloy powder with addition of insulation and bonding materials by mold compacting at room temperature.After annealing the core precursor,the amorphous magnetic core exhibits superior magnetic properties as compared with molypermalloy powder core.The initial permeability up to 1 MHz was about 80,the flux density at 300 Oe was 1.06 T and the core loss at 100 kHz for Bm=0.1 T was only 329 kW/m3.The ultra-low core loss is attributed to the combination of relatively high resistivity and the amorphous structure of the Fe-based amorphous powder.Besides the outstanding magnetic properties,the Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder core had a much lower cost which renders the powder cores a potential candidate for a variety of industrial applications.

  19. Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance in elite golfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jun Sung

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The combination of core and non-dominant arm strength exercises can provide a more effective specialized training program than core alone training for golfers to increase their drive distances.

  20. Packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  1. Core decompression combined with transplantation of artificial bone and concentrated autologous bone marrow for trea-ting early stage of femoral head avascular necrosis%髓芯减压联合人工骨与自体浓缩骨髓移植治疗早期股骨头缺血性坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红锁; 黄克; 李林; 韦程寿

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨髓芯减压联合人工骨与自体浓缩骨髓移植治疗早期股骨头缺血性坏死(ANFH)的近期疗效。方法选取2006年1月至2010年8月广西医科大学第三附属医院收治的27例ANFH患者纳入治疗组,另选取同期25例ANFH患者纳入对照组。治疗组患者采用髓芯减压联合人工骨与自体浓缩骨髓移植治疗;对照组患者行髓芯减压联合人工骨植入。根据髋关节Harris功能评分和影像学检查评定临床疗效。结果所有患者均经过7~29个月(平均13个月)的随访,治疗组Harris评分由术前的(51.6±4.2)分提高至术后的(81.5±7.9)分,且高于对照组术后的(70.2±3.6)分,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组患者除1例进展为国际骨循环研究会(ARCO)分期ARCOⅢ期外,其余患者股骨头囊变及坏死区面积减小或消失,未发生股骨头变扁、塌陷。结论髓芯减压联合人工骨与自体浓缩骨髓移植治疗早期股骨头缺血性坏死,可改善髋关节功能,延缓股骨头坏死的进一步发展。%Objective To investigate the short term effect of core decompression combined with transplanta‐tion of artificial bone and concentrated autologous bone marrow for treating early stage of avascular necrosis of femo‐ral head(ANFH) .Methods 27 patients with ANFH in our hospital from Jan .2006 to Aug .2010 were selected as the treatment group and contemporaneous 25 cases of ANFH as the control group .The treatment group was treated by core decompression combined with transplantation of artificial bone and concentrated autologous bone marrow , while the control group was only treated by core decompression combined with transplantation of artificial bone .The curative effect was assessed according to the Harris hip score and imaging examination .Results The average follow‐up period in all the cases was 13 months (7 -29 months) .The Harris hip scores

  2. Inner core structure behind the PKP core phase triplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Nienke A.; Deuss, Arwen; Paulssen, Hanneke; Waszek, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the Earth's inner core is not well known between depths of ∼100–200 km beneath the inner core boundary. This is a result of the PKP core phase triplication and the existence of strong precursors to PKP phases, which hinder the measurement of inner core compressional PKIKP waves at e

  3. Inner core structure behind the PKP core phase triplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Nienke A.; Deuss, Arwen; Paulssen, Hanneke; Waszek, Lauren

    The structure of the Earth's inner core is not well known between depths of ∼100–200 km beneath the inner core boundary. This is a result of the PKP core phase triplication and the existence of strong precursors to PKP phases, which hinder the measurement of inner core compressional PKIKP waves at

  4. Pressure Core Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates form under high fluid pressure and low temperature, and are found in permafrost, deep lakes or ocean sediments. Hydrate dissociation by depressurization and/or heating is accompanied by a multifold hydrate volume expansion and host sediments with low permeability experience massive destructuration. Proper characterization requires coring, recovery, manipulation and testing under P-T conditions within the stability field. Pressure core technology allows for the reliable characterization of hydrate bearing sediments within the stability field in order to address scientific and engineering needs, including the measurement of parameters used in hydro-thermo-mechanical analyses, and the monitoring of hydrate dissociation under controlled pressure, temperature, effective stress and chemical conditions. Inherent sampling effects remain and need to be addressed in test protocols and data interpretation. Pressure core technology has been deployed to study hydrate bearing sediments at several locations around the world. In addition to pressure core testing, a comprehensive characterization program should include sediment analysis, testing of reconstituted specimens (with and without synthetic hydrate), and in situ testing. Pressure core characterization technology can be used to study other gas-charged formations such as deep sea sediments, coal bed methane and gas shales.

  5. Study on pure silica core optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An optimal refractive index profile of pure silica core optical fiber (PSCF) was designed, in combination with the characters of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. Techniques of preform fabrication by a new furnace round heating MCVD process and fiber drawing process were reviewed. Difficulties in doping fluorine in silica, widening the depressed-index cladding and maintaining the index of fiber core were discussed. Methods used to overcome these difficulties were given at the same time. Additionally, the optimal refractive index profiles of PSCF were presented.

  6. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  7. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  8. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  9. An integral approach to investigate planetary cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The same core-mantle differentiation process was in operation during the early formation of the terrestrial planets, but it led to unique cores for the Earth, Venus, Mars, and Mercury, with different magnetic fields, reflecting their different dynamic, physical, and chemical states. Assuming all terrestrial planets shared the same materials of the building block, the differences must be resulted from the different conditions of the early accretion and the subsequent planetary evolution unique to each planet. The pressures at the core-mantle boundary of the terrestrial planets range from as low as 7 GPa to 136 GPa. The physical state (liquid or solid) for each planetary core is closely tied to the melting and chemical composition of the cores. In order to determine the minimal temperature of a liquid core or the maximal temperature of a solid core, we have systematically investigated melting relations in the binary systems Fe-FeS, Fe-C, and Fe-FeSi, move toward unravelling the crystallization sequence and element partitioning between solid and liquid metal in the ternary and quaternary systems up to 25 GPa, using multi-anvil apparatus. We have developed new techniques to analyze the quenched samples recovered from laser-heating diamond-anvil cell experiments using combination of focus ion beam (FIB) milling, high-resolution SEM imaging, and quantitative chemical analysis with silicon drift detector EDS. With precision milling of the laser-heating spot, we determined melting using quenching texture criteria imaged with high-resolution SEM and the sulfur partitioning between solid and liquid at submicron spatial resolution. We have also re-constructed 3D image of the laser-heating spot at multi-megabar pressures to better constrain melting point and understanding melting process. The new techniques allow us to extend precise measurements of melting relations to core pressures in the laser-heating diamond-anvil cell. In addition to the static experiments, we also used

  10. Investigation of EAS cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulov, S. B.; Beyl, P. F.; Beysembaev, R. U.; Beysembaeva, E. A.; Bezshapov, S. P.; Borisov, A. S.; Cherdyntceva, K. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Chubenko, A. P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Denisova, V. G.; Erlykin, A. D.; Kabanova, N. V.; Kanevskaya, E. A.; Kotelnikov, K. A.; Morozov, A. E.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Nam, R. A.; Nesterova, N. M.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Pavluchenko, V. P.; Piskal, V. V.; Puchkov, V. S.; Pyatovsky, S. E.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Schepetov, A. L.; Smirnova, M. D.; Stepanov, A. V.; Uryson, A. V.; Vavilov, Yu. N.; Vildanov, N. G.; Vildanova, L. I.; Zayarnaya, I. S.; Zhanceitova, J. K.; Zhukov, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS). These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC) as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons) in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015-1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum `knee' range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  11. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  12. Looking for Core Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  13. Nucleosome Core Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Nucleosome Core Particle grown on STS-81. The fundamental structural unit of chromatin and is the basis for organization within the genome by compaction of DNA within the nucleus of the cell and by making selected regions of chromosomes available for transcription and replication. Principal Investigator's are Dr. Dan Carter and Dr. Gerard Bunick of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  14. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  15. Modeling Core Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Core collapse supernovae, or the death throes of massive stars, are general relativistic, neutrino-magneto-hydrodynamic events. The core collapse supernova mechanism is still not in hand, though key components have been illuminated, and the potential for multiple mechanisms for different progenitors exists. Core collapse supernovae are the single most important source of elements in the Universe, and serve other critical roles in galactic chemical and thermal evolution, the birth of neutron stars, pulsars, and stellar mass black holes, the production of a subclass of gamma-ray bursts, and as potential cosmic laboratories for fundamental nuclear and particle physics. Given this, the so called ``supernova problem'' is one of the most important unsolved problems in astrophysics. It has been fifty years since the first numerical simulations of core collapse supernovae were performed. Progress in the past decade, and especially within the past five years, has been exponential, yet much work remains. Spherically symmetric simulations over nearly four decades laid the foundation for this progress. Two-dimensional modeling that assumes axial symmetry is maturing. And three-dimensional modeling, while in its infancy, has begun in earnest. I will present some of the recent work from the ``Oak Ridge'' group, and will discuss this work in the context of the broader work by other researchers in the field. I will then point to future requirements and challenges. Connections with other experimental, observational, and theoretical efforts will be discussed, as well.

  16. The Earth's Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  17. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  18. Languages for Dublin Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on languages for the Dublin Core, examines the experience of some related ways to seek semantic interoperability through simplicity: planned languages, interlingua constructs, and pidgins. Also defines the conceptual and organizational problem of maintaining a metadata standard in multiple languages. (AEF)

  19. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  20. The core and cosmopolitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlander, Linus; Frederiksen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Users often interact and help each other solve problems in communities, but few scholars have explored how these relationships provide opportunities to innovate. We analyze the extent to which people positioned within the core of a community as well as people that are cosmopolitans positioned...

  1. Schumpeter's core works revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    This paper organises Schumpeter’s core books in three groups: the programmatic duology,the evolutionaryeconomic duology,and the socioeconomic synthesis. By analysing these groups and their interconnections from the viewpoint of modern evolutionaryeconomics,the paper summarises resolved problems...

  2. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  3. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J. P.; Young, J. E.

    1983-10-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. The core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  5. "Cultural Guidance, System Security, Combination of Science and Practice":Research on the Education Effectiveness of the Core Values of Chinese Socialism in Higher Vocational Colleges%“文化引领、制度保障、理实结合”--高职院校社会主义核心价值观教育实效性路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭银年; 孟巧红

    2016-01-01

    To guide the higher vocational college students' Ideological and political education and improve the education effectiveness of the core values of Chinese socialism by the core values of Chinese socialism are propitious to realize the goal of talents in higher vocational colleges, improve vocational college students' professional quality and the education effectiveness of the core values of Chinese socialism. According to the current situation and influencing factors of the core values of Chinese socialism in higher vocational colleges, education on the core values of Chinese socialism of "cultural guidance, system security, combination of science and practice" is the important way to improve the education effectiveness of the core values of Chinese socialism in higher vocational colleges.%用社会主义核心价值观统领高职院校学生思想政治教育,提高社会主义核心价值观教育实效性有利于实现高职院校人才目标培养,有利于提升高职生职业素养,有利于提高社会主义核心价值观教育实效性。根据高职院校社会主义核心价值观教育现状和影响因素,进行“文化引领、制度保障、理实结合”的社会主义核心价值观教育,是提高高职院校社会主义核心价值观教育实效性的重要途径。

  6. 自体外周血干细胞移植与髓芯减压治疗系统性红斑狼疮并股骨头缺血性坏死%Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation combined with core decompression for the treatment of avacscular necrosis of the femoral head in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余莲; 陈隆天; 赖勤; 邱永荣; 黄建清; 林祺; 吴福春

    2014-01-01

    背景:自体外周血干细胞移植联合髓芯减压与单纯髓芯减压治疗系统性红斑狼疮合并股骨头缺血坏死的疗效是否不同,相关报道较少。  目的:观察自体外周血干细胞移植联合髓芯减压治疗系统性红斑狼疮合并股骨头缺血性坏的临床疗效。  方法:选择2004年10月至2014年10月在福建医科大学附属龙岩第一医院住院的系统性红斑狼疮合并股骨头缺血性坏死患者,按治疗方法不同分为移植组(n=22)和对照组(n=26),分别采用自体外周血干细胞移植联合髓芯减压治疗和单纯髓芯减压治疗。  结果与结论:与治疗前相比,移植组患者治疗后1周白细胞、红细胞沉降率、C-反应蛋白、补体 C3、补体C4水平明显上升,且治疗前后谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶、血肌酐、尿酸、IgM、IgG、IgA、ds-DNA水平均在正常范围。与对照组相比,治疗组患者治疗后Harris评分(6,12,24个月)升高,目测类比评分(12,24个月)降低,且MRI T1信号区所占股骨头体积的百分比降低。提示自体外周血干细胞移植联合髓芯减压治疗系统性红斑狼疮合并早中期股骨头缺血性坏死疗效优于单纯髓芯减压,可显著减轻患者关节疼痛,改善股骨头血液供应,明显恢复关节功能,有效防止股骨头进一步塌陷,是安全有效的保头治疗方法。%BACKGROUND:There are less studies addressing whether the clinical outcomes about the autologous peripheral blood stem cel transplantation combined with core decompression for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with avascular necrosis of the femoral head are different from the simple core decompression. OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical outcomes of autologous peripheral blood stem cel transplantation combined with core decompression for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with avascular necrosis of the femoral head

  7. Evolution of EDFA from single-core to multi-core and related recent progress in optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-11-01

    A compact 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser-diode (LD)-pumped erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier (EDFA) was invented in 1989 and it revolutionized optical communication in combination with a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique. Recently, in addition to the existing single-core EDFA, a multi-core EDFA, which employs space division multiplexing (SDM), was developed to increase transmission capacity even further. The first half of this paper describes the evolution of the EDFA from a single-core to a multi-core device and the second half focuses on related topics in optical communication.

  8. Application of Core Dynamics Modeling to Core-Mantle Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia

    2003-01-01

    Observations have demonstrated that length of day (LOD) variation on decadal time scales results from exchange of axial angular momentum between the solid mantle and the core. There are in general four core-mantle interaction mechanisms that couple the core and the mantle. Of which, three have been suggested likely the dominant coupling mechanism for the decadal core-mantle angular momentum exchange, namely, gravitational core-mantle coupling arising from density anomalies in the mantle and in the core (including the inner core), the electromagnetic coupling arising from Lorentz force in the electrically conducting lower mantle (e.g. D-layer), and the topographic coupling arising from non-hydrostatic pressure acting on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) topography. In the past decades, most effort has been on estimating the coupling torques from surface geomagnetic observations (kinematic approach), which has provided insights on the core dynamical processes. In the meantime, it also creates questions and concerns on approximations in the studies that may invalidate the corresponding conclusions. The most serious problem is perhaps the approximations that are inconsistent with dynamical processes in the core, such as inconsistencies between the core surface flow beneath the CMB and the CMB topography, and that between the D-layer electric conductivity and the approximations on toroidal field at the CMB. These inconsistencies can only be addressed with numerical core dynamics modeling. In the past few years, we applied our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent and Three-dimensional) core dynamics model to study core-mantle interactions together with geodynamo simulation, aiming at assessing the effect of the dynamical inconsistencies in the kinematic studies on core-mantle coupling torques. We focus on topographic and electromagnetic core-mantle couplings and find that, for the topographic coupling, the consistency between the core flow and the CMB topography is

  9. 关于中国传统文论哲学核心组合式及其历史主线的发现--从解析魏晋文艺美学方法论出发%The Philosophical Core Combination of Chinese Traditional Literary Theory and the Discovery of Its Historical Clue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继勇; 田培春

    2015-01-01

    This research finds that there are metaphorical excellence in expressions within Chinese tra‐ditional literary theory and its aesthetic thought ;it is a combination of philosophical core summarized from the poetic wisdom of traditional literature ,which is dual but not unitary .According to the research in Wei‐Jin period ,it is clearly to see that the Chinese literary theory always follows the clue of philosophical core . The methodology suggests that people should not be limited by its appearance ,but goes deep into its ori‐gin .Contemporary literary theory should follow the main clue ,inherit the tradition and demonstrate the Chinese characteristics .%发现在中国传统文论及其审美思想中持续潜含着显‐隐同构律,即文论诗性智慧的纵深可析出的哲学内核组成式,属二元同构而非单一的;从魏晋始探其源、追其流可见,中国文艺理论史始终潜含着这种哲学内核的运行主线,此乃文脉所系。其方法论启示人们不为表象所限而扩展审美视域、索隐启蔽、关注本源;当代文论建设基于这一主线所呈规律,才能继承传统而充分彰显中国特色。

  10. Secular variation and core-flow modelling with stable strafication at the top of the core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Richard; Buffett, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Observed geomagnetic secular variation has been used for many years to provide an observational constraint on the dynamics of the core through the modelling of its surface flow. Recent results in both seismology and mineral physics provide strong evidence of a stably stratified layer at the top of the core, which has substantial implications for the calculation of such flows. It has been assumed for many years that the dynamic state at the core surface is close to tangentially geostrophic, and pure stable stratification also requires a flow to be toroidal. Combining these two conditions requires variations in flow that are completely zonal toroidal, which are known not to provide an adequate explanation of the observed secular variation. However, a stably stratified layer can support flow instabilities of a more general character. Buffett (2014) has recently provided a model in which zonal toroidal motions are associated with the excitation of a zonal poloidal instability. This model is able to explain the broad variation of the axial dipole over the past 100 years, and also to explain feature of geomagnetic jerks that cannot be explained by purely torsional motions. This model has inspired a new generation of core-flow models, with a substantial time-varying zonal poloidal component, something that is absent from most models of core surface flow. Here, we present these new models, and consider to what extent this flow structure can explain the details of secular variation. We also consider the implications for the connection between core-surface flow and length-of-day variation - a stably stratified layer has implications for the interpretation of core flow and the Earth's angular momentum budget. Finally, we consider the ability of core-surface flow models to probe the structure of the stably- stratified layer. Buffett (2014). Geomagnetic fluctuations reveal stable stratification at the top of the Earth's core, Nature 507, 484-487, doi:10.1038/nature13122

  11. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design. Development of advanced PWR core neutronics analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Kim, Seung Cho; Kim, Taek Kyum; Cho, Jin Young; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Jung Hun; Jung, Gu Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The neutronics design system of the advanced PWR consists of (i) hexagonal cell and fuel assembly code for generation of homogenized few-group cross sections and (ii) global core neutronics analysis code for computations of steady-state pin-wise or assembly-wise core power distribution, core reactivity with fuel burnup, control rod worth and reactivity coefficients, transient core power, etc.. The major research target of the first year is to establish the numerical method and solution of multi-group diffusion equations for neutronics code development. Specifically, the following studies are planned; (i) Formulation of various numerical methods such as finite element method(FEM), analytical nodal method(ANM), analytic function expansion nodal(AFEN) method, polynomial expansion nodal(PEN) method that can be applicable for the hexagonal core geometry. (ii) Comparative evaluation of the numerical effectiveness of these methods based on numerical solutions to various hexagonal core neutronics benchmark problems. Results are follows: (i) Formulation of numerical solutions to multi-group diffusion equations based on numerical methods. (ii) Numerical computations by above methods for the hexagonal neutronics benchmark problems such as -VVER-1000 Problem Without Reflector -VVER-440 Problem I With Reflector -Modified IAEA PWR Problem Without Reflector -Modified IAEA PWR Problem With Reflector -ANL Large Heavy Water Reactor Problem -Small HTGR Problem -VVER-440 Problem II With Reactor (iii) Comparative evaluation on the numerical effectiveness of various numerical methods. (iv) Development of HEXFEM code, a multi-dimensional hexagonal core neutronics analysis code based on FEM. In the target year of this research, the spatial neutronics analysis code for hexagonal core geometry(called NEMSNAP-H temporarily) will be completed. Combination of NEMSNAP-H with hexagonal cell and assembly code will then equip us with hexagonal core neutronics design system. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. USGS Core Research Center (CRC) Collection of Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Core Research Center (CRC) was established in 1974 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to preserve valuable rock cores for use by scientists and educators from...

  13. Ice Cores of the National Ice Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility for storing, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world. It provides...

  14. Reconstruction of 3-D digital cores using a hybrid method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xuefeng; Sun Jianmeng; Wang Haitao

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D digital core describes the pore space microstructure of rocks. An X-ray micro CT scan is the most accurate and direct but costly method to obtain a 3-D digital core. In this study, we propose a hybrid method which combines sedimentation simulation and simulated annealing (SA) method to generate 3-D digital cores based on 2-D images of rocks. The method starts with the sedimentation simulation to build a 3-D digital core, which is the initial configuration for the SA method. We update the initial digital core using the SA method to match the auto-correlation function of the 2-D rock image and eventually build the final 3-D digital core. Compared with the typical SA method, the hybrid method has significantly reduced the computation time. Local porosity theory is applied to quantitatively compare the reconstructed 3-D digital cores with the X-ray micro CT 3-D images. The results indicate that the 3-D digital cores reconstructed by the hybrid method have homogeneity and geometric connectivity similar to those of the X-ray micro CT image. The formation factors and permeabilities of the reconstructed 3-D digital cores are estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Comparison of the simulation results suggests that the digital cores reconstructed by the hybrid method more closely reflect the true transport properties than the typical SA method alone.

  15. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-07-28

    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  16. Geomagnetism of earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation, analytical methods, and research goals for understanding the behavior and source of geophysical magnetism are reviewed. Magsat, launched in 1979, collected global magnetometer data and identified the main terrestrial magnetic fields. The data has been treated by representing the curl-free field in terms of a scalar potential which is decomposed into a truncated series of spherical harmonics. Solutions to the Laplace equation then extend the field upward or downward from the measurement level through intervening spaces with no source. Further research is necessary on the interaction between harmonics of various spatial scales. Attempts are also being made to analytically model the main field and its secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Work is also being done on characterizing the core structure, composition, thermodynamics, energetics, and formation, as well as designing a new Magsat or a tethered satellite to be flown on the Shuttle.

  17. Geomagnetism of earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation, analytical methods, and research goals for understanding the behavior and source of geophysical magnetism are reviewed. Magsat, launched in 1979, collected global magnetometer data and identified the main terrestrial magnetic fields. The data has been treated by representing the curl-free field in terms of a scalar potential which is decomposed into a truncated series of spherical harmonics. Solutions to the Laplace equation then extend the field upward or downward from the measurement level through intervening spaces with no source. Further research is necessary on the interaction between harmonics of various spatial scales. Attempts are also being made to analytically model the main field and its secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Work is also being done on characterizing the core structure, composition, thermodynamics, energetics, and formation, as well as designing a new Magsat or a tethered satellite to be flown on the Shuttle.

  18. Dynamics of core accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2013-02-01

    We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either `locally isothermal' or `locally isentropic') and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as defined by locally isothermal or

  19. Clinical effects of the combination of electric acupuncture and core muscular training on nonspecific low back pain%电针结合核心肌群训练治疗非特异性下腰痛的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雯丽; 徐道明; 刘静; 吴文忠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨电针结合核心肌群训练治疗非特异性下腰痛的临床疗效。方法:选取符合诊断标准的非特异性下腰痛患者60例,随机把患者分为观察组和对照组各30例,2组均进行电针治疗,观察组加用核心肌群训练,共治疗2周。在治疗前、治疗第2周结束时及治疗结束后3个月随访时分别使用疼痛视觉类比评分法(VAS)评估疼痛强度,使用改良日本骨科协会(JOA)腰痛疗效问卷评分观察腰痛改善情况。结果:治疗2周后,2组患者改良JOA 腰痛疗效评分及 VAS 评分均较治疗前有显著改善(P <0.05),且观察组更优于对照组(P <0.05);治疗3个月后随访,观察组的复发率明显低于对照组(10.0%、30.0%,P <0.05)。结论:电针治疗结合腰部核心肌群训练治疗非特异性下腰痛2周的临床疗效优于单纯电针治疗,不易复发。%Objective:To observe the clinical effects of combination of electric acupuncture (EA)and core muscular training on nonspecific low back pain.Methods:Sixty patients with nonspecific low back pain who met the diagnos-tic criteria were selected.The random sampling was adopted to further divide the cases into two groups with 30 ca-ses respectively.They were set as the experimental group (combination of EA and core muscular training group) and the control group (EA treatment group).Two groups did their treatment once a day (5 times a week)for two weeks.Visual analogue scale (VAS)and Japanese orthopaedic association (JOA)were used to assess pain intensity and the performance of alleviating pain before the treatment,after the first two weeks and in the end of treatment. Results:As compared with the situation before the treatment,after the first two weeks of treatment,the scores of JOA and VAS were changed significantly in both groups (P <0.05).After the first two weeks of treatment,there were great differences between the experiment group

  20. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  1. Central core disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth Heinz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Central core disease (CCD is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1 gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1. Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s. The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome.

  2. Core-seis: a code for LMFBR core seismic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellapandi, P.; Ravi, R.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Reactor Group

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with a computer code CORE-SEIS specially developed for seismic analysis of LMFBR core configurations. For demonstrating the prediction capability of the code, results are presented for one of the MONJU reactor core mock ups which deals with a cluster of 37 subassemblies kept in water. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Core Exercises: Why You Should Strengthen Your Core Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness You know core exercises are good for you — but do you include core exercises in your fitness routine? Here's why ... 18, 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/core-exercises/art-20044751 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. ICF Core Sets for stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szilvia Geyh; Alarcos Cieza; Jan Schouten; Hugh Dickson; Peter Frommelt; Zaliha Omar; Nenad Kostanjsek; Haim Ring; Gerold Stucki

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report on the results of the consensus process integrating evidence from preliminary studies to develop the first version of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set and the Brief ICF Core Set for stroke. Methods...

  5. Deconvolution-based resolution enhancement of chemical ice core records obtained by continuous flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann;

    2005-01-01

    Continuous flow analysis (CFA) has become a popular measuring technique for obtaining high-resolution chemical ice core records due to an attractive combination of measuring speed and resolution. However, when analyzing the deeper sections of ice cores or cores from low-accumulation areas, there ...

  6. Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Wheeler, N V; Couny, F; Roberts, P J; Benabid, F

    2011-03-01

    We report on the fabrication of a seven-cell-core and three-ring-cladding large-pitch Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) with a hypocycloid-shaped core structure. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the design of this core shape enhances the coupling inhibition between the core and cladding modes and offers optical attenuation with a baseline of ∼180 dB/km over a transmission bandwidth larger than 200 THz. This loss figure rivals the state-of-the-art photonic bandgap HC-PCF while offering an approximately three times larger bandwidth and larger mode areas. Also, it beats the conventional circular-core-shaped Kagome HC-PCF in terms of the loss. The development of this novel (to our knowledge) HC-PCF has potential for a number of applications in which the combination of a large optical bandwidth and a low loss is a prerequisite.

  7. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  8. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  9. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  10. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  11. 循证护理结合PBL教学法在五官科护理教学中对护生核心能力的影响%Effect of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based nursing on nursing students,core competencies in the ;teaching of nursing for ENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑾; 高雯; 熊晖雯; 姚丽文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing on nursing students ,core competencies in the teaching of nursing for ENT .Methods There are 40 cases of TCM nursing students(grade 2013)were selected and divided into the experimental group and 40 cases of TCM nursing students(grade 2012)were selected and divided into the control group .The control group applicate the traditional way of teaching and the experimental group applicate the teaching of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing .Results The total score of theory examination in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group(P<0 .05) .There were significant differences in the self‐rating and teacher‐rating results between the two groups(P<0 .05 or P<0 .02 or P<0 .005 or P<0 .001) .Conclusion The teaching method of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing can ensure the quality of teaching .It is better than traditional teaching in leadership ,team communication skills ,self‐study ability and thought ability .The teaching method of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing can improve nursing students ,core competencies ,can help nursing students ,future career development .%目的:探讨在五官科护理教学中应用循证护理结合 PBL教学法对护生核心能力的影响。方法选取2013年上海中医药大学3年级护生40例实验组,以2012年40例为对照组。对照组采用传统授课法,试验组采用循证护理结合PBL教学法。结果实验组护生理论成绩高于对照组(P<0.05)。且两组核心能力自评及教师他评结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或 P<0.02或 P<0.005或 P<0.001)。结论循证护理结合PBL教学法能保证教学质量,较传统教学法在提高学生领导能力、团队沟通力、专业自学能力、批判性思维能力等方面有优势,有助于提高护生

  12. Improved Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, Sami; Laarman, Alfons; Petrucci, Laure; Pol, van de Jaco; Ramesh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents CNDFS, a tight integration of two earlier multi-core nested depth-first search (NDFS) algorithms for LTL model checking. CNDFS combines the different strengths and avoids some weaknesses of its predecessors. We compare CNDFS to an earlier ad-hoc combination of those two algorithm

  13. Improved Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, Sami; Laarman, Alfons; Petrucci, Laure; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Ramesh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents CNDFS, a tight integration of two earlier multi-core nested depth-first search (NDFS) algorithms for LTL model checking. CNDFS combines the different strengths and avoids some weaknesses of its predecessors. We compare CNDFS to an earlier ad-hoc combination of those two

  14. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  15. PWR core stablity aganst xenon-induced spatial power oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.J.; Han, K.I. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1982-06-01

    Stability of a PWR core against xenon-induced axial power oscillation is studied using one-dimensional xenon transient analysis code, DD1D, that has been developed and verified at KAERI. Analyzed by DD1D utilizing the Kori Unit 1 design and operating data is the sensitivity of axial stability in a PWR core to the changes in core physical parameters including core power level, moderator temperature coefficient, core inlet temperature, doppler power coefficient and core average burnup. Through the sensitivity study the Kori Unit 1 core is found to be stable against axial xenon oscillation at the beginning of cycle 1. But, it becomes less stable as burnup progresses, and unstable at the end of cycle. Such a decrease in stability is mainly due to combined effect of changes in axial power distribution, moderator temperature coefficient and doppler power coefficient as core burnup progresses. It is concluded from the stability analysis of the Kori Unit 1 core that design of a large PWR with high power density and increased dimension can not avoid xenon-induced axial power instabilites to some extents, especially at the end of cycle.

  16. Effects of lower limb motion control training combined with core stability training on the lower limb motor function of hemiplegic patients after stroke%下肢运动控制训练联合核心稳定性训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志成; 朱晓军; 管重远; 郭远滢; 叶菁菁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of lower limb motion control training using virtual games combined with core stability training (CST) on the lower limb motor function of hemiplegic patients after stroke.Methods Sixty hemiplegic stroke patients were divided into an observation group and a control group (n =30 in each) using a random number table.The control group was given conventional treatment and CST,while the observation group received lower limb motion control training using virtual games in addition to conventional treatment and CST.All of the patients were assessed using the Fugl-Meyer lower limb assessment (FMA),the Berg balance scale (BBS),the modified Barthel index (MBI),10 metre maximum walking speed (MWS) and functional ambulation categorization (FAC)before and after 8 weeks of treatment.Results Before the intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the measurements.After the treatment,however,the average FMA,BBS,MBI,MWS and FAC in the observation group were significantly better than those before treatment and those in the control group.Conclusions Lower limb motion control training using virtual games combined with core stability training can improve effectively the lower limb motor function of hemiplegic patients after stroke.Such a combination is worth applying in clinical practice.%目的 观察基于虚拟游戏的下肢运动控制训练联合核心稳定性训练对脑卒中后下肢功能恢复的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将60例脑卒中偏瘫患者分为观察组及对照组,每组30例.对照组患者给予常规康复训练及核心稳定性训练,观察组患者在此基础上辅以基于虚拟游戏的下肢运动控制训练.于治疗前、治疗8周后分别采用下肢Fugl-Meyer运动功能评分(FMA)、Berg平衡量表(BBS)、改良Barthel指数(MBI)、功能性步行分级(FAC)及10 m最大步行速度(MWS)对2组患者进行疗效评定.结果 治疗前2组患者FMA、BBS、MBI评

  17. SMA millimeter observations of Hot Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Hernández, Vicente; Kurtz, Stan; Garay, Guido

    2014-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations, in the 1.3 mm continuum and the CH_3CN(12-11) line of 17 hot molecular cores associated with young high-mass stars. The angular resolution of the observations ranges from 1".0 to 4".0. The continuum observations reveal large (>3500 AU) dusty structures with gas masses from 7 to 375 Msun, that probably surround multiple young stars. The CH_3CN line emission is detected toward all the molecular cores at least up to the K=6-component and is mostly associated with the emission peaks of the dusty objects. We used the multiple K-components of the CH_3CN and both the rotational diagram method and a simultaneous synthetic LTE model with the XCLASS program to estimate the temperatures and column densities of the cores. For all sources, we obtained reasonable fits from XCLASS by using a model that combines two components: an extended and warm envelope, and a compact hot core of molecular gas, suggesting internal heating by recently formed massive stars. The rotational temper...

  18. Low loss and broadband hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Gerome, F.; Humbert, G.; Blondy, J. M.; Benabid, F.

    2011-03-01

    We report on recent developments on fabrication and optical guidance of Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). These include the design and fabrication of a hypocycloid-shaped core Kagome HC-PCF that combines a record optical attenuation with a baseline exhibiting ~180 dB/km over a transmission bandwidth larger than 200 THz. These results are corroborated with theoretical simulations which show that both the core-shape and the cladding ring number play role in inhibited coupling, inducing core-mode confinement for the fundamental transmission band. We also show that the inhibited coupling is weaker for the first higher-order transmission band by theoretically and experimentally comparing Kagome HC-PCF with a single anti-resonant ring hollow-core fiber.

  19. Out-of-core clustering of volumetric datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRANBERG Carl J.; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for dividing and clustering large volumetric scalar out-of-core datasets. This work is based on the Ordered Cluster Binary Tree (OCBT) structure created using a top-down or divisive clustering method. The OCBT structure allows fast and efficient sub volume queries to be made in combination with level of detail (LOD) queries of the tree. The initial partitioning of the large out-of-core dataset is done by using non-axis aligned planes calculated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A hybrid OCBT structure is also proposed where an in-core cluster binary tree is combined with a large out-of-core file.

  20. Nanoparticle functionalised small-core suspended-core fibre – a novel platform for efficient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Brenda; Csáki, Andrea; Thiele, Matthias; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schwuchow, Anka; Kobelke, Jens; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Markus A.

    2017-01-01

    Detecting small quantities of specific target molecules is of major importance within bioanalytics for efficient disease diagnostics. One promising sensing approach relies on combining plasmonically-active waveguides with microfluidics yielding an easy-to-use sensing platform. Here we introduce suspended-core fibres containing immobilised plasmonic nanoparticles surrounding the guiding core as a concept for an entirely integrated optofluidic platform for efficient refractive index sensing. Due to the extremely small optical core and the large adjacent microfluidic channels, over two orders of magnitude of nanoparticle coverage densities have been accessed with millimetre-long sample lengths showing refractive index sensitivities of 170 nm/RIU for aqueous analytes where the fibre interior is functionalised by gold nanospheres. Our concept represents a fully integrated optofluidic sensing system demanding small sample volumes and allowing for real-time analyte monitoring, both of which are highly relevant within invasive bioanalytics, particularly within molecular disease diagnostics and environmental science. PMID:28270985

  1. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.

  2. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D E, E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, Texas, 78681 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years{sup 1} fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1{sup 2}. A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  3. Nonlinear Light Dynamics in Multi-Core Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    be generated in continuous-discrete optical media such as multi-core optical fiber or waveguide arrays; localisation dynamics in a continuous...space and time that can be generated in continuous-discrete optical media such as multi-core optical fiber or waveguide arrays; localisation dynamics in...gives another practical possibility to localize and control light both in space and time. The combination of these two features leads to a rich variety

  4. Growth outside the core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Chris; Allen, James

    2003-12-01

    Growth in an adjacent market is tougher than it looks; three-quarters of the time, the effort fails. But companies can change those odds dramatically. Results from a five-year study of corporate growth conducted by Bain & Company reveal that adjacency expansion succeeds only when built around strong core businesses that have the potential to become market leaders. And the best place to look for adjacency opportunities is inside a company's strongest customers. The study also found that the most successful companies were able to consistently, profitably outgrow their rivals by developing a formula for pushing out the boundaries of their core businesses in predictable, repeatable ways. Companies use their repeatability formulas to expand into any number of adjacencies. Some companies make repeated geographic moves, as Vodafone has done in expanding from one geographic market to another over the past 13 years, building revenues from $1 billion in 1990 to $48 billion in 2003. Others apply a superior business model to new segments. Dell, for example, has repeatedly adapted its direct-to-customer model to new customer segments and new product categories. In other cases, companies develop hybrid approaches. Nike executed a series of different types of adjacency moves: it expanded into adjacent customer segments, introduced new products, developed new distribution channels, and then moved into adjacent geographic markets. The successful repeaters in the study had two common characteristics. First, they were extraordinarily disciplined, applying rigorous screens before they made an adjacency move. This discipline paid off in the form of learning curve benefits, increased speed, and lower complexity. And second, in almost all cases, they developed their repeatable formulas by studying their customers and their customers' economics very, very carefully.

  5. 19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Jun; Klaus, Werner; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Awaji, Yoshinari; Wada, Naoya; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Maeda, Koichi; Tadakuma, Masateru; Imamura, Katsunori; Sugizaki, Ryuichi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Tottori, Yusaku; Watanabe, Masayuki; Jensen, R V

    2014-01-13

    We report the development of a space division multiplexed (SDM) transmission system consisting of a 19-core fiber and 19-core Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). A new 19-core fiber with an improved core arrangement was employed to achieve a low aggregated inter-core crosstalk of -42 dB at 1550 nm over 30 km. The EDFA uses shared free-space optics for pump beam combining and isolation, thus is SDM transparent and has some potential for cost reduction. 19.6 dB to 23.3 dB gain and 6.0 dB to 7.0 dB noise figure were obtained for each SDM channel at 1550 nm. System feasibility for SDM transmission over 1200 km was demonstrated with 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals.

  6. Advances in core drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  7. Core-shell Hydroxyapatite Combined with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Periodontal Regeneration Treatmentin Dogs%贝壳多孔羟基磷灰石基骨修复材料和骨形成蛋白-2联合应用引导犬牙周组织再生效果初步评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 吴文蕾; 孙卫斌; 韩方凯; 张其清

    2011-01-01

    目的 初步评估贝壳多孔羟基磷灰石基骨修复材料及该材料和骨形成蛋白-2联合应用引导比格犬牙周组织再生的效果.方法 选取18月龄比格犬6只,牙周基础治疗后1周,在下颌第二、三、四前磨牙,建立急性牙周骨缺损模型,依照分组情况进行不同治疗.实验组(T组)植入骨修复材料和骨形成蛋白-2;阴性对照组(NC组)植入骨修复材料;空白对照组(BC组)不植入任何材料.实验设计采取同颌同名牙对照,同一只比格犬的3对同颌同名牙分别为:空白对照组和阴性对照组,阴性对照组和实验组,空白对照组和实验组.术后12周,处死动物,Micro-CT检查并对数据进行统计学分析.结果 材料植入后,未见材料溢出,植入局部和全身都未见明显不良反应.3组缺损都有一定程度骨再生,以T组再生组织量最多,BC组最少.Micro-CT结果显示:T组、NC组和BC组的骨再生平均高度为(4.50±0.47) mm、(1.75±0.42) mm和(0.87±0.31) mm.NC组和BC组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).T组与NC组和BC组相比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),且有临床意义.结论 贝壳多孔羟基磷灰石基骨修复材料和骨形成蛋白-2联合应用于比格犬,可以获得更好的引导组织再生效果.%Objective To evaluate the ability of core-shell hydroxyapatite bone graft material alone and combined with bone morphogenetic protein 2 ( BMP-2) in periodontal regeneration treatment in dogs. Methods Thirty-six defects were created in six 18-months male beagle dogs at the sites of the second, third and fourth mandibular premolars one week later after the dogs were treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy. Different treatments were carried out according to which group the teeth belonged. There are 3 groups. The test group (group T) was treated with core-shell hydroxyapatite bone graft material combined with BMP-2; the negative control group (group NC) was treated with core-shell hydroxyapatite

  8. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  9. Sulfur in Earth's Mantle and Its Behavior During Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Righter,Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The density of Earth's outer core requires that about 5-10% of the outer core be composed of elements lighter than Fe-Ni; proposed choices for the "light element" component of Earth's core include H, C, O, Si, S, and combinations of these elements [e.g. 1]. Though samples of Earth's core are not available, mantle samples contain elemental signatures left behind from the formation of Earth's core. The abundances of siderophile (metal-loving) elements in Earth's mantle have been used to gain insight into the early accretion and differentiation history of Earth, the process by which the core and mantle formed, and the composition of the core [e.g. 2-4]. Similarly, the abundance of potential light elements in Earth's mantle could also provide constraints on Earth's evolution and core composition. The S abundance in Earth's mantle is 250 ( 50) ppm [5]. It has been suggested that 250 ppm S is too high to be due to equilibrium core formation in a high pressure, high temperature magma ocean on early Earth and that the addition of S to the mantle from the subsequent accretion of a late veneer is consequently required [6]. However, this earlier work of Li and Agee [6] did not parameterize the metalsilicate partitioning behavior of S as a function of thermodynamic variables, limiting the different pressure and temperature conditions during core formation that could be explored. Here, the question of explaining the mantle abundance of S is revisited, through parameterizing existing metal-silicate partitioning data for S and applying the parameterization to core formation in Earth.

  10. COOL CORE CLUSTERS FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Granato, G. L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr.1, D-81679 München (Germany); Ragone-Figueroa, C., E-mail: rasia@oats.inaf.it [Instituto de Astronomá Teórica y Experimental (IATE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientiíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of CC systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of NCC systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of objects, we find that they occur in similar proportions in both simulations and observations. Furthermore, we also find that simulated CC clusters have profiles of iron abundance that are steeper than those of NCC clusters, which is also in agreement with observational results. We show that the capability of our simulations to generate a realistic CC structure in the cluster population is due to AGN feedback and artificial thermal diffusion: their combined action allows us to naturally distribute the energy extracted from super-massive black holes and to compensate for the radiative losses of low-entropy gas with short cooling time residing in the cluster core.

  11. Core TuLiP

    OpenAIRE

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We present a lookup and inference algorithm which we prove to be correct and complete w.r.t. the declarative semantics. CoreTuLiP enjoys uniform syntax and the well-established semantics and is express...

  12. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  13. Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...

  14. Characterizing the Core via K-Core Covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, S.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  15. Characterizing the Core via K-Core Covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, S.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  16. Relativistic frozen core potential scheme with relaxation of core electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Hayami, Masao; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    This letter proposes a relaxation scheme for core electrons based on the frozen core potential method at the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess level, called FCP-CR. The core electrons are self-consistently relaxed using frozen molecular valence potentials after the valence SCF calculation is performed. The efficiency of FCP-CR is confirmed by calculations of gold clusters. Furthermore, FCP-CR reproduces the results of the all-electron method for the energies of coinage metal dimers and the core ionization energies and core level shifts of vinyl acetate and three tungsten complexes at the Hartree-Fock and/or symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction levels.

  17. Imaging the Moon's Core with Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee C.; Lin, Pei-Ying Patty; Garnero, Ed J.; Williams, Quetin C.; Lognonne, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Constraining the structure of the lunar core is necessary to improve our understanding of the present-day thermal structure of the interior and the history of a lunar dynamo, as well as the origin and thermal and compositional evolution of the Moon. We analyze Apollo deep moonquake seismograms using terrestrial array processing methods to search for the presence of reflected and converted energy from the lunar core. Although moonquake fault parameters are not constrained, we first explore a suite of theoretical focal spheres to verify that fault planes exist that can produce favorable core reflection amplitudes relative to direct up-going energy at the Apollo stations. Beginning with stacks of event seismograms from the known distribution of deep moonquake clusters, we apply a polarization filter to account for the effects of seismic scattering that (a) partitions energy away from expected components of ground motion, and (b) obscures all but the main P- and S-wave arrivals. The filtered traces are then shifted to the predicted arrival time of a core phase (e.g. PcP) and stacked to enhance subtle arrivals associated with the Moon s core. This combination of filtering and array processing is well suited for detecting deep lunar seismic reflections, since we do not expect scattered wave energy from near surface (or deeper) structure recorded at varying epicentral distances and stations from varying moonquakes at varying depths to stack coherently. Our results indicate the presence of a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partial-melt-containing boundary layer (Table 1). These layers are consistently observed among stacks from four classes of reflections: P-to-P, S-to-P, P-to-S, and S-to-S, and are consistent with current indirect geophysical estimates of core and deep mantle properties, including mass, moment of inertia, lunar laser ranging, and electromagnetic induction. Future refinements are expected following the successful launch of the GRAIL lunar

  18. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  19. Core of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C.P.Chandgude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in computing facilities marks back from 1960’s with introduction of mainframes. Each of the computing has one or the other issues, so keeping this in mind cloud computing was introduced. Cloud computing has its roots in older technologies such as hardware virtualization, distributed computing, internet technologies, and autonomic computing. Cloud computing can be described with two models, one is service model and second is deployment model. While providing several services, cloud management’s primary role is resource provisioning. While there are several such benefits of cloud computing, there are challenges in adopting public clouds because of dependency on infrastructure that is shared by many enterprises. In this paper, we present core knowledge of cloud computing, highlighting its key concepts, deployment models, service models, benefits as well as security issues related to cloud data. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the cloud computing and to identify important research directions in this field

  20. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F W Giacobbe

    2003-03-01

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.

  1. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, C; Gehrels, N.; Lund, N.; Schoenfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements of the observing programme.

  2. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  3. Complicated Politics to the Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…

  4. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  5. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  6. Complicated Politics to the Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…

  7. Prevalence of anisotropic shell growth in rare earth core-shell upconversion nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Lee, Jim Yang

    2013-05-28

    Through a series of carefully executed experiments, we discovered the prevalence of anisotropic shell growth in many upconversion NaREF4 systems caused by a combination of factors: selective adsorption of ligands on the core surface due to the core crystal structure, ligand etching, and the lattice mismatch between core and shell components. This could lead to incomplete shell formation in core-shell nanocrystals under certain conditions. Shell growth is always faster in the a and b crystallographic directions than in the c direction. In the case of a larger lattice mismatch between the core and shell, shell growth only occurs in the a and b directions resulting in an oblong core-shell structure. These findings are useful for rationalizing shell-dependent emission properties, understanding the emission mechanisms in complex core-shell nanostructures, and for creating accurate models of core-shell designs for multifunctionality and optimal performance in applications.

  8. Subnanometer Control of Mean Core Size during Mesofluidic Synthesis of Small (D(core) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Edward W; Haben, Patrick M; Hutchison, James E

    2015-11-03

    A convenient, single-step synthesis is reported that produces ligand-stabilized, water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with subnanometer-level precision of the mean core diameter over a range of 2-9 nm for a series of desired surface chemistries. The synthesis involves the reduction of a Au(III) species with sodium borohydride in the presence of a functionalized alkyl thiosulfate (Bunte salt) to yield thiolate-protected AuNPs. A key advantage of this synthesis is that simply adjusting the pH of the gold salt solution leads to control over the AuNP core size. The speciation of Au(III), and therefore the kinetics for its reduction and the core size produced, depends upon pH. The use of pH as the sole variable to control core size is a more reliable and convenient method than traditional approaches that rely on adjusting the concentrations and ratios of ligand, metal salt, and reducing agent. The average core size increased as the pH was raised for each ligand studied. Because the influence of pH was different for each of the ligands, working curves were plotted for each ligand to identify conditions to synthesize particles with specific, targeted core diameters. Using this approach, reaction conditions can be rapidly optimized using a combination of a mesofluidic reactor and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) size analysis. The use of the mesofluidic reactor was needed to ensure fast mixing given the rapid kinetics for core formation. Using the reactor, it is possible to obtain reproducible sizes across multiple syntheses (size variation) and subnanometer control of the mean core dimensions. The synthetic method demonstrated here provides an attractive alternative to two-step syntheses involving ligand exchange because it is more efficient and eliminates the possibility of nanoparticle core size changes during exchange steps. This approach enables the development of "size ladders" of particles with the same surface chemistry for investigations of structure

  9. Combination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes quantitative methodology that is directed toward assessing interactions between a combination of agonist drugs that individually produce overtly similar effects. Drugs administered in combination may show exaggerated, reduced or predictable effects that are dependent on the specific drug pair and the doses of t h e constituents. The basisfor quantitating these unusual interactions is the concept of dose equivalence which, in turn, is determined from the individual drug dose-effect relations. A common analytical procedure that follows from dose equivalence uses a graph termed an isobologram. We present here an overview of the isobologram, its use and certain related methods that apply to classifying various drug interactions.

  10. The effect of core stability training combined with eye acupuncture on the motor function of patients with hemiplegia%核心稳定性训练联合眼针治疗对脑卒中偏瘫患者运动功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖亮华; 方玮; 刘木朋; 滕新; 高丽君; 罗石坚; 周冰峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of core stability training combined with eye acupuncture on motor function in patients with hemiplegia after stroke.Methods Eighty patients with hemiplegia after stroke were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (40 cases in each).Both groups were given regular rehabilitation training, but the patients in the treatment group also were taught core stability training of their waist and abdominal muscle groups, their shoulder muscles, trunk and pelvis.They were also given eye acupuncture.A trunk control test (TCT) , Berg's balance scale (BBS), the modified Barthel index (MBI), functional ambulation categories (FACs) and the Fugl Meyer assessment scale (FMA) were used to assess motor function before and after treatment.Results At the end of 6 weeks of treatment, all of the measurements in both groups had significantly improved.The average TCT, BBS, MBI, FMA, and FAC scores of the treatment group significantly exceeded those of the control group.Conclusions Core stability training and eye acupuncture together can significantly improve the motor function of hemiplegic stroke survivors.The combination therapy is worthy of clinical popularization and application.%目的 观察核心稳定性训练联合眼针治疗对脑卒中偏瘫患者运动功能恢复的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将80例脑卒中偏瘫患者分为观察组及对照组,每组40例.2组患者均给予常规康复训练,观察组在此基础上辅以眼针治疗及核心稳定性训练(包括腰部、腹部肌群训练及肩胛骨、躯干、骨盆控制训练等).于治疗前、治疗6周后对2组患者躯干控制能力、平衡功能、日常生活活动(ADL)能力、步行能力及肢体运动功能进行评定.结果 治疗后2组患者躯干控制测试(TCT)评分、Berg平衡量表(BBS)评分、改良Barthel指数(MBI)、上肢及下肢Fugl-Meyer量表(FMA)评分、Holden步行功能分级(FAC)均较治疗前明显改善(P<0

  11. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  12. VALIDATION OF TWO CLINICAL MEASURES OF CORE STABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butowicz, Courtney M; Ebaugh, D David; Noehren, Brian; Silfies, Sheri P

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests poor core stability is a risk factor for low back and lower extremity injuries in athletes. Recently the trunk stability test (TST) and unilateral hip bridge endurance test (UHBE) were developed to clinically assess core stability. Although these and other clinical tests of core stability exist, how well they assess core stability when compared to biomechanical measures of isolated core stability has not been thoroughly evaluated. The purposes of this study were to 1) determine concurrent validity of two novel clinical core stability assessments (TST and UHBE), and 2) assess relationships between these assessments and the trunk endurance and Y-Balance tests. The authors' hypothesized that the TST and UHBE would be highly correlated to the lab-based biomechanical measure of isolated core stability. Also, the TST and UHBE would be moderately correlated with each other, but not with the trunk extensor endurance and Y-Balance. Cross-Sectional design. Twenty healthy active individuals completed the TST (recorded number of errors), UHBE (s), trunk extensor endurance (s), Y-Balance (% leg length) test (YBT), and biomechanical test of core stability. Correlational analyses revealed a small, non-significant association between TST and biomechanical measures (rs = 0.2 - 0.22), while a moderate, significant relationship existed between UHBE and biomechanical measures (rs = -0.49 to -0.56, p core stability. The poor relationship between the TST and biomechanical measures, combined with observation of most control faults occurring in the lower extremity (LE) suggest the TST may not be an appropriate clinical test of core stability. Level 3.

  13. The Dynamics and Chemistry of Massive Starless Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. C.; Kong, S.; Butler, M. J.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.

    2013-10-01

    How do massive stars form? They may be born from massive pre-stellar gas cores that are much more massive than the Jeans mass. The Turbulent Core Accretion model invokes such cores as being in approximate virial and pressure equilibrium with their surrounding clump medium. Their internal pressure is provided by a combination of turbulence and magnetic fields. On the other hand, the Competitive Accretion model requires strongly sub-virial initial conditions that then lead to extensive fragmentation to the thermal Jeans scale, with high-mass stars later forming by competitive Bondi-Hoyle accretion. To test these models, we have identified four prime examples of massive (˜ 100 M⊙) clumps from mid-infrared (MIR) extinction mapping of Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs). At ˜16″ resolution, we found high deuteration fractions of N2H+ in these objects, consistent with them being starless. We then observed these 4 clumps with ALMA in Cycle 0 to probe the N2D+(3-2) line at ˜2″ resolution, finding 6 N2D+ cores. Their observed velocity dispersions and sizes are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Turbulent Core model of virialized, magnetized (with Alfvén Mach number mA ˜ 1), self-gravitating cores that are bounded by the high pressures of their surrounding clumps. However, the most massive core with ˜ 60 M⊙, appears to require moderately enhanced magnetic fields to be in virial equilibrium, implying mA ≃ 0.3. If confirmed, this suggests magnetic fields play a greater role than turbulence in setting the initial conditions of massive star formation. In this case the timescale for the core to be assembled may be significantly longer than a local dynamical or free-fall time. This is consistent with astrochemical modeling of the deuteration ages of the cores, which indicates a core age similar to the ambipolar diffusion time.

  14. 骨髓单个核细胞移植结合髓芯减压治疗早期股骨头坏死的三维步态分析%Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation combined with core decompression treatment for early osteonecrosis: A three-dimensional gait analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德伟; 谢辉; 崔大平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gait analysis provides an objective and accurate quantitative assessment for the orthopedic examination. OBJECTIVE: To observe the gait kinematic characteristics and change rule of patients with early avascular necrosis of the femoral head following treatment of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMCs) transplantation combined with core decompression treatment. METHODS: Three-dimensional motion capture gait analysis was performed in 21 cases of early osteonecrosis undergoing BMMCs transplantation with core decompression. Before and 3, 6, 9, 12 months after treatment, step length, step width, angle of hip motion, kinematic data of hip angle acceleration in the 22 patients walking on the treadmill of 0° and 15°. Gait data of 33 healthy subjects were collected for comparison. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Three months after treatment, 21 patients presented with reduced pain gait. The spatial-temporal parameters had no difference from normal people at 3 months for treadmill movement of 0° and 6 months for treadmill movement of 15°. At 9 months, kinematic indexes for 15° inclined treadmill movement were consistent with the normal. The findings indicated that BMMSCs for necrosis of the femoral head can recover normal gait mode of the hip in a time-dependent manner.%背景:步态分析是骨外科检查中较为客观、精确的定量评定标准.目的:观察骨髓单个核细胞移植结合髓芯减压治疗早期股骨头缺血性坏死患者步态运动学的特点及变化规律.方法:对髓芯减压骨髓单个核细胞回植21例早期股骨头坏死患者行三维运动捕捉步态分析,于治疗前及治疗后3,6,9,12个月测量受试者在0°和15°时运动平板上行走的步长、步宽时空参数,髋关节运动角度、髋关节角加速度运动学数据.同期采集33名健康人步态数据与之比较.结果与结论:21例患者治疗后3个月均出现减痛步态,治疗后3个月0°运动平板的时空参数与正常人比较差

  15. Combination rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holicky, M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Load combinations specified in EN 1990 for verification of ultimate limit and serviceability limit states in conjunction with the partial factor method are discussed and illustrated by practical examples of typical civil structures. Alternative procedures to identify critical load cases are reviewed

  16. COSIS: COre State Indication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. B.; Koo, B. S.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, C. C; Zee, S. Q

    2006-02-15

    COSIS (COre State Indication System) which implemented in the SMART research reactor plays a role to supply the core state parameters or graphs for the operator to recognize the core state effectively. The followings are the main functions of COSIS. (1) Validity Check for the Process Signals and Determination of the COSIS Inputs (SIGVAL) (2) Coolant Flow Rate Calculation (FLOW) (3) Core Thermal Power Calculation (COREPOW) (4) In-core 3-Dimensional Power Distribution Calculation and Peaking Parameters Generation (POWER3D) (5) Azimuthal Tilt Calculation (AZITILT). This report describes the methodology of COSIS which produces the core state parameters using the process and detector signals. In the SIGVAL module, COSIS checks most signals except for the CEA position and determines the input signals. In the FLOW module, the corelation coefficient between the RPM signal and coolant flow is updated from the energy balance at the steam generator, and the coolant flow rate is calculated using the RPM signal. In the COREPOW module, the secondary calorimetric power, the primary {delta}T power and the ex-core power are calculated, and the final core thermal power and biased core power are determined. In the POWER3D module, the 3-dimensional power distribution is calculated using the in-core detector signal, and the 3-D peaking factor, 2-D radial peaking factor, axial offset, maximum linear power density are produced. In the AZITILT module, the arithmetic averaged and vector averaged azimuthal tilts are calculated, and the final tilt is determined. The COSIS performance test of the COSIS is performed for the temperature compensation method, the COREPOW and the POWER3D modules. The test for the temperature compensation method is performed for the temperature variations of the linear, parabolic, exponential, sine function. The test shows that the implemented temperature compensation method works soundly. The COREPOW test is performed by varying the core power from the initial

  17. Essential ingredients in core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hix, W. Raphael [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6354 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Lentz, Eric J.; Chertkow, M. Austin; Harris, J. Austin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Endeve, Eirik [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6008 (United States); Baird, Mark [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6003 (United States); Messer, O. E. Bronson [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6354 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6008 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Bruenn, Stephen [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Blondin, John [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Carrying 10{sup 44} joules of kinetic energy and a rich mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up our solar system and ourselves. Signaling the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae combine physics over a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (eventually growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer-scale nuclear reactions. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively-unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have recently motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of the births of neutron stars and the supernovae that result. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  18. Essential ingredients in core-collapse supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Raphael Hix

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrying 1044 joules of kinetic energy and a rich mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up our solar system and ourselves. Signaling the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae combine physics over a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (eventually growing to gigameter scale down to femtometer-scale nuclear reactions. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively-unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have recently motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of the births of neutron stars and the supernovae that result. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  19. Epistemology and ontology in core ontologies: FOLaw and LRI-Core, two core ontologies for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, J.A.P.J.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than a decade constructing ontologies for legal domains, we, at the Leibniz Center for Law, felt really the need to develop a core ontology for law that would enable us to re-use the common denominator of the various legal domains. In this paper we present two core ontologies for law. The

  20. Scalable Out-of-Core Solvers on Xeon Phi Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Chan, Ki Shing [Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK); Su, Shiquan [Center for Computational Materials Science; Wong, Kwai [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the implementation of a distributive out-of-core (OOC) solver for performing LU and Cholesky factorizations of a large dense matrix on clusters of many-core programmable co-processors. The out-of- core algorithm combines both the left-looking and right-looking schemes aimed to minimize the movement of data between the CPU host and the co-processor, optimizing data locality as well as computing throughput. The OOC solver is built to align with the format of the ScaLAPACK software library, making it readily portable to any existing codes using ScaLAPACK. A runtime analysis conducted on Beacon (an Intel Xeon plus Intel Xeon Phi cluster which composed of 48 nodes of multi-core CPU and MIC) at the Na- tional Institute for Computational Sciences is presented. Comparison of the performance on the Intel Xeon Phi and GPU clusters are also provided.

  1. [Photoelastic stress analysis of root dentin with different composite resin post and core systems and crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidenori

    2010-03-01

    Much research has been reported about post and core systems with composite resin, but the influence of the different types of prefabricated posts on the distribution of stress in the root has not yet been elucidated. It is necessary to clarify the influence of the relationship between core and crown materials to obtain combined restorations. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the combination of various post and core systems and different kinds of crown material on the stress distribution in the root. Six 2-dimensional photoelastic premolar models were designed. Three types of post and core systems (composite resin post and core, composite resin core with the fiber post, and composite resin core with a prefabricated stainless steel post) and two kinds of crown materials (metal and hybrid-type hard composite resin) were fabricated and cemented to each model. In these models, we applied a load of 200 N at an angle of 45 degrees to the tooth axis and analyzed the fringe order using a transmission polariscope. As a result, it has been clarified that the combination of the post and core and the crown plays an important role in preventing stress concentration within root Stress concentration can be prevented using a crown fabricated with a high-elastic modulus for the post and core with a high-elastic modulus, and a crown fabricated with a low-elastic modulus for the post and core with a low-elastic modulus.

  2. Multi-Core Cache Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat

  3. SMA millimeter observations of hot molecular cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Hernández, Vicente; Zapata, Luis; Kurtz, Stan [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: v.hernandez@crya.unam.mx [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-05-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and the CH{sub 3}CN (12 {sub K}-11 {sub K}) line of 17 hot molecular cores associated with young high-mass stars. The angular resolution of the observations ranges from 1.''0 to 4.''0. The continuum observations reveal large (>3500 AU) dusty structures with gas masses from 7 to 375 M {sub ☉}, which probably surround multiple young stars. The CH{sub 3}CN line emission is detected toward all the molecular cores at least up to the K = 6 component and is mostly associated with the emission peaks of the dusty objects. We used the multiple K-components of the CH{sub 3}CN and both the rotational diagram method and a simultaneous synthetic local thermodynamic equilibrium model with the XCLASS program to estimate the temperatures and column densities of the cores. For all sources, we obtained reasonable fits from XCLASS by using a model that combines two components: an extended and warm envelope and a compact hot core of molecular gas, suggesting internal heating by recently formed massive stars. The rotational temperatures lie in the range of 40-132 K and 122-485 K for the extended and compact components, respectively. From the continuum and CH{sub 3}CN results, we infer fractional abundances from 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –7} toward the compact inner components, which increase with the rotational temperature. Our results agree with a chemical scenario in which the CH{sub 3}CN molecule is efficiently formed in the gas phase above 100-300 K, and its abundance increases with temperature.

  4. Antifungal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Roxana G; Afeltra, Javier; Dannaoui, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The increase in fungal infections and the change in fungal epidemiology is caused by the extensive use of antifungal agents to treat fungal infections that are being diagnosed in severly immunocompromised hosts. In addition, opportunistic fungal infections resistant to antifungal drugs have become increasingly common, and the armamentarium for treatment remains limited. A possible approach to overcoming these problems is to combine antifungal drugs, especially if the mechanisms of action are different. The in vitro test is the first step to evaluate possible antifungal combinations. In this chapter, the three most frequently used metholodologies are described: checkerboard, E-test, and time-kill curves. The description of each technique and intrepretaion of the results are addressed in detail.

  5. Combining haplotypers

    CERN Document Server

    Kääriäinen, Matti; Lappalainen, Sampsa; Mielikäinen, Taneli

    2007-01-01

    Statistically resolving the underlying haplotype pair for a genotype measurement is an important intermediate step in gene mapping studies, and has received much attention recently. Consequently, a variety of methods for this problem have been developed. Different methods employ different statistical models, and thus implicitly encode different assumptions about the nature of the underlying haplotype structure. Depending on the population sample in question, their relative performance can vary greatly, and it is unclear which method to choose for a particular sample. Instead of choosing a single method, we explore combining predictions returned by different methods in a principled way, and thereby circumvent the problem of method selection. We propose several techniques for combining haplotype reconstructions and analyze their computational properties. In an experimental study on real-world haplotype data we show that such techniques can provide more accurate and robust reconstructions, and are useful for out...

  6. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  7. Search Combinators

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijvers, Tom; Wuille, Pieter; Samulowitz, Horst; Stuckey, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to model search in a constraint solver can be an essential asset for solving combinatorial problems. However, existing infrastructure for defining search heuristics is often inadequate. Either modeling capabilities are extremely limited or users are faced with a general-purpose programming language whose features are not tailored towards writing search heuristics. As a result, major improvements in performance may remain unexplored. This article introduces search combinators, a lightweight and solver-independent method that bridges the gap between a conceptually simple modeling language for search (high-level, functional and naturally compositional) and an efficient implementation (low-level, imperative and highly non-modular). By allowing the user to define application-tailored search strategies from a small set of primitives, search combinators effectively provide a rich domain-specific language (DSL) for modeling search to the user. Remarkably, this DSL comes at a low implementation cost to the...

  8. Characterizing Facesheet/Core Disbonding in Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Martin; Ratcliffe, James G.; Adams, Daniel O.; Krueger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation into facesheet core disbonding in carbon fiber reinforced plastic/Nomex honeycomb sandwich structures using a Single Cantilever Beam test. Specimens with three, six and twelve-ply facesheets were tested. Specimens with different honeycomb cores consisting of four different cell sizes were also tested, in addition to specimens with three different widths. Three different data reduction methods were employed for computing apparent fracture toughness values from the test data, namely an area method, a compliance calibration technique and a modified beam theory method. The compliance calibration and modified beam theory approaches yielded comparable apparent fracture toughness values, which were generally lower than those computed using the area method. Disbonding in the three-ply facesheet specimens took place at the facesheet/core interface and yielded the lowest apparent fracture toughness values. Disbonding in the six and twelve-ply facesheet specimens took place within the core, near to the facesheet/core interface. Specimen width was not found to have a significant effect on apparent fracture toughness. The amount of scatter in the apparent fracture toughness data was found to increase with honeycomb core cell size.

  9. Introduction to the Core Curriculum in GIS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This short narrative introduces the Core Curriculum in GIS and provides a historical overview of the Core Curriculum Project, including the later Core Curriculum in GIScience and Core Curriculum for Technical Programs. Appended to this description is an original pamphlet advertising the Core Curriculum in GIS.

  10. Core systems of geometry in animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelke, Elizabeth S; Lee, Sang Ah

    2012-10-05

    Research on humans from birth to maturity converges with research on diverse animals to reveal foundational cognitive systems in human and animal minds. The present article focuses on two such systems of geometry. One system represents places in the navigable environment by recording the distance and direction of the navigator from surrounding, extended surfaces. The other system represents objects by detecting the shapes of small-scale forms. These two systems show common signatures across animals, suggesting that they evolved in distant ancestral species. As children master symbolic systems such as maps and language, they come productively to combine representations from the two core systems of geometry in uniquely human ways; these combinations may give rise to abstract geometric intuitions. Studies of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic sources of abstract geometry therefore are illuminating of both human and animal cognition. Research on animals brings simpler model systems and richer empirical methods to bear on the analysis of abstract concepts in human minds. In return, research on humans, relating core cognitive capacities to symbolic abilities, sheds light on the content of representations in animal minds.

  11. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  12. Diagnosis values of combined detection of hepatitis C Virus core antigen and antibody in hepatitis C virus early infection%联合检测丙肝病毒核心抗原和抗体在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 陈佳琦

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过检测丙型肝炎抗体( HCV - Ab),同时对其进行丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV - cAg)和丙肝病毒RNA(HCV-RNA)两项指标进行检测,探讨HCV - cAg检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的意义.方法:对104例HCV - Ab阳性标本及108例高危人群但HCV - Ab阴性标本(包括血液透析患者55例、医务人员20例和丙型肝炎病人的家庭密切接触者33例)及健康对照组同时进行HCV - cAg和HCV-RNA的检测.结果:104例HCV - Ab阳性组中,HCV - cAg阳性25例,HCV-RNA阳性27例;108例HCV - Ab阴性组中,HCV - cAg阳性2例,HCV-RNA阳性1例;健康对照组全阴性.结论:HCV - cAg和HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎早期诊断上无显著性差异,但HCV - cAg检测在临床的应用前景上具有更大的优势,故可在临床推广HCV- Ab和HCV - cAg联合检测,有条件者可联合检测HCV - Ab、HCV - cAg和HCV- RNA.%Objective:To study the role of combined detection of hepatitis C virus core antigen ( HCV - cAg) and antibody ( HCV - Ab) on hepatitis C virus infection. Methods; 104 archived HCV - Ab positive specimens, 108 specimens with HCV -Ab negative from high risk population (including 55 hemodialysis patients, 20 medical workers and 33 family members of HCV patients)and 20 health people as control group were tested by detecting HCV - cAg and HCV - RNA. Results; Among the 104 cases in HCV - Ab positive group, there were 25 cases of HCV - cAg positive and 27 cases of HCV - RNA positive. While of the 108 cases in HCV - Ab negative group, there were 2 cases of HCV - cAg positive and 1 case of HCV - RNA positive. The cases in health control group were all negative. Conclusion; There is no difference between the efficacy of HCV - cAg and HCV - RNA analysis on early diagnosis of HCV infection. Meanwhile, the method for testing HCV - cAg is more convenient than method for testing HCV - RNA. The performance of HCV - Ab and HCV - cAg combined detection appears to be suitable for large - scale screening of blood

  13. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  14. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  15. Viscosity of the earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the viscosity of the core at the boundary of the inner and outer core. It is assumed that this boundary is a melting transition and the viscosity limits of the Andrade (1934,1952) hypothesis (3.7 to 18.5 cp) are adopted. The corresponding kinematic viscosities are such that the precessional system explored by Malkus (1968) would be unstable. Whether it would be sufficiently unstable to overcome a severely subadiabatic temperature gradient cannot be determined.

  16. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  17. The features of Drosophila core promoters revealed by statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonov Edward N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental investigation of transcription is still a very labor- and time-consuming process. Only a few transcription initiation scenarios have been studied in detail. The mechanism of interaction between basal machinery and promoter, in particular core promoter elements, is not known for the majority of identified promoters. In this study, we reveal various transcription initiation mechanisms by statistical analysis of 3393 nonredundant Drosophila promoters. Results Using Drosophila-specific position-weight matrices, we identified promoters containing TATA box, Initiator, Downstream Promoter Element (DPE, and Motif Ten Element (MTE, as well as core elements discovered in Human (TFIIB Recognition Element (BRE and Downstream Core Element (DCE. Promoters utilizing known synergetic combinations of two core elements (TATA_Inr, Inr_MTE, Inr_DPE, and DPE_MTE were identified. We also establish the existence of promoters with potentially novel synergetic combinations: TATA_DPE and TATA_MTE. Our analysis revealed several motifs with the features of promoter elements, including possible novel core promoter element(s. Comparison of Human and Drosophila showed consistent percentages of promoters with TATA, Inr, DPE, and synergetic combinations thereof, as well as most of the same functional and mutual positions of the core elements. No statistical evidence of MTE utilization in Human was found. Distinct nucleosome positioning in particular promoter classes was revealed. Conclusion We present lists of promoters that potentially utilize the aforementioned elements/combinations. The number of these promoters is two orders of magnitude larger than the number of promoters in which transcription initiation was experimentally studied. The sequences are ready to be experimentally tested or used for further statistical analysis. The developed approach may be utilized for other species.

  18. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, R.S.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.; van Rooij, M.; van der Veen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for 14CO and 14CO2 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced 14CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced 14CO. Despi

  19. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. S. W.; Meijer, H. A. J.; De Rooij, M.; Van der Veen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for (CO)-C-14 and (CO2)-C-14 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced (CO)-C-14 fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produ

  20. A Dual-Core System Solution for Wearable Health Monitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Arnaiz, O.A.; Bouwens, F.; Huisken, J.A.; De Groot, H.; Bennebroek, M.T.; Van Meerbergen, J.L.; Abbo, A.A.; Fraboulet, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a system design study for wearable sensor devices intended for healthcare and lifestyle applications based on ECG,EEG and activity monitoring. In order to meet the low-power requirement of these applications, a dual-core signal processing system is proposed which combines an ultr

  1. Complex coacervation core micelles. Colloidal stability and aggregation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgh, van der S.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Complex coacervation core micelles were prepared with various polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged diblock copolymers. The diblock copolymers consist of a charged block and a water-soluble neutral block. Our experimental technique was dynamic light scattering in combination with titrations. At

  2. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  3. Democratizing Access to Core Mathematics across Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Stephen; Dalton, Sara; Brookstein, Arden; Tapper, John; Heller, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The authors' proposed work builds upon 12+ years of research collectively known as the "SimCalc Projects." SimCalc Connected MathWorlds (SCM) combines two innovative technological ingredients to address core mathematical ideas in deep and sustainable ways for mathematics learners. Software that addresses content issues through dynamic…

  4. A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, David S; Levy, Bruce P; Lane, William J; Lee, Roy E; Baron, Jason M; Klepeis, Veronica E; Onozato, Maristela L; Kim, Jiyeon; Dighe, Anand S; Beckwith, Bruce A; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a

  5. Analgesic combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Tallarida, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    When the pathophysiology of a medical condition is multi-modal, i.e., related to multiple physiological causes or mediated by multiple pathways, the optimal strategy can be to use a drug or a combination of drugs that contribute multiple mechanisms to the therapeutic endpoint. In such situations, a rational multi-modal approach can also result in the fewest adverse effects. We discuss the quantitative analysis of multi-modal action using the treatment of pain as a practical example and give examples of its application to some widely used analgesic drugs. PMID:20338825

  6. A simple reactivity feedback model accounting for radial core expansion effects in the liquid metal fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Haha, Do Hee [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The radial core expansion due to the structure temperature rise is one of major negative reactivity insertion mechanisms in metallic fueled reactor. Thermal expansion is a result of both the laws of nature and the particular core design and it causes negative reactivity feedback by the combination of increased core volume captures and increased core surface leakage. The simple radial core expansion reactivity feedback model developed for the SSC-K code was evaluated by the code-to-code comparison analysis. From the comparison results, it can be stated that the radial core expansion reactivity feedback model employed into the SSC-K code may be reasonably accurate in the UTOP analysis.

  7. Crystallization in Earth's Core after High-Temperature Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, K.; Morard, G.; Hernlund, J. W.; Helffrich, G. R.; Ozawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent core formation models based on the metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements suggest that the Earth's core was formed by metal segregation at high pressure and high temperature in a deep magma ocean. It is also thought that the simultaneous solubility of silicon and oxygen in liquid iron are strongly enhanced at high pressure and high temperature, such that at the end of accretion the core was rich in both silicon and oxygen. Here we performed crystallization experiments on the Fe-Si binary and Fe-Si-O ternary systems up to core pressure in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The starting material for the latter was a homogeneous mixture of fine-grain Fe-Si and SiO2 (sustain without extreme degrees of secular cooling. However, even for modest degrees of joint Si-O incorporation into the early core, the buoyancy released by crystallization of SiO2 is sufficient to overcome thermal stratification and sustain the geodynamo.

  8. Study on the judgment model of dyeing and weaving corporation's core competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the dyeing and weaving corporations' characters, this paper put forward the dimensionality and index system to analyze the core competence. This paper divided the core competence into three layers and gave out the Dimensional-Hierarchical structure of core competence through combining the analysis dimensionalities with the competence layers. The model was described to evaluate, analyze and judge the dyeing and weaving corporation's competence.

  9. HCV Core Residues Critical for Infectivity Are Also Involved in Core-NS5A Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Katarzyna; Baugh, James; Chatterji, Udayan; Lim, Precious J.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Gallay, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The molecular machinery of HCV assembly and particle release remains obscure. A better understanding of the assembly events might reveal new potential antiviral strategies. It was suggested that the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), an attractive recent drug target, participates in the production of infectious particles as a result of its interaction with the HCV core protein. However, prior to the present study, the NS5A-binding site in the viral core remained unknown. We found that the D1 domain of core contains the NS5A-binding site with the strongest interacting capacity in the basic P38-K74 cluster. We also demonstrated that the N-terminal basic residues of core at positions 50, 51, 59 and 62 were required for NS5A binding. Analysis of all substitution combinations of R50A, K51A, R59A, and R62A, in the context of the HCVcc system, showed that single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants were fully competent for viral RNA replication, but deficient in secretion of viral particles. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular and intracellular infectivity of all the mutants was abolished, suggesting a defect in the formation of infectious particles. Importantly, we showed that the interaction between the single and quadruple core mutants and NS5A was impaired in cells expressing full-length HCV genome. Interestingly, mutations of the four basic residues of core did not alter the association of core or NS5A with lipid droplets. This study showed for the first time that basic residues in the D1 domain of core that are critical for the formation of infectious extracellular and intracellular particles also play a role in core-NS5A interactions. PMID:24533158

  10. Microwave-induced dynamic switching of magnetic skyrmion cores in nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Kuch, Wolfgang, E-mail: kuch@physik.fu-berlin.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wang, Weiwei; Beg, Marijan; Fangohr, Hans [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-09

    The nonlinear dynamic behavior of a magnetic skyrmion in circular nanodots was studied numerically by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a classical spin model. We show that a skyrmion core reversal can be achieved within nanoseconds using a perpendicular oscillating magnetic field. Two symmetric switching processes that correspond to excitations of the breathing mode and the mixed mode (combination of the breathing mode and a radial spin-wave mode) are identified. For excitation of the breathing mode, the skyrmion core switches through nucleation of a new core from a transient uniform state. In the mixed mode, the skyrmion core reverses with the help of spins excited both at the edge and core regions. Unlike the magnetic vortex core reversal, the excitation of radial spin waves does not dominate the skyrmion core reversal process.

  11. CAC - NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET CORE ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the development of nuclear rocket engine designs is to be able to accurately predict temperatures and pressures throughout a fission nuclear reactor core with axial hydrogen flow through circular coolant passages. CAC is an analytical prediction program to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a circular coolant passage. CAC predicts as a function of time axial and radial fluid conditions, passage wall temperatures, flow rates in each coolant passage, and approximate maximum material temperatures. CAC incorporates the hydrogen properties model STATE to provide fluid-state relations, thermodynamic properties, and transport properties of molecular hydrogen in any fixed ortho-para combination. The program requires the general core geometry, the core material properties as a function of temperature, the core power profile, and the core inlet conditions as function of time. Although CAC was originally developed in FORTRAN IV for use on an IBM 7094, this version is written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and is designed to be machine independent. It has been successfully compiled on IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS with Lahey F77L, a Sun4 series computer running SunOS 4.1.1, and a VAX series computer running VMS 5.4-3. CAC requires 300K of RAM under MS-DOS, 422K of RAM under SunOS, and 220K of RAM under VMS. No sample executable is provided on the distribution medium. Sample input and output data are included. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. CAC was developed in 1966, and this machine independent version was released in 1992. IBM-PC and IBM are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Lahey F77L is a registered trademark of Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. SunOS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. VMS is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  12. Core formation in silicate bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, F.; O'Brien, D. P.; Kleine, T.

    2008-12-01

    Differentiation of a body into a metallic core and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to melt [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon, core formation happens primarily due to radioactive decay. The Hf-W isotopic system may be used to date core formation; cores in some iron meteorites and the eucrite parent body (probably Vesta) formed within 1 My and 1-4~My of solar system formation, respectively [4]. These formation times are early enough to ensure widespread melting and differentiation by 26Al decay. Incorporation of Fe60 into the core, together with rapid early mantle solidification and cooling, may have driven early dynamo activity on some bodies [5]. Iron meteorites are typically depleted in sulphur relative to chondrites, for unknown reasons [6]. This depletion contrasts with the apparently higher sulphur contents of cores in larger planetary bodies, such as Mars [7], and also has a significant effect on the timing of core solidification. For bodies of Moon-size and larger, gravitational energy released during accretion is probably the primary cause of core formation [3]. The final stages of accretion involve large, stochastic collisions [8] between objects which are already differentiated. During each collision, the metallic cores of the colliding objects merge on timescales of a few hours [9]. Each collision will reset the Hf-W isotopic signature of both mantle and core, depending on the degree to which the impactor core re-equilibrates with the mantle of the target [10]. The re-equilibration efficiency depends mainly on the degree to which the impactor emulsifies [11], which is very uncertain. Results from N-body simulations [8,12] suggest that significant degrees of re- equilibration are required [4,10]. Re

  13. Prestellar and protostellar cores in Ori B9

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, O; Haikala, L K; Kainulainen, J; Johansson, L E B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the properties and spatial distribution of dense cores in Ori B9, and to estimate their ages and dynamical timescales. The cloud was mapped in the 870 micron continuum with APEX/LABOCA, and selected positions were observed in the lines of N2H+ and N2D+ using IRAM-30m. These were used together with our previous H2D+ observations. Moreover, archival FIR Spitzer/MIPS maps were combined with the LABOCA map to distinguish between pre- and protostellar cores, and to estimate the evolutionary stages of protostars. Twelve dense cores were detected at 870 micron in the Ori B9 cloud. The submm cores constitute ~4% of the total mass of the Ori B9 region. There is an equal number of pre- and protostellar cores. Two of the submm sources, which we call SMM 3 and SMM 4, are previously unknown Class 0 candidates. We found a moderate degree of deuteration in N2H+ (0.03-0.04). There is, furthermore, evidence for N2H+ depletion in the core SMM 4. We derive a relatively high degree of ioni...

  14. Viscosity of Earth's Outer Core

    CERN Document Server

    Smylie, D E

    2007-01-01

    A viscosity profile across the entire fluid outer core is found by interpolating between measured boundary values, using a differential form of the Arrhenius law governing pressure and temperature dependence. The discovery that both the retrograde and prograde free core nutations are in free decay (Palmer and Smylie, 2005) allows direct measures of viscosity at the top of the outer core, while the reduction in the rotational splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of the inner core allows it to be measured at the bottom. We find 2,371 plus/minus 1,530 Pa.s at the top and 1.247 plus/minus 0.035 x 10^11 Pa.s at the bottom. Following Brazhkin (1998) and Brazhkin and Lyapin (2000) who get 10^2 Pa.s at the top, 10^11 Pa.s at the bottom, by an Arrhenius extrapolation of laboratory experiments, we use a differential form of the Arrhenius law to interpolate along the melting temperature curve to find a viscosity profile across the outer core. We find the variation to be closely log-linear between the meas...

  15. SMART core protection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H. [Samchang Enterprise Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system.

  16. Atmospheric Methane in Ice Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of air trapped in ice cores provides us the most direct information about atmospheric CH4 variations in the past history. Ice core records from the "Three Poles (Antarctica, Greenland and Tibetan Plateau)" reveal the detailed fluctuations of atmospheric CH4 concentration with time and are allowed to quantify the CH4 differences among latitudes. These data are indispensably in the farther study of the relationship between greenhouse gases and climatic change, and of the past changes in terrestrial CH4 emissions. Ice cores reconstruction indicates that atmospheric CH4 concentration has increased quickly since industrialization, and the present day's level of atmospheric CH4 (1800 ppbv) is unprecedented during the past Glacial-Interglacial climate cycles.

  17. Distributed k-Core Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Montresor, Alberto; Miorandi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Among the novel metrics used to study the relative importance of nodes in complex networks, k-core decomposition has found a number of applications in areas as diverse as sociology, proteinomics, graph visualization, and distributed system analysis and design. This paper proposes new distributed algorithms for the computation of the k-core decomposition of a network, with the purpose of (i) enabling the run-time computation of k-cores in "live" distributed systems and (ii) allowing the decomposition, over a set of connected machines, of very large graphs, that cannot be hosted in a single machine. Lower bounds on the algorithms complexity are given, and an exhaustive experimental analysis on real-world graphs is provided.

  18. Pre-cometary ice composition from hot core chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Carmen; Kührt, Ekkehard; Motschmann, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Pre-cometary ice located around star-forming regions contains molecules that are pre-biotic compounds or pre-biotic precursors. Molecular line surveys of hot cores provide information on the composition of the ice since it sublimates near these sites. We have combined a hydrostatic hot core model with a complex network of chemical reactions to calculate the time-dependent abundances of molecules, ions, and radicals. The model considers the interaction between the ice and gas phase. It is applied to the Orion hot core where high-mass star formation occurs, and to the solar-mass binary protostar system IRAS 16293-2422. Our calculations show that at the end of the hot core phase both star-forming sites produce the same prebiotic CN-bearing molecules. However, in the Orion hot core these molecules are formed in larger abundances. A comparison of the calculated values with the abundances derived from the observed line data requires a chemically unprocessed molecular cloud as the initial state of hot core evolution. Thus, it appears that these objects are formed at a much younger cloud stage than previously thought. This implies that the ice phase of the young clouds does not contain CN-bearing molecules in large abundances before the hot core has been formed. The pre-biotic molecules synthesized in hot cores cause a chemical enrichment in the gas phase and in the pre-cometary ice. This enrichment is thought to be an important extraterrestrial aspect of the formation of life on Earth and elsewhere.

  19. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR's sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure.

  20. Earth's core and the geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett

    2000-06-16

    Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the liquid iron core. Details of how this occurs are now emerging from numerical simulations that achieve a self-sustaining magnetic field. Early results predict a dominant dipole field outside the core, and some models even reproduce magnetic reversals. The simulations also show how different patterns of flow can produce similar external fields. Efforts to distinguish between the various possibilities appeal to observations of the time-dependent behavior of the field. Important constraints will come from geological records of the magnetic field in the past.

  1. Magnetic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynmcal hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth's core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypothes pass the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth's core, this yields a generalized Stevenson-McLeod spectrum for the core-source field, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale change. In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at lentgh-scale l/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy- overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magneto-geostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core- mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core-source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order l20 years is pseudo-scale-invarient. Magnetic spectra of other

  2. Core competencies in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, José Manuel; Casademont, Jordi; Conthe, Pedro; Pinilla, Blanca; Pujol, Ramón; García-Alegría, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The working group on Competencies of Internal Medicine from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) proposes a series of core competencies that we consider should be common to all European internal medicine specialists. The competencies include aspects related to patient care, clinical knowledge, technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, cost-awareness in medical care and academic activities. The proposal could be used as a working document for the Internal Medicine core curriculum in the context of the educational framework of medical specialties in Europe.

  3. Core Task and Organizational Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikkelsø, Signe

    2015-01-01

    of core objects such as ‘task’ and ‘coordination,’ contemporary organization studies emphasize, much like other social science disciplines, broader topics such as ‘network,’ ‘identity,’ and ‘change.’ The paper argues that this altered focus and vocabulary is accompanied by a diminished ability to specify...... and intervene into the practical reality of organizations. It further argues that a discipline's core objects are not anachronisms to be discarded with, but crucial for specifying reality in ways that have proven practically relevant and still are....

  4. Producing gapped-ferrite transformer cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Improved manufacturing techniques make reproducible gaps and minimize cracking. Molded, unfired transformer cores are cut with thin saw and then fired. Hardened semicircular core sections are bonded together, placed in aluminum core box, and fluidized-coated. After winding is run over box, core is potted. Economical method significantly reduces number of rejects.

  5. Multi-core Architectures and Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kokkeler, André B.J.; Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Burgwal, van de Marcel D.; Mandoiu, I.; Kennings, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on algorithms and reconfigurable multi-core architectures for streaming digital signal processing (DSP) applications. The multi-core concept has a number of advantages: (1) depending on the requirements more or fewer cores can be switched on/off, (2) the multi-core structure f

  6. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  7. Visual Feedback for Rover-based Coring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Helmick, Daniel; Bajracharya, Max

    2008-01-01

    Technology for coring from a low-mass rover has been developed to enable core sample acquisition where a planetary rover experiences moderate slip during the coring operation. A new stereo vision technique, Absolute Motion Visual Odometry, is used to measure rover slip during coring and the slip is accommodated through corresponding arm pose updating. Coring rate is controlled by feedback of themeasured force of the coring tool against the environment. Test results in the JPL Marsyard show for the first time that coring from a low-mass rover with slip is feasible.

  8. Starless Cores as Fundamental Physics Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignano, Arturo; Molaro, Paolo; Levshakov, Sergei; Centurión, Miriam; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Lapinov, Alexander

    We present high resolution observations in the starless dense molecular core L1512 performed with the Medicina 32m radio telescope. The resolved hfs components of HC3N and NH3 show no kinematic sub-structure and consist of an apparently symmetric peak profile without broadened line wings or self-absorption features suggesting that they sample the same material. The velocity dispersion is 101( ± 1) m s - 1for NH3 and 85( ± 2) m s - 1 for HC3N. The kinetic temperature of the cloud is estimated at 9.2 ( ± 1.2) K and the turbulence is of 76 m s - 1in a subsonic regime. This places L1512 among the most quiescent dark cores and makes it an ideal laboratory to study variations of the electron-to-proton mass ratio, μ = {m}e/{m}p by means of observations of inversion lines of NH3 combined with rotational lines of other molecular species.

  9. Core/Combustor Noise - Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2017-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and advances in mitigation of other noise sources. Future propulsion systems for ultra-efficient commercial air vehicles are projected to be of increasingly higher bypass ratio from larger fans combined with much smaller cores, with ultra-clean burning fuel-flexible combustors. Unless effective noise-reduction strategies are developed, combustor noise is likely to become a prominent contributor to overall airport community noise in the future. This presentation gives a brief overview of the NASA outlook on pertinent issues and far-term research needs as well as current and planned research in the core/combustor-noise area. The research described herein is aligned with the NASA Ultra-Efficient Commercial Transport strategic thrust and is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, under the Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject. The overarching goal of the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is to explore and develop technologies and concepts to revolutionize the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing transport aircrafts. These technological solutions are critical in reducing the impact of aviation on the environment even as this industry and the corresponding global transportation system continue to grow.

  10. Core Competence Development : paradigm and practical implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Koay, Ze Wei; E.Markov, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The theory of core competence has drawn a large amount of attention in the academic field as well as of practitioners in the corporate world. Theory asserts that long-term value creation and competitiveness of the corporation relies on full-scale exploitation and timely development of company Core Competences; business strategies should be built around the core competencies of a firm. Identification and exploitation of Core Competences as well as essential elements comprising Core Competences...

  11. Cladding defects in hollow core fibers for surface mode suppression and improved birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michieletto, M; Lyngsø, J K; Lægsgaard, J; Bang, O

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate a novel polarization maintaining hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber geometry that reduces the impact of surface modes on fiber transmission. The cladding structure is modified with a row of partially collapsed holes to strip away unwanted surface modes. A theoretical investigation of the surface mode stripping is presented and compared to the measured performance of four 7-cells core fibers that were drawn with different collapse ratio of the defects. The varying pressure along the defect row in the cladding during drawing introduces an ellipticity of the core. This, combined with the presence of antiresonant features on the core wall, makes the fibers birefringent, with excellent polarization maintaining properties.

  12. Shell instability of a collapsing dense core

    CERN Document Server

    Ntormousi, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the formation of binary and multiple stellar systems largely comes down to studying the circumstances for the fragmentation of a condensing core during the first stages of the collapse. However, the probability of fragmentation and the number of fragments seem to be determined to a large degree by the initial conditions. In this work we study the fate of the linear perturbations of a homogeneous gas sphere both analytically and numerically. In particular, we investigate the stability of the well-known homologous solution that describes the collapse of a uniform spherical cloud. The difficulty of the mathematical singularity in the perturbation equations is surpassed here by explicitly introducing a weak shock next to the sonic point. In parallel, we perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) numerical simulations of the linear stages of the collapse and compared the growth rates obtained by each method. With this combination of analytical and numerical tools, we explore the behavior of both spherica...

  13. Fuzzy Cores and Fuzzy Balancedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Norde, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between the fuzzy core and balancedness for fuzzy games. For regular games, this relation has been studied by Bondareva (1963) and Shapley (1967). First, we gain insight in this relation when we analyse situations where the fuzzy game is continuous. Our main result shows that a

  14. Competition for cores in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulmus, Serra Caner; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    We study competition between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and an independently operating remanufacturer (IO). Different from the existing literature, the OEM and IO compete not only for selling their products but also for collecting returned products (cores) through their acquisition pri

  15. One Health Core Competency Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  16. Fuzzy Cores and Fuzzy Balancedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Norde, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between the fuzzy core and balancedness for fuzzy games. For regular games, this relation has been studied by Bondareva (1963) and Shapley (1967). First, we gain insight in this relation when we analyse situations where the fuzzy game is continuous. Our main result shows that

  17. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  18. Reference: GT1CORE [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GT1CORE Green PJ, Yong M-H, Cuozzo M, Kano-Murakami Y, Silverstein P, Chua N-H Binding site require...ments for pea nuclear protein factor GT-1 correlate with sequences required for light-depend

  19. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting “One Health” approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches. PMID:27679794

  20. Stability of Molten Core Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

  1. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Frankson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  2. Earth rotation and core topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Bradford H.; Clayton, Robert W.; Spieth, Mary Ann

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Geodynamics program has as one of its missions highly accurate monitoring of polar motion, including changes in length of day (LOD). These observations place fundamental constraints on processes occurring in the atmosphere, in the mantle, and in the core of the planet. Short-timescale (t less than or approx 1 yr) variations in LOD are mainly the result of interaction between the atmosphere and the solid earth, while variations in LOD on decade timescales result from the exchange of angular momentum between the mantle and the fluid core. One mechanism for this exchange of angular momentum is through topographic coupling between pressure variations associated with flow in the core interacting with topography at the core-mantel boundary (CMB). Work done under another NASA grant addressing the origin of long-wavelength geoid anomalies as well as evidence from seismology, resulted in several models of CMB topography. The purpose of work supported by NAG5-819 was to study further the problem of CMB topography, using geodesy, fluid mechanics, geomagnetics, and seismology. This is a final report.

  3. CopperCore Service Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    In an e-learning environment there is a need to integrate various e-learning services like assessment services, collaboration services, learning design services and communication services. In this article we present the design and implementation of a generic integrative service framework, called CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI). We will…

  4. Core shift effect in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  5. Magnectic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynamical hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth s core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypotheses pass the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth s core, this yields a JGR-PI, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale change.In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at length- scale l/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy- overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magneto- geostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core-mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core- source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order 120 years is pseudo-scale-invariant. Magnetic spectra of other planets may differ; however, if a transition to non

  6. In-core fuel management for pebble-bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milian Perez, Daniel; Rodriguez Garcia, Lorena; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos; Milian Lorenzo, Daniel, E-mail: dperez@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: dmilian@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana (Cuba); Velasco, Abanades, E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Department of Simulation of Thermo Energy Systems, Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper a calculation procedure to reduce the power peak in the core of a Very High Temperature pebble bed Reactor is presented. This procedure combines the fuel depletion and the neutronic behavior of the fuel in the reactor core, modeling once-through-then-out cycles as well as cycles in which pebbles are recirculated through the core an arbitrary number of times, obtaining the asymptotic fuel-loading pattern. The procedure consists in several coupled computational codes, which are used iteratively until convergence is reached. The utilization of the MCNPX 2.6e, as one of these computational codes, is validated through the calculation of benchmarks announced by IAEA (IAEA-TECDOC-1249, 2001). To complete the verification of the calculation procedure a base case described in (Annals of Nuclear Energy 29 (2002) 1345-1364), was performed. The procedure has been applied to a model of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (200 MW) design. (author)

  7. Radial molecular abundances and gas cooling in starless cores

    CERN Document Server

    Sipilä, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We aim to simulate radial profiles of molecular abundances and the gas temperature in cold and heavily shielded starless cores by combining chemical and radiative transfer models. Methods: A determination of the dust temperature in a modified Bonnor-Ebert sphere is used to calculate initial radial molecular abundance profiles. The abundances of selected cooling molecules corresponding to two different core ages are then extracted to determine the gas temperature at two time steps. The calculation is repeated in an iterative process yielding molecular abundances consistent with the gas temperature. Line emission profiles for selected substances are calculated using simulated abundance profiles. Results: The gas temperature is a function of time; the gas heats up as the core gets older because the cooling molecules are depleted onto grain surfaces. The contributions of the various cooling molecules to the total cooling power change with time. Radial chemical abundance profiles are non-trivial: different s...

  8. Fracture Characterization of Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello

    such result it is important to devise new experimental and analytical techniques to establish the multi-mode fracture characteristics of sandwich plate structures and accordingly develop methods to inhibit defect propagation. This thesis deals with characterization of fracture between face and core...... samples. A number of sandwich materials were tested (GFRP/foam cores and CFRP/Nomex) bothin static and fatigue. A linear elastic fracture mechanics model was used to determine the analyticalexpression of compliance which allowed to calculate automatically the crack length. In combination, a finite element...... types of sandwich samples atdifferent mode mixities and ΔG levels, and results in agreement with previous studies were obtained suggesting that the developed testing method is a reliable tool for the study of face/core interface debonded sandwich structures....

  9. A comparative study of the impact properties of sandwich materials with different cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viot P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are made of two high strength skins bonded to either side of a light weight core and are used in applications where high stiffness combined with low structural weight is required. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical response of several sandwich panels whose core materials are different. Sandwich panels with glass fibre-reinforced polymer face sheets were used, combined with five different cores; polystyrene foam, polypropylene honeycomb, two different density Balsa wood and Cork. All specimens were subjected to low velocity impact and their structural response (Force-displacement curves were compared to quasistatic response of the panel tested using an hemispherical indenter.

  10. A comparative study of the impact properties of sandwich materials with different cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, K. R.; Shankar, K.; Viot, P.; Guerard, S.

    2012-08-01

    Sandwich panels are made of two high strength skins bonded to either side of a light weight core and are used in applications where high stiffness combined with low structural weight is required. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical response of several sandwich panels whose core materials are different. Sandwich panels with glass fibre-reinforced polymer face sheets were used, combined with five different cores; polystyrene foam, polypropylene honeycomb, two different density Balsa wood and Cork. All specimens were subjected to low velocity impact and their structural response (Force-displacement curves) were compared to quasistatic response of the panel tested using an hemispherical indenter.

  11. A stratified layer of light elements at the top of the outer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, W. F.; Buffett, B. A.; Cormier, V. F.; Cottaar, S.; Day, E. A.; Dou, S.; French, S. W.; Irving, J. C.; Kavner, A.; Panning, M. P.; Parai, R.; Rose, I.

    2010-12-01

    Earth’s core is thought to have formed from sinking metal diapirs that segregated at mid-mantle conditions. Consequently, the core and mantle may not be in chemical equilibrium. Recent experiments suggest that at the pressures and temperatures of the core, lower mantle oxides and silicates may have an increased solubility in iron. Geodynamic calculations predict that if a core/mantle chemical reaction delivers a flux of oxygen to the core, a low-density, stratified layer, estimated to be 60-70 km thick, may form at the top of the core. Seismological, geochemical, and mineral physics data pertinent to the conditions at the top of the core combined with geodynamic models provide critical tests of the stratified outer core hypothesis. A linear combination of normal mode observations with a composite sensitivity restricted to VP in the outermost outer core is inverted. Travel time measurements of SmKS and PmKP are obtained from seismograms stacked over dense arrays. Forward modeling tests the sensitivity of these different data to predicted seismic models, and aids in identifying features that might mask the signal, e.g., topography on the core-mantle boundary, ultra-low velocity zones, and heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle. Chemical and isotopic ratios are used to consider the residual products of putative core-mantle exchange events, together with mass and charge balance, and allow to assess compositional constraints on both the core and mantle. Development of a stable, stratified O-enriched layer at the top of the outer core over Earth history may ultimately limit chemical communication between the mantle and the rest of the outer core. Implications for movement of siderophile trace elements (e.g. W, P and Pb) across the CMB over time are evaluated. Mineral physics estimates of high pressure and temperature equations of state of relevant mantle and core materials provide data to calculate density and sound velocities at outer core conditions to predict

  12. Cores to the rescue: how old cores enable new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Noren, A. J.; Brady, K.

    2016-12-01

    The value of archiving scientific specimens and collections for the purpose of enabling further research using new analytical techniques, resolving conflicting results, or repurposing them for entirely new research, is often discussed in abstract terms. We all agree that samples with adequate metadata ought to be archived systematically for easy access, for a long time and stored under optimal conditions. And yet, as storage space fills, there is a temptation to cull the collection, or when a researcher retires, to discard the collection unless the researcher manages to make his or her own arrangement for the collection to be accessioned elsewhere. Nobody has done anything with these samples in over 20 years! Who would want them? It turns out that plenty of us do want them, if we know how to find them and if they have sufficient metadata to assess past work and suitability for new analyses. The LacCore collection holds over 33 km of core from >6700 sites in diverse geographic locations worldwide with samples collected as early as 1950s. From these materials, there are many examples to illustrate the scientific value of archiving geologic samples. One example that benefitted Ito personally were cores from Lakes Mirabad and Zeribar, Iran, acquired in 1963 by Herb Wright and his associates. Several doctoral and postdoctoral students generated and published paleoecological reconstructions based on cladocerans, diatoms, pollen or plant macrofossils, mostly between 1963 and 1967. The cores were resampled in 1990s by a student being jointly advised by Wright and Ito for oxygen isotope analysis of endogenic calcite. The results were profitably compared with pollen and the results published in 2001 and 2006. From 1979 until very recently, visiting Iran for fieldwork was not pallowed for US scientists. Other examples will be given to further illustrate the power of archived samples to advance science.

  13. Hydrologic characterization of four cores from the Geysers Coring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persoff, Peter; Hulen, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-24

    Results of hydrologic tests conducted on four representative core plugs from Geysers Coring Project drill hole SB-15-D have been related to detailed mineralogic and textural characterization of the plugs to yield new information about permeability, porosity, and capillary-pressure characteristics of the uppermost Geysers steam reservoir and its immediately overlying caprock. The core plugs are all fine- to medium-grained, Franciscan-assemblage (late Mesozoic) metagraywacke with sparse Franciscan metamorphic quartz-calcite veins and late Cenozoic, hydrothermal quartz-calcite-pyrite veins. The matrices of three plugs from the caprock are rich in metamorphic mixed-layer illite/smectite and disseminated hydrothermal pyrite; the reservoir plug instead contains abundant illite and only minor pyrite. The reservoir plug and one caprock plug are sparsely disrupted by latest-stage, unmineralized microfractures which both follow and crosscut veinlets but which could be artifacts. Porosities of the plugs, measured by Boyles-law gas expansion, range between 1.9 and 2.5%. Gas permeability and Klinkenberg slip factor were calculated from gas-pressure-pulse-decay measurements using a specially designed permeameter with small (2 mL) reservoirs. Matrix permeabilities in the range 10-21 m² ( = 1 nanodarcy) were measured for two plugs that included mineral-filled veins but no unfilled microfractures. Greater permeabilities were measured on plugs that contained microfractures; at 500 psi net confining pressure, an effective aperture of 1.6 µm was estimated for one plug. Capillary pressure curves were determined for three cores by measuring saturation as weight gain of plugs equilibrated with atmospheres in which the relative humidity was controlled by saturated brines.

  14. Hydrologic characterization of four cores from the Geysers Coring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persoff, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Hulen, J.B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Institute

    1996-01-01

    Results of hydrologic tests on 4 representative core plugs from Geysers Coring Project drill hole SB-15-D were related to mineralogy and texture. Permeability measurements were made on 3 plugs from caprock and one plug from the steam reservoir. Late-stage microfractures present in 2 of the plugs contributed to greater permeability, but the values for the 2 other plugs indicate a typical matrix permeability of 1 to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}21}m{sup 2}. Klinkenberg slip factor b for these plugs is generally consistent with the inverse relation between slip factor and permeability observed by Jones (1972) for plugs of much more permeable material. The caprock and reservoir samples are nearly identical metagraywackes with slight mineralogical differences which appear to have little effect on hydrology. The late stage microfractures are suspected of being artifacts. The capillary pressure curves for 3 cores are fit by power-law relations which can be used to estimate relative permeability curves for the matrix rocks.

  15. [Research on Assessment Methods of Spectrum Data Quality of Core Scan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Lian-cun; Zheng, Zhi-zhong; Yin, Liang; Chen, Chun-xia; Yu, Zheng-kui; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Qiu-ning; Xiu, Xiao-xu; Gao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Core scan is the instrument used for core spectrum and pictures detection that has been developed in recent years. Cores' data can be digitized with this equipment, then automatic core catalog can be achieved, which provides basis for geological research, mineral deposit study and peripheral deposit prospecting. Meanwhile, an online database of cores can be established by the means of core digitalization to solve the cost problem caused by core preservation and share resources. Quality of core data measurement directly affects the mineral identification, reliability of parameter inversion results. Therefore it's very important to quasi-manage the assessment of data quality with the instrument before cores' spectrum testing services. Combined with the independent R&D of CSD350A type core scan, and on the basis of spectroscopy basic theory, spectrum analysis methods, core spectrum analysis requirements, key issues such as data quality assessment methods, evaluation criteria and target parameters has been discussed in depth, and comprehensive assessment of independent R&D of core scan has been conducted, which indicates the reliability and validity of spectrum measurements of the instrument. Experimental tests show that the methods including test parameters and items can perfectly response the measurements of reflectance spectrum, wavelength accuracy, repeatability and signal to noise ratio with the instrument. Thus the quality of core scan data can be evaluated correctly, and the foundation of data quality for commercial services can be provided. In the case of the current lack of relevant assessment criteria, the method this study proposes for the assessment has great value in the work of core spectrum measurements.

  16. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  17. Polystyrene-Core-Silica-Shell Hybrid Particles Containing Gold and Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Vana, Philipp

    2016-02-18

    Polystyrene-core-silica-shell hybrid particles were synthesized by combining the self-assembly of nanoparticles and the polymer with a silica coating strategy. The core-shell hybrid particles are composed of gold-nanoparticle-decorated polystyrene (PS-AuNP) colloids as the core and silica particles as the shell. PS-AuNP colloids were generated by the self-assembly of the PS-grafted AuNPs. The silica coating improved the thermal stability and dispersibility of the AuNPs. By removing the "free" PS of the core, hollow particles with a hydrophobic cage having a AuNP corona and an inert silica shell were obtained. Also, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were encapsulated in the core, which resulted in magnetic core-shell hybrid particles by the same strategy. These particles have potential applications in biomolecular separation and high-temperature catalysis and as nanoreactors.

  18. Depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Wenjia Elser née; Elser, Dominique; Heim, Bettina; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    By performing quantum-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection, we observe polarization noise in light after propagation through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We compare the noise spectrum to the one of a standard fiber and find an increase of noise even though the light is mainly transmitted in air in a hollow-core PCF. Combined with our simulation of the acoustic vibrational modes in the hollow-core PCF, we are offering an explanation for the polarization noise with a variation of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS). Here, instead of modulating the strain in the fiber core as in a solid core fiber, the acoustic vibrations in hollow-core PCF influence the effective refractive index by modulating the geometry of the photonic crystal structure. This induces polarization noise in the light guided by the photonic crystal structure.

  19. Shear softening of Earth's inner core indicated by its high Poisson's ratio and elastic anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    Earth's inner core exhibits an unusually high Poisson's ratio and noticeable elastic anisotropy. The mechanisms responsible for these features are critical for understanding the evolution of the Earth but remain unclear. This study indicates that once the correct formula for the shear modulus is used, shear softening can simultaneously explain the high Poisson's ratio and strong anisotropy of the inner core. Body-centred-cubic (bcc) iron shows shear instability at the pressures found in the inner-core and can be dynamically stabilized by temperature and light elements. It is very likely that some combinations of light elements stabilize the bcc iron alloy under inner-core conditions. Such a bcc phase would exhibit significant shear softening and match the geophysical constraints of the inner core. Identifying which light elements and what concentrations of these elements stabilize the bcc phase will provide critical information on the light elements of the inner core.

  20. Preliminary Uncertainty Analysis for SMART Digital Core Protection and Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon Seung; In, Wang Kee; Hwang, Dae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) developed on-line digital core protection and monitoring systems, called SCOPS and SCOMS as a part of SMART plant protection and monitoring system. SCOPS simplified the protection system by directly connecting the four RSPT signals to each core protection channel and eliminated the control element assembly calculator (CEAC) hardware. SCOMS adopted DPCM3D method in synthesizing core power distribution instead of Fourier expansion method being used in conventional PWRs. The DPCM3D method produces a synthetic 3-D power distribution by coupling a neutronics code and measured in-core detector signals. The overall uncertainty analysis methodology which is used statistically combining uncertainty components of SMART core protection and monitoring system was developed. In this paper, preliminary overall uncertainty factors for SCOPS/SCOMS of SMART initial core were evaluated by applying newly developed uncertainty analysis method

  1. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  2. Core-shell interaction and its impact on the optical absorption of pure and doped core-shell CdSe/ZnSe nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinqin; Cui, Yingqi; Yu, Shengping; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Mingli

    2016-04-07

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of core-shell nanoclusters, (CdSe)(x)@(CdSe)(y) and their Zn-substituted complexes of x = 2-4 and y = 16-28, were studied with density functional theory calculations. The substitution was applied in the cores, the shells, and/or the whole clusters. All these clusters are characterized by their core-shell structures in which the core-shell interaction was found different from those in core or in shell, as reflected by their bondlengths, volumes, and binding energies. Moreover, the core and shell combine together to compose a new cluster with electronic and optical properties different from those of separated individuals, as reflected by their HOMO-LUMO gaps and optical absorptions. With the substitution of Cd by Zn, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of clusters change regularly. The binding energy increases with Zn content, attributed to the strong Zn-Se bonding. For the same core/shell, the structure with a CdSe shell/core has a narrower gap than that with a ZnSe shell/core. The optical absorption spectra also change accordingly with Zn substitution. The peaks blueshift with increasing Zn concentration, accompanying with shape variations in case large number of Cd atoms are substituted. Our calculations reveal the core-shell interaction and its influence on the electronic and optical properties of the core-shell clusters, suggesting a composition-structure-property relationship for the design of core-shell CdSe and ZnSe nanoclusters.

  3. TREAT Transient Analysis Benchmarking for the HEU Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontogeorgakos, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This work was performed to support the feasibility study on the potential conversion of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by the GTRI Reactor Conversion staff at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of this study was to benchmark the transient calculations against temperature-limited transients performed in the final operating HEU TREAT core configuration. The MCNP code was used to evaluate steady-state neutronics behavior, and the point kinetics code TREKIN was used to determine core power and energy during transients. The first part of the benchmarking process was to calculate with MCNP all the neutronic parameters required by TREKIN to simulate the transients: the transient rod-bank worth, the prompt neutron generation lifetime, the temperature reactivity feedback as a function of total core energy, and the core-average temperature and peak temperature as a functions of total core energy. The results of these calculations were compared against measurements or against reported values as documented in the available TREAT reports. The heating of the fuel was simulated as an adiabatic process. The reported values were extracted from ANL reports, intra-laboratory memos and experiment logsheets and in some cases it was not clear if the values were based on measurements, on calculations or a combination of both. Therefore, it was decided to use the term “reported” values when referring to such data. The methods and results from the HEU core transient analyses will be used for the potential LEU core configurations to predict the converted (LEU) core’s performance.

  4. ElectroCore separator for particulate air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.; Altman, R.F.; Olen, K.R.

    1998-07-01

    Coal combustion in fossil energy power systems releases trace amounts of chemical elements identified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Most HAPs exist as solid phase particulate matter and are emitted to the atmosphere in this form. To reduce the emissions of these HAPs, a novel, high efficiency particle collection system known as the ElectroCore is being developed. The concept involves placing a high efficiency particle separator downstream of an underperforming electrostatic precipitator (ESP) that strips the particles from the incoming flow and returns them, along with a small amount of recirculation flow, back to the inlet of the ESP. The main component of the system is the ElectroCore separator. Its design is based on the mechanical Core Separator developed by LSR as a high efficiency centrifugal separator. Enhancing the Core Separator by adding an electrical field improves the separation efficiency of particles in the sub-micron range which is the range where centrifugal separation is ineffective. In the combined system, the centrifugal forces operating on the particles augmented by electrostatic forces so that the ElectroCore has high separation efficiency for particles of all sizes. Field tests have shown that the ElectroCore operating downstream of an underperforming ESP can reduce the particulate emission rate to below 4.3 ng/J (0.01 lb{sub m}/million Btu) even for ESPs with emission rates as high as 260 ng/J (0.6 lb{sub m}/million Btu). The ElectroCore system can perform with most all coal ranks or residual fuel oils (RFO) and has a potentially low capital cost.

  5. Whole Core Transport Calculation Methodology for a Hexagonal Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Zee, S. Q.; Joo, H. G

    2007-07-15

    This report discusses the hexagonal module implemented to the DeCART code and the performance of them. The implemented hexagonal module includes the hexagonal ray tracing and the CMFD acceleration modules. The performance of the implemented hexagonal module is examined for 4 tests of: (1) CMFD acceleration test, (2) the accuracy test of the hexagonal module, (3) the performance test for 2-D NGNP problem and (4) the applicability test for 3-D NGNP problem. The features of the implemented hexagonal modules are: (1) The Modular ray tracing scheme based on a hexagonal assembly and a path linking scheme between the modular rays. (2) Segment generation based on the structure unit. (3) Cell ray approximation: This feature is developed to reduce the memory required to store the segment information. (4) Modified cycle ray scheme that begins the ray tracing at a given surface and finishes if the reflected ray meets the starting surface. This feature is developed to reduce the memory required for the angular flux at the core boundary. (5) Fixed assembly geometry. The pin geometry of the single pin per assembly problem is different from that of the multi-pin problem. The core geometry of a single assembly problem is also different from that of the multi-assembly problem. (6) CMFD module based on unstructured cell. This feature is to deal with the irregular gap cells that are positioned at the assembly boundaries. The examination results of the 4 tests can be summarized as: (1) The CMFD acceleration test shows that the CMFD module speedups about greater than 200 for the core problem. (2) The accuracy test shows that the hexagonal MOC module produces an accurate solution of less than 60 pcm of eigenvalue and less than 2 % of local pin power errors. (3) The performance test for 2-D NGNP problem shows that the implemented hexagonal module works soundly and produces a reasonable solution by cooperating with the existing DeCART library and the other modules. (4) The applicability

  6. Divergent Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Asymmetrical-Core-Fucosylated and Core-Unmodified N-Glycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tiehai; Huang, Min; Liu, Lin; Wang, Shuo; Moremen, Kelley W; Boons, Geert-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489

    2016-01-01

    A divergent chemoenzymaytic approach for the preparation of core-fucosylated and core-unmodified asymmetrical N-glycans from a common advances precursor is described. An undecasaccharide was synthesized by sequential chemical glycosylations of an orthogonally protected core fucosylated

  7. Sediments at the top of Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, B A; Garnero, E J; Jeanloz, R

    2000-11-17

    Unusual physical properties at the core-mantle boundary have been inferred from seismic and geodetic observations in recent years. We show how both types of observations can be explained by a layer of silicate sediments, which accumulate at the top of the core as Earth cools. Compaction of the sediments expels most of the liquid iron but leaves behind a small amount of core material, which is entrained in mantle convection and may account for the isotopic signatures of core material in some hot spot plumes. Extraction of light elements from the liquid core also enhances the vigor of convection in the core and may increase the power available to the geodynamo.

  8. Core and Lumbopelvic Stabilization in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Core muscles provide stability that allows generation of force and motion in the lower extremities, as well as distributing impact forces and allowing controlled and efficient body movements. Imbalances or deficiencies in the core muscles can result in increased fatigue, decreased endurance, and injury in runners. Core strengthening should incorporate the intrinsic needs of the core for flexibility, strength, balance, and endurance, and the function of the core in relation to its role in extremity function and dysfunction. Specific exercises are effective in strengthening the core muscles.

  9. Accelerator driven sub-critical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-03-17

    Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

  10. Heat transfer and core neutronics considerations of the heat pipe cooled thermionic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, W. R.; Lewis, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The authors summarize the results of detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic evaluations of the heat pipe cooled thermionic (HPTI) reactor design, identify its key design attributes, and quantify its performance characteristics. The HPTI core uses modular, liquid-metal core heat transfer assemblies to replace the liquid-metal heat transport loop employed by in-core thermionic reactor designs of the past. The nuclear fuel, power conversion, heat transport, and heat rejection functions are all combined into a single modular unit. The reactor/converter assembly uses UN fuel pins to obtain a critical core configuration with in-core safety rods and reflector controls added to complete the subassembly. By thermally bonding the core heat transfer assemblies during the reactor core is coupled neutronically, thermally, and electrically into a modular assembly of individual power sources with cross-tied architecture. A forward-facing heat pipe radiator assembly extends from the reactor head in the shape of a frustum of a cone on the opposite side of the power system from the payload. Important virtues of the concept are the absence of any single-point failures and the ability of the core to effectively transfer the TFE waste heat load laterally to other in-core heat transfer assemblies in the event of multiple failures in either in-core and radiator heat pipes.

  11. Heat transfer and core neutronics considerations of the heat pipe cooled thermionic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, W. R.; Lewis, Brian

    The authors summarize the results of detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic evaluations of the heat pipe cooled thermionic (HPTI) reactor design, identify its key design attributes, and quantify its performance characteristics. The HPTI core uses modular, liquid-metal core heat transfer assemblies to replace the liquid-metal heat transport loop employed by in-core thermionic reactor designs of the past. The nuclear fuel, power conversion, heat transport, and heat rejection functions are all combined into a single modular unit. The reactor/converter assembly uses UN fuel pins to obtain a critical core configuration with in-core safety rods and reflector controls added to complete the subassembly. By thermally bonding the core heat transfer assemblies during the reactor core is coupled neutronically, thermally, and electrically into a modular assembly of individual power sources with cross-tied architecture. A forward-facing heat pipe radiator assembly extends from the reactor head in the shape of a frustum of a cone on the opposite side of the power system from the payload. Important virtues of the concept are the absence of any single-point failures and the ability of the core to effectively transfer the TFE waste heat load laterally to other in-core heat transfer assemblies in the event of multiple failures in either in-core and radiator heat pipes.

  12. L183, a Quiescent Core?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some observed results of NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) line emission in the starless dark cloud L183 are reported. Our observation suggests that the dense core of L183 has a size of ~ 0.16pc ×0.1pc with a mass of ~ 12M⊙. A velocity gradient of 4km s-1pc-1 from the north to the south was detected. The velocity shift corresponds to a central mass of ~ 5M⊙. If it is caused by rotation, the mass would be much less than the value above. This suggests that there may be more mass in the envelope of L183 than in the central region. The analysis of our data and the evidence in the literature about L183 indicate that it may be undergoing a process of collapsing to form a low-mass binary dense core.

  13. CORE CULTURE IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Orton

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the essential role of culture in the creation of meaning of language-inuse, showing it to be the source of both the contextual shaping of a particular text and the fundamental core of beliefs and values from which contemporary contextual features derive. As a result of this essential relationship, it is argued, modern language learners need to master the cultural system as well as the linguistic system of their new language if they are to be able to use it competently in real life, as mo st intend today. Samples of texts are examined to show how the meanings of both context and core culture are naturally embedded in ordinary language and suggestions are provided for how these might be successfully brought to students' attention and mastery in a classroom.

  14. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    originating from volcanic eruptions, crucial for cross-dating ice cores and relevant for climate interpretations. The method includes a heat bath to minimize the acidifying effect of CO2 both from the laboratory and from the ice itself. While for acidic ice the method finds similar concentrations of H......Ice cores provide high resolution records of past climate and environment. In recent years the use of continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems has increased the measurement throughput, while simultaneously decreasing the risk of contaminating the ice samples. CFA measurements of high temporal...... resolution increase our knowledge on fast climate variations and cover a wide range of proxies informing on a variety of components such as atmospheric transport, volcanic eruptions, forest fires and many more. New CFA methods for the determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and pH are presented...

  15. Clinical results of large defect teeth or flared roots restored by fiber posts and resin composites core in combination with full crowns%纤维桩核冠修复牙体严重缺损的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贯新; 白保晶; 魏永杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察纤维桩树脂核全冠修复牙体严重缺损和薄弱根管的临床修复效果.方法 选择牙体大面积缺损和薄弱根管患者165例219个患牙为研究对象.患牙经根管治疗后行纤维桩树脂核伞冠修复,修复完成后6个月、1年、2年进行临床复查,其中牙体缺损达龈下行牙龈切除术或冠延长术的患牙,增加修复后1个月和3个月临床复查,评价其临床修复效果.结果 165例的219个患牙中,有4例出现纤维桩与根管壁完整脱落,均未见根折、根裂,重新粘固后未见异常.其余215个患牙修复体未出现脱落,冠边缘密合,牙周正常,219个患牙均未出现基牙松动.结论 应用纤维桩树脂核全冠修复牙体严重缺损和薄弱根管可以达到满意的临床修复效果.%Objective To observe the clinical results of fiber post and resin composite core for the repair of large defect teeth or flared roots. Methods A total of 219 large defect teeth or flared roots from 165 patients were restored by fiber posts and resin composite core as well as full crowns. The clinical results of the restorations were followed up for a minimum of six months. Results Four of the 219 restorations failed but the roots remained intact and re-bonded with the previous post-and-core crowns. The restorations and periodontal tissues of the other 215 teeth were normal and successful. Conclusion Fiber post and resin composite core system is reliable for restoring large defect teeth or flared roots with satisfactory clinical results.

  16. Composite Structure with Origami Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-19

    preparation). Hence, we are able to produce foldcores in any given shape. Mechanical behaviour of sandwich shells with foldcores Equipped with the...being pressed in order to invert the tube inside out. For a tube with circular section, this particular mode of failure has been proven to consume the...to design the most suitable folded core structure for given applications. Gattas J M and You Z, The Behaviour of Curved-Crease Foldcores under

  17. Hollow-core grating fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillé, R.; Tajalli, P.; Roy, P.; Ahmadi-kandjani, S.; Kucharski, S.; Ortyl, E.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new type of hollow-core fiber where the propagation is ensured by a photoinduced self-pattern acting as a surface relief grating (SRG). The SRG is written by launching a suitable laser beam with proper polarization in a capillary glass fiber with the inner surface previously coated with an azopolymer thin film. Such a grating acts as a wavelength/angle dependant reflective mirror and enhances the confinement and the propagation of the light.

  18. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A

    2004-01-01

    I summarize, in the form of an extended abstract, the ongoing efforts at the University of Arizona (and in collaboration) to understand core-collapse supernovae theoretically. Included are short discussions of 1D (SESAME) and 2D (VULCAN/2D) codes and results, as well as discussions of the possible role of rotation. Highlighted are recent developments in multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics and the essential physics of the neutrino-driven mechanism.

  19. Finding your next core business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Chris

    2007-04-01

    How do you know when your core needs to change? And how do you determine what should replace it? From an in-depth study of 25 companies, the author, a strategy consultant, has discovered that it's possible to measure the vitality of a business's core. If it needs reinvention, he says, the best course is to mine hidden assets. Some of the 25 companies were in deep crisis when they began the process of redefining themselves. But, says Zook, management teams can learn to recognize early signs of erosion. He offers five diagnostic questions with which to evaluate the customers, key sources of differentiation, profit pools, capabilities, and organizational culture of your core business. The next step is strategic regeneration. In four-fifths of the companies Zook examined, a hidden asset was the centerpiece of the new strategy. He provides a map for identifying the hidden assets in your midst, which tend to fall into three categories: undervalued business platforms, untapped insights into customers, and underexploited capabilities. The Swedish company Dometic, for example, was manufacturing small absorption refrigerators for boats and RVs when it discovered a hidden asset: its understanding of, and access to, customers in the RV market. The company took advantage of a boom in that market to refocus on complete systems for live-in vehicles. The Danish company Novozymes, which produced relatively low-tech commodity enzymes such as those used in detergents, realized that its underutilized biochemical capability in genetic and protein engineering was a hidden asset and successfully refocused on creating bioengineered specialty enzymes. Your next core business is not likely to announce itself with fanfare. Use the author's tools to conduct an internal audit of possibilities and pinpoint your new focus.

  20. Helium in Earth's early core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhifd, M. A.; Jephcoat, Andrew P.; Heber, Veronika S.; Kelley, Simon P.

    2013-11-01

    The observed escape of the primordial helium isotope, 3He, from the Earth's interior indicates that primordial helium survived the energetic process of planetary accretion and has been trapped within the Earth to the present day. Two distinct reservoirs in the Earth's interior have been invoked to account for variations in the 3He/4He ratio observed at the surface in ocean basalts: a conventional depleted mantle source and a deep, still enigmatic, source that must have been isolated from processing throughout Earth history. The Earth's iron-based core has not been considered a potential helium source because partitioning of helium into metal liquid has been assumed to be negligible. Here we determine helium partitioning in experiments between molten silicates and iron-rich metal liquids at conditions up to 16GPa and 3,000K. Analyses of the samples by ultraviolet laser ablation mass spectrometry yield metal-silicate helium partition coefficients that range between 4.7×10-3 and 1.7×10-2 and suggest that significant quantities of helium may reside in the core. Based on estimated concentrations of primordial helium, we conclude that the early core could have incorporated enough helium to supply deep-rooted plumes enriched in 3He throughout the age of the Earth.

  1. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  2. Equivalent-core calculation of core-level relaxation energies in photoelectron spectroscopy: A molecular-orbital approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Zhuang, G.; Ross, P.N. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Van Hove, M.A.; Fadley, C.S. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The equivalent-core approximation is implemented in a novel way so as to calculate core-level relaxation energies in photoelectron spectroscopy. The method is based on self-consistent field (SCF) Hartree{endash}Fock molecular-orbital calculations via linear combinations of atomic orbitals, and involves evaluating the difference of sums of two-electron Coulomb and exchange integrals, for all electrons in an atom and in its equivalent-core ion. By thus avoiding SCF calculations with a core hole present (the true final state of photoemission), this procedure is shown to significantly save computing time in comparison with an exact SCF direct-hole calculation. Application of the method in single atoms and selected molecules shows about a 10{percent} difference with respect to direct-hole calculation results. The approximation introduces about 1{endash}6 eV errors compared to the experimental results of gas phase molecules. This method thus should be a generally useful procedure for estimating relaxation energies in core spectra. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Core stability training for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Anderson, Barton E

    2013-11-01

    Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. PUBMED WAS SEARCHED FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC, BIOMECHANIC, AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CORE STABILITY FOR INJURY PREVENTION (KEYWORDS: "core OR trunk" AND "training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation" AND "risk OR prevalence") published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport.

  4. Effect of FUYANG HUOGU(复阳活骨)pill combined with core decompression on the intraosseous pressure within the femoral head and biomechanical parameter for the model with steroid induced avascular necrosis of femoral head%复阳活骨丸配合髓芯减压术对激素性股骨头坏死模型股骨头骨内压及生物力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖宏伟; 张建福; 陈献韬

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察复阳活骨丸配合髓芯减压术对激素性股骨头缺血坏死家兔模型股骨头骨内压和生物力学性能的影响,探讨其防治股骨头缺血性坏死的可能机制,为该方法的临床应用提供依据.方法:将45只健康家兔随机分为正常对照组(A组)、模型对照组(B组)、复阳活骨丸组(C组)、髓芯减压组(D组)、复阳活骨丸+髓芯减压组(E组).除A组外,其余各组家兔建立激素性股骨头坏死模型.造模成功后,A、B两组不作治疗,C组采用复阳活骨丸灌胃治疗,D组行髓芯减压术治疗,E组采用复阳活骨丸灌胃加髓芯减压术治疗.治疗6周后测定各组家兔股骨头骨内压,并检测股骨头生物力学参数.结果:各组股骨头骨内压比较,差异有统计学意义(F=7.894,P=0.000);组间两两比较,B、C组均高于A组(LSD-t=10.284,P=0.000;LSD-t=8.356,P=0.000),D、E组与A组比较差异无统计学意义(LSD-t=0.574,P=0.683;LSD-t=0.654,P=0.725);C、D、E组均低于B组(LSD-t=-4.232.P=0.015;LSD-t=-5.241,P=0.000;LSD-t=-6.766,P=0.000);C组高于D、E组(LSD-t=3.876,P=0.027:LSD-t=4.031,P=0.013);D组与E组比较差异无统计学意义(LSD-t=0.562,P=0.939).生物力学指标测定,B组骨强度、骨刚度、弹性模量、破裂强度等均呈现骨质疏松表现,C、D、E组上述指标均有所改善,且E组改善优于C、D两组.结论:复阳活骨丸配合髓芯减压术可有效治疗激素性股骨头缺血坏死.其可能机制为改善股骨头内微循环,扭转股骨头缺血状态,促进骨小梁修复,降低骨内压,提高骨强度,阻止股骨头变形,从而达到治疗股骨头缺血性坏死的目的.%Objective:To observe the effect of FUYANG HUOGU ( 复 阳 活 骨)pill combined with core decompression on the intraosseous pressure within the femoral head and biomechanical parameters for the rabbit model with steroid induced avascular necrosis of femoral head(SANFH).Methods:45 healthy rabbits were randomly divided into normal

  5. Core Collapse Supernova Models For Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jordi; Frohlich, C.; Perego, A.; Hempel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Type II supernova explosions are the product of the collapse of massive stars (M > 8-10 Msun), which explode with a kinetic energy release of 1e51 erg. While sophisticated multi-dimensional models can reveal details of the explosion mechanism (role of convection, fluid instabilities, etc.), they are computationally too expensive for nucleosynthesis studies. However, precise nucleosynthesis predictions are needed to understand the supernova contribution to the heavy elements and the abundances observed in metal-poor stars. We have modeled the core collapse, bounce and subsequent explosion of massive stars assuming spherical symmetry with the code Agile-IDSA (Liebendoerfer et al. 2009) combined with a novel method to artificially trigger the explosion (PUSH). The code also includes the Hempel EOS, which uses a modern non-NSE to cover the entire nucleosynthesis duration. In our simulations, based on the neutrino-delayed explosion mechanism, the explosion sets in by depositing a small amount of additional energy (from mu and tau neutrinos) to revive the stalled shock. Our results show that the code Agile-IDSA combined with PUSH is very robust and can successfully reproduce an explosion with a more reliable treatment of the crucial quantities involved in nucleosynthesis (i.e., the electron fraction). Here, we present a detailed isotopic abundance study for a wide variety of progenitors, as well as an analysis of the explosion properties, such as the explosion energies, remnant masses or compactness of the progenitor models.

  6. Dark Matter Cores in the Fornax and Sculptor Dwarf Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Amorisco, Nicola; Zavala Franco, Jesus; J. L. de Boer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We combine the detailed Star Formation Histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf Spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Supernova type II (SNeII) is sufficient to create a substantial dark matter core. Assuming...... the efficiency of energy injection of the SNeII into dark matter particles is \\epsilon=0.05, we find that a single early episode, z...

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Combined Statistical Areas 201309 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Combined Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. Combined statistical areas consist of two or more adjacent Core Based...

  8. 1:1,000,000-Scale Combined Statistical Areas - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Combined Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. Combined statistical areas consist of two or more adjacent Core Based...

  9. CORE SHAPES AND ORIENTATIONS OF CORE-SÉRSIC GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Graham, Alister W., E-mail: Bdullo@astro.swin.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    The inner and outer shapes and orientations of core-Sérsic galaxies may hold important clues to their formation and evolution. We have therefore measured the central and outer ellipticities and position angles for a sample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images and data. By selecting galaxies with core-Sérsic break radii R{sub b} —a measure of the size of their partially depleted core—that are ≳ 0.''2, we find that the ellipticities and position angles are quite robust against HST seeing. For the bulk of the galaxies, there is a good agreement between the ellipticities and position angles at the break radii and the average outer ellipticities and position angles determined over R {sub e}/2 < R < R {sub e}, where R {sub e} is the spheroids' effective half light radius. However there are some interesting differences. We find a median ''inner'' ellipticity at R{sub b} of ε{sub med} = 0.13 ± 0.01, rounder than the median ellipticity of the ''outer'' regions ε{sub med} = 0.20 ± 0.01, which is thought to reflect the influence of the central supermassive black hole at small radii. In addition, for the first time we find a trend, albeit weak (2σ significance), such that galaxies with larger (stellar deficit-to-supermassive black hole) mass ratios—thought to be a measure of the number of major dry merger events—tend to have rounder inner and outer isophotes, suggesting a connection between the galaxy shapes and their merger histories. We show that this finding is not simply reflecting the well known result that more luminous galaxies are rounder, but it is no doubt related.

  10. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies has developed, produced and tested, as part of the Phase-I SBIR, a new form of composite cellular core material, named Interply Core,...

  11. Scaling Turbo Boost to a 1000 cores

    CERN Document Server

    S, Ananth Narayan; Fedorova, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The Intel Core i7 processor code named Nehalem provides a feature named Turbo Boost which opportunistically varies the frequencies of the processor's cores. The frequency of a core is determined by core temperature, the number of active cores, the estimated power consumption, the estimated current consumption, and operating system frequency scaling requests. For a chip multi-processor(CMP) that has a small number of physical cores and a small set of performance states, deciding the Turbo Boost frequency to use on a given core might not be difficult. However, we do not know the complexity of this decision making process in the context of a large number of cores, scaling to the 100s, as predicted by researchers in the field.

  12. Investigating the translation of Earth's inner core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Elizabeth A; Cormier, Vernon F; Geballe, Zachary M;

    2012-01-01

    The Earth’s inner core provides unique insights into processes that are occurring deep within our Earth today, as well as processes that occurred in the past. The seismic structure of the inner core is complex, and is dominated by anisotropic and isotropic differences between the Eastern...... and Western ‘hemispheres’ of the inner core. Recent geodynamical models suggest that this hemispherical dichotomy can be explained by a fast translation of the inner core. In these models one side of the inner core is freezing, while the other side is melting, leading to the development of different seismic...... properties on either side of the inner core. A simple translating model of the inner core, however, does not seem to easily explain all of the seismically observed features, including the innermost inner core; the observed sharp lateral gradient in seismic properties between the two hemispheres...

  13. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  14. Characterizing core stability with fuzzy games

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates core stability of cooperative, TU games via a fuzzy extension of the totally balanced cover of a TU game. The stability of the core of the fuzzy extension of a game, the concave extension, is shown to reflect the core stability of the original game and vice versa. Stability of the core is then shown to be equivalent to the existence of an equilibrium of a certain correspondence.

  15. Characterizing core stability with fuzzy games

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates core stability of cooperative, TU games via a fuzzy extension of the totally balanced cover of a TU game. The stability of the core of the fuzzy extension of a game, the concave extension, is shown to reflect the core stability of the original game and vice versa. Stability of the core is then shown to be equivalent to the existence of an equilibrium of a certain correspondence.

  16. Core Processes: Earth's eccentric magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause.......Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause....

  17. Rotation and Magnetism of Earth's Inner Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier; Roberts

    1996-12-13

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super- rotation of Earth's solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth's magnetic field.

  18. Core Competencies in Information Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, G. E.; Corbitt, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses core competencies in library and information science and in information systems to use as a background for an examination of core competencies in information management. Suggests a set of core competencies and educational outcomes that might be applied to curricula in both developed and developing countries. (Author/LRW)

  19. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  20. Heterogeneity and anisotropy of Earth's inner core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Arwen

    2014-01-01

    Seismic observations provide strong evidence that Earth's inner core is anisotropic, with larger velocity in the polar than in the equatorial direction. The top 60-80 km of the inner core is isotropic; evidence for an innermost inner core is less compelling. The anisotropy is most likely due to alig

  1. Honeycomb Core Permeability Under Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David E.; Raman, V. V.; Venkat, Venki S.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    1997-01-01

    A method for characterizing the air permeability of sandwich core materials as a function of applied shear stress was developed. The core material for the test specimens was either Hexcel HRP-3/16-8.0 and or DuPont Korex-1/8-4.5 and was nominally one-half inch thick and six inches square. The facesheets where made of Hercules' AS4/8552 graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) composites and were nominally 0.059-in. thick. Cytec's Metalbond 1515-3M epoxy film adhesive was used for co-curing the facesheets to the core. The permeability of the specimens during both static (tension) and dynamic (reversed and non-reversed) shear loads were measured. The permeability was measured as the rate of air flow through the core from a circular 1-in2 area of the core exposed to an air pressure of 10.0 psig. In both the static and dynamic testing, the Korex core experienced sudden increases in core permeability corresponding to a core catastrophic failure, while the URP core experienced a gradual increase in the permeability prior to core failure. The Korex core failed at lower loads than the HRP core both in the transverse and ribbon directions.

  2. Heterogeneity and anisotropy of Earth's inner core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Arwen

    2014-01-01

    Seismic observations provide strong evidence that Earth's inner core is anisotropic, with larger velocity in the polar than in the equatorial direction. The top 60-80 km of the inner core is isotropic; evidence for an innermost inner core is less compelling. The anisotropy is most likely due to

  3. Improving Core Strength to Prevent Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D.; Adams-Blair, Heather R.

    2010-01-01

    Regardless of the sport or skill, it is essential to have correct biomechanical positioning, or postural control, in order to maximize energy transfer. Correct postural control requires a strong, stable core. A strong and stable core allows one to transfer energy effectively as well as reduce undue stress. An unstable or weak core, on the other…

  4. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  5. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  6. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  7. Core Journal Lists: Classic Tool, New Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Robin A.; Jackson, Rose M.; Mullen, Laura Bowering

    2010-01-01

    Reviews the historical context of core journal lists, current uses in collection assessment, and existing methodologies for creating lists. Outlines two next generation core list projects developing new methodologies and integrating novel information/data sources to improve precision: a national-level core psychology list and the other a local…

  8. A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S McClintock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1 Information Fundamentals, (2 Information Systems, (3 Workflow and Process, and (4 Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012. Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world

  9. The dynamics of massive starless cores with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Kong, Shuo; Butler, Michael J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fontani, Francesco [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    How do stars that are more massive than the Sun form, and thus how is the stellar initial mass function (IMF) established? Such intermediate- and high-mass stars may be born from relatively massive pre-stellar gas cores, which are more massive than the thermal Jeans mass. The turbulent core accretion model invokes such cores as being in approximate virial equilibrium and in approximate pressure equilibrium with their surrounding clump medium. Their internal pressure is provided by a combination of turbulence and magnetic fields. Alternatively, the competitive accretion model requires strongly sub-virial initial conditions that then lead to extensive fragmentation to the thermal Jeans scale, with intermediate- and high-mass stars later forming by competitive Bondi-Hoyle accretion. To test these models, we have identified four prime examples of massive (∼100 M {sub ☉}) clumps from mid-infrared extinction mapping of infrared dark clouds. Fontani et al. found high deuteration fractions of N{sub 2}H{sup +} in these objects, which are consistent with them being starless. Here we present ALMA observations of these four clumps that probe the N{sub 2}D{sup +} (3-2) line at 2.''3 resolution. We find six N{sub 2}D{sup +} cores and determine their dynamical state. Their observed velocity dispersions and sizes are broadly consistent with the predictions of the turbulent core model of self-gravitating, magnetized (with Alfvén Mach number m{sub A} ∼ 1) and virialized cores that are bounded by the high pressures of their surrounding clumps. However, in the most massive cores, with masses up to ∼60 M {sub ☉}, our results suggest that moderately enhanced magnetic fields (so that m{sub A} ≅ 0.3) may be needed for the structures to be in virial and pressure equilibrium. Magnetically regulated core formation may thus be important in controlling the formation of massive cores, inhibiting their fragmentation, and thus helping to establish the stellar IMF.

  10. Structure of Hot Molecular Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Rolffs, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    High-mass stars form deeply embedded in dense molecular gas, which they heat up and ionize due to their high energy output. During an early phase, the ionization is confined to small regions, and the stellar radiation is absorbed by dust. The high temperatures lead to the evaporation of ice mantles around dust grains, and many highly excited and complex molecules can be observed in these Hot Molecular Cores. At later stages, the whole molecular cloud is ionized and disrupted, and a...

  11. Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbart, P.M.; Sheehy, D.E. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang{close_quote}s SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. The process of desistance among core ex-gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Heineberg, Yotam; Zimbardo, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11.6-years gang membership, were interviewed regarding their involvement in the gang and the desistance process. A systematic qualitative analysis based on grounded theory methodology was mainly utilized. We found that the decision to leave the gang is a result of a combination of push (e.g., personal and vicarious victimization, burnout of gang lifestyle, disillusionment by the gang) and pull (e.g., parenthood, family responsibilities, religious and cultural awakening) factors that evolved over time. Push factors were more dominant in this domain. We also found that while male core ex-gang members tended to leave the gang more frequently because of push factors, female ex-gang members were more inclined to desist due to pull factors. Our analysis also showed that core gang members shared a general pattern of the desistance process comprising of the following 5 stages: triggering, contemplation, exploration, exiting and maintenance. Based on these results, we outlined stage-specific recommendations for agents of societal change to help in facilitating the desistance of core gang members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evaluation of Fugen core management code (POLESTAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiratori, Yoshitake (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Fugen Nuclear Power Station); Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Deshimaru, Takehide; Saito, Kuniyoshi

    1991-06-01

    Core management code POLESTAR has been developed by PNC and it has enough functions for core management. The code has been successfully used to carry out core management of Fugen such as making a long term or next cycle fuel loading plan, predicting detailed characteristics of a next cycle core, planning of a control rod pattern and evaluating the core life time after reactor start-up and so on. This code has been contributed to the reliable and economical operation of Fugen, since its accuracy has been checked and the code has been tailored by comparing its calculation results with various measured data. (author).

  14. Double U-Core Switched Reluctance Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrical machine stator comprising a plurality of stator segments (131,132,133), each segment comprises a first U-core and a second U-core wound with a winding, where the winding being arranged with at least one coil turn, each coil turn comprises a first axial......(s), wherein the first U-core and the second U-core are located adjacent to each other, whereby the winding spans the first and second U-cores. The invention also relates to a SRM machine with a stator mentioned above and a rotor....

  15. Hydrophobic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophobic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates a hydrophobic substance with a core substance, such as dye, corrosion indicator, corrosion inhibitor, and/or healing agent, dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophobic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophobic-phase droplets, e.g., containing the core substance and shell-forming compound, dispersed in a hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  16. Hydrophilic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophilic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophilic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates water with the core substance dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophilic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophilic-phase droplets dispersed in a hydrophobic phase, with shell-forming compound contained in the hydrophilic phase or the hydrophobic phase and the core substance contained in the hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  17. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core... ``require all holders of operating licenses for nuclear power plants (``NPP'') to operate NPPs with in-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core.'' DATES: Submit...

  18. AIRS-observed warm core structures of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Si; Chen, Baiqing; Li, Tim; Wu, Naigeng; Deng, Wenjian

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature profiles during the period 2003-2013 are used to examine the warm core structures and evolution characteristics associated with the formation and development of western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclones (TCs). The warm core with a steady 1.5-K warming in the layer of 500-300 hPa occurs 24 h prior to tropical storm formation. Apparent eye warming extends upward to upper troposphere and downward to near surface after tropical storm formation. TC intensity shows a robust positive correlation with the warm core strength and has a weaker but still significant positive correlation with the warm core height (the weaker correlation is primarily attributed to the scattered warm core heights of weak TCs). Future 24-h intensity change of TCs has little correlation with the warm core height while it has a significant negative correlation with the warm core strength. Weak to moderate warm core at 500-200 hPa may be a necessary but not sufficient initial condition for TC rapid intensification. AIRS-observed warm core structures, in combination with other environmental factors, have the potential to improve the prediction of tropical storm formation and rapid intensification of WNP TCs.

  19. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance Parameter for Radio Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. J. Nie; J. H. Yang

    2014-09-01

    Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investigated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, but it is not correlated with the extended flux density. When the core dominance parameter is higher than unity, it is not correlated with the core flux density, but it is linearly correlated with the extended flux density. Therefore, there are different results from different samples. The results can be explained using a relativistic beaming model.

  20. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  1. Saturn's F Ring Core: Calm in the Midst of Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Whizin, A. D.; Hogan, R. C.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Dones, L.; Showalter. M. R.; Colwell, J. E.; Scargle, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term stability of the narrow F Ring core has been hard to understand. Instead of acting as "shepherds", Prometheus and Pandora together stir the vast preponderance of the region into a chaotic state, consistent with the orbits of newly discovered objects like S/2004S6. We show how a comb of very narrow radial locations of high stability in semimajor axis is embedded within this otherwise chaotic region. The stability of these semimajor axes relies fundamentally on the unusual combination of rapid apse precession and long synodic period which characterizes the region. This situation allows stable "antiresonances" to fall on or very close to traditional Lindblad resonances which, under more common circumstances, are destabilizing. We present numerical integrations of tens of thousands of test particles over tens of thousands of Prometheus orbits that map out the effect. The stable antiresonance zones are most stable in a subset of the region where Prometheus first-order resonances are least cluttered by Pandora resonances. This region of optimum stability is paradoxically closer to Prometheus than a location more representative of "torque balance", helping explain a longstanding paradox. One stable zone corresponds closely to the currently observed semimajor axis of the F Ring core. While the model helps explain the stability of the narrow F Ring core, it does not explain why the F Ring material all shares a common apse longitude; we speculate that collisional damping at the preferred semimajor axis (not included in the current simulations) may provide that final step. Essentially, we find that the F Ring core is not confined by a combination of Prometheus and Pandora, but a combination of Prometheus and precession.

  2. Functional Screening of Core Promoter Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Dan Y; Kedmi, Adi; Ideses, Diana; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The core promoter is the DNA sequence that recruits the basal transcription machinery and directs accurate initiation of transcription. It is an active contributor to gene expression that can be rationally designed to manipulate the levels of expression. Core promoter function can be analyzed using different experimental approaches. Here, we describe the qualitative and quantitative analysis of engineered core promoter functions using the EGFP reporter gene that is driven by distinct core promoters. Expression plasmids are transfected into different mammalian cell lines, and the resulting fluorescence is monitored by live cell imaging , as well as by flow cytometry. In order to verify that the transcriptional activity of the examined core promoters is indeed a function of their activity, as opposed to differences in DNA uptake, real-time quantitative PCR analysis is performed. Importantly, the described methodology for functional screening of core promoter activity has enabled the analysis of engineered potent core promoters for extended time periods.

  3. Research on plasma core reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, G.A.; Barton, D.M.; Helmick, H.H.; Bernard, W.; White, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with 1-m-diam by 1-m-long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF/sub 6/ container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials were measured. Finally, an 85,000-cm/sup 3/ aluminum canister in the central region was fueled with UF/sub 6/ gas and fission density distributions determined. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

  4. Electrostatically enhanced core separator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Altman, R.F. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separator (EECS) system employs the same design principles as the mechanical Core Separator system plus an electrostatic separation enhancing technique. The EECS system contains a special type of separator, the EECS element, a conventional solids collector and means for flow recirculation. In the EECS system solids separation and collection are accomplished in two different components. The EECS element acts as a separator, not as a collector so particles are not collected on its walls. This eliminates or at least mitigates the problems associated with reentrainment (due to high or low dust resistivity), seepage (due to gas flow below the precipitator plates and over the hoppers), sneakage (due to gas flow both above and below the precipitator plates), and rapping reentrainment. If the EECS separation efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system with the process stream. They recirculate until they are extracted by the collector. As a result, the separation efficiency of the EECS element determines the efficiency of the system, even if the collector efficiency is relatively low. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. 核心竞争力和企业的可持续性发展%Core Competence and the Sustained Development of the Enterpirse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟超; 杨溢

    2003-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic theory of core competence and the practical significance of the theory of corecompetence of an enterprise. It discusses how to keep the advantages of core competence of an enterprise so as to help theenterprise achieve a sustained development. The article thinks that the essence of core competence is the combination ofknowledge and ability contained in the core products of an enterprise, which is the basis for an enterprise to obtain the last-ing competence advantage.

  6. PHYLOMETABOLIC CORE OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sitkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors  discuss the  theory  of human  superorganism and its microbiota (microbiome, whose mutualistic  interactions  is realized within the  microbiota – gut – brain axis that includes endocrine, immune and neurohumoral pathways. The newest concepts  of microbiome enterotypes and core microbiota  are  presented, which are  important  for understanding of the  role of symbiotic  microorganisms  in human  vital activities, for explanation of pathophysiology of many  chronic  human  diseases  (beyond  gastrointestinal disorders, as well as for the  search of effective therapeutic targets. As highly promising are considered  the functional approaches to studies  of microbiota  that  allowed to formulate the concept  of phylometabolic (phylofunctional core. This is a series of evolutionally stable microorganisms  responsible  for majority of the  main microbiome  functions, such as fermentation  of polysaccharides  (glycans, production of short-chain  fatty acids (butyrate, propionate, acetate, hydrogen  utilization, production of lactate, metabolism of aminoacids, bile acids, choline, production  of vitamins and  some  biologically active substances – anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, immunostimulatory. The authors are first to describe the main functional groups  of microorganisms  of   gut microbiota phylometabolic core, providing key metabolic functions, as well as the leading characteristics of the  phylometabolic core as such. The perspectives  of modification  of composition  and functions  of phylometabolic microbiota  core are discussed based on metabiotics  as a virtually new class of therapeutic agents. A hypothesis has been proposed that  the  ratios  between main  components of the key gut microbiota may reflect fundamental  processed  related  to a mutualistic interactions between microbiota and human body, as well as they may serve as effective biological markers of

  7. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Pakawanit, Phakkhananan; Wipatanawin, Angkana; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe2O4 core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe2O4 core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV-vis spectra of complete coated MgFe2O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe2O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe2O4 core. Both of MgFe2O4 and MgFe2O4-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line.

  8. Photometric Identification of Young Stripped-Core Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, A; Maoz, D; Filippenko, A V; Foley, R J; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method designed to identify the spectral type of young (less than ~30 days after explosion) and nearby (z < ~0.05) supernovae (SNe) using their broad-band colors. In particular, we show that stripped-core SNe (i.e., hydrogen deficient core-collapse events, spectroscopically defined as SNe Ib and SNe Ic, including broad-lined SN 1998bw-like events) can be clearly distinguished from other types of SNe. Using the full census of nearby SNe discovered during the year 2002, we estimate the impact that prompt multi-band photometry, obtained by 1m class telescopes, would have on the early identification of stripped-core events. Combining this new approach with ongoing spectroscopic follow-up programs, one can expect ~20 nearby, stripped-core events to be identified, each year, around, or before, maximum light. Follow-up studies, including prompt, multi-epoch optical spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry, as well as radio and X-ray observations, could greatly increase our understanding of these events, a...

  9. Core-shell nanoparticle arrays double the strength of steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, J-B; Na, S-H; Gault, B; Kim, J-E; Han, J-C; Park, C-G; Raabe, D

    2017-02-22

    Manipulating structure, defects and composition of a material at the atomic scale for enhancing its physical or mechanical properties is referred to as nanostructuring. Here, by combining advanced microscopy techniques, we unveil how formation of highly regular nano-arrays of nanoparticles doubles the strength of an Fe-based alloy, doped with Ti, Mo, and V, from 500 MPa to 1 GPa, upon prolonged heat treatment. The nanoparticles form at moving heterophase interfaces during cooling from the high-temperature face-centered cubic austenite to the body-centered cubic ferrite phase. We observe MoC and TiC nanoparticles at early precipitation stages as well as core-shell nanoparticles with a Ti-C rich core and a Mo-V rich shell at later precipitation stages. The core-shell structure hampers particle coarsening, enhancing the material's strength. Designing such highly organized metallic core-shell nanoparticle arrays provides a new pathway for developing a wide range of stable nano-architectured engineering metallic alloys with drastically enhanced properties.

  10. Core-shell nanoparticle arrays double the strength of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, J.-B.; Na, S.-H.; Gault, B.; Kim, J.-E.; Han, J.-C.; Park, C.-G.; Raabe, D.

    2017-01-01

    Manipulating structure, defects and composition of a material at the atomic scale for enhancing its physical or mechanical properties is referred to as nanostructuring. Here, by combining advanced microscopy techniques, we unveil how formation of highly regular nano-arrays of nanoparticles doubles the strength of an Fe-based alloy, doped with Ti, Mo, and V, from 500 MPa to 1 GPa, upon prolonged heat treatment. The nanoparticles form at moving heterophase interfaces during cooling from the high-temperature face-centered cubic austenite to the body-centered cubic ferrite phase. We observe MoC and TiC nanoparticles at early precipitation stages as well as core-shell nanoparticles with a Ti-C rich core and a Mo-V rich shell at later precipitation stages. The core-shell structure hampers particle coarsening, enhancing the material’s strength. Designing such highly organized metallic core-shell nanoparticle arrays provides a new pathway for developing a wide range of stable nano-architectured engineering metallic alloys with drastically enhanced properties. PMID:28225022

  11. Treatment of lower extremity biomechanics correction combined with spinal core muscle groups training for chronic nonspecific low back pain%下肢生物力学矫正联合脊柱区核心肌群训练治疗慢性非特异性下腰痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小金; 韩秀兰; 成守珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss clinical effects of lower extremity biomechanics correction with spinal core muscle groups training for the treatment of patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (LBP). Methods Thirty-two chronic non-specific LBP patients treated by lower extremity biomechanics correction were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 16 patients in each group. They were all configured biomechanics orthopedic insole, and treated by conventional physical therapy and manipulation therapy at the same time. In addition, patients in observation group performed spinal core muscle group training. Before and after treatment, pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and LBP Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores in two groups were recorded and compared. Results At 1, 6 months after the treatment, VAS and ODI scores improved, the differences between pre- and post-treatment had statistical significance (P 0.05), while there was statistical difference between two groups after the treatment (P <0.05). Conclusion For non-specific LBP patients, spinal core muscle groups training strengthens the efficacy of lower extremity biomechanics correction, as a result, could relieve lumbar pain and improve the quality of life.%目的:探讨下肢生物力学矫正联合脊柱区核心肌群训练对慢性非特异性下腰痛患者的治疗效果。方法将符合要求并接受下肢生物力学矫正治疗的32例慢性非特异性下腰痛患者随机分为观察组与对照组,每组各16例,两组患者均配置生物力学矫形鞋垫,并进行常规理疗、手法治疗等,观察组患者联合脊柱区核心肌群训练。记录并比较两组患者治疗前后疼痛视觉模拟量表(VAS)评分和腰腿痛Oswestry功能障碍指数(ODI)评分。结果两组患者治疗前VAS、ODI评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后1、6个月VAS评分、ODI评分均有改善,观察组改善较对照组

  12. Unified nuclear core activity map reconstruction using heterogeneous instruments with data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouriquet, Bertrand; Erhard, Patrick; Ponçot, Angélique

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the neutronic state of the whole nuclear core is a very important topic that have strong implication for nuclear core management and for security monitoring. The core state is evaluated using measurements. Usually, part of the measurements are used, and only one kind of instruments are taken into account. However, the core state evaluation should be more accurate when more measurements are collected in the core. But using information from heterogeneous sources is at glance a difficult task. This difficulty can be overcome by Data Assimilation techniques. Such a method allows to combine in a coherent framework the information coming from model and the one coming from various type of observations. Beyond the inner advantage to use heterogeneous instruments, this leads to obtain a significant increasing of the quality of neutronic global state reconstruction with respect to individual use of measures. In order to present this approach, we will introduce here the basic principles of data assimilation f...

  13. Assessment on Evaluating Parameters of Rice Core Collections Constructed by Genotypic Values and Molecular Marker Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eleven evaluating parameters for rice core collection were assessed based on genotypic values and molecular marker information. Monte Carlo simulation combined with mixed linear model was used to eliminate the interference from environment in order to draw more reliable results. The coincidence rate of range (CR) was the optimal parameter. Mean Simpson index (MD), mean Shannon-Weaver index of genetic diversity (M1) and mean polymorphism information content (MPIC) were important evaluating parameters. The variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR) could act as an important reference parameter for evaluating the variation degree of core collection. Percentage of polymorphic loci (p) could be used as a determination parameter for the size of core collection. Mean difference percentage (MD) was a determination parameter for the reliability judgment of core collection. The effective evaluating parameters for core collection selected in the research could be used as criteria for sampling percentage in different plant germplasm populations.

  14. Genes transactivated by hepatitis C virus core protein, a microarray assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Liu; Shu-Lin Zhang; Jun Cheng; Yan Liu; Lin Wang; Qing Shao; Jian Zhang; Shu-Mei Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the new target genes transactivated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein and to elucidate the pathogenesis of HCV infection.METHODS: Reverse transcribed cDNA was subjected tomicroarray assay. The coding gene transactivated by HCV core protein was cloned and analyzed with bioinformatics methods.RESULTS: The expressive vector of pcDNA3.1(-)-core was constructed and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing and approved correct. mRNA was purified from HepG2 and HepG2 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1(-)-core, respectively. The cDNA derived was subjected to microarray assay. A new gene namedHCTP4 was cloned with molecular biological method in combination with bioinformatics method.CONCLUSION: HCV core is a potential transactivator.Microarray is an efficient and convenient method for analysis of differentially expressed genes.

  15. Implication of the lopsided growth for the viscosity of Earth's inner core

    CERN Document Server

    Mizzon, Hugau

    2012-01-01

    Two main seismic features characterize the Earth's inner core: a North-South polar anisotropy and an East-West asymmetry of P-wave velocity and attenuation. Anisotropy is expected if shear deformation is induced by convective motions. Translation has recently been put forward as an important mode of convection of the inner core. Combined with a simple diffusive grain growth model, this mechanism is able to explain the observed seismic asymmetry, but not the bulk anisotropy. The source of anisotropy has therefore to be sought in the shear motions caused by higher modes of convection. Using a hybrid finite-difference spherical harmonics Navier-Stokes solver, we investigate the interplay between translation and convection in a 3D spherical model with permeable boundary conditions at the inner core boundary. Three parameters act independently: viscosity, internal heating and convection velocity in the outer core. Our numerical simulations show the dominance of pure translation for viscosities of the inner core hi...

  16. Multiscale model of global inner-core anisotropy induced by hcp-alloy plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, P.; Deguen, R.; Lincot, A.; Merkel, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's solid inner core exhibits a global seismic anisotropy of several percents. It results from a coherent alignment of anisotropic Fe alloy crystals through the inner-core history that can be sampled by present-day seismic observations. By combining self-consistent polycrystal plasticity, inner-core formation models, Monte-Carlo search for elastic moduli, and simulations of seismic measurements, we introduce a multiscale model that can reproduce a global seismic anisotropy of several percents aligned with the Earth's rotation axis. Conditions for a successful model are an hexagonal close packed structure for the inner-core Fe alloy, plastic deformation by pyramidal slip, and large-scale flow induced by a low-degree inner-core formation model. For global anisotropies ranging between 1 and 3%, the elastic anisotropy in the single crystal ranges from 5 to 20% with larger velocities along the c axis.

  17. A method for determination of methyl chloride concentration in air trapped in ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Okitsugu

    2006-05-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in air trapped in an ice core was developed. The method combines the air extraction by milling the ice core samples under vacuum and the analysis of the extracted air with a cryogenic preconcentration/gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry system. The method was applied to air from Antarctic ice core samples estimated to have been formed in the pre-industrial and/or early industrial periods. The overall precision of the method deduced from duplicate ice core analyses was estimated to be better than +/-20 pptv. The measured CH3Cl concentration of 528+/-26 pptv was similar to the present-day concentration in the remote atmosphere as well as the CH3Cl concentration over the past 300 years obtained from Antarctic firn air and ice core analyses.

  18. Synthesis of core-shell structured magnetic nanoparticles with a carbide shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shushan; Chi, Yue; Zhao, Zhankui

    2017-03-01

    Core-shell structured materials combining the functionalities of the core and shell have great application potential in many fields. In this work, by combining solvothermal, polymerization and the high temperature carbonization, we have successfully developed a facile method to generate core-shell structured nanoparticles which possess an internal magnetic nanoparticle with a carbide shell. The thickness of resorcinol formaldehyde resin as intermediate transition shell could be easily adjusted by changing the concentration of the RF precursor. The resulting nanoparticles possess well-defined structure, uniform size and high magnetization. The unique nanostructure of the magnetic core-shell structured nanoparticles could lead to many promising applications in areas ranging from drug delivery to the purifyication of sewage.

  19. Role of the Hepatitis C Virus Core+1 Open Reading Frame and Core cis-Acting RNA Elements in Viral RNA Translation and Replication▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilaki, Niki; Friebe, Peter; Meuleman, Philipe; Kallis, Stephanie; Kaul, Artur; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Mavromara, Penelope; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Four conserved RNA stem-loop structures designated SL47, SL87, SL248, and SL443 have been predicted in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core encoding region. Moreover, alternative translation products have been detected from a reading frame overlapping the core gene (core+1/ARFP/F). To study the importance of the core+1 frame and core-RNA structures for HCV replication in cell culture and in vivo, a panel of core gene silent mutations predicted to abolish core+1 translation and affecting core-RNA stem-loops were introduced into infectious-HCV genomes of the isolate JFH1. A mutation disrupting translation of all known forms of core+1 and affecting SL248 did not alter virus production in Huh7 cells and in mice xenografted with human liver tissue. However, a combination of mutations affecting core+1 at multiple codons and at the same time, SL47, SL87, and SL248, delayed RNA replication kinetics and substantially reduced virus titers. The in vivo infectivity of this mutant was impaired, and in virus genomes recovered from inoculated mice, SL87 was restored by reversion and pseudoreversion. Mutations disrupting the integrity of this stem-loop, as well as that of SL47, were detrimental for virus viability, whereas mutations disrupting SL248 and SL443 had no effect. This phenotype was not due to impaired RNA stability but to reduced RNA translation. Thus, SL47 and SL87 are important RNA elements contributing to HCV genome translation and robust replication in cell culture and in vivo. PMID:18799568

  20. Alpine ice core records from Pacific North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; Pettit, E.

    2006-12-01

    , we collected a new, 65-m ice core from a flat col at 3000m, below the Waddington summit, to investigate the potential of this site for obtaining high resolution climate records. Radar surveys show that the ice is roughly 170 m deep at the site. The mean annual temperature is -5 C. The age of the ice at bedrock is estimated to be between 200 and 1000 years. Intermittent melt layers are present in the core, which, when combined with chemical analyses, we expect to provide a reliable timescale and measure of net annual accumulation. This record should provide an important complement to other North American ice core records and other paleoclimate proxy data from British Columbia (including an existing, extensive network of tree ring records). Results of our analyses of the Waddington core will be presented at the meeting.

  1. High-resolution sedimentary record of hydrocarbon contaminants in a core from the major reaches of the Pearl River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbon contaminants, and molecularmarker indices in modern sediments from a core in the major reaches of the Pearl River were investigated. The sedimentary record of hydrocarbons in the core, in combination with 210pb-dating,was used to reconstruct the pollution history of hydrocarbon pollutants in the Pearl River in the past 100 years.

  2. Melting of the Earth's inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, David; Sreenivasan, Binod; Mound, Jon; Rost, Sebastian

    2011-05-19

    The Earth's magnetic field is generated by a dynamo in the liquid iron core, which convects in response to cooling of the overlying rocky mantle. The core freezes from the innermost surface outward, growing the solid inner core and releasing light elements that drive compositional convection. Mantle convection extracts heat from the core at a rate that has enormous lateral variations. Here we use geodynamo simulations to show that these variations are transferred to the inner-core boundary and can be large enough to cause heat to flow into the inner core. If this were to occur in the Earth, it would cause localized melting. Melting releases heavy liquid that could form the variable-composition layer suggested by an anomaly in seismic velocity in the 150 kilometres immediately above the inner-core boundary. This provides a very simple explanation of the existence of this layer, which otherwise requires additional assumptions such as locking of the inner core to the mantle, translation from its geopotential centre or convection with temperature equal to the solidus but with composition varying from the outer to the inner core. The predominantly narrow downwellings associated with freezing and broad upwellings associated with melting mean that the area of melting could be quite large despite the average dominance of freezing necessary to keep the dynamo going. Localized melting and freezing also provides a strong mechanism for creating seismic anomalies in the inner core itself, much stronger than the effects of variations in heat flow so far considered.

  3. The Transcendental Core of Correlationism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Ennis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I read Quentin Meillassoux’s critique of correlationism as truly a critique of transcendentalism and the transcendental method. I do so by considering the two correlationist rejoinders that occur in the English edition of Meillassoux’s After Finitude. The first rejoinder is from an idealist and relies on adumbrations for its defence. This reliance on adumbrations will be shown to be itself transcendentally implicated through Edmund Husserl’s Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. I then turn to the explicit engagement with the transcendental method that arises from the transcendentalist’s rejoinder. Considered together I hope to convince the reader that the core of correlationism is transcendentalism.

  4. Thermohydraulics of LMFBR core catchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turland, B. D.

    Characterization of the likely form of fuel debris after an accident, following interaction with sodium in the primary vessel and mechanisms controlling the location of the debris in the primary system is discussed. Heat transfer from particulate to liquid sodium and the development of models predicting the amount of debris that may be retained in a coolable form on a structure are considered. The evaluation of the coolability of the structure itself in post accident conditions, particularly the cooling provided by natural convection alone is treated. The response of structures at elevated temperatures and under high thermal loads is considered. The potential for vessel failure if significant quantities of debris accumulate at the bottom of the vessel is shown. The performance of a flat plate core catcher, or similar structure with good cooling from underneath is evaluated.

  5. Final Report - BRER Core Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan B. Douple

    2007-01-09

    This contract provided core support for activities of the advisory committee of experts comprising the Board on Radiation Effects Research (BRER), in The National Academies' Division on Earth and Life Studies. That committee met two times during the funding period. The committee members provided oversight and advice regarding ongoing BRER projects and also assisted in the identification of potential committee members for new studies and the development of proposals for projects in the radiation sciences worthy for future study. In addition, funding provided support for the planning, advertisement, and invited speakers' travel-expense reimbursement for the Third and Fourth Gilbert W. Beebe Symposia held at The National Academies on December 1, 2004 and on November 30, 2005, respectively.

  6. Implication of the lopsided growth for the viscosity of Earth's inner core

    OpenAIRE

    Mizzon, Hugau; Monnereau, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Two main seismic features characterize the Earth's inner core: a North-South polar anisotropy and an East-West asymmetry of P-wave velocity and attenuation. Anisotropy is expected if shear deformation is induced by convective motions. Translation has recently been put forward as an important mode of convection of the inner core. Combined with a simple diffusive grain growth model, this mechanism is able to explain the observed seismic asymmetry, but not the bulk anisotropy. The source of anis...

  7. Phase relations in iron-rich systems and implications for the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William W.; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental data concerning the properties of iron, iron sulfide, and iron oxide at high pressures are combined with theoretical arguments to constrain the probable behavior of the Fe-rich portions of the Fe-O and Fe-S phase diagrams. Phase diagrams are constructed for the Fe-S-O system at core pressures and temperatures. These properties are used to evaluate the current temperature distribution and composition of the core.

  8. Liquid-crystalline hybrid materials based on [60]fullerene and bent-core structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Jorge; Barberá, Joaquín; Serrano, José Luis; Ros, M Blanca; Sebastián, Nerea; de la Fuente, Rosario; López, David O; Fernández, Gustavo; Sánchez, Luis; Martín, Nazario

    2011-12-23

    What a core-ker! By the appropriate combination of promesogenic bent-core structures and the C(60)  unit, lamellar polar liquid-crystal phases were induced. The supramolecular organization of the functional fullerene-based assemblies, the temperature range of the soft phase, the stabilization of the mesophase-like order at room temperature, and the molecular switching under an electric field can be tuned, depending on the molecular structure.

  9. Ices in starless and starforming cores

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Broek, Saskia van den; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    Icy grain mantles are commonly observed through infrared spectroscopy toward dense clouds, cloud cores, protostellar envelopes and protoplanetary disks. Up to 80% of the available oxygen, carbon and nitrogen are found in such ices; the most common ice constituents - H2O, CO2 and CO - are second in abundance only to H2 in many star forming regions. In addition to being a molecular reservoir, ice chemistry is responsible for much of the chemical evolution from H2O to complex, prebiotic molecules. Combining the existing ISO, Spitzer, VLT and Keck ice data results in a large sample of ice sources (\\sime80) that span all stages of star formation and a large range of protostellar luminosities (<0.1-105 L\\odot). Here we summarize the different techniques that have been applied to mine this ice data set on information on typical ice compositions in different environments and what this implies about how ices form and evolve during star and planet formation. The focus is on how to maximize the use of empirical const...

  10. On-line core axial power distribution synthesis method from in-core and ex-core neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Cho, Byung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This document describes the methodology in detail and the synthesis coefficients of the Fourier series expansion and the cubic spline synthesis techniques. A computer program was developed to generate the synthesis coefficients and the core power distribution. For the illustration, various axial power shapes for YGN 3 Cycle 1 and SMART were synthesized using the simulated in-core and/or ex-core detector signals. The results of this study will be useful to select the best synthesis method for the SMART core monitoring and protection systems and to evaluate the accuracy of the synthesized power shape. 4 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  11. 75 FR 52596 - Financial Education Core Competencies; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Financial Education Core Competencies; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice... proposed set of financial education core competencies (``Core Competencies''). Comments are requested specifically on whether the list of Core Competencies referenced in the Supplementary Section is complete...

  12. Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bisig, André

    2017-01-04

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.

  13. Differential influence of instruments in nuclear core activity evaluation by data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriquet, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.bouriquet@cerfacs.f [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Argaud, Jean-Philippe [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Erhard, Patrick [Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Massart, Sebastien [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Poncot, Angelique [Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Ricci, Sophie [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Thual, Olivier [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-21

    The global neutronic activity fields of a nuclear core can be reconstructed using data assimilation. Indeed, data assimilation allows to combine both measurements from instruments and information from a model, to evaluate the best possible neutronic activity within the core. We present and apply a specific procedure which evaluates the influence of measures by adding or removing instruments in a given measurement network (possibly empty). The study of various network configurations for the instruments in the nuclear core establishes that the influence of the instruments depends both on the independent instrumentation location and on the chosen network.

  14. Cladding defects in hollow core fibers for surface mode suppression and improved birefringence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngso, J. K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel polarization maintaining hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber geometry that reduces the impact of surface modes on fiber transmission. The cladding structure is modified with a row of partially collapsed holes to strip away unwanted surface modes. A theoretical investigation...... of the surface mode stripping is presented and compared to the measured performance of four 7-cells core fibers that were drawn with different collapse ratio of the defects. The varying pressure along the defect row in the cladding during drawing introduces an ellipticity of the core. This, combined...

  15. Deconvolution-based resolution enhancement of chemical ice core records obtained by continuous flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2005-01-01

    Continuous flow analysis (CFA) has become a popular measuring technique for obtaining high-resolution chemical ice core records due to an attractive combination of measuring speed and resolution. However, when analyzing the deeper sections of ice cores or cores from low-accumulation areas......, there is still need for further improvement of the resolution. Here a method for resolution enhancement of CFA data is presented. It is demonstrated that it is possible to improve the resolution of CFA data by restoring some of the detail that was lost in the measuring process, thus improving the usefulness...

  16. Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisig, André; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Rhensius, Jan; Moutafis, Christoforos; von Bieren, Arndt; Heidler, Jakoba; Kiliani, Gillian; Kammerer, Matthias; Curcic, Michael; Weigand, Markus; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-12-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β /α >1 ) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.

  17. Dynamics of lipid droplets induced by the hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyn, Rodney K. [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Kennedy, David C.; Stolow, Albert; Ridsdale, Andrew [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Pezacki, John Paul, E-mail: john.pezacki@nrc.ca [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatitis C virus uses lipid droplets (LD) onto which HCV core proteins bind. {yields} HCV core proteins on LDs facilitate viral particle assembly. {yields} We used a novel combination of CARS, two-photon fluorescence, and DIC microscopies. {yields} Particle tracking experiments show that core slowly affects LD localization. {yields} Particle tracking measured the change in speed and directionality of LD movement. -- Abstract: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem, with limited treatment options and no vaccine available. HCV uses components of the host cell to proliferate, including lipid droplets (LD) onto which HCV core proteins bind and facilitate viral particle assembly. We have measured the dynamics of HCV core protein-mediated changes in LDs and rates of LD movement on microtubules using a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon fluorescence (TPF), and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopies. Results show that the HCV core protein induces rapid increases in LD size. Particle tracking experiments show that HCV core protein slowly affects LD localization by controlling the directionality of LD movement on microtubules. These dynamic processes ultimately aid HCV in propagating and the molecules and interactions involved represent novel targets for potential therapeutic intervention.

  18. Performance of the CORE-10 and YP-CORE measures in a sample of youth engaging with a community mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Peiper, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Lynsey; Illback, Robert; Clayton, Richard

    2016-12-01

    This article assesses the performance and psychometric properties of two versions of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) measures that assess psychological distress: the Young Person's CORE (YP-CORE) for 11-16 year olds and the CORE-10 for those 17 or older. The sample comprised 1592 young people aged 12-25 who completed the YP-CORE and CORE-10 during their initial engagement with an early intervention service. Total and average scores were examined for both measures. Gender and age differences were evaluated using t-tests and analysis of variance. The factor structures were assessed with principal axis and confirmatory factor analyses. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were then employed to evaluate measurement invariance across age and gender. Analyses were supportive of the CORE measures as reliable instruments to assess distress in 12-25 year olds. Based upon eigenvalues in combination with the comparative fit index, the Tucker-Lewis Index, and the root-mean-square error of approximation, both measures were unidimensional. Analysis indicated the factor structure, loadings, item thresholds, and residuals were invariant across age and gender, although partial support for strict invariance was found for gender among 12-16 year olds. Results are compared to previous studies and discussed in the context of program planning, service delivery, and evaluation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  20. Advantages of iron core in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettis, E.S.; Ballou, J.K.; Becraft, W.R.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Watts, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of the iron core vs air core concepts was carried out on a preliminary basis by using a representative tokamak reactor design with the following self-consistent reference parameters. In the area of plasma engineering, poloidal field and MHD equilibrium considerations with an unsaturated iron core is discussed. The question of proper poloidal field coils to maintain D-shaped plasmas of relatively high anti ..beta.. (7%) with a saturated iron core is also discussed. Estimates of the required iron core size, volt seconds, magnetic flux and its influence on force loading on the superconducting toroidal field coils are shown. Conceptual designs of the mechanical structure of an iron core device are presented. Favorable impacts on the OH power supply cost and complexity are indicated.

  1. Cool Core Clusters from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rasia, E; Murante, G; Planelles, S; Beck, A M; Biffi, V; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Granato, G L; Steinborn, L K; Dolag, K

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and AGN feedback and are based on an improved version of the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, our primary diagnostic to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and on the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of cool-core systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of non cool-core systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of...

  2. Modeling of Pulsed Transformer with Nanocrystalline Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Baktash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently tape wound cores, due to their excellent properties, are widely used in transformers for pulsed or high frequency applications. The spiral structure of these cores affects the flux distribution inside the core and causes complication of the magnetic analysis and consequently the circuit analysis. In this paper, a model based on reluctance networks method is used to analyze the magnetic flux in toroidal wound cores and losses calculation. A Preisach based hysteresis model is included in the model to consider the nonlinear characteristic of the core. Magnetic losses are calculated by having the flux density in different points of the core and using the hysteresis model. A transformer for using in a series resonant converter is modeled and implemented. The modeling results are compared with experimental measurements and FEM results to evaluate the validity of the model. Comparisons show the accuracy of the model besides its simplicity and fast convergence.

  3. Reinventing the Platform Core Through Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Henningsson, Stefan; Eaton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Digital platform leaders need to continuously innovate the platform core to drive the technological trajectory of the overall architecture and business system, of which the platform is a core element. This papers analyses the potential of and challenges to completing this task through...... the acquisition and integration of companies presenting innovative technologies of relevance to the platform core. Using a revelatory case study of Cisco Systems, we develop the explanatory notion of ‘coring acquisition’. In this type of acquisition value is created through the acquisition of companies...... that provide products external to the acquirer that can be assimilated into the platform core. This creates value through the transformational process that we term ‘coring’. We also analyze how the benefits of coring acquisitions are contingent on challenges concerning the integration of acquisitions offering...

  4. Optical fiber sensor having an active core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical fiber is provided. The fiber is comprised of an active fiber core which produces waves of light upon excitation. A factor ka is identified and increased until a desired improvement in power efficiency is obtained. The variable a is the radius of the active fiber core and k is defined as 2 pi/lambda wherein lambda is the wavelength of the light produced by the active fiber core. In one embodiment, the factor ka is increased until the power efficiency stabilizes. In addition to a bare fiber core embodiment, a two-stage fluorescent fiber is provided wherein an active cladding surrounds a portion of the active fiber core having an improved ka factor. The power efficiency of the embodiment is further improved by increasing a difference between the respective indices of refraction of the active cladding and the active fiber core.

  5. Multivariate Regression Analysis of Gravitational Waves from Rotating Core Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, William J; Ott, Christian D

    2014-01-01

    We present a new multivariate regression model for analysis and parameter estimation of gravitational waves observed from well but not perfectly modeled sources such as core-collapse supernovae. Our approach is based on a principal component decomposition of simulated waveform catalogs. Instead of reconstructing waveforms by direct linear combination of physically meaningless principal components, we solve via least squares for the relationship that encodes the connection between chosen physical parameters and the principal component basis. Although our approach is linear, the waveforms' parameter dependence may be non-linear. For the case of gravitational waves from rotating core collapse, we show, using statistical hypothesis testing, that our method is capable of identifying the most important physical parameters that govern waveform morphology in the presence of simulated detector noise. We also demonstrate our method's ability to predict waveforms from a principal component basis given a set of physical ...

  6. Magnetorotational instability in cool cores of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, L.; Ettori, S.; Bianconi, M.

    2015-10-01

    > Clusters of galaxies are embedded in halos of optically thin, gravitationally stratified, weakly magnetized plasma at the system's virial temperature. Owing to radiative cooling and anisotropic heat conduction, such intracluster medium (ICM) is subject to local instabilities, which are combinations of the thermal, magnetothermal and heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities. If the ICM rotates significantly, its stability properties are substantially modified and, in particular, also the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can play an important role. We study simple models of rotating cool-core clusters and we demonstrate that the MRI can be the dominant instability over significant portions of the clusters, with possible implications for the dynamics and evolution of the cool cores. Our results give further motivation for measuring the rotation of the ICM with future X-ray missions such as ASTRO-H and ATHENA.

  7. Melting of MORB at core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Gopal K.; Fiquet, Guillaume; Siebert, Julien; Auzende, Anne-Line; Morard, Guillaume; Antonangeli, Daniele; Garbarino, Gaston

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the melting properties of natural mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) up to core-mantle boundary (CMB) pressures using laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Textural and chemical characterizations of quenched samples were performed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. We used in situ X-ray diffraction primarily for phase identification whereas our melting criterion based on laser power versus temperature plateau combined with textural analysis of recovered solidus and subsolidus samples is accurate and unambiguous. At CMB pressure (135 GPa), the MORB solidus temperature is 3970 (± 150) K. Quenched melt textures observed in recovered samples indicate that CaSiO3 perovskite (CaPv) is the liquidus phase in the entire pressure range up to CMB. The partial melt composition derived from the central melt pool is enriched in FeO, which suggests that such melt pockets may be gravitationally stable at the core mantle boundary.

  8. Experimental core electron density of cubic boron nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Nanna; Bindzus, Niels; Bjerg, Lasse

    candidate because of its many similarities with diamond: bonding pattern in the extended network structure, hardness, and the quality of the crystallites.3 However, some degree ionic interaction is a part of the bonding in boron nitride, which is not present in diamond. By investigating the core density...... beyond multipolar modeling of the valence density. As was recently shown in a benchmark study of diamond by Bindzus et al.1 The next step is to investigate more complicated chemical bonding motives, to determine the effect of bonding on the core density. Cubic boron nitride2 lends itself as a perfect...... in boron nitride we may obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of bonding on the total density. We report here a thorough investigation of the charge density of cubic boron nitride with a detailed modelling of the inner atom charge density. By combining high resolution powder X-ray diffraction data...

  9. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...... on FPGA-based processor cores: first, superpipelining enables higher-frequency system clocks, and second, predicated instructions circumvent costly pipeline stalls due to branches. To evaluate their effects, we develop Tinuso, a processor architecture optimized for FPGA implementation. We demonstrate...

  10. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...... through the use of micro-benchmarks that our principles guide the design of a processor core that improves performance by an average of 38% over a similar Xilinx MicroBlaze configuration....

  11. The Fluxgate Ring-Core Internal Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of measured demagnetizing factors for fluxgate ring cores of a wide range of cross section shapes have been compiled from the literature and plotted against the core cross-sectional area over the squared mean core diameter. The points group close to a straight line through the origin...... that the demagnetizing factor for thin rings is proportional to the ring cross-sectional area divided by the diameter squared....

  12. Briefing paper for universities on Core Maths

    OpenAIRE

    Glaister, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...

  13. Impact of core-cladding boundary shape on the waveguide properties of hollow core microstructured fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryamikov, A. D.; Alagashev, G. K.; Kosolapov, A. F.; Biriukov, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we consider an interaction between the air core modes (ACMs) of hollow core waveguide microstructures and core-cladding boundary walls in various shapes. The analysis is based on well-established models such as the ARROW (anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide) model and on the models proposed for the first time. In particular, we consider the dynamics of light localization in the polygonal core cladding boundary wall as dependant on the type of its discrete rotational symmetry. Based on our findings we analyze the mechanisms of light localization in the core-cladding boundary walls of negative curvature hollow core microstructured fibers (NC HCMFs).

  14. Sensitivities of Earth's core and mantle compositions to accretion and differentiation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2017-01-01

    The Earth and other terrestrial planets formed through the accretion of smaller bodies, with their core and mantle compositions primarily set by metal-silicate interactions during accretion. The conditions of these interactions are poorly understood, but could provide insight into the mechanisms of planetary core formation and the composition of Earth's core. Here we present modeling of Earth's core formation, combining results of 100 N-body accretion simulations with high pressure-temperature metal-silicate partitioning experiments. We explored how various aspects of accretion and core formation influence the resulting core and mantle chemistry: depth of equilibration, amounts of metal and silicate that equilibrate, initial distribution of oxidation states in the disk, temperature distribution in the planet, and target:impactor ratio of equilibrating silicate. Virtually all sets of model parameters that are able to reproduce the Earth's mantle composition result in at least several weight percent of both silicon and oxygen in the core, with more silicon than oxygen. This implies that the core's light element budget may be dominated by these elements, and is consistent with ≤1-2 wt% of other light elements. Reproducing geochemical and geophysical constraints requires that Earth formed from reduced materials that equilibrated at temperatures near or slightly above the mantle liquidus during accretion. The results indicate a strong tradeoff between the compositional effects of the depth of equilibration and the amounts of metal and silicate that equilibrate, so these aspects should be targeted in future studies aiming to better understand core formation conditions. Over the range of allowed parameter space, core and mantle compositions are most sensitive to these factors as well as stochastic variations in what the planet accreted as a function of time, so tighter constraints on these parameters will lead to an improved understanding of Earth's core composition.

  15. Coherently Strained Si-SixGe1-x Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, David C; Wen, Feng; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-01-13

    Coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures are expected to possess a positive shell-to-core conduction band offset, allowing for quantum confinement of electrons in the Si core. We report the growth of epitaxial, coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell heterostructures through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the Si core, followed in situ by the epitaxial SixGe1-x shell growth using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra of individual nanowires reveal peaks associated with the Si-Si optical phonon mode in the Si core and the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge vibrational modes of the SixGe1-x shell. The core Si-Si mode displays a clear red-shift compared to unstrained, bare Si nanowires thanks to the lattice mismatch-induced tensile strain, in agreement with calculated values using a finite-element continuum elasticity model combined with lattice dynamic theory. N-type field-effect transistors using Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires as channel are demonstrated.

  16. Material with core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia; Richard, Monique N.; Dehne, Aaron; Phillips, Jonathan; Stamm, Kimber L.; Fanson, Paul T.

    2011-11-15

    Disclosed is a material having a composite particle, the composite particle including an outer shell and a core. The core is made from a lithium alloying material and the outer shell has an inner volume that is greater in size than the core of the lithium alloying material. In some instances, the outer mean diameter of the outer shell is less than 500 nanometers and the core occupies between 5 and 99% of the inner volume. In addition, the outer shell can have an average wall thickness of less than 100 nanometers.

  17. The Cores of Elliptical Galaxies in Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, John

    1995-07-01

    The cores of galaxies are astrophysically unique. They canhost high energy nuclei, star formation and perhaps even blackholes. HST observations have established that the cores ofellipticals are related to their global properties, and so canbe used as diagnostics of the physical processes occurring atthe time of formation. HST images of galaxy cores havedistinguished two different types of core luminosity profiles:`soft' and `hard' types. It is suggested that luminous, slowlyrotating galaxies have `soft' cores and the less luminousdisky galaxies have `hard' cores. This can be interpreted interms of a formation scenario based on a merger hierarchy inwhich the low luminosity systems experience highly dissipativemergers, but as the luminous systems are assembled the mergersbecome increasingly stellar. In this picture, the type of corea galaxy generates is intimately related to its evolutionaryhistory, i.e. the degree of interaction/merging experiencedand the availability of cold gas. In turn, this should notonly depend on luminosity but also on the galaxy's localenvironment. Here we propose to test the gaseous/stellarmerger picture by imaging a set of Coma cluster ellipticalsfrom a wide range of cluster radii. In the gas poorenvironment of the cluster core there may be insufficent coldgas for the low luminosity galaxies to form `hard' cores.Similarly, at the cluster turnround radius even luminousgalaxies may have experienced a dissipative core formation andpossess

  18. The nature of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the earth's core are overviewed with emphasis on seismologically determined regions and pressures and seismologically measured density, elastic wave velocities, and gravitational acceleration. Attention is given to solid-state convection of the inner core, and it is noted that though seismological results do not conclusively prove that the inner core is convective, the occurrence and magnitude of seismic anisotropy are explained by the effects of solid-state convection. Igneous petrology and geochemistry of the inner core, a layer at the base of the mantle and contact metasomatism at the core-mantle boundary, and evolution of the core-mantle system are discussed. It is pointed out that high-pressure melting experiments indicate that the temperature of the core is ranging from 4500 to 6500 K, and a major implication of such high temperature is that the tectonics and convection of the mantle, as well as the resulting geological processes observed at the surface, are powered by heat from the core. As a result of the high temperatures, along with the compositional contrast between silicates and iron alloy, the core-mantle boundary is considered to be most chemically active region of the earth.

  19. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a unique structural cellular core material to improve mechanical performance, reduce platform weight and lower...

  20. Recent Problems of Transformer Core Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the result of the investigations of the efficiency of power loss reduction in transformer cores made with high-permeability (HGO) and laser scribed (LS) grain-oriented electrical steels, and also the phenomena in three-limb three-phase cores with the so-called staggered T-joint design. The efficiency of the HGO material depends on core form and core induction. The efficiency is better for single-phase than for three-phase cores and also for higher induction. The localised efficiency of HGO material is not uniform and it is significantly lower in the yoke than in other parts. The efficiency of LS material (grade ZDKH) is better than that of the HGO material and also somewhat higher for single-phase than for three-phase cores. The localised flux distribution in the central limb of the core with staggered T-joint is more uniform and the content of higher harmonics is smaller than in the core with conventional V-45° T-joint. This results in a 13% loss reduction in the central limb and in a 4-5% reduction of total core loss.

  1. Challenges Regarding IP Core Functional Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, intellectual property (IP) cores have been incorporated into field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flows. However, the usage of large complex IP cores were limited within products that required a high level of reliability. This is no longer the case. IP core insertion has become mainstream including their use in highly reliable products. Due to limited visibility and control, challenges exist when using IP cores and subsequently compromise product reliability. We discuss challenges and suggest potential solutions to critical application IP insertion.

  2. More on core instabilities of magnetic monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present new results on the core instability of the 't Hooft Polyakov monopoles we reported on before. This instability, where the spherical core decays in a toroidal one, typically occurs in models in which charge conjugation is gauged. In this paper we also discuss a third conceivable configuration denoted as ``split core'', which brings us to some details of the numerical methods we employed. We argue that a core instability of 't Hooft Polyakov type monopoles is quite a generic feature of models with charged Higgs particles.

  3. Nuclear reactor core modelling in multifunctional simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Nuclear Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    The thesis concentrates on the development of nuclear reactor core models for the APROS multifunctional simulation environment and the use of the core models in various kinds of applications. The work was started in 1986 as a part of the development of the entire APROS simulation system. The aim was to create core models that would serve in a reliable manner in an interactive, modular and multifunctional simulator/plant analyser environment. One-dimensional and three-dimensional core neutronics models have been developed. Both models have two energy groups and six delayed neutron groups. The three-dimensional finite difference type core model is able to describe both BWR- and PWR-type cores with quadratic fuel assemblies and VVER-type cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies. The one- and three-dimensional core neutronics models can be connected with the homogeneous, the five-equation or the six-equation thermal hydraulic models of APROS. The key feature of APROS is that the same physical models can be used in various applications. The nuclear reactor core models of APROS have been built in such a manner that the same models can be used in simulator and plant analyser applications, as well as in safety analysis. In the APROS environment the user can select the number of flow channels in the three-dimensional reactor core and either the homogeneous, the five- or the six-equation thermal hydraulic model for these channels. The thermal hydraulic model and the number of flow channels have a decisive effect on the calculation time of the three-dimensional core model and thus, at present, these particular selections make the major difference between a safety analysis core model and a training simulator core model. The emphasis on this thesis is on the three-dimensional core model and its capability to analyse symmetric and asymmetric events in the core. The factors affecting the calculation times of various three-dimensional BWR, PWR and WWER-type APROS core models have been

  4. Core-size-dependent catalytic properties of bimetallic Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Kundu, Simanta; Patra, Amitava

    2014-12-24

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have recently emerged as a new class of functional materials because of their potential applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and photonics etc. Here, we have synthesized Au/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with varying the core diameter. The red-shifting of the both plasmonic peaks of Ag and Au confirms the core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, line scan EDS measurement and UV-vis study confirm the formation of core-shell nanoparticles. We have examined the catalytic activity of these core-shell nanostructures in the reaction between 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and NaBH4 to form 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and the efficiency of the catalytic reaction is found to be increased with increasing the core size of Au/Ag core-shell nanocrystals. The catalytic efficiency varies from 41.8 to 96.5% with varying core size from 10 to 100 nm of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the Au100/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle is found to be 12-fold more active than that of the pure Au nanoparticles with 100 nm diameter. Thus, the catalytic properties of the metal nanoparticles are significantly enhanced because of the Au/Ag core-shell structure, and the rate is dependent on the size of the core of the nanoparticles.

  5. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiclear DH® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... EndaCof XP® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... Entuss® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone)

  6. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored.

  7. Influence of different post core materials on the color of Empress 2 full ceramic crowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jing; WANG Xin-zhi; FENG Hai-lan

    2006-01-01

    Background For esthetic consideration, dentin color post core materials were normally used for all-ceramic crown restorations. However, in some cases, clinicians have to consider combining a full ceramic crown with a metal post core. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the esthetical possibility of applying cast metal post core in a full ceramic crown restoration.Methods The color of full ceramic crowns on gold and Nickel-Chrome post cores was compared with the color of the same crowns on tooth colored post cores. Different try-in pastes were used to imitate the influence of a composite cementation on the color of different restorative combinations. The majority of patients could not detect any color difference less than △E 1.8 between the two ceramic samples. So, △E 1.8 was taken as the objective evaluative criterion for the evaluation of color matching and patients' satisfaction.Results When the Empress 2 crown was combined with the gold alloy post core, the color of the resulting material was similar to that of a glass fiber reinforced resin post core (△E = 0.3). The gold alloy post core and the try-in paste did not show a perceptible color change in the full ceramic crowns, which indicated that the color of the crowns might not be susceptible to change between lab and clinic as well as during the process of composite cementation. Without an opaque covering the Ni-Cr post core would cause an unacceptable color effect on the crown (△E = 2.0), but with opaque covering, the color effect became more clinically satisfactory (△E=1.8).Conclusions It may be possible to apply a gold alloy post core in the Empress 2 full ceramic crown restoration when necessary. If a non-extractible Ni-Cr post core exists in the root canal, it might be possible to restore the tooth with an Empress 2 crown after coveting the labial surface of the core with one layer of opaque resin cement.

  8. Core-based Shared Tree Multicast Routing Algorithms for LEO Satellite IP Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Lianzhen; Zhang Jun; Liu Kai

    2007-01-01

    A new core-based shared tree algorithm, viz core-cluster combination-based shared tree (CCST) algorithm and the weighted version (i.e. w-CCST algorithm) are proposed in order to resolve the channel resources waste problem in typical source-based multicast routing algorithms in low earth orbit (LEO) satellite IP networks. The CCST algorithm includes the dynamic approximate center (DAC)core selection method and the core-cluster combination multicast route construction scheme. Without complicated onboard computation,the DAC method is uniquely developed for highly dynamic networks of periodical and regular movement. The core-cluster combination method takes core node as the initial core-cluster, and expands it stepwise to construct an entire multicast tree at the lowest tree cost by a shortest path scheme between the newly-generated core-cluster and surplus group members, which results in great bandwidth utilization.Moreover, the w-CCST algorithm is able to strike a balance between performance of tree cost and that of end-to-end propagation delay by adjusting the weighted factor to meet strict end-to-end delay requirements of some real-time multicast services at the expense of a slight increase in tree cost. Finally, performance comparison is conducted between the proposed algorithms and typical algorithms in LEO satellite IP networks. Simulation results show that the CCST algorithm significantly decreases the average tree cost against to the others, and also the average end-to-end propagation delay of w-CCST algorithm is lower than that of the CCST algorithm.

  9. CoreDevRec:Automatic Core Member Recommendation for Contribution Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋竞; 贺佳欢; 陈学渊

    2015-01-01

    The pull-based software development helps developers make contributions flexibly and effciently. Core members evaluate code changes submitted by contributors, and decide whether to merge these code changes into repositories or not. Ideally, code changes are assigned to core members and evaluated within a short time after their submission. However, in reality, some popular projects receive many pull requests, and core members have di昋culties in choosing pull requests which are to be evaluated. Therefore, there is a growing need for automatic core member recommendation, which improves the evaluation process. In this paper, we investigate pull requests with manual assignment. Results show that 3.2%∼40.6% of pull requests are manually assigned to specific core members. To assist with the manual assignment, we propose CoreDevRec to recommend core members for contribution evaluation in GitHub. CoreDevRec uses support vector machines to analyze different kinds of features, including file paths of modified codes, relationships between contributors and core members, and activeness of core members. We evaluate CoreDevRec on 18 651 pull requests of five popular projects in GitHub. Results show that CoreDevRec achieves accuracy from 72.9% to 93.5% for top 3 recommendation. In comparison with a baseline approach, CoreDevRec improves the accuracy from 18.7% to 81.3% for top 3 recommendation. Moreover, CoreDevRec even has higher accuracy than manual assignment in the project TrinityCore. We believe that CoreDevRec can improve the assignment of pull requests.

  10. Analysis of circuits including magnetic cores (MTRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, G. R.; Nitzan, D.; Herndon, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of automated circuit analysis computer program to provide transient analysis of circuits with magnetic cores is discussed. Allowance is made for complications caused by nonlinearity of switching core model and magnetic coupling among loop currents. Computer program is conducted on Univac 1108 computer using FORTRAN IV.

  11. Community College Presidents' Core Internal Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBraak, LaRonna S.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified the core internal metaphors of 8 community college presidents, 4 females and 4 males. The participants of this study resided in both rural and metropolitan communities. Core internal metaphors were adopted due to a strong association to a primary conceptual metaphor, which the participants had internalized as a result of…

  12. Institutional Core Values: Operationalising the Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This research begins to operationalise eight institutional core values at a mid-sized, Midwestern Catholic university. The survey sought examples of ways in which the graduate students in a master of arts in teaching and leadership programme had and/or had not experienced the institutional core values with the same professor during their…

  13. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core(1). As a result of continuous satellite measurements since 1999, the core magnetic field and its recent variations can now be described with a high resolution in space and time(2). These data have rec...... of future numerical models of the geodynamo....

  14. Future Directions for Research on Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2008-01-01

    This concluding commentary highlights common themes that emerged across the chapters in this volume. We identify strengths and limitations of the core competencies framework and discuss the importance of context, culture, and development for understanding the role of the core competencies in preventing risk behavior in adolescence. We also outline…

  15. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    several applications of the new continuous data sets: (1) Past atmospheric mixing ratios of methane were measured along ca. 800 m of the deep ice core from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Core Drilling project (NEEM) covering almost the complete last glaciation and deglaciation. The record reveals new sub-millennial...

  16. Future Directions for Research on Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2008-01-01

    This concluding commentary highlights common themes that emerged across the chapters in this volume. We identify strengths and limitations of the core competencies framework and discuss the importance of context, culture, and development for understanding the role of the core competencies in preventing risk behavior in adolescence. We also outline…

  17. Development of core design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim Young In; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, S. J.; Song, H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, W. S.; Hwang, W.; Lee, B. O.; Park, C. K.; Joo, H. K.; Yoo, J. W.; Kang, H. Y.; Park, W. S

    2000-05-01

    For the development of KALIMER (150 MWe) core conceptual design, design evolution and optimization for improved economics and safety enhancement was performed in the uranium metallic fueled equilibrium core design which uses U-Zr binary fuel not in excess of 20 percent enrichment. Utilizing results of the uranium ,metallic fueled core design, the breeder equilibrium core design with breeding ratio being over 1.1 was developed. In addition, utilizing LMR's excellent neutron economy, various core concepts for minor actinide burnup, inherent safety, economics and non-proliferation were realized and its optimization studies were performed. A code system for the LMR core conceptual design has been established through the implementation of needed functions into the existing codes and development of codes. To improve the accuracy of the core design, a multi-dimensional nodal transport code SOLTRAN, a three-dimensional transient code analysis code STEP, MATRA-LMR and ASSY-P for T/H analysis are under development. Through the automation of design calculations for efficient core design, an input generator and several interface codes have been developed. (author)

  18. After Common Core, States Set Rigorous Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.; Barrows, Samuel; Gift, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of Tea Party criticism, union skepticism, and anti-testing outcries, the campaign to implement Common Core State Standards (otherwise known as Common Core) has achieved phenomenal success in statehouses across the country. Since 2011, 45 states have raised their standards for student proficiency in reading and math, with the greatest…

  19. Core Knowledge Confusions among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Takada, Mikito; Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that university students hold several paranormal beliefs and that paranormal beliefs can be best explained with core knowledge confusions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent university students confuse the core ontological attributes of lifeless material objects (e.g. a house, a stone), living…

  20. The Hausdorff core problem on simple polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dorrigiv

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A polygon \\(Q\\ is a \\(k\\-bounded Hausdorff Core of a polygon \\(P\\ if \\(P\\ contains \\(Q\\, \\(Q\\ is convex, and the Hausdorff distance between \\(P\\ and \\(Q\\ is at most \\(k\\. A Hausdorff Core of \\(P\\ is a \\(k\\-bounded Hausdorff Core of \\(P\\ with the minimum possible value of \\(k\\, which we denote \\(k_{\\min}\\. Given any \\(k\\ and any \\(\\varepsilon\\gt 0\\, we describe an algorithm for computing a \\(k'\\-bounded Hausdorff Core (if one exists in \\(O(n^3+n^2\\varepsilon^{-4}(\\log n+ \\varepsilon^{-2}\\ time, where \\(k'\\lt k+d_{\\text{rad}}\\cdot\\varepsilon\\ and \\(d_{\\text{rad}}\\ is the radius of the smallest disc that encloses \\(P\\ and whose center is in \\(P\\. We use this solution to provide an approximation algorithm for the optimization Hausdorff Core problem which results in a solution of size \\(k_{\\min}+d_{\\text{rad}}\\cdot\\varepsilon\\ in \\(O(\\log(\\varepsilon^{-1}(n^3+n^2\\varepsilon^{-4}(\\log n+ \\varepsilon^{-2}\\ time. Finally, we describe an approximation scheme for the \\(k\\-bounded Hausdorff Core problem which, given a polygon \\(P\\, a distance \\(k\\, and any \\(\\varepsilon\\gt 0\\, answers true if there is a \\(((1+\\varepsilonk\\-bounded Hausdorff Core and false if there is no \\(k\\-bounded Hausdorff Core. The running time of the approximation scheme is in \\(O(n^3+n^2\\varepsilon^{-4}(\\log n+ \\varepsilon^{-2}\\.

  1. Shape-tunable core-shell microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthias K; Saenger, Nicolai R; Schuetter, Stefan; Pfleiderer, Patrick; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-10-28

    Colloidal polymer particles are an important class of materials finding use in both everyday and basic research applications. Tailoring their composition, shape, and functionality is of key importance. In this article, we describe a new class of shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. They are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene (PS) core and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of varying thickness. In the first step, we prepared highly cross-linked PS cores, which are subsequently transferred into a nonpolar dispersant. They serve as the seed dispersion for a nonaqueous dispersion polymerization to generate the PMMA shell. The shape of the particles can subsequently be manipulated. After the shell growth stage, the spherical PS/PMMA core-shell colloids exhibit an uneven and wrinkled surface. An additional tempering procedure allows for smoothing the surface of the core-shell colloids. This results in polymer core-shell particles with a perfectly spherical shape. In addition to this thermal smoothing of the PMMA shell, we generated a selection of shape-anisotropic core-shell particles using a thermomechanical stretching procedure. Because of the unique constitution, we can selectively interrogate molecular vibrations in the PS core or the PMMA shell of the colloids using nonlinear optical microscopy techniques. This is of great interest because no photobleaching occurs, such that the particles can be tracked in real space over long times.

  2. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  3. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  4. The Core Journal Concept in Black Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Black Studies scholars have shown interest in the core journal concept. Indeed, the idea of core journals for the study of the Black experience has changed several times since 1940. While Black Studies scholars are citing Black Studies journals with frequency, they also cite traditional disciplinary journals a great deal of the time. However,…

  5. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  6. Observations of exotic inner core waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    The seismic structure of Earth’s inner core is highly complex, displaying strong anisotropy and further regional variations. However, few seismic waves are sensitive to the inner core and fundamental questions regarding the origin of the observed seismic features remain unanswered. Thus, new

  7. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  8. Children's Science Learning: A Core Skills Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Andrew K.; Ghazali, Zayba; Morris, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has identified the core skills that predict success during primary school in reading and arithmetic, and this knowledge increasingly informs teaching. However, there has been no comparable work that pinpoints the core skills that underlie success in science. Aims and method: The present paper attempts to redress this by…

  9. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  10. Beyond the Core: Peer Observation Brings Common Core to Vocational and Electives Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber Rasmussen, Harriette

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how a Washington State School District increased professional learning around the Common Core State Standards. The challenge was how to establish a way for career and technical education and electives teachers to learn and apply Common Core in their classes. Weaving Common Core literacy standards into vocational and…

  11. Core-annular flow through a horizontal pipe: Hydrodynamic counterbalancing of buoyancy force on core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Vuik, C.; Poesio, P.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question of how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a density difference betwe

  12. Beyond the Core: Peer Observation Brings Common Core to Vocational and Electives Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber Rasmussen, Harriette

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how a Washington State School District increased professional learning around the Common Core State Standards. The challenge was how to establish a way for career and technical education and electives teachers to learn and apply Common Core in their classes. Weaving Common Core literacy standards into vocational and…

  13. Controlled Release of Ciprofloxacin from Core-Shell Nanofibers with Monolithic or Blended Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Špela; Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Kristl, Julijana; Yarin, Alexander L

    2016-04-04

    Sustained controlled drug release is one of the prominent contributions for more successful treatment outcomes in the case of several diseases. However, the incorporation of hydrophilic drugs into nanofibers, a promising novel delivery system, and achieving a long-term sustained release still pose a challenging task. In this work we demonstrated a robust method of avoiding burst release of drugs and achieving a sustained drug release from 2 to 4 weeks using core-shell nanofibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell and monolithic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) core or a novel type of core-shell nanofibers with blended (PVA and PMMA) core loaded with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP). It is also shown that, for core-shell nanofibers with monolithic core, drug release can be manipulated by varying flow rate of the core PVA solution, whereas for core-shell nanofibers with blended core, drug release can be manipulated by varying the ratios between PMMA and PVA in the core. During coaxial electrospinning, when the solvent from the core evaporates in concert with the solvent from the shell, the interconnected pores spanning the core and the shell are formed. The release process is found to be desorption-limited and agrees with the two-stage desorption model. Ciprofloxacin-loaded nanofiber mats developed in the present work could be potentially used as local drug delivery systems for treatment of several medical conditions, including periodontal disease and skin, bone, and joint infections.

  14. Divergent Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Asymmetrical-Core-Fucosylated and Core-Unmodified N-Glycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tiehai; Huang, Min; Liu, Lin; Wang, Shuo; Moremen, Kelley W; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    A divergent chemoenzymaytic approach for the preparation of core-fucosylated and core-unmodified asymmetrical N-glycans from a common advances precursor is described. An undecasaccharide was synthesized by sequential chemical glycosylations of an orthogonally protected core fucosylated hexasaccharid

  15. Core-annular flow through a horizontal pipe: Hydrodynamic counterbalancing of buoyancy force on core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Vuik, C.; Poesio, P.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question of how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a density difference

  16. Non-Equilibrium Chemistry of Dynamically Evolving Prestellar Cores: I. Basic Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Models and Parameter Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Yorke, Harold W; Turner, Neal

    2011-01-01

    We combine dynamical and non-equilibrium chemical modeling of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores, and explore the evolution of molecular abundances in the contracting core. We model both magnetic cores, with varying degrees of initial magnetic support, and non-magnetic cores, with varying collapse delay times. We explore, through a parameter study, the competing effects of various model parameters in the evolving molecular abundances, including the elemental C/O ratio, the temperature, and the cosmic-ray ionization rate. We find that different models show their largest quantitative differences at the center of the core, whereas the outer layers, which evolve slower, have abundances which are severely degenerate among different dynamical models. There is a large range of possible abundance values for different models at a fixed evolutionary stage (central density), which demonstrates the large potential of chemical differentiation in prestellar cores. However, degeneracies among different models, compou...

  17. Direct laser writing for nanoporous liquid core laser sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Peterson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nanoporous liquid core lasers via direct laser writing based on two-photon absorption in combination with thiolene-chemistry. As gain medium Rhodamine 6G was embedded in the nanoporous polybutadiene matrix. The lasing devices with thresholds of 19 µJ/mm2 were measured...... to have bulk refractive index sensitivities of 169 nm/RIU at a laser wavelength of 600 nm, demonstrating strongly increased overlap of the modes with the analyte in comparison to solid state evanescent wave sensors....

  18. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field.

  19. Achieving micelle control through core crystallinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Lidija; Olsén, Peter; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2013-11-11

    We have designed a pathway for controlling the critical micelle concentration and micelle size of polyester-based systems. This was achieved by creating an array of different copolymers with semicrystalline or amorphous hydrophobic blocks. The hydrophobic block was constructed through ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, L-lactide, and ε-decalactone, either as homopolymers or random copolymers, using PEG as both the initiator and the hydrophilic block. Micelles formed with amorphous cores exhibited considerably higher critical micelle concentrations than those with semicrystalline cores. Micelles with amorphous cores also became larger in size with an increased molecular weight of the hydrophobic bock, in contrast to micelles with semicrystalline cores, which displayed the opposite behavior. Hence, core crystallinity was found to be a potent tool for tailoring micelle properties and thereby facilitating the optimization of drug delivery systems. The introduction of PEG-PεDL also proved to be a valuable asset in the tuning of micelle properties.

  20. FAST FOSSIL ROTATION OF NEUTRON STAR CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melatos, A., E-mail: amelatos@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2012-12-10

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.