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Sample records for cordgrass spartina densiflora

  1. Salt tolerance is related to a specific antioxidant response in the halophyte cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalejo, Antonio; Martínez-Domínguez, David; Córdoba, Francisco; Torronteras, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Halophytes usually have a robust antioxidative defense system to alleviate oxidative damage during salt stress. Spartina densiflora is a colonizing halophyte cordgrass, native of South America, which has become a common species in salt marshes of northern hemisphere, where it is ousting indigenous species. This study addressed salinity stress in S. densiflora; the occurrence of oxidative stress and the possible involvement of the antioxidative system in its high salt tolerance were studied. Plants were evaluated at in situ conditions, in the laboratory during a 28 day-acclimation period (AP) in clean substrate irrigated with a control salt content of 4 g L-1 (68 mM) and during a subsequent 28 day-treatment period (TP) exposed to different NaCl concentrations: control (68 mM), 428 mM or 680 mM. In the in situ setting, the high leave Na+ content was accompanied by high levels of hydroperoxides and reduced levels of total chlorophyll and carotenes, which correlated with enhanced activation of antioxidant defense biomarkers as total ascorbic acid (AA) content and guaiacol peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11) activities. Throughout the AP, leave Na+ and oxidative stress markers decreased concomitantly and reached stable low levels. During the TP, dose and time-dependent accumulation of Na+ in high NaCl-treated plants was concurrent with a decrease in content of total chlorophyll and carotenes and with an increase in the levels of total AA and CAT and APX activities. In conclusion, as hypothesized, high salinity induces conditions of oxidative stress in S. densiflora, so that its salt tolerance appears to be related to the implementation of a specific antioxidant response. This may account for Spartina densiflora's successful adaptation to habitats with fluctuating salinity and favour its phytoremediation potential.

  2. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora

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    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels

  3. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Parra, Raquel; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Aroca, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Spartina densiflora is a C4 halophytic species that has proved to have a high invasive potential which derives from its physiological plasticity to environmental factors, such as salinity. It is found in coastal marshes of south-west Spain, growing over sediments with between 1 mmol l−1 and 70 mmol l−1 zinc. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the synergic effect of zinc from 0 mmol l−1 to 60 mmol l−1 at 0, 1, and 3% NaCl on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange, and its recovery after removing zinc. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total zinc, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen concentrations were also determined. Spartina densiflora showed the highest growth at 1 mmol l−1 zinc and 1% NaCl after 90 d of treatment; this enhanced growth was supported by the measurements of net photosynthetic rate (A). Furthermore, there was a stimulatory effect of salinity on accumulation of zinc in tillers of this species. Zinc concentrations >1 mmol l−1 reduced growth of S. densiflora, regardless of salinity treatments. This declining growth may be attributed to a decrease in A caused by diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, owing to the modification of the potassium/calcium ratio. Also, zinc and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (photosystem II) apparatus, partially mediated by the accumulation of H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage. However, salinity favoured the recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus to the toxic action of zinc, and enhanced the nutrient uptake. PMID:21841175

  4. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals within soils and the austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Lancelotti, Julio L; Bouza, Pablo J; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2015-12-15

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn were determined in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (San Antonio, Río Negro, Argentina). Also, the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and plants was investigated to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of this plant species to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil. Our results indicate that, within the studied salt marsh, soil trace metal concentrations follow a decreasing concentration gradient toward the sea. They show moderate pollution and a potentially negative biological effect in one site of the salt marsh. While below-ground structures reflect the soil metal concentration pattern, this is not so evident in above-ground concentrations. Also, S. densiflora is able to absorb a limited amount of metals present in the soil, the soil bioaccumulation factor being lower in sites where soil metal concentration is higher. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecophysiology of tidal and non-tidal populations of the invading cordgrass Spartina densiflora: seasonal and diurnal patterns in a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, F. J. J.; Castillo, J. M.; Luque, C. J.; Figueroa, M. E.

    2003-08-01

    The invasion of salt marshes by alien species poses interesting questions concerning the mechanisms that determine their distribution. Spartina densiflora is one of the species that is invading the Atlantic marshes of SW Iberian Peninsula, where it tolerates a broad range of environmental conditions and it competes with the indigenous vegetation. The high ecological versatility of S. densiflora provides a good tool to study the ecophysiological responses of marsh plants. This article aims to compare the ecophysiological responses of S. densiflora in populations from two contrasting habitats: tidal (middle marsh) and non-tidal (drainage intercepted marsh). The higher values in A (net photosynthesis rate), A/ Ci (apparent carboxylation efficiency), water use efficiency (intrinsic WUE) and FV/ FP (potential photochemical efficiency) recorded at the non-tidal population, except in summertime, agree with previous studies that found better physiological state at lower salinity and higher redox potential. A clear reduction of A at higher irradiance was recorded in spring and summer in the tidal population, coinciding with the lowest ψ (leaf water potential) values. These results help to explain the high primary productivity recorded in S. densiflora populations at brackish marshes in Mediterranean areas. Different responses in gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence during summer were recorded for each population. The tidal population showed the maximum values of A in summer. In contrast, the non-tidal population suffered reductions in A, A/ Ci and FV/ FP during summer, when salinity was higher. Thus, salinity limits carbon fixation in S. densiflora non-tidal populations during Mediterranean summer drought. In tidal populations, photosynthesis seems to be more influenced by anoxic conditions. High levels of photoinhibition and low A were recorded on the coldest and less cloudy day, which provoked permanent damages to the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora. This

  6. Crab-mediated phenotypic changes in Spartina densiflora Brong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolus, Alejandro; Laterra, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Although plant phenotypic plasticity has been historically studied as an important adaptive strategy to overcome herbivory and environmental heterogeneity, there are several aspects of its ecological importance that remain controversial. The burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata eats Spartina densiflora, and also causes several geomorphologic changes that indirectly affect Spartina growth. Here we evaluate if this crab affects the sexual reproductive effort of S. densiflora by mediating changes in plant phenotypic plasticity (i.e., shape of leaves and spikes) while affecting aboveground production, and if these effects interact with disturbance intensity. We conducted local and regional surveys and two-year field experiments manipulating the density of crabs in a mature Spartina marsh where we clipped at ground level different 1×1 m marsh areas to create and compare crab's effect on young (plants growing after the clipping) and mature (unclipped) Spartina stands. Our results suggest that crabs mediate the phenotypic plasticity of sexual reproductive structures of Spartina. Crabs induced an increase in seed production (up to 721%) and seed viability, potentially favoring Spartina dispersal and colonization of distant sites. This effect appears to be maximal when combined with the experimental clipping disturbance. Crabs also exerted a strong effect on clipped plants by increasing the number of standing dead stems and decreasing the photosynthetic area and leaf production. These effects disappear in about two years if no other disturbance occurs. An a posteriori regional field survey agreed with our experimental results corroborating the prediction that plants in old undisturbed marshes have lower sexual reproductive effort than plants in highly disturbed marshes populated by burrowing-herbivore crabs. All these phenotypic changes have important taxonomic and macro-ecological implications that should not be ignored in discussions of applied ecology and

  7. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  8. Meiotic pairing as an indicator of genome composition in polyploid prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey W; Kim, Sumin; Villamil, María B; Lee, D K; Rayburn, A Lane

    2017-04-01

    The existence of neopolyploidy in prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) has been documented. The neohexaploid was discovered coexisting with tetraploids in central Illinois, and has been reported to exhibit competitiveness in the natural environment. It is hypothesized that the natural tetraploid cytotype produced the hexaploid cytotype via production of unreduced gametes. Meiosis I chromosome pairing was observed in tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 60), and octoploid (2n = 8x = 80) accessions and the percentage of meiotic abnormality was determined. Significant differences in meiotic abnormality exist between tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid cytotypes. An elevated incidence of abnormal, predominantly trivalent pairing in the neohexaploid suggests that it may possess homologous chromosomes in sets of three, in contrast to the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes, which likely possess homologous chromosomes in sets of two. Abnormal chromosome pairing in the hexaploid may result in unequal allocation of chromosomes to daughter cells during later stages of meiosis. Chromosome pairing patterns in tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid cytotypes indicate genome compositions of AABB, AAABBB, and AABBA'A'B'B', respectively.

  9. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Vecino-Bueno, Inmaculada [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Feldman, Susana R. [Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y CIUNR, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The cordgrass Spartina argentinensis, which occurs in inland marshes of the Chaco-Pampean regions of Argentina, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Cr{sup 6+} from 0 to 20 mmol l{sup -1} on growth and photosynthetic apparatus of S. argentinensis by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium and phosphorous concentrations were also determined. S. argentinensis showed phytotoxicity at tiller concentration of 4 mg g{sup -1} Cr, and symptoms of stress at tiller concentration of 1.5 mg g{sup -1} Cr, as well as reductions in leaf gas exchange, in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, in photosynthetic pigment contents and in the uptake of essential nutrients. Reductions in net photosynthetic rate could be accounted for by non-stomatal limitations. Moreover, the bioaccumulator factors exceeded greatly the critical value (1.0) for all Cr treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has a higher ability to transfer Cr from roots to tillers at higher Cr concentrations. These results confirmed that S. argentinensis is a chromium hyperaccumulator and that it may be useful for restoring Cr-contaminated sites.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  11. Effects of the herbicide diuron on cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) reflectance and photosynthetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.L.; Carranza, A.; Kunzelman, J.; Datta, S.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early indicators of salt marsh plant stress are needed to detect stress before it is manifested as changes in biomass and coverage. We explored a variety of leaf-level spectral reflectance and fluorescence variables as indicators of stress in response to the herbicide diuron. Diuron, a Photosystem II inhibitor, is heavily used in areas adjacent to estuaries, but its ecological effects are just beginning to be recognized. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed Spartina foliosa, the native cordgrass in California salt marshes, to two levels of diuron. After plant exposure to diuron for 28 days, all spectral reflectance indices and virtually all fluorescence parameters indicated reduced pigment and photosynthetic function, verified as reduced CO2 assimilation. Diuron exposure was not evident, however, in plant morphometry, indicating that reflectance and fluorescence were effective indicators of sub-lethal diuron exposure. Several indices (spectral reflectance index ARI and fluorescence parameters EQY, Fo, and maximum rETR) were sensitive to diuron concentration. In field trials, most of the indices as well as biomass, % cover, and canopy height varied predictably and significantly across a pesticide gradient. In the field, ARI and Fo regressed most significantly and strongly with pesticide levels. The responses of ARI and Fo in both the laboratory and the field make these indices promising as sensitive, rapid, non-destructive indicators of responses of S. foliosa to herbicides in the field. These techniques are employed in remote sensing and could potentially provide a link between landscapes of stressed vegetation and the causative stressor(s), which is crucial for effective regulation of pollution. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  12. Geochemical factors promoting die-back gap formation in colonizing patches of Spartina densiflora in an irregularly flooded marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Costa, Cesar S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Circular (RP) and ring-shape (RP) patches of vegetation in intertidal flats have been associated with the radial expansion of tussock growth forms and die-back gap in older central stands, respectively. RP formation has not yet been sufficiently explained. We accomplished a comparative geochemical study of CP and RP structures of Spartina densiflora within a single saltmarsh in a microtidal estuary (toxic environment for S. densiflora and die-back central gap formation in RP. CP structure was 5 cm higher in the intertidal than RP but shows frequent presence of a water layer, less severe oxidation of sulfides and limited building-up of toxic condition to plants. Development of S. densiflora RP probably indicates the uplift of sediment by this bioengineer grass and/or periodic lowering of the water surface below a certain critical level.

  13. Contrasting effects of ecosystem engineering by the cordgrass Spartina maritima and the sandprawn Callianassa kraussi in a marine-dominated lagoon

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    Pillay, D.; Branch, G. M.; Dawson, J.; Henry, D.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by plants and animals significantly influences community structure and the physico-chemical characteristics of marine habitats. In this paper we document the contrasting effects of ecosystem engineering by the cordgrass Spartina maritima and the burrowing sandprawn Callianassa kraussi on physico-chemical characteristics, microflora, macrofaunal community structure and morphological attributes in the high shore intertidal sandflats of Langebaan Lagoon, a marine-dominated system on the west coast of South Africa. Comparisons were made at six sites in the lagoon within Spartina and Callianassa beds, and in a "bare zone" of sandflat between these two habitats that lacks both sandprawns and cordgrass. Sediments in Spartina habitats were consolidated by the root-shoot systems of the cordgrass, leading to low sediment penetrability, while sediments in beds of C. kraussi were more penetrable, primarily due to the destabilising effects of sandprawn bioturbation. Sediments in the "bare zone" had intermediate to low values of penetrability. Sediment organic content was lowest in bare zones and greatest in Spartina beds, while sediment chl- a levels were greatest on bare sand, but were progressively reduced in the Spartina and Callianassa beds. These differences among habitats induced by ecosystem engineering in turn affected the macrofauna. Community structure was different between all three habitats sampled, with species richness being surprisingly greater in Callianassa beds than either the bare zone or Spartina beds. In general, the binding of surface sediments by the root systems of Spartina favoured rigid-bodied, surface-dwelling and tube-building species, while the destabilising effect of bioturbation by C. kraussi favoured burrowing species. The contrasting effects of these ecosystem engineers suggest that they play important roles in increasing habitat heterogeneity. Importantly, the role of bioturbation by C. kraussi in enhancing macrofaunal

  14. Phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in response to salinity in the invasive cordgrass Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity and tidal inundation induce physiological stress in vascular plant species and influence their distribution and productivity in estuarine wetlands. Climate change-induced sea level rise is magnifying these abiotic stressors and the physiological stresses they cause. Understanding the pote...

  15. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance.

  16. Responses of growth, antioxidants and gene expression in smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) to various levels of salinity.

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    Courtney, Abigail J; Xu, Jichen; Xu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is a major environmental factor limiting the productivity and quality of crop plants. While most cereal crops are salt-sensitive, several halophytic grasses are able to maintain their growth under saline conditions. Elucidating the mechanisms for salinity responses in halophytic grasses would contribute to the breeding of salt-tolerant cereal and turf species belonging to the Poaceae family. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is a dominant native halophytic grass in the Hackensack Meadowlands, the coastal salt marshes located in northeastern New Jersey. The goals of this study were to examine the growth pattern of S. alterniflora in a salinity gradient and identify an optimal range of salinity for its maximal growth. The regulation of its antioxidant system and gene expression under supraoptimal salinity conditions was also investigated. Our results showed that a salinity of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) (68 mM) was most favorable for the growth of S. alterniflora, followed by a non-salt environment. S. alterniflora responded to salts in the environment by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of stress-induced proteins such as ALDH, HVA22 and PEPC. The plant may tolerate salinity up to the concentration of sea water, but any salinity above 12 ppt retarded its growth and altered the expression of genes encoding critical proteins.

  17. Willapa - Spartina Eradication 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Willapa NWR and its partners continue the ongoing and successful program aimed at eradication of the nonnative cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) in Willapa...

  18. Field Variability of Invading Populations of Spartina densiflora Brong. in Different Habitats of the Odiel Marshes (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, F. J. J.; Díaz-Espejo, A.; Castellanos, E. M.; Figueroa, M. E.

    2001-04-01

    Spartina densiflora is a species of South American origin that has invaded the marshes of the Gulf of Cádiz, in many of which it has become the most abundant plant. This work studies six populations of S. densiflora representative of the physiographic positions most commonly occupied by the species. The aspects considered are redox potential, conductivity and pH of the sediment, below- and above-ground biomass, stem density, rates of flowering and production of vegetative propagules. Eh and conductivity values vary greatly, responding to differences in tidal effect. The below-ground biomass (in particular, live rhizomes) is accumulated mostly in the first centimetres of the soil; mean values of total below-ground biomass are between 6961 and 30 696 g DW m -2. Above-ground biomass levels for the populations ranges between 419 and 15 251 g DW m -2. The stem density within the tussocks is high, between 3985 and 10 513 stems m -2, with higher percentages of live stems on low and brackish marshes compared with those on higher topographic levels. This accumulation of dead and live intratussock biomass is important for the ability to exclude competitors. The flowering rates vary depending on topographic position, with maximum values being recorded in the low marsh (37·6%) and minima in the high marsh (0·1 to 0·3%). Besides the production of ramets from below-ground rhizomes (common to all species of the genus), S. densiflora presents another mode of asexual reproduction, in which extravaginal tillers are originated from the nodes of senescent ramets; populations on the higher levels of the marshes present higher densities of these propagules, with a negative correlation between rate of flowering and rate of propagule production. Nevertheless, the contribution of these propagules to the total stem population is very small. Our results show a high tolerance of S. densiflora to different environmental factors, an intense occupation of the available below-ground and above

  19. Exploring the effects of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) expansions on nutrient cycling in smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) marsh sediments of southern Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K. M.; Twilley, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Located at the northernmost extent of mangroves in the Gulf of Mexico, coastal Louisiana (LA) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effects of a climate-induced vegetation shift on nutrient cycling within an ecosystem. Climate throughout the Gulf Coast region is experiencing a general warming trend and scientists predict both hotter summers (+1.5 to 4 °C) and warmer winters (+1.5 to 5.5 °C) by 2100. Over the last two decades, mild winter temperatures have facilitated the expansion of black mangrove trees (Avicennia germinans) into the smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) along parts of the LA coast. Due to differences in morphology and physiology between these two species, the expansion of Avicennia has the potential to greatly alter sediment biogeochemistry, especially nutrient cycling. With such an extensive history of coastal nutrient enrichment and eutrophication in the Mississippi River delta, it is important to understand how nutrient cycling, retention, and removal in this region will be affected by this climate-induced vegetation expansion. We examined the effect of this species shift on porewater salinity, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations (nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate) as well as sediment oxidation-reduction potential, bulk density, and nutrient content (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus). We also measured net dinitrogen (N2:Ar), oxygen, and dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes on intact, non-vegetated sediment cores collected from both Spartina and Avicennia habitats. Spartina sediments were more reducing, with higher concentrations of sulfides and ammonium. We found no significant difference between Spartina and Avicennia sediment dinitrogen, oxygen, or dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes. Net dinitrogen fluxes for both habitat types were predominately positive, indicating higher rates of denitrification than nitrogen fixation at these sites. Sediments were primarily a nitrate sink, but functioned as both a

  20. The impact of invasive plants on tidal-marsh vertebrate species: common reed (Phragmites australis) and smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Nordby, J. Cully

    2006-01-01

    Large areas of tidal marsh in the contiguous US and the Maritime Provinces of Canada are threatened by invasive plant species. Our understanding of the impact these invasions have on tidal-marsh vertebrates is sparse. In this paper, we focus on two successful invasive plant taxa that have spread outside their native range --common reed (Phragmites australis) and smooth cordgrass (Spartina a/terniflora). A cryptic haplotype of common reed has expanded its range in Atlantic Coast tidal marshes and smooth cordgrass, a native dominant plant of Atlantic Coast low-marsh habitat, has expanded its range and invaded intertidal-marsh habitats of the Pacific Coast. The invasions of common reed in Atlantic Coast tidal marshes and smooth cordgrass in Pacific Coast tidal marshes appear to have similar impacts. The structure and composition of these habitats has been altered and invasion and dominance by these two taxa can lead to profound changes in geomorphological processes, altering the vertical relief and potentially affecting invertebrate communities and the entire trophic structure of these systems. Few studies have documented impacts of invasive plant taxa on tidal-marsh vertebrate species in North America. However, habitat specialists that are already considered threatened or endangered are most likely to be affected. Extensive experimental studies are needed to examine the direct impact of invasive plant species on native vertebrate species. Careful monitoring of sites during the initial stages of plant invasion and tracking ecosystem changes through time are essential. Since tidal marshes are the foci for invasion by numerous species, we also need to understand the indirect impacts of invasion of these habitats on the vertebrate community. We also suggest the initiation of studies to determine if vertebrate species can compensate behaviorally for alterations in their habitat caused by invasive plant species, as well as the potential for adaptation via rapid evolution

  1. Variation in tussock traits of the invasive cordgrass Spartina densiflora along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some introduced species rapidly spread to cover large novel habitats beyond their native range mediated by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity and/or rapid evolutionary responses. In this context, clonality has been described as a significant factor contributing to invasiveness. We studied the ab...

  2. Impact of the cord-grass Spartina alterniflora on sedimentary and morphological evolution of tidal salt marshes on the Jiangsu coast, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aijun; GAO Shu; JIA Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    The tidal flats of the Wanggang area, on the Jiangsu coast, represent the largest continuously distributed coastal wetland in terms of area coverage in China, and the dynamics of tidal flat accretion and erosion is highly complicated. The cord-grass Spartina alterniflora, which was introduced artificially into the Jiangsu coast, has significant influences on the regional tidal flat evolution in terms of deposition rate, spacial sediment distribution patterns and tidal creek morphology. On the basis of the data set of bed elevation and accumulation rate for different periods of time, the applicability of the Pethick-Allen model to the Jiangsu tidal salt marshes is discussed. In addition, caesium-137 dating was carried out for sediment samples collected from the salt marsh of the Wangang area. In combination with the caesium-137 analysis and the data collected from literature, the Pethick-Allen model was used to derive the accumulation rate in the Wanggang tidal flat for the various periods. The results show that the pattern of tidal flat accretion has been modified, due to more rapid accretion following the introduction of S.alterniflora to the region. Surficial sediment samples were collected from representative profiles and analyzed for grain size with a laser particle analyzer. The result shows that fine-grained sediment has been trapped by the plant, with most of the sediment deposited on the Suaeda salsa and Spartina angelica flats being derived from drainage creeks rather than the from gently sloping tidal flats. Remote sensing analysis and in situ observations indicate that the creeks formed in the S.alterniflora flat have a relatively small ratio of width to depth, a relatively high density, and are more stable than the other tidal flat creek systems in the study area.

  3. Morphological variation and habitat modification are strongly correlated for the autogenic ecosystem engineer Spartina anglica (common cordgrass)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.B.; Van Soelen, J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    We explored to what extent morphological variation and habitat modification are correlated for an autogenic ecosystem engineer, which is an organism that modifies its habitat via its own physical structures. The intertidal salt marsh species Spartina anglica is well known for its capacity to enhance

  4. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continues to work toward the eradication of the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) from...

  5. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  6. Genetic effects of a large-scale Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) dieback and recovery in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K.R.; Travis, S.E.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale dieback event struck marshes along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico coast during summer 2000, in apparent response to a prolonged and severe drought. Along the Louisiana coast, large areas of the dominant marsh species, Spartina alterniflora, turned brown, followed by death of at least the aboveground structures or entire plant mortality. Key ecological and genetic measures were studied in a dieback-affected marsh in southwest Louisiana (C83 marsh, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge), for which existed predieback ecologic and genetic datasets. Effects on genetic diversity only were studied in a second set of sites in southeastern Louisiana (near Bay Junop), where the dieback was more widespread. We hypothesized that stem density, live aboveground biomass, and genetic diversity would be significantly reduced compared to predieback conditions and to nearby unaffected marshes. Stem densities and biomass levels approached predieback conditions 14 months after first observance of the dieback in the Sabine marsh and were similar to or exceeded the same measures for a nearby unaffected marsh. DNA extracted from leaf samples in the Sabine and Bay Junop sites was used to construct genotype profiles using AFLPs and analyzed using the complement of Simpson's Index (1-D), the richness measure G/N, average heterozygosity ???H???, and the estimated proportion of polymorphic genes ???P???. Genetic diversity was relatively unaffected by the dieback at either the Sabine or Bay Junop sites. Evidence from field observations and the results of the genetic analyses suggest that seedling recruitment is an important factor in the recovery of both the Bay Junop and C83 sites, although re-growth from surviving below-ground rhizomes appeared to dominate recovery at the latter site. Survival of below-ground structures, leading to the rapid recovery observed, indicates a high level of resilience of the Sabine marsh to drought-induced stress. Still, the genetic diversity of S

  7. The effects of crude oil and remediation burning on three clones of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.L.; Proffitt, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Burning has been employed as an oil spill remediation technique in coastal marshes, even though the combined and interactive effects of soil and burning on vegetation are poorly understood. Variation among clones of perennial marsh grasses in response to these perturbations is not known. We performed a greenhouse experiment designed to assess the effects of Venezuelan crude oil alone and of oil followed by burning on three clonal genets of Spartina alterniflora. The fully-crossed 6-mo experiment involved five dosages of oil (0 l m-2, 4 l m-2, 8 l m-2, 16 l m-2, and 24 l m-2) and two burn treatments (burned or unburned) applied to ramets from three clones. All oil-only dosages reduced survival, but burning after oiling (oil + burn treatments) increased survival relative to oil-only groups in all except the highest two oil dosages. Higher oil-only treatments also reduced ramet densities and inhibited density increases over 6 mo. Burning after treatment with the 16 l m-2 oil concentration allowed increased production of new ramets, but burning exacerbated the negative impacts on ramet density at the oil concentration of 24 l m-2. At some intermediate oil dosages, burning remediated the negative effects of oil on aboveground biomass production and growth in height. There was a significant effect of oil-only treatments on numbers of flowering ramets produced, in which two clones responded with decreased flower production and one exhibited increased flowering. There was no main effect of oil + burn on flowering. There were significant among-clones differences in all response variables to one or both treatments. Our experiment demonstrates that burning of oiled S. alterniflora marshes may have little measurable effect at low levels of Venezuelan crude oil, can remediate the effects of oil at intermediate oil concentrations, but can increase the negative impacts at high concentrations of oil. These results indicate that oil spills have the potential to adversely affect

  8. Willapa - Willapa Bay Early Season Spartina Mapping and Eradication (Phase 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  9. The role of the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and associated sediments in the heavy metal biogeochemical cycle within Bahia Blanca estuary salt marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, M. [Dept. of Environmental Process Engineering, International Graduate School Zittau, Zittau (Germany); Botte, S.E. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dept. de Biologia, Bioquimica y Farmacia (DBBF), Univ. Nacional del Sur (UNS), Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Negrin, V.L.; Chiarello, M.N. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Marcovecchio, J.E. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca (UTN-FRBB), Univ. Tecnologica Nacional, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Univ. FASTA, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    Background, aim, and scope Bahia Blanca estuary is characterized by the occurrence of large intertidal areas, including both naked tidal flats and salt marshes densely vegetated with Spartina alterniflora. The estuary is strongly affected by human activities, including industrial and municipal discharges, harbor maintenance, cargo vessels and boat navigation, oil storage and processing, etc. Even numerous studies have reported the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in sediments and biota from this estuary, although the function of the halophyte vegetation on metals distribution was at present not studied. The main objective of the present study was to understand the potential role of the salt marshes as a sink or source of metals to the estuary, considering both the obtained data on metal levels within sediments and plants from the studied areas at naked tidal as well as vegetated flats. Conclusions and recommendations Considering the comments on the previous paragraphs, salt marshes from Bahia Blanca estuary are sources or sinks for metals? It can be sustained that both are the case, even if it is often stated that wetlands serve as sinks for pollutants, reducing contamination of surrounding ecosystems (Weis and Weis, Environ Int 30:685-700, 2004). In the present study case, the sediments (which tend to be anoxic and reduced) act as sinks, while the salt marshes can become a source of metal contaminants. This is very important for this system because the macrophytes have been shown to retain the majority of metals in the underground tissues, and particularly in their associated sediments. This fact agreed well with previous reports, such as that from Leendertse et al., (Environ Pollut 94:19-29, 1996) who found that about 50% of the absorbed metals were retained in salt marshes and 50% was exported. Thus, keeping in mind the large spreading of S. alterniflora salt marshes within Bahia Blanca estuary, it must be carefully considered as a redistributor of

  10. Native plant restoration combats environmental change: development of carbon and nitrogen sequestration capacity using small cordgrass in European salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, Guillermo; Rubio-Casal, Alfredo E; Figueroa, Enrique; Grewell, Brenda J; Castillo, Jesús M

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of salt marshes is critical in the context of climate change and eutrophication of coastal waters because their vegetation and sediments may act as carbon and nitrogen sinks. Our primary objectives were to quantify carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and sequestration rates in restored marshes dominated by Spartina maritima to provide support for restoration and management strategies that may offset negative aspects of eutrophication and climate change in estuarine ecosystems. Sediment C content was between ca. 13 mg C g(-1)and sediment N content was ca. 1.8 mg N g(-1). The highest C content for S. maritima was recorded in leaves and stems (ca. 420 mg C g(-1)) and the lowest in roots (361 ± 4 mg C g(-1)). S. maritima also concentrated more N in its leaves (31 ± 1 mg N g(-1)) than in other organs. C stock in the restored marshes was 29.6 t C ha(-1); ca. 16 % was stored in S. maritima tissues. N stock was 3.6 t N ha(-1), with 8.3 % stored in S. maritima. Our results showed that the S. maritima restored marshes, 2.5 years after planting, were sequestering atmospheric C and, therefore, provide some mitigation for global warming. Stands are also capturing nitrogen and reducing eutrophication. The concentrations of C and N contents in sediments, and cordgrass relative cover of 62 %, and low below-ground biomass (BGB) suggest restored marshes can sequester more C and N. S. maritima plantations in low marshes replace bare sediments and invasive populations of exotic Spartina densiflora and increase the C and N sequestration capacity of the marsh by increasing biomass production and accumulation.

  11. Demography and microhabitat use of the wild guinea pig(Cavia aperea) in freshwater Spartina densiflora marshes in Argentina%阿根廷淡水大米草沼泽中野生豚鼠的种群统计和微生境的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StellaM.BONAVENTURA; VeronicaPANCOTTO; RicardoL.VICARI; NoraMADANES; MariaI.BELLOCQ

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了秋冬季节淡水大米草(Spartina densiflora)沼泽中野生豚鼠(Cavia aperea)的丰度、繁殖和微生境利用,以及其对当地植被和棉鼠类(Sigmodontine)啮齿动物的影响.野生豚鼠喜好S. densiflora覆盖度高的生境.繁殖个体(成体)主要利用矮草为主的斑块,幼体则主要利用禾本科植物为主的斑块.结果说明,野生豚鼠微生境的利用受捕食风险和食物种类的影响.在淡水沼泽中,野生豚鼠的丰度、繁殖、体重和微生境利用没有季节性变化,它们对植物的取食和活动跑道的建造对植被结构和同域的啮齿类动物没有负面影响.通过对具有中度季节性变化的淡水生境中的豚鼠种群和具有高度季节变化的草地和路边中的豚鼠种群进行比较,表明野生豚鼠的种群动态以及豚鼠种群对植被和与其共生的啮齿动物群落的影响都受到冬季植被盖度的限制[动物学报 49(1):20~31,2003].%We studied abundance, reproduction and microhabitat use of the wild guinea pig (WGP), Cavia aperea, and its influence on vegetation and sigmodontine rodents during the fall-winter period in freshwater Spartina densiflora marshes. WGP preferred microhabitats with high S. densiflora cover. Reproductive individuals (=adults) mainly used patches dominated by short grasses, while juveniles used patches with forbs. These results suggest that microhabitat use in the WPG is influenced by predation risk (availability of safe foraging sites and refuges) and type of food. In freshwater marshes, WGP abundance, reproduction, body weight and microhabitat use exhibited no seasonal variations, and their herbivory and runway construction activities had no negative effect on vegetation structure and sigmodontine rodents. Results from a comparison between WGP populations living in freshwater habitats (moderate seasonality) vs grasslands and roadsides (strong seasonality), suggest that the population dynamics of the WGP, as

  12. Effects of invasive cordgrass on presence of Marsh Grassbird in an area where it is not native.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Gan, Xiaojing; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Li, Bo

    2014-02-01

    The threatened Marsh Grassbird (Locustella pryeri) first appeared in the salt marsh in east China after the salt marsh was invaded by cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a non-native invasive species. To understand the dependence of non-native Marsh Grassbird on the non-native cordgrass, we quantified habitat use, food source, and reproductive success of the Marsh Grassbird at the Chongming Dongtan (CMDT) salt marsh. In the breeding season, we used point counts and radio-tracking to determine habitat use by Marsh Grassbirds. We analyzed basal food sources of the Marsh Grassbirds by comparing the δ(13) C isotope signatures of feather and fecal samples of birds with those of local plants. We monitored the nests through the breeding season and determined the breeding success of the Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT. Density of Marsh Grassbirds was higher where cordgrass occurred than in areas of native reed (Phragmites australis) monoculture. The breeding territory of the Marsh Grassbird was composed mainly of cordgrass stands, and nests were built exclusively against cordgrass stems. Cordgrass was the major primary producer at the base of the Marsh Grassbird food chain. Breeding success of the Marsh Grassbird at CMDT was similar to breeding success within its native range. Our results suggest non-native cordgrass provides essential habitat and food for breeding Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT and that the increase in Marsh Grassbird abundance may reflect the rapid spread of cordgrass in the coastal regions of east China. Our study provides an example of how a primary invader (i.e., cordgrass) can alter an ecosystem and thus facilitate colonization by a second non-native species. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

  14. Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

  15. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants.

  16. Spartina anglica eradication experiment and in situ monitoring assess structuring strength of habitat complexity on marine macrofauna at high tidal level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Maud; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Lebleu, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    The cordgrass Spartina anglica is an introduced species that tends to invade sheltered sand and mudflats, at the upper low marsh level. In Arcachon Bay, a lagoon in South West of France, the cordgrass can also replace Zostera noltii beds. The consequence of cordgrass presence on macrobenthic fauna was estimated and compared to adjacent habitats (bare sands, Z. noltii sea grass beds) during one year. The communities of the three habitats were characterised by low species richness, low abundance and biomass (when Hydrobia ulvae, 90% of abundance, is not considered) and high seasonal stability. The infaunal assemblages were particularly homogeneous between habitats without any characteristic species. Cordgrass eradication experiments were performed and zoobenthic recolonisation was observed the following year. Modifications in benthic fauna were observed on epifauna only. These results highlight the limited structuring effect of habitat heterogeneity at high tidal levels and in soft-bottom sediments where desiccation becomes the dominant factor determining infauna community structure.

  17. Expression of nifH genes by diazotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere of short form Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle M; Friez, Michael J; Lovell, Charles R

    2003-04-01

    Abstract A diverse assemblage of diazotrophic bacteria exists in the rhizosphere of the smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, but the taxa actively involved in nitrogen fixation have not been determined. In order to identify the diazotrophs that were actively expressing nifH, the gene encoding the nitrogenase iron protein, mRNA was extracted from Spartina rhizosphere samples and nifH-specific seminested reverse transcriptase-PCR performed. Expressed nifH sequences were recovered from organisms affiliated with the (gamma-+beta-) Proteobacteria and the anaerobes. Most of the expressed nifH sequences were highly similar (>/=95% similarity) to sequences previously recovered from Spartina rhizosphere DNA using conventional nifH-specific PCR. These sequences were also similar, although not identical to the nifH sequences of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Vibrio diazotrophicus, Desulfovibrio africanus, and Desulfovibrio gigas.

  18. Mechanisms generating modification of benthos following tidal flat invasion by a Spartina hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Grosholz, Edwin D; Levin, Lisa A; Blake, Rachael

    2006-08-01

    Many coastal habitats are being substantially altered by introduced plants. In San Francisco Bay, California, USA, a hybrid form of the eastern cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is rapidly invading open mudflats in southern and central sections of the Bay, altering habitat, reducing macrofaunal densities, and shifting species composition. The invasion has resulted in significant losses of surface-feeding amphipods, bivalves, and cirratulid polychaetes, while subsurface feeding groups such as tubificid oligochaetes and capitellid polychaetes have been unaffected. In the present paper, we document the causes and mechanisms underlying the changes observed. Through a series of in situ manipulative experiments we examined the influence of hybrid Spartina canopy on a range of physical, chemical, and biological properties. The hybrid Spartina canopy exerted a strong influence on the hydrodynamic regime, triggering a series of physical, chemical, and biological changes in the benthic system. Relative to tidal flats, water velocity was reduced in hybrid patches, promoting deposition of fine-grained, organic-rich particles. The resulting changes in the sediment environment included increased porewater sulfide concentrations and anoxia, which led to poor survivorship of surface feeders such as bivalves, amphipods, and polychaetes. These are key taxa that support higher trophic levels including migratory shorebirds that feed on tidal flats. Altered flow in the Spartina canopy further contributed to changes in barnacle recruitment and resuspension of adult benthic invertebrates. Increased crab-induced predation pressure associated with Spartina invasion also contributed to changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Our results suggest that multiple physical, chemical, biotic, and trophic impacts of the Spartina invasion have resulted in substantial changes in benthic communities that are likely to have important effects on the entire ecosystem.

  19. SPARTINA CONTROL STRATEGY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fang-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Spartina is a kind of very important and invasive grass. In its native range, it is very important for erosion control, fish, wildlife, and estuary reclamation. Therefore, it was introduced to many countries. Since 1963, it was introduced to China. Up to now, it was intentionally or accidentally planted nearly all estuaries in the east coast of China and the area was estimated over 0.1 × 106 hm2. As other introduced plants, Spartina grows very vigorously in China,and this caused many environmental and economical problems. So, it is an emergency to develop a Spartina control strategy of China. In the paper, the history of Spartina introduction in China was reviewed, and several methods which were probably feasible for China to control Spartina were introduced, including physical/mechanical (such as mowing, digging, and dredging), chemical, and biological methods. Before taking any measurments to control Spartina, 2 things should be done. The first was to develop a plan and make an inventory; the second was to select a feasible method according to local climatic, economic, social, and ecological conditions. It was suggested that it would be very important to assess the possible effect of control methods on the environment in order to prevent from causing other environmental problems.KEY WORDS :Spartina; control method; control strategy; environmental assessment

  20. Seed Germination and Seedling Survival of Spartina alterniflora Loisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Biber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass is a widespread intertidal salt marsh plant that is frequently used in coastal restoration projects. Seeds collected in 2004 were tested for seed germination and seedling survival after 6 months of cold seed storage to determine differences among collection locations (experiment 1. Seeds collected in 2005, after Hurricane Katrina, were tested for seed germination and seedling survival from 0 to 15 months of cold seed storage time to determine minimum and maximum storage time and seedling survival rates (experiment 2. Seed germination increased from 1-4 months of cold, wet storage (stratification and then began to decline. Survival of the seedlings was highest after 2 months of stratification. In experiment 1, seedling size was found to vary widely among seedlings of the same source and age. Seedling height at 22 days after planting ranged from 2-16 cm, despite identical environmental conditions. Selective breeding could target plants with fast early growth characteristics to promote strains that can be raised quickly in a nursery in response to demands for restoration.

  1. Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) and the invasive M haplotype of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) along a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Brown, J. Jed; Nelson, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    An invasive variety of Phragmites australis (Poaceae, common reed), the M haplotype, has been implicated in the spread of this species into North American salt marshes that are normally dominated by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, smooth cordgrass). In some European marshes, on the other hand, Spartina spp. derived from S. alterniflora have spread into brackish P. australis marshes. In both cases, the non-native grass is thought to degrade the habitat value of the marsh for wildlife, and it is important to understand the physiological processes that lead to these species replacements. We compared the growth, salt tolerance, and osmotic adjustment of M haplotype P. australis and S. alterniflora along a salinity gradient in greenhouse experiments. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na+ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. This study illustrates how ecophysiological differences can shift the competitive advantage from one species to another along a stress gradient. Phragmites australis is spreading into North American coastal marshes that are experiencing reduced salinities, while Spartina spp. are spreading into northern European brackish marshes that are experiencing increased salinities as land use patterns change on the two continents.

  2. Hybridization between invasive Spartina Densiflora (Poaceae) and native S. Foliosa in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid evolution in contemporary time can result when related species, brought together through human-aided introduction, hybridize. The evolutionary consequences of post introduction hybridization range from allopolyploid speciation to extinction of species through genetic amalg...

  3. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Hechinger, R.F.; Huspeni, T.C.; Whitney, K.L.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

  4. Biomass production, photosynthesis, and leaf water relations of Spartina alterniflora under moderate water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Kamel; Ghandour, Mohamed; Albouchi, Ali; Soltani, Abdelaziz; Werner, Koyro Hans; Abdelly, Chedly

    2008-05-01

    The perennial smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, has been successfully introduced in salty ecosystems for revegetation or agricultural use. However, it remains unclear whether it can be introduced in arid ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological response of this species to water deficiency in a climate-controlled greenhouse. The experiment consisted of two levels of irrigation modes, 100 and 50% field capacities (FC). Although growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance of plants with 50% FC were reduced at 90 days from the start of the experiment, all of the plants survived. The water-stressed plants exhibited osmotic adjustment and an increase in the maximum elastic modulus that is assumed to be effective to enhance the driving force for water extraction from the soil with small leaf water loss. An increase in the water use efficiency was also found in the water-stressed plants, which could contribute to the maintenance of leaf water status under drought conditions. It can be concluded that S. alterniflora has the capacity to maintain leaf water status and thus survive in arid environment.

  5. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  6. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  7. Efficacy of insecticides to limit caterpillar damage to prairie cordgrass seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The moth Aethes spartinana (Tortricidae) is a severe pest of prairie cordgrass, a native perennial grown for biomass and habitat restoration. Small larvae may damage 75% or more of developing seed as they feed, crawling through spikes. After feeding in the spikes, larvae enter stems and crawl downwa...

  8. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Joesting

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics, but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of marine aquaculture solid waste as a nutrient source for the nursery production of two salt tolerant plants commonly used in coastal salt marsh restoration, Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass and Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush. Specifically, measurements of plant biomass and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus allocation were compared between plants fertilized with dried shrimp biofloc solids and unfertilized controls, as well as between plants fertilized with dried fish solids and unfertilized controls. In both experiments, S. alterniflora plants fertilized with marine aquaculture solids showed few significant differences from unfertilized controls, whereas fertilized J. roemerianus plants had significantly greater biomass and absorbed and incorporated more nutrients in plant tissue compared to unfertilized controls. These results suggest that J. roemerianus may be a suitable plant species for the remediation of marine aquaculture solid waste.

  9. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  10. Successional development from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora and elements of microclimates: The seed germination and seedling establishment conditions of P. densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-09-01

    The succession mechanism from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora was studied in relation to elements of microclimates within those plant communities. Laboratory experiments indicated that the seed germination of P. densiflora occurred at cumulative soil temperature between 75 °C ṡ day and 200 °C ṡ day. It is assumed from field research that establishment of P. densiflora seedlings is impossible if the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm is less than 2,000 °C day, and the cumulative solar radiation figure totals less than 633 MJ/m2. The seedlings thrived in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently convex topography, which fulfills the requisites mentioned above. The seedlings in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently concave topography and in a P. densiflora stand died completely by October.

  11. Impact of sediment supply on Spartina salt marshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yong-Ming; YANG Jing-Song; WANG Yan-Hong; FENG Nian-Hua; ZHOU Qin; ZENG Hua

    2008-01-01

    During the past century,natural and human modifications of environmental systems have greatly accelerated coastal salt marsh deterioration and shoreline retreat in many regions worldwide.Field investigation,profile analysis,geographical information analysis,and remote sensing were employed in combination to study the effect of sediment on Spartina ulterniflora salt marshes of the coast in Jiangsu Province,East China.The results indicated that the propagation of Spartina alterniflora salt marshes was closely related to regional sediment conditions,especially the supply of fine-grained materials.Additionally,because of the dense and high grass in Spartina ulterniflora salt marshes,wave energy and tidal currents were baffled and weaker than those of the adjacent,unvegetated mud fiats.Fine sediment was hardly resuspended under the low energy conditions in the Spartina alterniflora salt marshes.

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF THE INVASIVE CORDGRASS SPARTINA ANGLICA TO REDUCING SEDIMENTS: RHIZOME METABOLIC GAS FLUXES AND ENHANCED O-2 AND H2S TRANSPORT. (R829406)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF THE INVASIVE CORDGRASS SPARTINA ANGLICA TO REDUCING SEDIMENTS: RHIZOME METABOLIC GAS FLUXES AND ENHANCED O-2 AND H2S TRANSPORT. (R829406)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    OpenAIRE

    Dalong,M; Luhe,W; Guoting,Y; M Liqiang; Chun,L

    2011-01-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and sho...

  15. Spartina argentinensis as feedstock for bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jozami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five percent of the energy consumed in the world comes from non-renewable sources. The transportation sector, highly dependent on oil, is responsible for 20-27% of the world primary energy consumption and for 13-28% of Greenhouse Gases (GHG emissions. The main renewable energy sources that can supply this sector are bioethanol and biodiesel. Production of these biofuels is rapidly expanding mainly through food raw materials such as corn, sugar cane, soybean and rapeseed, decreasing their availability as food in the market, thereby raising their price. These food-derived biofuels are called “first generation biofuels”. There are other renewable sources that can be used to produce bioethanol, called second-generation biofuels, which have the great advantage of using lignocellulosic materials, thereafter they do not compete with food crops for fertile land. This paper describes the possibility of producing bioethanol and/or electricity using pellets from natural rangelands in the Bajos Submeridionales (Submeridional Lowlands of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, where the dominant species is Spartina argentinensis, a C4 perennial grass with high photosynthetic rate, which tolerates the conditions of alkalinity and the recurrent droughts and floods that shape the region. According to our estimates, enough ethanol could be produced in this region to satisfy the energy demand of vehicles with Otto combustion cycle in several Argentine provinces. Pellets production would allow electricity generation via syngas and power turbines. This would allow the production of liquid fuel and/or electricity with sustainability criteria, reducing the emission of GHG and generating jobs, economical growth and development in a depopulated region.

  16. Is Spartina anglica Hubbard wel een goede soort?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drok, W.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of the population of Spartina x townsendii s.l. occurring in the coastal area of the Southwest Netherlands. The analysis was carried out at the Delta Institute for Hydrobiological Research in Yerseke and the laboratory of Plant Taxonomy of the Agricultural Universit

  17. Comparative study of organosolv lignin extracted from prairie cordgrass, switchgrass and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Brudecki, Grzegorz; Rosentrater, Kurt; Julson, James L; Lei, Hanwu

    2012-08-01

    Lignin extracted from prairie cordgrass, switchgrass, and corn stover (using ethyl acetate-ethanol-water organosolv pretreatment) was analyzed and characterized using several methods. These methods included analysis of purity (by determination of Klason lignin, carbohydrate, and ash contents), solubility (with several organic solvents), phenolic group analysis (ultraviolet ionization difference spectra, and nitrobenzene oxidation), and general functional group analysis (by (1)H NMR). Results showed that all the examined lignin samples were relatively pure (contained over 50% Klason lignin, less than 5% carbohydrate contamination, and less than 3% ash), but switchgrass-derived lignin was observed to be the purest. All the lignins were found to contain high amounts of phenolic groups, while switchgrass-derived lignin was the most phenolic, according to the ionization difference spectra. Nitrobenzene oxidation revealed that all the lignin samples contained available guaiacyl units in high amounts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dalong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  19. Seasonal variations of monoterpene emissions from Pinus densiflora in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon; Son, Youn-Suk; Sunwoo, Young; Han, Jin-Seok

    2008-09-01

    The emission rates and compositions of monoterpene from Pinus densiflora were investigated in the Gumsung (GM) and Worak (WM) mountains. The standard emission rates (ERs: ERs is the monoterpene emission rate at standard temperature, 30 degrees C) from P. densiflora ranged from 0.817 to 1.704 (microgC/gdw-h). The ERs and beta-values of total monoterpene were measured at the two study sites (GM and WM). In the spring and summer, the ERs were the highest, while relatively low values (densiflora were alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, d-limonene and alpha-terpinene. The fractional compositions of individual monoterpene compounds were significantly different between the two test sites in the summer and winter. The ERs of the older group (31-40 years) were higher than those in the younger group (21-30 years). However, the monoterpene compositions were similar between the two age groups.

  20. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalong, M; Luhe, W; Guoting, Y; Liqiang, M; Chun, L

    2011-07-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  1. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  2. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen in mice. The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking, and the hot plate test. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema, and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The ethanol extract of pine pollen (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of the pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The pine pollen extract also produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema as well as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The inhibitions were similar to those produced by aminopyrine and indomethacin, p.o. The different polyphenols found in pine pollen could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions. The results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects.

  3. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  4. Paraquat-induced resinosis in Japanese pine. I. The effect of paraquat on Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, T.; Sogo, M.; Hata, K.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of Japanese pines (P. densiflora and P. thunbergii) with paraquat induced a zone of lightwood. Determinations of turpentine and ether extractives contents in lightwoods showed high levels as compared with those in control woods. (Refs. 5).

  5. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Hee Joung; Jerry L.Hill; Jung Oh Hyun; Ding Mu; Juchun Luo; Do Hyung Lee; Takayuki Kawahara; Jeung Keun Suh; Mark S.Roh

    2013-01-01

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population ofPinus densiflora × P.sylvestris in Jilin,China,we used needles and seeds from P.densiflora,P.sylvestris,and P.densiflora × P.sylvestris collected from natural stands or experimental stations to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSRs).Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to sequence analysis of the pine cpDNA SSR marker Pt15169.Results show that morphological characters from 4-year old seedlings did not correlate with sequence variants of this marker.Marker haplotypes from all P.sylvestris trees had a CTAT element that was absent from all sampled P.densiflora trees.However,both haplotype classes involving this insertion/deletion element were found in a P.densiflora × P.sylvestris population and its seedling progeny.It was concluded that the P.densiflora × P.sylvestris accessions sampled from Jilin,China resulted from bi-directional crosses,as evidenced by both species' cpDNA haplotypes within the hybrid swarm population.

  6. Influence of stand density on soil CO2 efflux for a Pinus densiflora forest in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue Kyoung; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Choonsig; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Bae, Sang Won; Hwang, Jaehong

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the influence of stand density [938 tree ha(-1) for high stand density (HD), 600 tree ha(-1) for medium stand density (MD), and 375 tree ha(-1) for low stand density (LD)] on soil CO(2) efflux (R (S)) in a 70-year-old natural Pinus densiflora S. et Z. forest in central Korea. Concurrent with R (S) measurements, we measured litterfall, total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA), leaf area index (LAI), soil temperature (ST), soil water content (SWC), and soil nitrogen (N) concentration over a 2-year period. The R (S) (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) and leaf litterfall (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) values varied with stand density: 6.21 and 2.03 for HD, 7.45 and 2.37 for MD, and 6.96 and 2.23 for LD, respectively. In addition, R (S) was correlated with ST (R (2) = 0.77-0.80, P densiflora.

  7. Labdane-type diterpenes active against acne from pine cones (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Md Zakir; Jeon, Young-Min; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2008-03-01

    Bioassay-guided extraction and fractionation of the aqueous methanolic extract of the cones of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae) afforded one new labdane-type diterpene aldehyde, 15-nor-14-oxolabda-8(17),12 E-diene-18-oic acid, along with eight known diterpenes. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparison with previously reported data. The isolates showed antibacterial (Propionibacterium acnes) and antifungal activities.

  8. Factors affecting the emission of monoterpenes from red pine (Pinus densiflora)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    1984-08-01

    The mechanism of monoterpene emission from Pinus densiflora was studied using an environmentally controlled gas cabinet. It was found that monoterpene emission rate increases exponentially with temperature and is also influenced by light. These observations were explained reasonably by a mechanism whereby monoterpene emission rate depends on the monoterpene amount in the leaf oil and its saturated vapor pressure. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Outcrossing and paternity analysis of Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) by microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, C; Miwa, M; Hogetsu, T

    2001-07-01

    This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected from the maternal tree were assessed by exclusion using polymorphisms at three microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis indicated that at least 31% of the offspring were fertilized by pollen from trees outside the stand. The average distance of pollen migration within the study stand was 68 m, with a maximum value of 325 m. There was excess mating with nearby P. densiflora trees, of which only a few were predominant pollen donors. In addition, a weakly directional bias in P. densiflora pollination was also detected in the study stand, suggesting that female strobili on a branch of the maternal tree were more easily fertilized by pollen from trees in that direction.

  10. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kee Pyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sampletrees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age ≥ 20 and < 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/ cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P.densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  12. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  13. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  14. VEGETATION TYPE AND THE INTERTIDAL MACROINVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF A BRACKISH MARSH: PHRAGMITES VS. SPARTINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses of tidal marsh macroinvertebrate assemblages to the conversion of Spartina alterniflora marshes to marshes dominated by the invasive reed, Phragmites australis, are poorly understood. Changes in edaphic, vegetative, hydrological, and detrital conditions that attend ...

  15. Fungal biomass and decomposition in Spartina maritima leaves in the Mondego salt marsh (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Paula; Freitas, Helena

    2000-01-01

    Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald is a dominant species in the Mondego salt marsh on the western coast of Portugal, and it plays a significant role in estuarine productivity. In this work, leaf litter production dynamics and fungal importance for leaf decomposition processes in Spartina maritima were studied. Leaf fall was highly seasonal, being significantly higher during dry months. It ranged from 42 g m-2 in June to less than 6 g m-2 during the winter. Fungal biomass, measured as ergoster...

  16. Nucleotide Diversities and Genetic Relationship in the Three Japanese Pine Species; Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus luchuensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Shiraishi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide diversities and genetic relationship in the three Japanese pine species, P. thunbergii, P. densiflora, and P. luchuensis, were measured using low-copy anchor loci in Pinaceae. The average nucleotide diversity among these three Japanese pines revealed that P. thunbergii was the highest (6.05 × 10−3, followed by P. densiflora (5.27 × 10−3 and P. luchuensis (5.02 × 10−3. In comparison to other conifer species, it was concluded that the pines possessed an intermediate level of nucleotide diversity. The Heat shock protein (HSP gene in P. thunbergii, Phenylalanine tRNA synthetase, RuBP carboxylase, and Disease resistance response protein 206 genes in P. densiflora were significantly deviated from standard neutral models. Some of these genes were related to stress or pathogen/defense response. As the samples used in this study were collected from natural populations that showed specific characteristics of being resistant to pine wilt nematode, it was hypothesized that the initial selection was an important factor in discriminating the deviation from neutrality models. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the three Japanese pines were split into two lineages corresponding to P. densiflora and P. thunbergii–P. luchuensis. The latter lineage was differentiated further into two clades; P. thunbergii and P. luchuensis. The result concludes that the three Japanese pines are closely related and P. thunbergii is genetically closer to P. luchuensis, than P. densiflora.

  17. Transcriptome de novo assembly from next-generation sequencing and comparative analyses in the hexaploid salt marsh species Spartina maritima and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Carvalho, J; Poulain, J; Da Silva, C; Wincker, P; Michon-Coudouel, S; Dheilly, A; Naquin, D; Boutte, J; Salmon, A; Ainouche, M

    2013-02-01

    Spartina species have a critical ecological role in salt marshes and represent an excellent system to investigate recurrent polyploid speciation. Using the 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencer, we assembled and annotated the first reference transcriptome (from roots and leaves) for two related hexaploid Spartina species that hybridize in Western Europe, the East American invasive Spartina alterniflora and the Euro-African S. maritima. The de novo read assembly generated 38 478 consensus sequences and 99% found an annotation using Poaceae databases, representing a total of 16 753 non-redundant genes. Spartina expressed sequence tags were mapped onto the Sorghum bicolor genome, where they were distributed among the subtelomeric arms of the 10 S. bicolor chromosomes, with high gene density correlation. Normalization of the complementary DNA library improved the number of annotated genes. Ecologically relevant genes were identified among GO biological function categories in salt and heavy metal stress response, C4 photosynthesis and in lignin and cellulose metabolism. Expression of some of these genes had been found to be altered by hybridization and genome duplication in a previous microarray-based study in Spartina. As these species are hexaploid, up to three duplicated homoeologs may be expected per locus. When analyzing sequence polymorphism at four different loci in S. maritima and S. alterniflora, we found up to four haplotypes per locus, suggesting the presence of two expressed homoeologous sequences with one or two allelic variants each. This reference transcriptome will allow analysis of specific Spartina genes of ecological or evolutionary interest, estimation of homoeologous gene expression variation using RNA-seq and further gene expression evolution analyses in natural populations.

  18. In vitro plant regeneration of Spartina argentinensis Parodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Susana Bueno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Regeneración in vitro de Spartina argentinensis Parodi Resumen: Spartina argentinensis Parodi es la especie dominante en  comunidades halófitas que ocupan alrededor de 20.000 km2 en la Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un método simple para la regeneración de plantas in vitro de S. argentinensis que podría ser utilizado para la investigación básica y aplicada. Se utilizaron como explantes, segmentos basales de hojas de plantas jóvenes y maduras, puntas de raíces e  inflorescencias inmaduras. Los medios de cultivo utilizados para callos, brotes e inducción de raíces consistió en la base salina de Murashige y Skoog suplementado con diferentes reguladores del crecimiento vegetal (2,4-D; BAP o ANA. La mayoría de los explantes (con la excepción de puntas de raíces mostró una proliferación celular y formación de callos después de 30 días de cultivo. Solo las inflorescencias inmaduras regeneraron brotes y raíces  cuando los callos se incubaron en sales MS con 2,4 -D y BAP (0,1 y 0,01 mg.L-1, respectivamente, posteriormente los callos se transfirieron a medio de inducción de brotes (sales MS,  0,5 mg. L-1 BAP y luego a medios de inducción de raíz ( MS y 0,5 mg.L-1NAA. Las plantas regeneradas se evaluaron para detectar anomalías morfológicas y el contenido de lignina de sus hojas. El análisis histológico de los callos mostró que los brotes y las raíces se originaron vía  organogénica. Un bajo porcentaje de las plantas regeneradas mostraron deficiencia de clorofila (plantas albinas y otras anomalías morfológicas. Entre las plantas regeneradas se detectó  variaciones significativas en el contenido de lignina. El protocolo que se describe en este trabajo podría ser utilizado para la regeneración in vitro de plantas de S. argentinensis  y la selección de variantes somaclonales para futuros planes de mejoramiento. Palabras clave: Spartina argentinensis

  19. 信息动态%EFFECT OF MESOPHILIC DRY DIGESTION ON CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE OF SMOOTH CORDGRASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of biogas production from mesophilic dry digestion of smooth cordgrass (SC) in leaching bed reactor were investigated, and the changes of the chemical composition, crystalline structure and chemical structure of untreated and treated SC were examined by the chemical analysis, X-ray and FT-IR analysis during compost and digestion. The results showed that mesophilic dry digestion of SC was technically feasible and the cumulative biogas yield added up to 178.4 mL·g-1VS (0 ℃, 1.01×105Pa) during 60d dry digestion. XRD results confirmed that the crystalline structure of SC fibre was cellulose I which did not change after compost pretreatment and dry digestion, but crystalllinity index of cellulose decreased 15.42% after pretreatment. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy study showed that the depolymerization and degradation of polysaccharides and the modification of lignin structure occurred during pretreatment and dry digestion.

  20. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kee Pyo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sample trees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age over 20 and less than 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were 0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P. densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  2. Response and resilience of Spartina alterniflora to sudden dieback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Amanda; Blum, Linda K.; Christian, Robert R.; Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina

    2016-01-01

    We measured an array of biophysical and spectral variables to evaluate the response and recovery of Spartina alterniflora to a sudden dieback event in spring and summer 2004 within a low marsh in coastal Virginia, USA. S. alterniflora is a foundation species, whose loss decreases ecosystem services and potentiates ecosystem state change. Long-term records of the potential environmental drivers of dieback such as precipitation and tidal inundation did not evidence any particular anomalies, although Hurricane Isabel in fall 2003 may have been related to dieback. Transects were established across the interface between the dieback area and apparently healthy areas of marsh. Plant condition was classified based on ground cover within transects as dieback, intermediate and healthy. Numerous characteristics of S. alterniflora culms within each condition class were assessed including biomass, morphology and spectral attributes associated with photosynthetic pigments. Plants demonstrated evidence of stress in 2004 and 2005 beyond areas of obvious dieback and resilience at a multi-year scale. Resilience of the plants was evident in recovery of ground cover and biomass largely within 3 y, although a small remnant of dieback persisted for 8 y. Culms surviving within the dieback and areas of intermediate impact had modified morphological traits and spectral response that reflected stress. These morphometric and spectral differences among plant cover condition classes serve as guidelines for monitoring of dieback initiation, effects and subsequent recovery. Although a number of environmental and biotic parameters were assessed relative to causation, the reason for this particular dieback remains largely unknown, however.

  3. Enzymatic degradation of finely divided wood meal. II. Rollmilling and the subsequent enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, E.; Yaku, F.; Tanaka, R.; Koshijima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The roll-milling of wood (P. densiflora) gave products with particle size less than 10 mu and high rate of saccharification under enzymic hydrolysis. About 90% of the available polysaccharides in wood could be converted into reducing sugars when roll-milled wood was subjected to enzymic hydrolysis using cellulase.

  4. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora.

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Protection from DNA Damage by Water Extract from Pine (Pinus densiflora) Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunyao; Han, Woong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2012-06-01

    Water extract from Pinus densiflora (WPD) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and its ability to provide protection from DNA damage. A series of antioxidant assays, including a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a reducing power assay, a metal-chelating assay, a superoxide radical scavenging assay, and a nitrite scavenging ability, as well as a DNA damage protection assay were performed. Total phenolic content was found to be 211.32 mg Tan/g WPD. The extract scavenged 50% DPPH free radical at a concentration of 21.35 μg/mL. At that same concentration, the reducing power ability of WPD was higher than that of α-tocopherol. The extract chelated 68.9% ferrous ion at the concentration of 4 mg/mL. WPD showed better nitrite scavenging effect at the lower pH. Meanwhile, WPD exhibited a strong capability for DNA damage protection at 1 mg/mL concentration. Taken together, these data suggest water extract from Pinus densiflora could be used as a suitable natural antioxidant.

  7. 九龙江口红树林湿地与米草湿地的底栖生物%Benthos on mangrove wetland and smooth cordgrass(Spartina alteriflora) wetland in Jiulongjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪荣标; 吕小梅; 陈岚; 方少华

    2005-01-01

    2004年冬季,在厦门海沧青礁和海沧大道东侧潮间带进行红树林湿地、互花米草湿地和普通滩涂湿地的底栖生物生态调查.调查结果:定量样品普通滩涂出现的种类、生物量比互花米草区和红树林区多,互花米草区底栖动物的栖息密度、种类多样性、丰度比红树林区高.

  8. Cold hardiness estimation of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis based on changes in ionic leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and other physiological activities under cold stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Meng; Xuefeng Bai; Hongdan Li; Xiaodong Song; Xueli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis grows fast, and its drought and salinity resistance are better than Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We compared cold hardiness and mechanisms of cold hardiness between the two species, to provide a theoretical basis for promoting and applying P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis in cold regions. A cold stress experiment was carried out on 3-year-old plantlets of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mon-golica after hardening at five temperature regimes, 5,-10,-20, -40, and -60 ?C, respectively. Some indices of needle samples for both species were measured, such as relative conductivity (REL), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and stomata density. REL and MDA values of both species after hard-ening had the same trend of increasing, but the trend was opposite in Fv/Fm value with increasing cold stress. Com-pared with P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had smaller increases in REL and MDA, and a smaller decline in Fv/Fm during cold stress. Com-pared to the control, REL growth of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica at -60 ?C were 0.41 and 0.60, and MDA growth was 29.94 mol g-1 FW and 47.80 mol g-1 FW, and Fv/Fm declines were 0.08 and 0.27. Half-lethal temperatures (LT50) calculated by logistic equation for P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica were -58.23 and -50.34 ?C, respectively. These data suggest that cold resistance of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis is stronger than that of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. Cold-resistance mechanisms of the two species differed. In response to cold stress, P. sylvestris var. mongolica had strong osmotic adjustment ability because of higher Pro and SS content, while P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had strong antioxidant ability due to stronger CAT activity. Stomata density and diameter of P. densiflora var

  9. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth.

  10. A new abietic acid-type diterpene glucoside from the needles of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Jung, Hyun Ah; Kang, Sam Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2009-12-01

    From the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the needles of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae), a new diterpenoid glucoside [9alpha,13alpha-epoxy-8beta,14beta-dihydroxy-abietic acid-18-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside] (1), two flavonoid glucosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (2) and 6-C-methyl kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (3)], and two monoterpenoid glucosides [bornyl 6-O-alpha-Larabinofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (4) and bornyl 6-O-beta-D: -apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (5)] were isolated and characterized on the basis of spectral analysis. Of all the compounds, 2 and 3 showed peroxynitrite scavenging activity.

  11. The mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake stimulates Pinus densiflora seedling growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Shindo, Katsumi; Matsushita, Norihisa; Suzuki, Kazuo; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    While it has been suggested that Matsutake mycorrhizae might not be functional and that Matsutake may behave as a saprobic fungus in soil or even have some pathogenic activity on seedlings, we investigated the consequences of Matsutake inoculation on Pinus densiflora growth. Seventy-five days after inoculation, hyphae were anchored on short roots and well-developed Hartig net palmettis were observed. Compared to both control treatments--seedlings treated with distilled water and seedlings treated with autoclaved mycelium--inoculation significantly stimulated seedling total dry weight by 70.9% and 98.0%, respectively. These findings attest that some type of symbiotic relationship must be functional and favour host growth, ruling out claims of pathogenicity under the sterile conditions used here.

  12. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (pdensiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam-Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue-Kyoung; Seo, Kyung-Won; Heo, Su-Jin; Yi, Myong-Jong; Park, Pil-Sun; Kim, Rae-Hyun; Son, Yeong-Mo; Lee, Kyeong-Hak

    2010-07-01

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages (10, 27, 30, 32, 44, and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea. Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated. Samples from the above and belowground tree components, coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor, and mineral soil (0-30 cm) were collected. Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand (202.8 t ha(-1)) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand (18.4 t ha(-1)). C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands, mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations. Consequently, the total ecosystem C and N storage (tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age: increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand (18.8 t C ha(-1) and 1.3 t N ha(-1)) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand (201.4 t C ha(-1) and 8.5 t N ha(-1)). The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence, while N storage in the CWD, forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends. Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P. densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  14. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOH; Nam-Jin; SON; Yowhan; LEE; Sue-Kyoung; SEO; Kyung-Won; HEO; Su-Jin1,; YI; Myong-Jong; PARK; Pil-Sun; KIM; Rae-Hyun; SON; Yeong-Mo; LEE; Kyeong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    The carbon(C) and nitrogen(N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages(10,27,30,32,44,and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea.Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated.Samples from the above and belowground tree components,coarse woody debris(CWD),forest floor,and mineral soil(0-30 cm) were collected.Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand(202.8 t ha-1) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand(18.4 t ha-1).C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands,mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations.Consequently,the total ecosystem C and N storage(tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age:increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand(18.8 t C ha-1 and 1.3 t N ha-1) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand(201.4 t C ha-1 and 8.5 t N ha-1).The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence,while N storage in the CWD,forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends.Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P.densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  15. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  16. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds from needles of Pinus densiflora on nitric oxide and PGE2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joo Hee; Kim, Jee Hun; Choi, Sun Eun; Park, Kwan Hee; Lee, Min Won

    2010-12-01

    The needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini, a representative Pinus species that grows in Korea, have been used in oriental traditional medicine as remedies for rheumatitis, hemorrhage, cancer, etc. Phytochemical examination of the needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini led to the isolation of four lignans, one flavan-3-ol, two flavonols and one organic acid. They were identified as icariside E(4) (1), cupressoside A (2), schizandriside (3), (+)-isolariciresinol (4), (+)-catechin (5), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) and (-)-shikimic acid (8). In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds, their inhibitory activities against nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in IFN-γ- and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were examined.

  17. Bioactivity of extracts and isolated compounds from Vitex polygama (Verbenaceae) and Siphoneugena densiflora (Myrtaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Margareth B C; Rocha, Waldireny C; da Cunha, Uemerson S; Diogo, Fernanda A; da Silva, Fernando C; Vieira, Paulo C; Vendramim, José D; Fernandes, João B; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G

    2006-11-01

    The effects of crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from Vitex polygama Cham. and Siphoneugena densiflora Berg were evaluated on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith, a destructive insect pest of corn and several other crops. The extracts and fractions were incorporated into an artificial diet at 1 mg g(-1) and offered to the insect during its larval stage. Length and viability of larval and pupal stages as well as pupal weight were assessed. Isolated compounds were tested through superficial contamination of the diet at 0.1 mg g(-1). Weight and viability of ten-day-old larvae were determined. Methanolic and hydroalcoholic S. densiflora extracts caused 100% larval mortality, while leaf and fruit hydroalcoholic extracts from V. polygama were the most active. Among the isolated compounds, flavonoids presented the best insecticidal results, and tannins the best larval growth inhibition.

  18. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  19. A national scale estimation of soil carbon stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea: a modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Park, C.; Ryu, S.; Lee, K.; Yi, M.; Kim, C.; Park, G.; Kim, R.; Son, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea were estimated using a generic forest soil C dynamics model based on the process of dead organic matter input and decomposition. Annual input of dead organic matter to the soil was determined by stand biomass and turnover rates of tree components (stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root). The model was designed to have a simplified structure consisting of three dead organic matter C (DOC) pools (aboveground woody debris (AWD), belowground woody debris (BWD), and litter (LTR) pool) and one soil organic C (SOC) pool. C flows in the model were regulated by six turnover rates of stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root, and four decay rates of AWD, BWD, LTR, and SOC. To simulate the soil C stocks of P. densiflora forests, statistical data of forest land area (1,339,791 ha) and growing stock (191,896,089 m3) sorted by region (nine provinces and seven metropolitan cities) and stand age class (11 to 20- (II), 21 to 30- (III), 31 to 40- (IV), 41 to 50- (V), and 51 to 60-year-old (VI)) were used. The growing stock of each stand age class was calculated for every region and representable site index was also determined by consulting the yield table. Other model parameters related to the stand biomass, annual input of dead organic matter and decomposition were estimated from previous studies conducted on P. densiflora forests in Korea, which were also applied for model validation. As a result of simulation, total soil C stock of P. densiflora forests were estimated as 53.9 MtC and soil C stocks per unit area ranged from 28.71 to 47.81 tC ha-1 within the soil depth of 30 cm. Also, soil C stocks in the P. densiflora forests of age class II, III, IV, V, and VI were 16,780,818, 21,450,812, 12,677,872, 2,366,939, and 578,623 tC, respectively, and highly related to the distribution of age classes. Soil C stocks per unit area initially decreased with stand age class and started to increase

  20. Hydrodeoxygenation of prairie cordgrass bio-oil over Ni based activated carbon synergistic catalysts combined with different metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shouyun; Wei, Lin; Zhao, Xianhui; Kadis, Ethan; Cao, Yuhe; Julson, James; Gu, Zhengrong

    2016-06-25

    Bio-oil can be upgraded through hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Low-cost and effective catalysts are crucial for the HDO process. In this study, four inexpensive combinations of Ni based activated carbon synergistic catalysts including Ni/AC, Ni-Fe/AC, Ni-Mo/AC and Ni-Cu/AC were evaluated for HDO of prairie cordgrass (PCG) bio-oil. The tests were carried out in the autoclave under mild operating conditions with 500psig of H2 pressure and 350°C temperature. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that all synergistic catalysts had significant improvements on the physicochemical properties (water content, pH, oxygen content, higher heating value and chemical compositions) of the upgraded PCG bio-oil. The higher heating value of the upgraded bio-oil (ranging from 29.65MJ/kg to 31.61MJ/kg) improved significantly in comparison with the raw bio-oil (11.33MJ/kg), while the oxygen content reduced to only 21.70-25.88% from 68.81% of the raw bio-oil. Compared to raw bio-oil (8.78% hydrocarbons and no alkyl-phenols), the Ni/AC catalysts produced the highest content of gasoline range hydrocarbons (C6-C12) at 32.63% in the upgraded bio-oil, while Ni-Mo/AC generated the upgraded bio-oil with the highest content of gasoline blending alkyl-phenols at 38.41%.

  1. Effect of an Alien Species Spartina alterniflora Loisel on Biogeochemical Processes of Intertidal Ecosystem in the Jiangsu Coastal Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spartina alterniftora Loisel,a species vegetating in intertidal flats along the eastern coast of the United States,was introduced in China almost 30 years ago and has become an urgent topic due to its invasivenees in the coastal zone of China.The impacts of this alien species S.alterniflora on intertidal ecosystem processes in the Jiangsu coastland were investigated by comparing the sediment nutrient availability and trace element concentration characteristics in a mudflat and those of a four-year old Spartina salt marsh that had earlier been a mudflat.At each study site,fifteen plots were sampled in different seasons to determine the sediment characteristics along the tidal flats.The results suggested that Spartina salt marsh sediments had significantly higher total N,available P,and water content,but lower pH and bulk density than mudflat sediments.Sediment salinity,water content,total N,organic C,and available P decreased along a seaward gradient in the Spartina salt marsh and increased with vegetation biomass.Furthermore,the concentrations of trace elements and some metal elements in the sediment were higher under Spartina although these increases were not significant.Also,in the Spartina marsh,some heavy metals were concentrated in the surface layer of the sediment.The Spartina salt marsh in this study was only four years old; therefore,it is suggested that further study of this alien species on a longer time frame in the Jiangsu coastland should be carried out.

  2. Silica uptake by Spartina – evidence of multiple modes of accumulation from salt marshes around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si plays a critical role in plant functional ecology, protecting plants from multiple environmental stressors. While all terrestrial plants contain some Si, wetland grasses are frequently found to have the highest concentrations, although the mechanisms driving Si accumulation in wetland grasses remain in large part uncertain. For example, active Si accumulation is often assumed to be responsible for elevated Si concentrations found in wetland grasses. However, life stage and differences in Si availability in the surrounding environment also appear to be important variables controlling the Si concentrations of wetland grasses. Here we used original data from five North American salt marshes, as well as all known published literature values, to examine the primary drivers of Si accumulation in Spartina, a genus of prolific salt marsh grasses found worldwide. We found evidence of multiple modes of Si accumulation in Spartina, with passive accumulation observed in non-degraded marshes where Spartina was native, while rejective accumulation was found in regions where Spartina was invasive. Evidence of active accumulation was found in only one marsh where Spartina was native, but was also subjected to nutrient over-enrichment. We developed a conceptual model which hypothesizes that the mode of Si uptake by Spartina is dependent on local environmental factors and genetic origin, supporting the idea that plant species should be placed along a spectrum of Si accumulation. We hypothesize that Spartina exhibits previously unrecognized phenotypic plasticity with regard to Si accumulation, allowing these plants to respond to changes in marsh condition. These results provide new insight regarding how salt marsh ecosystems regulate Si exchange at the land-sea interface.

  3. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  4. Pollen tube reuses intracellular components of nucellar cells undergoing programmed cell death in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Rie; Terasaka, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    Through the process known as programmed cell death (PCD), nucelli of Pinus densiflora serve as the transmitting tissue for growth of the pollen tube. We sought to clarify the processes of degradation of nucellar cell components and their transport to the pollen tube during PCD in response to pollen tube penetration of such nucelli. Stimulated by pollination, synthesis of large amounts of starch grains occurred in cells in a wide region of the nucellus, but as the pollen tube penetrated the nucellus, starch grains were degraded in amyloplasts of nucellar cells. In cells undergoing PCD, electron-dense vacuoles with high membrane contrast appeared, assumed a variety of autophagic structures, expanded, and ultimately collapsed and disappeared. Vesicles and electron-dense amorphous materials were released inside the thickened walls of cells undergoing PCD, and those vesicles and materials reaching the pollen tube after passing through the extracellular matrix were taken into the tube by endocytosis. These results show that in PCD of nucellar cells, intracellular materials are degraded in amyloplasts and vacuoles, and some of the degraded material is supplied to the pollen tube by vesicular transport to support tube growth.

  5. Grafting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis%彰武松嫁接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓梅

    2012-01-01

    通过对樟子松实生苗及其与彰武松的嫁接苗生长对照,研究了樟子松嫁接彰武松的可行性,表明樟子松嫁接彰武松成活率平均为77.3%,嫁接苗在嫁接后1a、2a高度生长分别高于樟子松实生苗36.0%和44.0%,在嫁接后9a,高度和地径生长分别高于樟子松82.0%和47.0%,以樟子松为砧木嫁接彰武松可以在北方推广。%Seeded plant of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. were compared with the grafted seed- ling with Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis in terms of their growth. The result showed that the grafted seedlings would reach 77.3%, the height growth at 1 a and 2 a is 36.0% and 44.0% over the seedlings of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. After 9 years, the height growth and stem growth were 82.0% and 47.0% over, indicating the seedlings with Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. as the stock is suitable for north China,

  6. Spore Dispersion of Tricholoma matsutake at a Pinus densiflora Stand in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2010-09-01

    The spore of Tricholoma matsutake is considered to be the starting point of the mushroom growth cycle, but the mechanism of mycelial development from the spore stage is not yet clarified. In this study, we tried to measure how far the spores of T. matsutake disperse from a fruiting body located at a Pinus densiflora stand in Korea. We established 16 slide glasses coated with glycerin near a fruiting body in four directions separated by four different distance intervals within a mushroom productive stand after removing all other fruiting bodies from three plots. The number of dispersed spores increased with time from the first day (475 spores/cm(2)) to the fourth day (836 spores/cm(2)) after the pileus opened. The number of spores dispersed downward was about 1.5 times greater than that dispersed toward the ridge. The number of dispersed spores decreased exponentially as the distance from each fruiting body increased. More than 95% of the spores dropped within a meter from the fruiting body, with 75% dropping within 0.5 m. Even so, the number of spores dispersed over 5 m from the fruiting body was more than 50 million when considering the total number of spores produced by a fruiting body is about 5 billion.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver with antibacterial properties using Pinus densiflora young cone extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Lee, Kui-Jae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly, rapid method for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate using Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis Uyeki young cone extract in a single-pot process. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (444.5 nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=39.68, 46.92, 68.12, and 79.10), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of Ag NPs and phytochemicals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were mostly oval in shape, with a few triangular-shaped particles. Average particle size was 30-80 nm. Phytochemicals present in the young pine cone extract were likely responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions. The synthesized Ag NPs (40 μg) had a 7 mm larger zone of inhibition against the skin pathogen Brevibacterium linens than commercial Ag NPs, Propionibacterium acnes (14 mm), Bacillus cereus (9 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10mm).

  8. Effects of pollen supply and quality on seed formation and maturation in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    To understand the detailed mechanisms underlying variations in seed productivity per cone, it is important to examine simultaneously the effects of two pollination mode components (pollen supply and quality) on two seed production processes (seed formation and maturation). We conducted artificial pollination experiments with four pollination treatments (selfing, polycross, no-pollination and open-pollination treatments) in each of two vertical crown layers (upper and lower) for 19 Pinus densiflora ramets. We measured formed seeds as a proportion of ovules (P(Form)), and filled seeds as a proportion of formed seeds (P(Fill)) per cone in each treatment and layer, and inferred the relative influences of pollination mode and resource availability on seed productivity. In the no-pollination treatment, no seeds were formed in any cones of all five ramets. The Generalized Linear Model showed that there were no significant differences in P(Form) both between selfing and polycross treatments and upper and lower layers. The mean P(Fill) values in the selfing treatment were significantly lower than those in the polycross treatment in both layers. The mean P(Fill)s of the two layers did not differ significantly in the selfing treatment, but did in the open-pollination and polycross treatments. The results show that pollen supply affects mainly seed formation, whereas pollen quality affects mainly seed maturation. Resource availability also affects mainly seed maturation, if pollen quality is higher than a certain threshold.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  10. New natural products from Siphoneugena densiflora Berg (Myrtaceae) and their chemotaxonomic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Margareth B.C.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: marejor@uol.com.br

    2006-03-15

    Siphoneugena Berg (Myrtaceae) is a small eugenioid genus segregated from Eugenia by Berg. The phytochemical survey of Siphoneugena densiflora was carried out in order to find secondary metabolites which may be considered as chemotaxonomic characters and help to distinguish between the two genera. Five novel hydrolyzable tannins were isolated from the methanolic extract of root bark and were characterized as ellagic acid 4-O-{alpha}-L-2-O- and its isomer 4-O-{alpha}-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, siphoneugenin, that supports a new aglycone with a dibenzo-1,4-dioxin structure, 3,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-{beta}-D-6-O- and 4-O-{beta}- D-3,6-diacetyl glucopyranoside, accompanied by ellagic acid 4-O-{alpha}-L-4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, eschweilenol C, sitosterol, daucosterol, rhamnose, casuarinin, castalagin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acids. From methanolic extract of leaves, in addition to the well known compounds quercetin, quercitrin, guiajaverin, reynoutrin, chebuloside II, terminolic, madecassic and asiatic acids, lupeol, {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, a new pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and named as {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-2{alpha},3{beta},6{beta}-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-ate. Structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence, along with the comparison of the data reported in the literature. (author)

  11. The Effect of Artificial Mowing on the Competition of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel. is one of the most invasive species in the world. However, little is known about the role of artificial mowing in its invasiveness and competiveness. In this work, we studied the effect of mowing on its interspecific interactions with native species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud of the Yangtze Estuary, China. We calculated their relative neighbor effect (RNE) index, effect of relative crowding (Dr) index, and interaction strength (I) index. The results showed that the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora was 0.354 and 0.619, respectively, and they have competitive interactions. The mowing treatments can significantly influence the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora on each other. Concretely, the RNE of Spartina alterniflora in the removal treatments was significantly higher than the value in the controls. But the RNE of Phragmites australis in the removal treatments was significantly lower than the value in the controls. Meanwhile, Dr of the two species on the targets was higher in the removal treatments than that in the controls, and the opposite was for I. We concluded that artificial mowing could promote the invasion of Spartina alterniflora by increasing its competitive performance compared with native species.

  12. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Blumea densiflora essential oils against Anopheles anthropophagus: a malarial vector mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan

    2011-11-01

    Blumea densiflora, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from B. densiflora were investigated for their chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Anopheles anthropophagus, the primary vector of malaria in China and other East Asian countries. Totally, 46 compounds were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The major chemical compounds identified were borneol (11.43%), germacrene D (8.66%), β-caryophyllene (6.68%), γ-terpinene (4.35%), sabinene (4.34%), and β-bisabolene (4.24%). A series of concentrations of essential oil (that ranged from 6.25 to 150 ppm) were tested against A. anthropophagus fourth-instar larvae according to WHO recommendation. In general, larval mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, indicating a dose-dependent effect, and high insecticidal activity showed that 100% mortality occurred within 6 h at 150 ppm, 10 h at 100 ppm, 30 h at 50 ppm, and 30 h at 25 ppm essential oil concentration. The LC(50) values were 22.32 (after 12 h) and 10.55 ppm (after 24 h), and the LC(90) values were 54.04 (after 12 h) and 33.56 ppm (after 24 h). Pylarvex, the reference standard, had better larvicidal activity, causing 100% mortality within 2 h at 150 ppm and within 6 h at 6.25 ppm. The results clearly reveal that the essential oil of B. densiflora served as a potential, eco-friendly mosquito larvicide against the malarial vector mosquito A. anthropophagus.

  13. Nuclear DNA fragmentation during cell death of short-lived ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2011-05-01

    One key event in the programmed cell death is nuclear DNA fragmentation. We investigated the timing of nuclear DNA fragmentation during the cell death of short-lived ray tracheids in Pinus densiflora using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Fluorescence due to TUNEL was detected only in deformed nuclei that lacked obvious chromatin in ray tracheids that were adjacent to ray tracheids that no longer contained nuclei. Our observations revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred only at the final stage of cell death in ray tracheids in situ.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Seedlings in Disturbed Sites and Undisturbed Old Forest Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities between disturbed sites and undisturbed old forest sites. ECM root tips of Pinus densiflora were collected from 4 sites disturbed by human activities and 3 undisturbed old forest sites adjacent to the disturbed sites. Results in this study showed that the number of ECM root tips, species diversity, and number of species were significantly higher in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites, suggesting that the ECM fungal community structure was affected by the degree of disturbance.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-12-04

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98% unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%, Amborella trichopoda (9.83%, and Pinus taeda (4.15%. A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18% and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  17. Effects of varying sulphate and nitrogen supply on DMSP and glycine betaine levels in Spartina anglica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, M. M.; Otte, M. L.

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between sulphate, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and glycine betaine concentrations as well as the interaction with nitrogen supply in Spartina anglica Hubbard was investigated. Several studies have already shown that nitrogen affects levels of DMSP and glycine betaine in Spartina. It has further been suggested that sulphate is important to the growth of the salt marsh grass Spartina. We hypothesised that DMSP might be involved in a high sulphur requirement. It was further hypothesised that the effect of sulphate would depend on nitrogen supply. S. anglica shoots were treated with a range of nutrient solutions containing four different sulphate treatments, 0, 80, 800 or 1600 μM and two different nitrogen levels, 0 or 2 mM ammonium nitrate. Plant parts were analysed for DMSP and glycine betaine, as well as total nitrogen and total sulphur. Plants were analysed for proline as well but levels were very low or non-detectable and patterns were not consistent. Total sulphur was affected by both the nitrogen and sulphate treatments while total nitrogen was affected by the nitrogen treatments only. Sulphate had no effect on growth (leaf length or biomass), but nitrogen increased growth of S. anglica shoots. Levels of DMSP and glycine betaine were unaffected by increased sulphate supply. Nitrogen significantly decreased concentrations of DMSP and glycine betaine. However, due to increased biomass production, total amounts of DMSP and glycine betaine per plant were significantly higher in the 2 mM nitrogen treatments. The data suggest that pools of DMSP in roots and stems are more important than previously thought.

  18. Development processes and growth pattern of Pinus densiflora stands in central eastern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pil Sun; Kim, Kyung Yoon; Han, Ahreum; Jang, Woongsoon; Son, Yowhan; Yi, Myong Jong; Park, Byung Bae; Son, Yeongmo

    2010-07-01

    Stand growth and developmental processes were investigated in Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. stands of different ages in the central eastern region of Korea. Stands were inventoried and five trees per stand were sampled for stem analysis, age estimation, and growth analysis. More than 80% of sampled trees in a stand were established within 3-5 years, and most stands had a single cohort structure. The initial growth of pine seedlings was slow, but the height growth accelerated beyond 2-3 m height, 5-10 years after establishment. Linear growth was maintained until 10-12 m height, at which suppressed trees fell behind and might die out. The young stand was composed of pure pines, while few pine seedlings and saplings were found in the understory of older stands. The peak of diameter growth rate occurred around 5-15 years after tree establishment, implying that competition begins during that period. The pine stand development follows four stages: (1) the young stage when the growth rate increases and peaks; (2) the height competition stage when trees focus on height growth for light while maintaining a narrow DBH and height distribution; (3) the differentiation stage when suppressed trees die out, and the DBH distribution becomes wider; and (4) the mature stage when stands have a multi-canopy structure with a wide DBH and height distribution, while the understory is dominated by other tree species. The changes in growth rates and stand structure through forest development would be implemented to predict alterations of above-ground carbon sequestration rates.

  19. Effects of warming treatment and precipitation manipulation on fine root length of Pinus densiflora seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Li, G.; Park, M.; An, J.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Fine roots are important for water and nutrient uptake and storage of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on fine root of Pinus densiflora seedlings, an open-field experiment with the warming treatment and precipitation manipulation had been conducted at a nursery in Seoul, South Korea. Two-year-old P. seedlings were planted in April, 2013. The air temperature of the warmed plots (W) was set to increase by 3°C compared to the temperature control plots (C) using infrared lamps. The precipitation manipulation consisted of the precipitation decreased using transparent panel (-30%; P-), the precipitation increased using pump and drip-irrigation (+30%; P+), and the precipitation control (0%; P0). The fine root length of the seedlings near the soil surface (0-15 cm depth) was estimated from January, 2014 to January, 2015 trimonthly using minirhizotrons. The mean fine root length (mm mm-2) were 115.0 (WP0), 163.7 (WP-), 90.5 (WP+), 114.4 (CP0), 130.2 (CP-), and 100.6 (CP+) during the study period, respectively. The mean fine root length was significantly affected by the precipitation manipulation (P0.1). There was no interaction between warming and precipitation effects in fine root length. The fine root length in P- plot was higher than those in P0 plot and P+ plot, regardless of the warming treatment, which indicated that water stress caused by P- might stimulate the fine root growth. Meanwhile, the no consistent patterns of fine root length by warming treatment was found under P+ plot and P0 plot, but a positive effect of warming on fine root length was observed under P+ plot only. Estimations of fine root production and mortality are required to determine the interaction between warming and precipitation effects on fine root dynamics more exactly. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008).

  20. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  1. Biological pretreatment of softwood Pinus densiflora by three white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Jun-Yeong; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-12-01

    The effects of biological pretreatment on the Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora, was evaluated after exposure to three white rot fungi Ceriporia lacerata, Stereum hirsutum, and Polyporus brumalis. Change in chemical composition, structural modification, and their susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification in the degraded wood were analyzed. Of the three white rot fungi tested, S. hirsutum selectively degraded the lignin of this sortwood rather than the holocellulose component. After eight weeks of pretreatment with S. hirsutum, total weight loss was 10.7%, while lignin loss was the highest at 14.52% among the tested samples. However, holocellulose loss was lower at 7.81% compared to those of C. lacerata and P. brumalis. Extracelluar enzymes from S. hirsutum showed higher activity of ligninase and lower activity of cellulase than those from other white rot fungi. Thus, total weight loss and changes in chemical composition of the Japanese red pine was well correlated with the enzyme activities related with lignin- and cellulose degradation in these fungi. Based on the data obtained from analysis of physical characterization of degraded wood by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) and pore size distribution, S. hirsutum was considered as an effective potential fungus for biological pretreatment. In particular, the increase of available pore size of over 120 nm in pretreated wood powder with S. hirsutum made enzymes accessible for further enzymatic saccharification. When Japanese red pine chips treated with S. hirsutum were enzymatically saccharified using commercial enzymes (Cellulclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188), sugar yield was greatly increased (21.01%) compared to non-pretreated control samples, indicating that white rot fungus S. hirsutum provides an effective process in increasing sugar yield from woody biomass.

  2. Spatiotemporal transfer of carbon-14-labelled photosynthate from ectomycorrhizal Pinus densiflora seedlings to extraradical mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bingyun; Nara, Kazuhide; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2002-04-01

    Seedlings of Pinus densiflora colonized by an unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungus (T01) were labelled photosynthetically with 14C. Movement of 14C-labelled photosynthates within the underground part of the seedlings was investigated by temporal autoradiography using an imaging plate. Within 1 day, 14C was transferred from the shoot to the underground part that included roots, mycorrhizae, and the extraradical mycelium; within 3 days, the 14C in the underground part reached its maximum density. Mycorrhizae and actively growing root tips were large C sinks. Three days after 14C labelling, counts of 14C radioactivity in the underground part of the mycorrhizal seedlings were 2.6 times those of nonmycorrhizal seedlings. The mycorrhizae of mycorrhizal plants accumulated 5.2 times the 14C counts in the short-root tips of nonmycorrhizal plants. 14C counts in various areas of the extraradical mycelium demonstrated that all 14C-photosynthate transfer from the host root to the extraradical mycelium occurred within 3 days after 14C labelling, and that there was only a short lag of < 1 day between 14C accumulation in the basal and distal parts of the mycelium. Although more 14C accumulated in the distal than in the basal parts, 14C counts per unit hyphal biomass were similar between the two. These results suggest that 14C spread rapidly throughout the entire mycelium. Thirteen days after 14C labelling, we estimated 14C allocation to extraradical mycelia by taking autoradiographs after removing host roots. About 24% of 14C counts in the underground part of the mycorrhizal seedlings had been allocated to extraradical mycelia in this system, indicating that the fugal mycelium is an important sink for photosynthates.

  3. Maritime Regionalism: A Reading of John Casey’s Novel Spartina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework within which the author reads John Casey’s novel Spartina is the renewed interest in the notion of the regional. The choice of the novel is additionally dictated by the fact it deals with the sea. As such it allows the author to discuss the sea both as it is positioned within the American cultural imaginary and the way that it is represented in works of literature. The article delineates how these two themes are thematized in the novel and what kind of insights they can provide about certain aspects of the American polity.

  4. Monk’s tonsure-like gaps in the tussock grass Spartina argentinensis (Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lewis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Monk's tonsure-like gaps develop inside gramineans and other plants. The tonsures of Spartina argentinensis originate as a result of tussock development and disturbance. As the tonsure develops the ring of tillers around it breakes down and new tussocks develop from the fragments, regenerating the grassland matrix vegetatively. The microenvironment inside the tonsure is different from the surroundings and microhabitat-specific taxa grow there.Los "claros tipo tonsura de monje" se desarrollan tanto en el interior de matas de gramíneas, como de especies no pertenecientes a dicha familia. Describimos las matas de Spartina argentinensis y sus tonsuras que surgen por el propio desarrollo de la mata y disturbios. A medida que la tonsura se desarrolla, el anillo de culmos que la rodea se rompe y nuevas matas se desarrollan a partir de los fragmentos, regenerando vegetativamente la matriz del pastizal. Los microambientes dentro y fuera de la tonsura son distintos, al igual que las especies que se establecen en ellos.

  5. The chloroplast genome of the hexaploid Spartina maritima (Poaceae, Chloridoideae): Comparative analyses and molecular dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Gueutin, M; Bellot, S; Martin, G E; Boutte, J; Chelaifa, H; Lima, O; Michon-Coudouel, S; Naquin, D; Salmon, A; Ainouche, K; Ainouche, M

    2015-12-01

    The history of many plant lineages is complicated by reticulate evolution with cases of hybridization often followed by genome duplication (allopolyploidy). In such a context, the inference of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic scenarios based on molecular data is easier using haploid markers like chloroplast genome sequences. Hybridization and polyploidization occurred recurrently in the genus Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae), as illustrated by the recent formation of the invasive allododecaploid S. anglica during the 19th century in Europe. Until now, only a few plastid markers were available to explore the history of this genus and their low variability limited the resolution of species relationships. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome (plastome) of S. maritima, the native European parent of S. anglica, and compared it to the plastomes of other Poaceae. Our analysis revealed the presence of fast-evolving regions of potential taxonomic, phylogeographic and phylogenetic utility at various levels within the Poaceae family. Using secondary calibrations, we show that the tetraploid and hexaploid lineages of Spartina diverged 6-10 my ago, and that the two parents of the invasive allopolyploid S. anglica separated 2-4 my ago via long distance dispersal of the ancestor of S. maritima over the Atlantic Ocean. Finally, we discuss the meaning of divergence times between chloroplast genomes in the context of reticulate evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora using very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

  7. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China, for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

  8. Effect of fertilization on Soil Respiration and Belowground Macro-organic Matter in Spartina alternatflora Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities and rising populations increase watershed nutrient loads, which may alter the structure and function of coastal wetlands. In a long-term fertilization experiment in the North Inlet-Winyah Bay Reserve (NI-WB, NERR) (SC) Spartina marsh system, we used a 2 X 2 facto...

  9. 利用I&和*m指标法对山东赤松种群空间分布格局纹理的研究%A Study with I& and *m Index on the Vein of Spatial Patterns of Pinus densiflora Population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2002-01-01

    With the methods of I& and *m index,the vein of spatial patterns of P. Densiflora population in Shandong province has been preliminarily studied.The results show that the clump is bigger and the vein is rougher for P.densiflora forest with high administrative age levels than that with low age levels.The clump of artificial forest doesn't show evident patches,and the vein is trifling.The individual distribution pattern of P.densiflora forest with light artificial influence is always random,while that of P.densiflora forest with heavy artificial influence is always even.

  10. Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Lee, Wi-Young; Kurepin, Leonid V; Zhang, Ruichuan; Janzen, Loeke; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    In an even-aged pine forest trees can vary considerably in stem size. We examined the basis for this anomaly using a retrospective approach. Twelve open-pollinated families of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. were deliberately chosen for their variation in stem volumes at age 32 years. Seedlings obtained from these families were grown to age 6 months under optimal nursery conditions. Endogenous levels of growth hormones (auxin [IAA] and gibberellins [GAs]) and expression of the GA biosynthesis gene, PdGA20ox1, all assessed at age 3 months, were significantly correlated, across family, with seedling stem and/or shoot dry biomass at age 6 months. Retrospective comparisons of seedling growth, seedling stem tissue GA(20) and seedling stem expression levels of PdGA20ox1 were then made, across family, with tree stem growth at age 32 years. Age 6 months length and shoot dry biomass at age 6 months showed positive and significant Pearson's correlations with age 32 years tree stem diameters and a tree stem volume index, as did seedling stem tissue GA(20). Even seedling stem PdGA20ox1 expression levels were positively and near significantly (P = 0.088) correlated with age 32 years tree stem diameters. Auxin and GAs control nursery growth of seedlings at the family level, and this control also extends, for GAs at least, to field growth of older trees. We propose that family differences in PdGA20ox1 gene expression, and thus endogenous GA levels, may explain much of the natural variation seen for tree stem size in even-aged pine forests. If our hypothesis is correct, then the heritable components of variation in tree stem growth capacity should be predictable by hormonal and gene expression profiling. Such profiling, combined with the measurement of seedling phenotypic growth characters, could have the potential to accelerate the early selection of those conifer families that possess traits for inherently rapid stem wood growth.

  11. Germinação de Borreria densiflora var. latifolia sob condições controladas de luz e temperatura Germination of Borreria densiflora var. latifolia under controlled conditions of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.B. Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A germinação é um processo fundamental na dinâmica populacional das plantas daninhas. Sendo assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a interação entre temperatura e luz sobre a germinação de uma nova variedade da planta daninha vassourinha-de-botão (Borreria densiflora var. latifolia, sob condições de câmara de germinação. Foi estudada a influência de cinco temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC constantes e alternada 20-30 ºC, em presença de fotoperíodo de 12h e escuro constante sobre a germinação, no delineamento experimental aleatorizado em blocos, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação acumulada e a velocidade do processo, sendo a última avaliada pelo índice de velocidade de germinação. Os dados foram submetidos à análise da variância pelo teste F, seguido do teste de Tukey a 0,05 de probabilidade. A germinação ocorreu preferencialmente na presença de luz, com interação significativa somente entre presença de luz e temperatura. Constatou-se, portanto, o fotoblastismo positivo desta nova variedade de B. densiflora. A maior porcentagem de germinação ocorreu na alternância de 20-30 ºC, seguida das temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35 ºC, e a velocidade de germinação aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam que a dinâmica populacional desta planta daninha é influenciada principalmente por amplitudes térmicas, temperaturas mais elevadas (acima de 25 ºC e condições de luminosidade, justificando, assim, sua ocorrência nas regiões tropicais do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil.Germination is a fundamental process in weed population dynamics. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the interaction between temperature and light upon the germination of a new variety of the weed vassourinha-de-botão (Borreria densiflora var. latifolia, under germination chamber conditions. The influence of five temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC constant and

  12. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  13. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA.

  14. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  15. Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Cochran, J. Kirk; Zhu, Qingzhi; Hu, Wen; Yan, Hanfei; Li, Li; Huang, Xiaojing; Chu, Yong S.; Liu, Houjun; Yoo, Shinjae; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty. The results indicate that the elemental concentrations in the epidermis, outer endodermis and inner endodermis are significantly (p Pearson correlation analysis on the average concentrations of each element in the selected areas shows that most of the elements are significantly (p correlated, which suggests that these elements may share the same transport pathways.

  16. [Emergy analysis on an added loop in Spartina alterniflora ecological engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin'e; Qin, Pei; Zhou, Hongxia; Xie, Min

    2004-04-01

    Based on the principle of multi-grade utilization of resources to get ecological, economic and social benefits of ecological engineering, this paper designed an added loop, following the Spartina alterniflora Ecological Engineering (SAEE). All the added loop design included SAEE, and the capsule was named SAEEC. In the added loop design, the Biological Mineral Liquid (BML) was made into antihyperlipidemia capsules, of which, the total flavonoids added up to 9.58 mg x g(-1). Emergy analysis method was applied to evaluate the SAEEC project. Compared with SAEE, the added loop design increased emergy investment ratio (EIR) by 1.37 fold, net economic benefit of the SAEEC by 2.13 fold, economic yield/input ratio by 1.46 fold, net emergy yield (NEY) by 3.18 fold, and net emergy yield ratio (EYR) by 2.20 fold, showing its more efficiency.

  17. Copper, zinc and lead speciation in salt marsh sediments colonised by Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboreda, Rosa; Caçador, Isabel

    2007-11-01

    Total concentrations and fractionation of Cu, Zn and Pb in seven operationally defined phases (exchangeable, carbonates, manganese oxides, organic complexes, amorphous iron oxides, crystalline iron oxides and residual) were determined in sediments colonised by the halophyte species Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima in a Tagus estuary salt marsh (Portugal). We aimed to determine whether the speciation of these metals was different in areas colonised by each halophyte. Higher concentrations of Cu, Zn and, in particular Pb, were found in the rhizosphere of S. maritima than in the root sediments of H. portulacoides. Geochemical fractionation of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediments of the salt marsh depended upon the metal, and for Zn and Pb clearly varied with depth and with the colonising species. The higher redox potential observed in sediments colonised by H. portulacoides may in part explain the observed differences in the speciation of Cu, Zn and Pb.

  18. Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana I; Lillebø, Ana I; Caçador, Isabel; Pardal, Miguel A

    2008-12-01

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes.

  19. The geographical distribution of the potential for seed germination and seedling establishment of Pinus densiflora in Japan as influenced by soil and air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Pinus densiflora forests in Japan was examined in relation to the seed germination and seedling establishment information obtained from laboratory experiments, field observations and field experiments. The laboratory experiments indicated that seed germination can occur in all areas of Japan because effective cumulative soil temperatures reaches to 75 °C · day everywhere. However, the field observations and field experiments suggested that seedling establishment is impossible in the northern, eastern and central parts of Hokkaido because the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm over bare ground is less than 2 000 °C · day. These results agree approximately with the actual geographical distribution of P. densiflora forest, which can not be found under natural circumstances in these areas.

  20. Pinus densiflora leaf essential oil induces apoptosis via ROS generation and activation of caspases in YD-8 human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeong-Rang; Park, Ju Sung; Park, Yu-Kyoung; Chae, Young Zoo; Lee, Gyu-Hee; Park, Gy-Young; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-04-01

    The leaf of Pinus (P.) densiflora, a pine tree widely distributed in Asian countries, has been used as a traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of essential oil, extracted by steam distillation, from the leaf of P. densiflora in YD-8 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Treatment of YD-8 cells with P. densiflora leaf essential oil (PLEO) at 60 µg/ml for 8 h strongly inhibited proliferation and survival and induced apoptosis. Notably, treatment with PLEO led to generation of ROS, activation of caspase-9, PARP cleavage, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1/2 in YD-8 cells. Treatment with PLEO, however, did not affect the expression of Bax, XIAP and GRP78. Importantly, pharmaco-logical inhibition studies demonstrated that treatment with vitamin E (an anti-oxidant) or z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor), but not with PD98059 (an ERK-1/2 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK-1/2 inhibitor), strongly suppressed PLEO-induced apoptosis in YD-8 cells and reduction of their survival. Vitamin E treatment further blocked activation of caspase-9 and Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by PLEO. Thus, these results demonstrate firstly that PLEO has anti-proliferative, anti-survival and pro-apoptotic effects on YD-8 cells and the effects are largely due to the ROS-dependent activation of caspases.

  1. 山西省北部彰武松引种试验初报%Introduction Experiments of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis in Northern Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁全利

    2012-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis was introduced from Zhangwu county in northern Liaoning to wind sandy area of northern Shanxi. Graft survival rate and growth of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis were investigated to study its adaptabili- ty. Results showed that its graft survival rate and growth were more than Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus sylvestris and it had excellent stress resistance to show that Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis was suitable in wind sandy area of northern Shanxi.%以辽宁省彰武县的彰武松为接穗,油松和樟子松为砧木,在山西省北部风沙区进行了引种试验。结果表明,彰武松在山西省北部风沙区嫁接成活率平均为77.5%,以樟子松为砧木的嫁接成活率高于以油松为砧木的。嫁接后3年高生长表现优良,以樟子松为砧木的生长量普遍高于以油松为砧木的,抗逆性表现优良。

  2. Exploring the genome of the salt-marsh Spartina maritima (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) through BAC end sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Carvalho, J; Chelaifa, H; Boutte, J; Poulain, J; Couloux, A; Wincker, P; Bellec, A; Fourment, J; Bergès, H; Salmon, A; Ainouche, M

    2013-12-01

    Spartina species play an important ecological role on salt marshes. Spartina maritima is an Old-World species distributed along the European and North-African Atlantic coasts. This hexaploid species (2n = 6x = 60, 2C = 3,700 Mb) hybridized with different Spartina species introduced from the American coasts, which resulted in the formation of new invasive hybrids and allopolyploids. Thus, S. maritima raises evolutionary and ecological interests. However, genomic information is dramatically lacking in this genus. In an effort to develop genomic resources, we analysed 40,641 high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BESs), representing 26.7 Mb of the S. maritima genome. BESs were searched for sequence homology against known databases. A fraction of 16.91% of the BESs represents known repeats including a majority of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (13.67%). Non-LTR retrotransposons represent 0.75%, DNA transposons 0.99%, whereas small RNA, simple repeats and low-complexity sequences account for 1.38% of the analysed BESs. In addition, 4,285 simple sequence repeats were detected. Using the coding sequence database of Sorghum bicolor, 6,809 BESs found homology accounting for 17.1% of all BESs. Comparative genomics with related genera reveals that the microsynteny is better conserved with S. bicolor compared to other sequenced Poaceae, where 37.6% of the paired matching BESs are correctly orientated on the chromosomes. We did not observe large macrosyntenic rearrangements using the mapping strategy employed. However, some regions appeared to have experienced rearrangements when comparing Spartina to Sorghum and to Oryza. This work represents the first overview of S. maritima genome regarding the respective coding and repetitive components. The syntenic relationships with other grass genomes examined here help clarifying evolution in Poaceae, S. maritima being a part of the poorly-known Chloridoideae sub-family.

  3. Ecogeomorphology of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes: Soil organic matter accumulation, marsh elevation dynamics, and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Ford, M.A.; Hensel, P.F.; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Marani, Marco; Blum, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh soil development and vertical accretion in Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.-dominated tidal marshes is largely dependent on soil organic matter accumulation from root-rhizome production and litter deposition. Yet there are few quantitative data sets on belowground production and the relationship between soil organic matter accumulation and soil elevation dynamics for this marsh type. Spartina patens marshes are subject to numerous stressors, including sea-level rise, water level manipulations (i.e., flooding and draining) by impoundments, and prescribed burning. These stressors could influence long-term marsh sustainability by their effect on root production, soil organic matter accumulation, and soil elevation dynamics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the interactions among vegetative production, soil organic matter accumulation and marsh elevation dynamics, or the ecogeomorphology, of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes. Additional studies are needed of belowground production/decomposition and soil elevation change (measured simultaneously) to better understand the links among soil organic matter accumulation, soil elevation change, and disturbance in this marsh type. From a management perspective, we need to better understand the impacts of disturbance stressors, both lethal and sub-lethal, and the interactive effect of multiple stressors on soil elevation dynamics in order to develop better management practices to safeguard marsh sustainability as sea level rises.

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PINUS DENSIFLORA SIEB.ET ZUCC.IN SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东三个主要赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑萍; 王仁卿; 朱建中; 石竹; 李慧娟

    2000-01-01

    赤松(Pinus densiflora)是山东半岛地带性针叶林的主要建群种,由于虫害严重,导致种群数量下降.对山东3个主要赤松种群的同工酶分析表明,种群内基因多样度(Hs=0.2680)水平较高,而种群间基因多样度(DST=0.0095)水平较低.总群体表现为杂合体过度,纯合体(F=-0.1290)不足.种群间基因分化度(GST=0.0342)较低,这与赤松种群寿命长、分布连续、风媒异交、种群间基因流(Nm=7.06)较强有关.虫害是导致赤松种群急剧减少的主要自然因素,而人为干扰导致生境片断化,也对赤松形成直接威胁,因此保护天然赤松种群及其生境对于赤松的持续发展具有重要意义.

  5. Directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapor produced by prairie cordgrass pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 using a two stage reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking is one of the most promising processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass to advanced biofuels in recent years. However, current effectiveness of catalysts and conversion efficiency still remain challenges. An investigation of directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapors produced in prairie cordgrass (PCG pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5 in a two stage packed-bed reactor was carried out. The Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was synthesized using an impregnation method. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by BET and XRD. The effects of catalysts on pyrolysis products yields and quality were examined. Both catalysts improved bio-oil product distribution compared to non-catalytic treatment. When PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with absence of catalyst, the produced bio-oils contained higher alcohols (10.97% and furans (10.14%. In contrast, the bio-oils contained the second highest hydrocarbons (34.97%)and the highest phenols (46.97% when PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with Ni/HZSM-5. Bio-oils containing less ketones and aldehydes were produced by both Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5, but no ketones were found in Ni/HZSM-5 treatment compared to HZSM-5 (2.94%. The pyrolysis gas compositions were also affected by the presenting of HZSM-5 or Ni/HZSM-5 during the catalytic upgrading process. However, higher heating values and elemental compositions (C, H and N of bio-chars produced in all treatments had no significant difference.

  6. Comparative assessment of LECA and Spartina maritima to remove emerging organic contaminants from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Guedes, Paula; Mateus, Eduardo P; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Couto, Nazaré

    2017-03-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the capacity of constructed wetlands (CWs) to remove three emerging organic contaminants with different physicochemical properties: caffeine (CAF), oxybenzone (MBPh), and triclosan (TCS). The simulated CWs were set up with a matrix of light expanded clay aggregates (LECA) and planted with Spartina maritima, a salt marsh plant. Controlled experiments were carried out in microcosms using deionized water and wastewater collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with different contaminant mass ranges, for 3, 7, and 14 days. The effects of variables were tested isolatedly and together (LECA and/or S. maritima). The presence of LECA and/or S. maritima has shown higher removal (around 61-97%) of lipophilic compounds (MBPh and TCS) than the hydrophilic compound (CAF; around 19-85%). This was attributed to the fact that hydrophilic compounds are dissolved in the water column, whereas the lipophilic ones suffer sorption processes promoting their removal by plant roots and/or LECA. In the control (only wastewater), a decrease in the three contaminant levels was observed. Adsorption and bio/rhizoremediation are the strongest hypothesis to explain the decrease in contaminants in the tested conditions.

  7. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration in the Yangtze River estuary, China.

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    Naishun Bu

    Full Text Available Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP, SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change.

  8. Spectral Discrimination of the Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora at Multiple Phenological Stages in a Saltmarsh Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Tao Ouyang

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded the saltmarshes of the Yangtze River Estuary and brought negative effects to the ecosystem. Remote sensing technique has recently been used to monitor its distribution, but the similar morphology and canopy structure among S. alterniflora and its neighbor species make it difficult even with high-resolution images. Nevertheless, these species have divergence on phenological stages throughout the year, which cause distinguishing spectral characteristics among them and provide opportunities for discrimination. The field spectra of the S. alterniflora community as well as its major victims, native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter, were measured in 2009 and 2010 at multi-phenological stages in the Yangtze River Estuary, aiming to find the most appropriate periods for mapping S. alterniflora. Collected spectral data were analyzed separately for every stage firstly by re-sampling reflectance curves into continued 5-nm-wide hyper-spectral bands and then by re-sampling into broad multi-spectral bands - the same as the band ranges of the TM sensor, as well as calculating commonly used vegetation indices. The results showed that differences among saltmarsh communities' spectral characteristics were affected by their phenological stages. The germination and early vegetative growth stage and the flowering stage were probably the best timings to identify S. alterniflora. Vegetation indices like NDVI, ANVI, VNVI, and RVI are likely to enhance spectral separability and also make it possible to discriminate S. alterniflora at its withering stage.

  9. Phytoremediation potential of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata link to Cu, Ni, and Zn phytoremediation. A 2-year microplot experiment with the tested grasses growing on metal-contaminated soil was carried out. Microplots with cement borders, measuring 1 × 1 × 1m, were filled with Haplic Luvisols soil. Simulated soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn was introduced in the following doses in mg kg(-1): 0-no metals, Cu1-100, Cu2-200, Cu3-400, Ni1-60, Ni2-100, Ni3-240, Zn1-300, Zn2-600, and Zn3-1200. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using a tolerance index (TI), bioaccumulation factor (BF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF). S. pectinata showed a higher tolerance to soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to M. × giganteus. S. pectinata was found to have a high suitability for phytostabilization of Zn and lower suitability of Cu and Ni. M. × giganteus had a lower phytostabilization potential than S. pectinata. The suitability of both grasses for Zn phytoextraction depended on the age of the plants. Both grasses were not suitable for Cu and Ni phytoextraction. The research showed that one-season studies were not valuable for fully assessing the phytoremediation potential of perennial plants.

  10. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-dept. of Environmental Technology

    2010-04-15

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active bacteria. In this research, salt marsh species Spartina anglica generated current for up to 119 days in a plant microbial fuel cell. Maximum power production was 100 mW m{sup -2} geometric anode area, highest reported power output for a plant microbial fuel cell. Cathode overpotential was the main potential loss in the period of oxygen reduction due to slow oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode. Ferricyanide reduction improved the kinetics at the cathode and increased current generation with a maximum of 254%. In the period of ferricyanide reduction, the main potential loss was transport loss. This research shows potential application of microbial fuel cell technology in salt marshes for bio-energy production with the plant microbial fuel cell. (orig.)

  11. Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Ana I. [IO - Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: aisousa@fc.ul.pt; Lillebo, Ana I. [CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cacador, Isabel [IO - Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pardal, Miguel A. [IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1 yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. - The crucial capacity of salt marshes to retain nitrogen, thus reducing eutrophication, greatly depends on the salt marsh maturity, rather than the estuarine system.

  12. Enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima: potential contribution for phytoremediation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboreda, Rosa; Caçador, Isabel

    2008-02-01

    Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) of five enzymes (peroxidase, phenol oxidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) was analysed in sediments colonised by Spartina maritima in two salt marshes (Rosário and Pancas) of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) with different characteristics such as sediment parameters and metal contaminant levels. Our aim was a better understanding of the influence of the halophyte on microbial activity in the rhizosphere under different site conditions, and its potential consequences for metal cycling and phytoremediation in salt marshes. Acid phosphatase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase presented significantly higher EEA in Rosário than in Pancas, whereas the opposite occurred for peroxidase. This was mainly attributed to differences in organic matter between the two sites. A positive correlation between root biomass and EEA of hydrolases (beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) was found, indicating a possible influence of the halophyte in sediment microbial function. This would potentially affect metal cycling in the rhizosphere through microbial reactions.

  13. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  14. A stilbene synthase from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora): implications for phytoalexin accumulation and down-regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodan, Atsushi; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Fukumi

    2002-03-05

    Stilbene synthase (STS) and chalcone synthase (CHS) are plant-specific polyketide synthases that play key roles in the stilbenoid and flavonoid biosyntheses, respectively. We have recently isolated from Pinus densiflora three STS cDNAs (PDSTS1, PDSTS2, and PDSTS3) and one CHS cDNA (PDCHSX). We then heterologously expressed these cDNAs in Escherichia coli and characterized their properties. An unusual STS isozyme, PDSTS3, lacks the common C-terminal extension of STS because of a frame-shift mutation and shows the highest pinosylvin-forming activity among the STSs tested. Pinosylvin was shown to be a potent inhibitor of PDCHSX (K(i) = 6 microM) as well as PDSTS2 (K(i) = 13 microM), which presumably maintains the balance between the stilbenoid and flavonoid biosyntheses. PDSTS3 was insensitive to product inhibition. We identified PDSTS3 in the pine seedlings as well as full-length STS. The data provide evidence that PDSTS3 is involved in the potential regulation of the stilbenoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in pine trees.

  15. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  16. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  17. Comparison of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from three conifer trees; Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.

  18. Controling measures on invasive alien plant "Spartina alterniflora"%外来入侵植物——互花米草的控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林嵩

    2012-01-01

    This article summarized some controling measures on Spartina alterniflora in the domestic and foreign, including physical, chemical, biological, bio-substitution methods. In connection with the existing problems, it is proposed that the comprehensive prevention and control measures could reach the ideal results to control spartina, alterniflorain invasion.%综述了国内外控制互花米草入侵采取的措施,其中包括物理、化学、生物和生物替代等措施,并针对存在的问题,提出控制互花米草的综合措施。

  19. A tale of two spartinas: Climatic, photobiological and isotopic insights on the fitness of non-indigenous versus native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, B.; Baeta, A.; Rousseau-Gueutin, M.; Ainouche, M.; Marques, J. C.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are facing a new threat: the invasion by non-indigenous species (NIS), Although its introduction time is not established yet, in 1999 Spartina versicolor was already identified as a NIS in the Mediterranean marshes, significantly spreading its area of colonization. Using the Mediterranean native Spartina maritima as a reference, the present research studied the ecophysiological fitness of this NIS in its new environment, as a tool to understand its potential invasiveness. It was found that Spartina versicolor had a stable photobiological pattern, with only minor fluctuations during an annual cycle, and lower efficiencies comparated to S. maritima. The NIS seems to be rather insensitive to the observed abiotic factors fluctuations (salinity and pH of the sediment), and thus contrasts with the native S. maritima, known to be salinity dependent with higher productivity values in higher salinity environments. Most of the differences observed between the photobiology of these species could be explained by their nitrogen nutrition (here evaluated by the δ15N stable isotope) and directly related with the Mediterranean climate. Enhanced by a higher N availability during winter, the primary production of S. maritima which lead to dilution of the foliar δ15N concentration in the newly formed biomass, similarly to what is observed along a rainfall gradient. On the other hand, S. versicolor showed an increased δ15N in its tissues along the annual rainfall gradient, probably due to a δ15N concentration effect during low biomass production periods (winter and autumn). Together with the photobiological traits, these isotopic data point out to a climatic misfit of S. versicolor to the Mediterranean climate compared to the native S. maritima. This appears to be the major constrain shaping the ecophysiological fitness of this NIS, its primary production and consequently, its spreading rate along the Mediterranean marshes.

  20. Estruturas secretoras em órgãos vegetativos e florais de Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae Secretory structures in vegetative and floral organs of Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A família Apocynaceae é caracterizada por possuir grande diversidade de estruturas secretoras como idioblastos, coléteres, laticíferos e nectários florais. Este estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar anatomicamente as estruturas secretoras nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de Secondatia densiflora e identificar as principais classes de compostos químicos nos idioblastos e na secreção dos coléteres vegetativos. Os idioblastos estão distribuídos por todos os órgãos aéreos da planta possuindo conteúdo na maioria das vezes denso e fortemente corado pela safranina. Alguns idioblastos apresentam secreção de aspecto granulado. Os testes histoquímicos evidenciaram apenas compostos fenólicos. Os laticíferos são do tipo anastomosado podendo ser observados em todos os órgãos estudados e identificados pelo conteúdo diferenciado e, em alguns casos, pela presença de paredes celulares mais espessas que as paredes das células parenquimáticas. O látex tem cor branca e aspecto leitoso, sendo extravasado logo que a planta é lesionada. Os coléteres vegetativos são do tipo padrão, formados por uma porção alongada que se afina em direção à extremidade. A epiderme secretora em paliçada delimita uma região parenquimática e o curto pedúnculo é coberto por epiderme não secretora de formato retangular. Todo coléter é recoberto por cutícula fina. A mucilagem é constatada tanto no interior das células secretoras quanto no meio extracelular pelo vermelho de rutênio e pela reação PAS. Os nectários florais têm origem receptacular, possuem uma epiderme que reveste toda estrutura, parênquima nectarífero, e feixes vasculares; são fundidos na base e livres na região apical constituindo cinco unidades distintas.The family Apocynaceae is characterized for showing a wide variety of secretory structures such as idioblasts, colleters, laticiferous glands and floral nectaries. The present study aimed to anatomically

  1. Performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte Spartina alterniflora treating mariculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Treger Zydowicz Sousa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical flow constructed wetlands, planted with and without Spartina alterniflora, were tested for the treatment of mariculture wastewater. Wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte produced reductions of 89 and 71% for inorganic solids, 82 and 96% for organic solids, 51 and 63% for total nitrogen, 82 and 92% for ammoniacal nitrogen, 64 and 59% for orthophosphate, and 81 and 89% for turbidity, respectively. Wetlands with S. alterniflora showed denitrification tendencies, while wetlands without S. alterniflora had higher oxygen levels leading to nitrification. The results suggest the fundamental role of oxygen controlling the purification processes as well as the potential of constructed wetlands to treat mariculture effluents.

  2. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  3. Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zifa; An, Shuqing; Zhao, Congjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Changfang; Zhi, Yingbiao; Li, Hongli

    2008-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel., an extensively invasive species on the Chinese coast, is a focus of increasing management concern due to its high expansion rate in estuaries and tidal zone, and the significant damage it causes to native ecosystems. In order to understand the processes and mechanisms of invasion of S. alterniflora in China, the impact of three sediment types (sand, sand-loam mixture and loam) and five buried patterns (unburied, 50% burial of initial plant height, 75% burial of initial plant height, complete burial and repeated burial) on the growth of seedlings or ramets was investigated. Results showed that each of the three factors (sediment types, burial pattern and plant materials) and interactions between/among them, significantly affected height and clonal growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation. Plant height, total biomass and number of new vegetative propagules significantly increased with progressive burial treatments. However, the complete burial treatment resulted in the death of all plant materials, and the maximum values of three parameters were found in the 50% burial or repeated burial treatments. Plant responses were determined by the instantaneous thickness of sediment of each time burial rather than by the total quantity of repeated burial. The growth of S. alterniflora was not shown to be dependent on specific types of sediment in sedimentation environment. In contrast to the unburied control, the proportion of primary tillers produced directly from initial individuals and the ratio between the aboveground and belowground biomass were greater under burial treatments. Seedlings produced more new vegetative propagules than vegetative offspring in all experimental treatments, and the former were apt to produce ramets from rhizomes rather than primary tillers. It is concluded that under various sedimentation environments, the clonal spread efficiency of seedlings was higher than that of vegetative offspring, and there is a

  4. Fiddler crabs facilitate Spartina alterniflora growth, mitigating periwinkle overgrazing of marsh habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittman, Rachel K; Keller, Danielle A

    2013-12-01

    Ecologists have long been interested in identifying and testing factors that drive top-down or bottom-up regulation of communities. Most studies have focused on factors that directly exert top-down (e.g., grazing) or bottom-up (e.g., nutrient availability) control on primary production. For example, recent studies in salt marshes have demonstrated that fronts of Littoraria irrorata periwinkles can overgraze Spartina alterniflora and convert marsh to mudflat. The importance of indirect, bottom-up effects, particularly facilitation, in enhancing primary production has also recently been explored. Previous field studies separately revealed that fiddler crabs, which burrow to depths of more than 30 cm, can oxygenate marsh sediments and redistribute nutrients, thereby relieving the stress of anoxia and enhancing S. alterniflora growth. However, to our knowledge, no studies to date have explored how nontrophic facilitators can mediate top-down effects (i.e., grazing) on primary-producer biomass. We conducted a field study testing whether fiddler crabs can facilitate S. alterniflora growth sufficiently to mitigate overgrazing by periwinkles and thus sustain S. alterniflora marsh. As inferred from contrasts to experimental plots lacking periwinkles and fiddler crabs, periwinkles alone exerted top-down control of total aboveground biomass and net growth of S. alterniflora. When fiddler crabs were included, they counteracted the effects of periwinkles on net S. alterniflora growth. Sediment oxygen levels were greater and S. alterniflora belowground biomass was lower where fiddler crabs were present, implying that fiddler crab burrowing enhanced S. alterniflora growth. Consequently, in the stressful interior S. alterniflora marsh, where subsurface soil anoxia is widespread, fiddler crab facilitation can mitigate top-down control by periwinkles and can limit and possibly prevent loss of biogenically structured marsh habitat and its ecosystem services.

  5. The range expansion patterns of Spartina alterniflora on salt marshes in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Derong; Zhang, Liquan; Zhu, Zhenchang

    2010-06-01

    The range expansion patterns of Spartina alterniflora and the roles which sexual reproduction and asexual propagation play in range expansion were investigated at the Chongming Dongtan nature reserve in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Two range expansion patterns of S. alterniflora at its advancing fronts could be found (1) S. alterniflora-mudflat front (S-M) and (2) S. alterniflora- Scirpus mariqueter-mudflat front (S-S-M). One feature revealed by this study was that a flush of seedling recruitment and establishment in spring was a crucial way for S. alterniflora to colonize new habitats and achieve a fast rate of range expansion. The mean number of seedlings recruited at the S-M front was much higher than that at the S-S-M front. Once established, the survivorship of seedlings was high, both at the S-M and S-S-M fronts. The established seedlings formed new tussocks quickly by vegetative tillering and growth of rhizomes and these finally merged into dense meadows. The mean distance of range expansion of S. alterniflora, after one growing season at the S-M front, was 25.4 ± 3.1 m yr -1 and 2.7 ± 0.5 m yr -1 at the S-S-M front. Sexual reproduction by seedlings and asexual propagation by tillering and growth of rhizomes were the two main means by which S. alterniflora could maintain a fast rate of range expansion on the salt marshes of the Yangtze Estuary. The colonization behaviors of S. alterniflora on advancing fronts differed as a reaction to various external and internal factors. The impact of abiotic and biotic factors governing the range expansion of S. alterniflora and its implications for the spatial structure of tidal wetlands are discussed.

  6. Inundation and salinity impacts to above- and belowground productivity in Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain: implications for using river diversions as restoration tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Patton, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Inundation and salinity directly affect plant productivity and processes that regulate vertical accretion in coastal wetlands, and are expected to increase as sea level continues to rise. In the Mississippi River deltaic plain, river diversions, which are being implemented as ecosystem restoration tools, can also strongly increase inundation in coastal wetlands. We used an in situ mesocosm approach to examine how varying salinity (two levels) and inundation rates (six levels) influenced end-of-season above- and belowground biomass of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora during the growing season (March–October) in 2011. Above- and belowground biomass was highest in both species at higher elevations when inundation was minimal, and decreased exponentially with decreased elevation and increased flood duration. This negative biomass response to flooding was more pronounced in S. patens than in S. alterniflora, and S. patens also showed stronger biomass reductions at higher salinities. This salinity effect was absent for belowground biomass in S. alterniflora. These findings suggest that even subtle increases in sea level may lead to substantial reductions in productivity and organic accretion, and also illustrate the importance of considering the inundation tolerance of co-dominant species in receiving areas when utilizing river diversions for delta restoration.

  7. Effects of elevated CO(2) and Pb on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Hong, Sun Hwa; Cho, Kyungsook; Lee, Insook; Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) may stimulate forest productivity in the future, resulting in increased carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, heavy metal contamination may interfere with this, though the response is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effect of elevated CO(2) and Pb contamination on microorganisms and decomposition in pine tree forest soil. Three-year old pine trees (Pinus densiflora) were planted in Pb contaminated soils (500 mg/kg-soil) and uncontaminated soils and cultivated for three months in a growth chamber where the CO(2) concentration was controlled at 380 or 760 mg/kg. Structures of the microbial community were comparatively analyzed in bulk and in rhizosphere soil samples using community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) and 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Additionally, microbial activity in rhizospheric soil, growth and the C/N ratio of the pine trees were measured. Elevated CO(2) significantly increased microbial activities and diversity in Pb contaminated soils due to the increase in carbon sources, and this increase was more distinctive in rhizospheric soil than in bulk soils. In addition, increased plant growth and C/N ratios of pine needles at elevated CO(2) resulted in an increase in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the rhizosphere in Pb contaminated soil. Taken together, these findings indicate that elevated CO(2) levels and heavy metals can affect the soil carbon cycle by changing the microbial community and plant metabolism.

  8. 彰武松引种试验初报%Preliminary Report on Introduced Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贯春雨; 王福森; 李树森; 李晶; 王福龙

    2015-01-01

    Experimental points were established in Haiyang Forest Farm of Longjiang County.Pinusdensiflora var. zhangwuensis were grafted by selecting Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica as rootstocks.Silviculture experiments of timber plantation and ecological forest for Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis were conducted.Result shows that:in the relatively poor natural conditions of the western region in Heilongjiang Province,grafted trees can grow nor-mally,and flowering and fruiting;by survey data in september 2014,the tree height,DBH,volume of 11-year-old Pinusdensiflora var.zhangwuensi can reach 4.88 m,8.32 cm and 0.017 5 m3 ,respectively,which is 22.3%,6. 8% and 24.1% respectively higher than that of CK.%通过在龙江县绿色海洋林场设立试验点,选择樟子松作砧木嫁接彰武松,进行彰武松用材兼生态林营林试验研究,结果表明:在黑龙江省西部地区较恶劣的自然条件下,嫁接树木能正常生长,并开花结实;2014年9月调查,树高可达到4.88 m,胸径可达到8.32 cm,材积可达到0.0175 m3,上述指标分别较对照品种高出22.3%、6.8%和24.1%。

  9. AT-rich sequences containing Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence and their chromosomal distribution in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Fukashi; Matsusaki, Yukari; Hizume, Masahiro

    2005-05-01

    Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora has 2 n=24 chromosomes and after FISH-detection of Arabidopsis-type (A-type) telomere sequences, many telomere signals were observed on these chromosomes at interstitial and proximal regions in addition to the chromosome ends. These interstitial and proximal signal sites were observed as DAPI-positive bands, suggesting that the interstitial and proximal telomere signal sites are composed of AT-rich highly repetitive sequences. Four DNA clones (PAL810, PAL1114, PAL1539, PAL1742) localized at the interstitial telomere signals were selected from AluI-digested genomic DNA library using colony blot hybridization probed with A-type telomere sequences and characterized using FISH and Southern blot hybridization. The AT-contents of these selected four clones were 60.8-76.3%, and repeat units of the telomere sequence and degenerated telomere sequences were found in their nucleotide sequences. Except for two sites of PAL1114, FISH signals of the four clones co-localized with interstitial and proximal A-type telomere sequence signals. FISH signals a showed similar distribution pattern, but the patterns of signal intensity were different among the four clones. PAL810, PAL1539 and PAL 1742 showed similar FISH signal patterns, and the differences were only with respect to the signal intensity of some signal sites. PAL1114 had unique signals that appeared on chromosomes 7 and 10. Based on results of the Southern blot hybridization these four sequences are not arranged tandemly. Our results suggest that the interstitial A-type telomere sequence signal sites were composed of a mixture of several AT-rich repetitive sequences and that these repetitive sequences contained A-type telomere sequences or degenerated A-type telomere sequence repeats.

  10. 彰武松腋芽诱导研究%Axillary Bud Induction in Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范岳霞; 袁文华; 孔冬梅

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨彰武松组培快繁的可行性,以彰武松封顶芽为外植体进行培养,研究灭菌方法、培养基成分以及植物生长调节物质等对其腋芽诱导的影响。结果表明:外植体用70%的乙醇处理30 s 后用0.1%的 HgCl2灭菌5 min,在添加 BA 2~5 mg/L 和蔗糖30 g/L 的 WPM 培养基上,腋芽诱导率达50%~70%,NAA对腋芽诱导无促进作用。通过在添加和不添加植物生长调节物质(PGR)的WPM培养基中交替继代培养可以实现芽丛伸长与增殖。%In order to explore the feasibility of propagating Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis by tissue culture, the dormant shoot buds of the species were used as explants to investigate the influence of sterilization methods, medium composition and plant growth regulators on axillary bud induction. The results showed that:the most effective sterilization treatment was rinsing the explants in 70% ethanol for 30 s following with 0.1%HgCl2 for 5 min. The optimal medium for axillary bud induction was WPM containing 2-5 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose (shoot induction 50%-70% ). NAA didn’t promote axillary bud induction. The new axillary shoots alternately subcultured in WPM with and without PGR elongated and proliferated well.

  11. 互花米草与褐煤共热解特性试验%Experiment on co-pyrolysis characteristics of Spartina alterniflora and lignite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继红; 杨世关; 李晓彤

    2014-01-01

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant, has spread in intertidal flats of many regions of China since it was introduced from the USA in 1979. The application of S. alternilfora in energy has gained more attention due to its high production. However, the direct combustion of S. alternilfora was hindered due to its high potassium (K) and sodium (Na) contents. Co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal, a subject of much study in an effort to reduce greenhouse gases emission, was reported to be able to produce a synergetic effect mainly due to the catalytic function of alkali metals in biomass. S. alterniflora, rich in Na and K which are 22 683 mg/kg and 8 063 mg/kg, respectively, has great bioenergy potential as a co-pyrolysis material of coal. In order to to verify the interaction of S. alterniflora and lignite during pyrolysis, experiments were carried out with pure S. alterniflora, pure lignite, and their blends with mass ratio (S. alterniflora to lignite, S:L) of 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, and 4:1 by thermogravimetry coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). S. alternilfora used in the experiments was collected from Dafeng County of Jiangsu Province, China in October 2012. Lignite was from Shanxi Province, China. Na, K, volatile, H/C, O/C, and heating value of S. alterniflora were 16 064.3 mg/kg, 6 175.7 mg/kg, 75.40%, 0.12, 0.80, and 19.08 MJ/kg, respectively. Volatile content, H/C, O/C, and heating value of lignite were 33.92%, 0.07, 0.23, and 20.47 MJ/kg, respectively. TG tests were done under an N2 flow rate of 25 mL/min and at a heating rate of 10℃/min from 30℃ to 900℃. Infrared scanning resolution was set to 4cm-1, and scanning scope varied from 4 000 cm-1 to 500 cm-1. According to TG and DTG analysis, the process of co-pyrolysis can be divided into two stages at 385℃. The pyrolysis of S. alterniflora took place mainly in the first stage of 250℃ to 385℃. The pyrolysis of lignite and fixed carbon in S. alterniflora occurred

  12. In vitro ectomycorrhizal specificity between the Asian red pine Pinus densiflora and Tricholoma matsutake and allied species from worldwide Pinaceae and Fagaceae forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi; Kalmiş, Erbil; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Fukuda, Masaki

    2010-06-01

    Tricholoma matsutake produces commercially valuable, yet uncultivable, mushrooms (matsutake) in association with pines in the Far East and Scandinavia and with both pines and oaks in the foothills of Tibet. Other matsutake mushrooms, such as Tricholoma anatolicum from the Mediterranean regions and Tricholoma magnivelare and Tricholoma sp. from the North Pacific Coast area of Canada and North America as well as Mexico, respectively, are associated with pines or oaks in their natural habitats. Tricholoma bakamatsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum from Asia produce moderately valuable matsutake mushrooms and are solely associated with Fagaceae in nature. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that matsutake mushrooms from Scandinavia, Mediterranean regions, North America, and Tibet form ectomycorrhizae with Pinus densiflora similar to the Far East T. matsutake. In general, worldwide T. matsutake and the symbionts of Pinaceae colonize the rhizospheres of P. densiflora as well as T. matsutake isolated from the host plant. However, T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake formed a discontinuous Hartig net and no Hartig net, respectively, and colonized to a lesser extent as compared to T. matsutake. The data suggest that conifer-associated matsutake mushrooms in their native habitat will associate symbiotically with the Asian red pine.

  13. Simulating the Range Expansion of Spartina alterniflora in Ecological Engineering through Constrained Cellular Automata Model and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in estuarine salt marshes. CA models focusing on neighbor effect often failed to account for the influence of environmental factors. This paper proposed a CCA model that enhanced CA model by integrating constrain factors of tidal elevation, vegetation density, vegetation classification, and tidal channels in Chongming Dongtan wetland, China. Meanwhile, a positive feedback loop between vegetation and sedimentation was also considered in CCA model through altering the tidal accretion rate in different vegetation communities. After being validated and calibrated, the CCA model is more accurate than the CA model only taking account of neighbor effect. By overlaying remote sensing classification and the simulation results, the average accuracy increases to 80.75% comparing with the previous CA model. Through the scenarios simulation, the future of Spartina alterniflora expansion was analyzed. CCA model provides a new technical idea and method for salt marsh species expansion and control strategies research.

  14. Predicting performance for ecological restoration: A case study using Spartina altemiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Grace, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The success of population-based ecological restoration relies on the growth and reproductive performance of selected donor materials, whether consisting of whole plants or seed. Accurately predicting performance requires an understanding of a variety of underlying processes, particularly gene flow and selection, which can be measured, at least in part, using surrogates such as neutral marker genetic distances and simple latitudinal effects. Here we apply a structural equation modeling approach to understanding and predicting performance in a widespread salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, commonly used for ecological restoration throughout its native range in North America. We collected source materials from throughout this range, consisting of eight clones each from 23 populations, for transplantation to a common garden site in coastal Louisiana and monitored their performance. We modeled performance as a latent process described by multiple indicator variables (e.g., clone diameter, stem number) and estimated direct and indirect influences of geographic and genetic distances on performance. Genetic distances were determined by comparison of neutral molecular markers with those from a local population at the common garden site. Geographic distance metrics included dispersal distance (the minimum distance over water between donor and experimental sites) and latitude. Model results indicate direct effects of genetic distance and latitude on performance variation among the donor sites. Standardized effect strengths indicate that performance was roughly twice as sensitive to variation in genetic distance as to latitudinal variation. Dispersal distance had an indirect influence on performance through effects on genetic distance, indicating a typical pattern of genetic isolation by distance. Latitude also had an indirect effect on genetic distance through its linear relationship with dispersal distance. Three performance indicators had significant loadings on

  15. Seasonal Variations in the Biochemical Fractionation of Hydrogen Isotopes by Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H) of lipids are being intensively explored as a paleoenvironmental proxy, particularly for continental regimes where organic preservation in lakes is generally high. Several studies have already shown good correlations between δD values of lake water and sedimentary (core-top) lipids, but the fractionations indicated by those correlations do not agree well between studies. Moreover, the data cannot be adequately described by a single biochemical fractionation. These difficulties suggest that the relationship between environmental water and plant lipid δD is controlled by multiple environmental and biochemical factors. Understanding these factors will lead to a more robust interpretation of D/H as a paleoclimate proxy. Here we examine seasonal changes in biochemical H-isotopic fractionation by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Because S. alterniflora grows partially submerged in a tidal estuary, it has an unlimited and isotopically unvarying source of water for growth. Thus environmental influences on fractionation should be negligible, allowing us to examine seasonal changes in biochemical fractionations. C27 and C29 n-alkanes, β-sitosterol, phytol, and C16 and C18 fatty acids were extracted and analyzed from 35 samples of S. alterniflora harvested from the same location over a period of 18 months. All lipids except β-sitosterol exhibit statistically significant depletions of D during summer months relative to the rest of the year. The magnitude of the isotopic shift is up to 36‰ in the fatty acids (δD values from -130 to -166‰), 31‰ in n-alkanes (-161 to -192‰), and 24‰ in phytol (-252 to -276‰). The shift in D/H ratio is in the opposite direction from that expected due to increased evapotranspiration during the summer months. The largest D-depletions coincide with periods of maximal growth. The observed pattern is interpreted as resulting from increased use of stored carbohydrates as substrates for lipid

  16. Considerations of correlated fertility between genders on genetic diversity: the Pinus densiflora seed orchard as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K.-S.; El-Kassaby, A.

    2002-12-01

    The correlation between 99 clone female and male fertilities in a first generation seed orchard of Pinus densiflora was studied over 6 years. The effective number of the parent ( N(p)) and the variance effective population number [ N(e)((v))] were used to assess the impact of total (Psi(T)), female (psi(f)) and male (psi(m)) fertility variation. A theoretical framework was developed to account for female and male fertility correlations as well as the impact of possible pollen contamination. Total fertility variation was described by the sibling coefficient (Psi(T): the probability that two genes randomly chosen from the gamete gene pool originate from the same parent), which was further subdivided into psi(f) and psi(m). These parameters were compared under various conditions including the total seed harvest, imposing on equal seed harvest among the orchard's clones and two contamination scenarios ( M = 0 and 20%). Fertility variations among females, males and clones were observed within and among years. Sibling coefficients (Psi(T)) were lower, but the effective number of parent ( N(p)) and variance effective population number ( N(e)((v))) were higher in years with moderate female and good male strobilus production. N(p) for female and male reproductive outputs varied from 49 to 82 and from 57 to 93, respectively. N(p) was higher for males than females. When the crop of the 6 years was pooled, N(p) for female, male and the clone were 73, 87 and 85, respectively. The impact of female-male fertility correlation for conditions with no-, positive- and negative-correlations were assessed and their impact on Psi(T), N(p) and N(e)((v)) was also evaluated. It was demonstrated that the practice of equal seed harvesting from every clone, or the mixing of seeds from several years, would substantially improve the genetic diversity and the genetic representation of the seed orchard population when a positive correlation between gender fertilities was observed. The relevance of

  17. Height-related decreases in mesophyll conductance, leaf photosynthesis and compensating adjustments associated with leaf nitrogen concentrations in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin

    2011-09-01

    Hydraulic limitations associated with increasing tree height result in reduced foliar stomatal conductance (g(s)) and light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)). However, it is unclear whether the decline in A(max) is attributable to height-related modifications in foliar nitrogen concentration (N), to mesophyll conductance (g(m)) or to biochemical capacity for photosynthesis (maximum rate of carboxylation, V(cmax)). Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were made to determine g(m) and V(cmax) in four height classes of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. trees. As the average height of growing trees increased from 3.1 to 13.7 m, g(m) decreased from 0.250 to 0.107 mol m(-2) s(-1), and the CO(2) concentration from the intercellular space (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) decreased by an average of 74 µmol mol(-1). Furthermore, V(cmax) estimated from C(c) increased from 68.4 to 112.0 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with the increase in height, but did not change when it was calculated based on C(i). In contrast, A(max) decreased from 14.17 to 10.73 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) increased significantly with tree height as well as N on both a dry mass and an area basis. All of these parameters were significantly correlated with tree height. In addition, g(m) was closely correlated with LMA and g(s), indicating that increased diffusive resistance for CO(2) may be the inevitable consequence of morphological adaptation. Foliar N per unit area was positively correlated with V(cmax) based on C(c) but negatively with A(max), suggesting that enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is achieved by allocating more N to foliage in order to minimize the declines in A(max). Increases in the N cost associated with carbon gain because of the limited water available to taller trees lead to a trade-off between water use efficiency and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. In conclusion, the height-related decrease in photosynthetic

  18. 彰武松主要特性的研究%Major Characters of Pinus densiflora Var. zhangwuensis Clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽勇; 孟鹏; 周凤艳

    2003-01-01

    对中国新发现的树种-彰武松(Pinus densiflora var zhanguensis)的主要物理特性进行了初步的研究.结果表明:①形态特征,彰武松为高大常绿乔木,两针一束,也有三针一束的,种子黑色,千粒重21.4g.②生态学特性,彰武松是属于春季生长类型的树种,其苗高累计生长呈S型曲线,全年最大生长量出现在5月上中旬;地径开始生长比高生长晚10d左右,全年出现两次生长,其中以春季生长为主;主根的生长和地径的生长交错进行,和苗高生长基本同步.③生理生态特性,彰武松的嫩叶组织含水量介于53.3%~73.3%之间,自由水在37.5%~67.7%,束缚水在5.6%~15.8%之间.其自由水/束缚水为12.09~2.37.彰武松每个季节的蒸腾速率日变化明显地不同,6月份呈现双峰型,8月份的蒸腾速率呈现双峰型,10月份呈现单峰型,彰武松的年蒸腾速率的走势呈现单峰型,全年蒸腾速率的最高值出现在7月份.与樟子松进行比较研究发现,在同样的生态条件下,平均每克彰武松针叶的叶绿素含量是樟子松的1.53倍;同时,彰武松比樟子松有较小的蒸腾强度、较低的失水速度以及更多的干物质储备.

  19. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration alters the effect of phosphate supply on growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawara, Satoshi; Norisada, Mariko; Tange, Takeshi; Yagi, Hisayoshi; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (P(i)) requirement for growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.) seedlings is increased by elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and that responses of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch to P(i) supply are also altered. To investigate the growth response of non-mycorrhizal seedlings to P(i) supply in elevated [CO(2)], non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown for 73 days in ambient or elevated [CO(2)] (350 or 700 micromol mol(-1)) with nutrient solutions containing one of seven phosphate concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20 mM). In ambient [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) was saturated at about 0.1 mM P(i), whereas in elevated [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) supply did not saturate, even at the highest P(i) supply (0.2 mM), indicating that the P(i) requirement is higher in elevated [CO(2)] than in ambient [CO(2)]. The increased requirement was due mainly to an altered shoot growth response to P(i) supply. The enhanced P(i) requirement in elevated [CO(2)] was not associated with a change in photosynthetic response to P(i) or a change in leaf phosphorus (P) status. We investigated the effect of P(i) supply (0.04, 0.08 and 0.20 mM) on the ectomycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius in mycorrhizal seedlings grown in ambient or elevated [CO(2)]. Root ergosterol concentration (an indicator of fungal biomass) decreased with increasing P(i) supply in ambient [CO(2)], but the decrease was far less in elevated [CO(2)]. In ambient [CO(2)] the ratio of extramatrical mycelium to root biomass decreased with increasing P(i) supply but did not change in elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that, because elevated [CO(2)] increased the P(i) requirement for shoot growth, the significance of the ectomycorrhizal association was also increased in elevated [CO(2)].

  20. A Study of Fructification Quantitative Characteristics of Spartina alterniflora Lossel in Mangroves%红树林保护区中互花米草结实器官数量特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃盈盈; 梁士楚

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The countermeasure on the number of fructification of Spartina alterniflora in the period of sexual reproduction and the component of seed yielding construction was explored. [Method] The Spartina alterniflora in Mangroves conservation zone located at Hepu of Guangxi being taken as experimental material, its morphological and quantitative characteristics, as well as the weight of 100 full seeds at maturity stage in three different growth conditions(clay, loam and sand) were studied. [Results] The results showed that Spartina alterniflora had the best growth pattern in the loam. The morphological factors of fructification of S.alterniflora grown in sand were larger than in others. In the three growth conditions the order of quantitative characteristics of fructification of S.alterniflora was clay > sand > loam and the seeds in spikelet at top position were more maturity than those at the button position. [Conclusion] In good condition, the Spartina alterniflora growth was vigor but the ratio of seed-setting was low.

  1. Habitat Development at Eight Corps of Engineers Sites: Feasibility and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    fruit Lippia spp. Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Greenhaw Crataegus viridus Groundsel tree Baccharis halimifolia Gulf cordgrass Spartina spartinae...Hawthorn Crataegus spathulata Horsesugar Symplocos tinctoria Ironweed Veronia altissima Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Live oak Quercus virginiana...rush Juncus effusus Southern dewberry Rubus trivalis Southern red oak Quercus falcata Stiff dogwood Cornus foemina Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Swamp

  2. Responses of soil nitrogen fixation to Spartina alterniflora invasion and nitrogen addition in a Chinese salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingxin; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Min; Nie, Ming; Qiu, Shiyun; Wang, Qing; Quan, Zhexue; Xiao, Ming; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the major natural process of nitrogen (N) input to ecosystems. To understand how plant invasion and N enrichment affect BNF, we compared soil N-fixation rates and N-fixing microbes (NFM) of an invasive Spartina alterniflora community and a native Phragmites australis community in the Yangtze River estuary, with and without N addition. Our results indicated that plant invasion relative to N enrichment had a greater influence on BNF. At each N level, the S. alterniflora community had a higher soil N-fixation rate but a lower diversity of the nifH gene in comparison with the native community. The S. alterniflora community with N addition had the highest soil N-fixation rate and the nifH gene abundance across all treatments. Our results suggest that S. alterniflora invasion can increase soil N fixation in the high N-loading estuarine ecosystem, and thus may further mediate soil N availability. PMID:26869197

  3. Interspecific interactions between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora along a tidal gradient in the Dongtan wetland, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    Full Text Available The invasive species Spartina alterniora Loisel was introduced to the eastern coast of China in the 1970s and 1980s for the purposes of land reclamation and the prevention of soil erosion. The resulting interspecific competition had an important influence on the distribution of native vegetation, which makes studying the patterns and mechanisms of the interactions between Spartina alterniora Loisel and the native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud in this region very important. There have been some researches on the interspecific interactions between P. australis and S. alterniora in the Dongtan wetland of Chongming, east China, most of which has focused on the comparison of their physiological characteristics. In this paper, we conducted a neighbor removal experiment along a tidal gradient to evaluate the relative competitive abilities of the two species by calculating their relative neighbor effect (RNE index. We also looked at the influence of environmental stress and disturbance on the competitive abilities of the two species by comparing interaction strength (I among different tidal zones both for P. australis and S. alterniora. Finally, we measured physiological characteristics of the two species to assess the physiological mechanisms behind their different competitive abilities. Both negative and positive interactions were found between P. australis and S. alterniora along the environmental gradient. When the direction of the competitive intensity index for P. australis and S. alterniora was consistent, the competitive or facilitative effect of S. alterniora on P. australis was stronger than that of P. australis on S. alterniora. The interspecific interactions of P. australis and S. alterniora varied with environmental conditions, as well as with the method used, to measure interspecific interactions.

  4. Quantitative dynamics of Pinus densiflora population in Shandong Province%山东赤松种群的数量动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2000-01-01

    通过静态生命表分析赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群的生命结构与数量动态.结果表明,赤松种群具有不同年龄等级结构,死亡高峰出现在5~15年,此时正是幼龄期向成年期的过渡阶段,度过此阶段的赤松个体大多能达到生理寿命.由此看出,赤松种群静态生命表能较精确地反映赤松种群的数量动态规律.

  5. 论保护兴凯赤松资源的必要性及其建议%Necessity And Suggestions Of Protecting Xingkai Pinus Densiflora Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏光

    2011-01-01

    Xingkai-lake pine is a natural hybrid tree species between pinus densiflora and mongolian pine after long-term evolution.It is a kind of national secondary protection plant and it is scarce.So the author suggested that it should be protected with intensify efforts.%兴凯湖松是介于赤松与樟子松之间在兴凯湖地区长期演化的自然杂交树种,属于国家二级保护植物,同时从分布来看又非常稀少,所以笔者建议应该对兴凯赤松加大力度进行保护。

  6. 彰武松采穗圃的营建与管理技术%Building and management techniques of cutting orchard of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 安宇宁; 孟鹏; 尤国春

    2008-01-01

    彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.Zhangwuensis)是在辽宁省彰武县章古台区域内的一片樟子松人工林中发现的;现已推广到黑龙江、内蒙古、山西、陕西等省(自治区),1999年辽宁省固沙造林研究所为了扩大彰武松的繁育数量,建立了一个面积2 hm2的采穗圃.目的是加快彰武松的扩繁地区,让彰武松更快地适宜三北地区,它也是我国唯一的一个彰武松采穗圃.

  7. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 microM each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat.

  8. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NO{sub x}-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N. [Hiroshima Univ., Center for Forest Decline Studies, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Hiroshima (Japan); Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Studies, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO{sub 2} concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO{sub x} or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  9. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia--Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  10. Effects of habitat complexity on the structure of macrobenthic association in a Spartina altemiflora marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurea Nicoletti Flynn

    1996-01-01

    ônicas de marismas de Spartina olterniflora, estruturalmente diferentes com rcelação à forma (baixa ou alta e ao grau de agregação (esparsa ou agregada, foram descritas e comparadas, na Ponta do Arrozal, região de Cananéia, costa sul do Estado de São Paulo. Representantes da infauna como os pohquetos Copitella copitata, Isolda pulchella, Nereis oligohallia eLaconereis acuta perfizeram 44,0% da fauna coletada, enquanto que formas epifaunais como HHeleobia australis, Littorina agulifera,Tholozidium rhombofrotaliseSphoeromopsis mourei atingiram 39,5%. Análises classificatórias dos períodos de amostragem indicaram que os agrupamentos de espécies foram formados basicamente pela similaridade espacial e picos de densidade da macrofauna seguidos pelos padrões de variação temporal. Os maiores valores de diversidade ocorreram no inverno e primavera. Os índices de diversidade e equitatividade, embora significativamente diferentes entre locais de amostra e tempo, não mostraram um padrão sazonal muito claro. Heleobia australis, Littorina agulifera e Anomalocardia brasilienses foram dominantes entre as plantas altas de S. alterniflora, esparsamente distribuídas, com picos de densidade faunística ocorrendo nos períodos de inverno e primavera. Entre as plantas haixas esparsamente distribuídas as espécies dominantes foramTholozodium rhombofrontalis e Sphoeromopsis mourei;, com maior densidade no verão. Nas plantas altas e agregadas as maiores densidades ocorreram no inverno e as espécies dominantes foram Nereis oligohoalina, Isolda pulchella e Copitella copitata. As espécies H. australis, L. ongulifera e A. brasilienses dominaram nas marismas baixas e agregadas, apresentando os maiores valores de densidade na primavera. Os resullados sugerem que diferenças na forma e agregação de S. alterniflora provocam mudanças na estrutura da fauna macrobentônica associada a esta vegetação.

  11. Horizontal and vertical variations in photosynthetic capacity in a Pinus densiflora crown in relation to leaf nitrogen allocation and acclimation to irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Katahata, Shinichiro; Mukai, Yuzuru; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    We measured horizontal and vertical gradients of light (rPPFD) along four first-order branches of a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and compared variations in specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen concentration (N), chlorophyll concentration (Chl) and photosynthetic capacity (i.e., maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax))) along the two axes. The horizontal gradient of rPPFD along first-order branches was similar in magnitude to the vertical gradient of rPPFD from the upper to the lower crown. None of the measured parameters (i.e., SLA, N, Chl and Vcmax) were strictly proportional to rPPFD, although they were more or less correlated with light when data obtained for all of the crown were pooled (r(2) = 0.31-0.80). The slope of rPPFD against N on an area basis (Narea) for a branch in the middle of the crown orientated northward was significantly greater than the slope for a similar branch orientated southward. Horizontal variations were unrelated to age effects because measurements were all on 1-year-old needles. We conclude that factors other than light (i.e., orientation) may influence N allocation within branches. There was considerably less variation in the relationship of Vcmax to Narea (r2 = 0.58) than in the relationship of Vcmax to rPPFD (r2 = 0.41). Fractional N distribution among components of the photosynthetic machinery was constant within the crown. Together with the relationships between rPPFD and N on a mass basis (r2 = 0.80) and SLA and Vcmax (r2 = 0.60), these findings suggest that most light acclimation in P. densiflora occurs through changes in needle morphology (e.g., SLA) during development.

  12. Studies on planting trees in a smoke-polluted area. On the actual state of damage of trees due to air pollution in Iwaki area. [Quercus serrata; Pinus densiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Damage to trees in the Iwaki area, ranging from slight growth suppression to changes in leaf color, leaf-fall, and withering, was examined in relation to industrial sulfur oxide emissions. A survey of local conditions, amount of tree growth, index of damage, and the sulfur content of leaves from each of 20 pine trees (Pinus densiflora) 10 to 20 yr old was performed. There was a positive logarithmic relationship between the elongation of new twigs and the distance from the smoke source. Generally, the vigor of trees was higher, the greater the distance from the smoke source, with some exceptions suggesting the effect of topography. Sulfur content showed the same inverse tendency with some exceptions, and it was lower than that determined previously. The sulfur content of leaves of Quercus serrata was one and a half to two times greater than that of P. densiflora.

  13. Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Elevation Change and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Response to Climate Change: Effects of Altered Hydrology and Increased Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M. W.; Jones, S. F.; Stagg, C. L.; Krauss, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate change, such as sea-level rise and altered atmospheric composition of gases, influence the provision of ecosystem services by coastal salt marshes by changing dynamic above- and belowground processes. Plant responses to atmospheric composition and hydrologic alterations are often not studied simultaneously nor in a controlled greenhouse environment. These types of experiments are crucial to more precisely understand how coastal wetlands may respond to multiple, interacting facets of climate change. To address these knowledge gaps, we experimentally manipulated atmospheric CO2 concentration and hydrologic regimes in mesocosms of Spartina alterniflora sods grown in climate-controlled greenhouses for over a year, and quantified salient plant and soil responses. Preliminary results indicate that hydrologic regimes that simulated high rates of sea-level rise enhanced aboveground production, resulting in more and larger stems and leaves than control mesocosms. High sea-level rise mesocosms also had high rates of surface elevation change, which was correlated with high rates of new stem production. Methane emissions were higher in August than in other seasons in the control and high sea-level rise mesocosms. Interestingly, although Spartina alterniflora marsh responded strongly to sea-level rise, we did not detect significant effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration (720 ppm). Our results indicate that Spartina alterniflora marsh may be able to increase elevation on pace with sea-level rise through an increase in production induced by greater flooding. Sea-level rise may also alter the carbon balance of these marshes by increasing methane emissions seasonally. Although more research remains to be completed, this controlled greenhouse experiment indicates that sea-level rise and hydrologic regime will likely remain dominant drivers in structuring Spartina alterniflora coastal wetlands, even under greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2.

  14. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Ahn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  15. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2013-05-30

    The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  16. Influence of Spartina alterniflora invasion stages on macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ming Ge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal habitats in eastern China are being substantially altered by the invasion of Spartina alterniflora. The species richness, density, Margalef's diversity index (R and Shannon's diversity index (H' of macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China, were analyzed with the factors of invasion stage and season, in 2007. A significant effect of invasion stage, season, and the interaction between them on communities was detected. The macrobenthic community was more complex in the patch of initial S. alterniflora invasion than in the patches of some other invasion stages. Macrobenthic communities were classified by cluster and ordination in accordance with the habitat character of the S. alterniflora invasion stage. Our research demonstrated that the S. alterniflora invasion stage affected the macrobenthic communities significantly. The results indicated that biodiversity increased in the initial stage of invasion (invasion age 1-2 years and then decreased in the stage of invasion underway (invasion age 3-4 years and in the stage of invasion completed (invasion age 5-6 years; this phenomenon was related to the change in the S. alterniflora canopy which accompanied the invasion stages.Muitos habitats costeiros vêm sendo alterados substancialmente pela invasão de Spartina alterniflora no leste da China. Em 2007, em uma planície de maré situada em Wenzhou Bay, foram analisadas riqueza de espécies, densidade e diversidade da macrofauna bêntica em relação a diferentes estágios da invasão da gramínea e à estação do ano. Para as medidas de diversidade foram usados os índices de Margalef (R e de Shannon (H'. Foram detectados efeitos significativos do estágio de invasão e época do ano sobre a macrofauna. As comunidades macrofaunais foram mais complexas nas manchas onde a invasão de S. alterniflora estava no seu início, quando considerados os locais onde as manchas estavam em estágios mais avançados. Através das

  17. Death study of Spartina alteniflora in a phyto remediation process with landfarming soil; Estudo da mortalidade da Spartina alteniflora no processo de fitorremediacao em solo 'landfarming'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Thayna M. Brandao; Viana, Francine; Machado, Maria Isabel; Baisch, Paulo; Costa, Cesar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil pollution and its products is, nowadays, the major preoccupation of modern society, the environmentalists and, predominantly, the companies, because, beside loose money, the pollute companies can be pressed by the society and damage their image. Therefore, many techniques to repair oil impacted environments have being studied and improved. Into the most utilized techniques, phyto remediation, technique that uses vegetable species to make the process of degradation of oil organic and inorganic components faster, is a good alternative, because it's cheaper and the risk of second contamination is lower. In an acclimatized greenhouse, were transplanted in a landfarming soil, samples of a salt marsh specie, Spartina alteniflora, a very common specie in South of Brazil. The experiment had duration of 90 days and for about 20% of the samples died, three times the value of the control experiment. The conclusion of this paper is that even with high values of mortality, this salt marsh specie is very strong and can be use in remediation processes. (author)

  18. Effects of open-field experimental warming on the growth of two-year-old Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S.; Son, Y.; Lee, S.; Jo, W.; Yoon, T.; Park, C.; Ko, S.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Jung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature increase due to climate change is expected to affect tree growth and distribution [Way and Oren, 2010]. The responses of trees to warming vary with tree species, ontogenic stages, tree life forms, and biomes. Especially, seedling stage is a vulnerable period for tree survival and competition [Saxe et al., 2007] and thus research on effects of temperature increase on seedling stage is needed. We aimed to examine the responses of coniferous seedlings to future temperature increase by conducting an open-field warming experiment. An experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to 3°C higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Seedling growth, root collar diameter (RCD) and height of 45 individuals of each plot were measured in June and July, 2012. The survival rate of seedlings was also measured. Survival rate of P. densiflora was lower in warming plots (93.3%) than in control plots (100.0%, pdensiflora seedlings were not significantly different between control and warming plots, however, height of A. holophylla was significantly higher in warming plots in June and July (p<0.01). Comparatively, RCD of A. holophylla was only higher in control plots in June. While there is still a lack of case studies on the growth of seedlings under experimental warming, a few studies reported increased seedling growth [Yin et al., 2008] or and no difference [Han et al., 2009] in warming plots. Different responses of seedling growth between two species of the current study might be derived from species-specific acclimation to temperature increase and/or other limiting factors [Way and Oren, 2010]. This result is, to our knowledge, unprecedented and will contribute to the knowledge of species-specific growth response of tree species and to development of model predicting species

  19. Overexpression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 from Pinus densiflora results in enhanced wood formation with gelatinous fiber development in a transgenic hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Chanhui; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Funada, Ryo; Pharis, Richard P; Kurepin, Leonid V; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2015-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are important regulators of plant shoot biomass growth, and GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) is one of the major regulatory enzymes in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Previously, we showed that the expression levels of a putative GA20ox1 (i.e., PdGA20ox1) in stem tissue of 3-month-old seedlings of 12 families of Pinus densiflora were positively correlated with stem diameter growth across those same families growing in an even-aged 32-year-old pine forest (Park EJ, Lee WY, Kurepin LV, Zhang R, Janzen L, Pharis RP (2015) Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach. Tree Physiol 35:86-94). To further investigate the molecular function of this gene in the stem wood growth of forest trees, we produced transgenic poplar lines expressing PdGA20ox1 under the control of the 35S promoter (designated as 35S::PdGA20ox1). By age 3 months, most of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar trees were showing an exceptional enhancement of stem wood growth, i.e., up to fourfold increases in stem dry weight, compared with the nontransformed control poplar plants. Significant increases in endogenous GA1, its immediate precursor (GA20) and its catabolite (GA8) in elongating internode tissue accompanied the increased stem growth in the transgenic lines. Additionally, the development of gelatinous fibers occurred in vertically grown stems of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars. An analysis of the cell wall monosaccharide composition of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars showed significant increases in xylose and glucose contents, indicating a qualitative increase in secondary wall depositions. Microarray analyses led us to find a total of 276 probe sets that were upregulated (using threefold as a threshold) in the stem tissues of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars relative to the controls. 'Cell organization or biogenesis'- and 'cell wall'-related genes were overrepresented, including many of genes that are involved in cell wall modification. Several transcriptional

  20. Spartina alterniflora invasion alters soil microbial community composition and microbial respiration following invasion chronosequence in a coastal wetland of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; Cheng, Xiaoli; An, Shuqing

    2016-05-01

    The role of exotic plants in regulating soil microbial community structure and activity following invasion chronosequence remains unclear. We investigated soil microbial community structure and microbial respiration following Spartina alterniflora invasion in a chronosequence of 6-, 10-, 17-, and 20-year-old by comparing with bare flat in a coastal wetland of China. S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased soil moisture and salinity, the concentrations of soil water-soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), the quantities of total and various types of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), the fungal:bacterial PLFAs ratio and cumulative microbial respiration compared with bare flat. The highest MBC, gram-negative bacterial and saturated straight-chain PLFAs were found in 10-year-old S. alterniflora soil, while the greatest total PLFAs, bacterial and gram-positive bacterial PLFAs were found in 10- and 17-year-old S. alterniflora soils. The monounsaturated:branched PLFAs ratio declined, and cumulative microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFAs increased following S. alterniflora invasion in the chronosequence. Our results suggest that S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased the biomass of soil various microbial groups and microbial respiration compared to bare flat soil by increasing soil available substrate, and modifying soil physiochemical properties. Soil microbial community reached the most enriched condition in the 10-year-old S. alterniflora community.

  1. Relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction for range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in different tidal zones on Chinese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Lin, Zhenshan; Zhang, Mingyang; Qi, Xiangzhen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on spatially explicit individual-based model and global sensitivity analysis, the relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction for range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in different tidal zones during different invasion stages has been revealed. The results showed that: 1) sexual reproduction is thought to accelerate the range expansion in middle and high tidal zones; 2) seed dispersal and adult survival rate are the two most important for range expansion of S. alterniflora during most invasion stages in all tidal zones. However, in high tidal zone, the importance of seed dispersal distance is much less than in low and middle tidal zones, and that of sexual reproduction is also great, which cannot be ignored. In middle tidal zone, the importance of adult survival rate is less important than in high and low tidal zones, and is very close to asexual reproduction. Moreover, there are significant fluctuations among the importance of different parameters except seed dispersal distance, indicating strong interactions. 3) the importance of adult survival rate and asexual reproduction is much greater than seed dispersal distance during early invasion. Especially, their importance is much higher during early and middle invasion stages in high tidal zone. During early invasion stages, the interactions among different parameters are very strong. To enhance the invasion control efficiency, it is necessary to take different control measures according to different tidal zones and invasion stages.

  2. Nitrogen level changes the interactions between a native (Scirpus triqueter and an exotic species (Spartina anglica in Coastal China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-li Li

    Full Text Available The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We measured biomass, leaf number and area, asexual reproduction and relative neighborhood effect (RNE of the two species in both monoculture and mixture under three nitrogen levels (control, low and high. S. anglica showed significantly lower biomass accumulation, leaf number and asexual reproduction in mixture than in monoculture. The inter- and intra-specific RNE of S. anglica were all positive, and the inter-specific RNE was significantly higher than the intra-specific RNE in the control. For S. triqueter, inter- and intra-specific RNE were negative at the high nitrogen level but positive in the control and at the low nitrogen level. This indicates that S. triqueter exerted an asymmetric competitive advantage over S. anglica in the control and low nitrogen conditions; however, S. anglica facilitated growth of S. triqueter in high nitrogen conditions. Nitrogen level changed the interactions between the two species because S. triqueter better tolerated low nitrogen. Since S. anglica is increasingly confined to upper, more nitrogen-limited marsh areas in coastal China, increased competition from S. triqueter may help explain its decline.

  3. The influence of Spartina maritima on carbon retention capacity in salt marshes from warm-temperate estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana I; Lillebø, Ana I; Pardal, Miguel A; Caçador, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Salt marshes constitute highly productive systems playing an important role on ecosystem functions. The aim of this study is to compare the role of Spartina maritima salt marshes on carbon cycling. Thus, four salt marshes located in two mesotidal estuarine systems (Tagus and Mondego, two salt marshes per estuary) were studied. The S. maritima above- and belowground biomass, carbon production, decomposition rates (through a litterbag experiment) and carbon content in the sediment were estimated for a one year period in both systems and compared. In Corroios (located at the Tagus estuary) S. maritima salt marsh had the highest belowground production (1008 gC m(-2) y(-1)), slower decomposition rate (k=0.0024 d(-1)), and the highest carbon content in sediments (750 gC m(-2) y(-1)); and thus, the highest carbon retention capacity. The other three salt marshes had comparatively higher aboveground productions, higher decomposition rates and lower carbon retention capacity. Therefore, Corroios had the most important carbon cycling characteristics. As a whole, results show that differences in carbon cycling in salt marshes depend mostly on its own characteristics and maturity, rather than the system itself. The intrinsic characteristics of the salt marshes, namely the physicochemical conditions determined by the maturity of the system, are more important factors affecting the role of warm-temperate mesotidal salt marshes as carbon sinks. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrogen Level Changes the Interactions between a Native (Scirpus triqueter) and an Exotic Species (Spartina anglica) in Coastal China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-li; Lei, Guang-chun; Zhi, Ying-biao; An, Shu-qing; Huang, He-ping; Ouyang, Yan; Zhao, Lei; Deng, Zi-fa; Liu, Yu-hong

    2011-01-01

    The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We measured biomass, leaf number and area, asexual reproduction and relative neighborhood effect (RNE) of the two species in both monoculture and mixture under three nitrogen levels (control, low and high). S. anglica showed significantly lower biomass accumulation, leaf number and asexual reproduction in mixture than in monoculture. The inter- and intra-specific RNE of S. anglica were all positive, and the inter-specific RNE was significantly higher than the intra-specific RNE in the control. For S. triqueter, inter- and intra-specific RNE were negative at the high nitrogen level but positive in the control and at the low nitrogen level. This indicates that S. triqueter exerted an asymmetric competitive advantage over S. anglica in the control and low nitrogen conditions; however, S. anglica facilitated growth of S. triqueter in high nitrogen conditions. Nitrogen level changed the interactions between the two species because S. triqueter better tolerated low nitrogen. Since S. anglica is increasingly confined to upper, more nitrogen-limited marsh areas in coastal China, increased competition from S. triqueter may help explain its decline. PMID:21998676

  5. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  6. Influence of long-distance seed dispersal on the genetic diversity of seed rain in fragmented Pinus densiflora populations relative to pollen-mediated gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hajime; Watanabe, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds has a critical impact on species survival in patchy landscapes. However, relative to pollen dispersal, empirical data on how seed LDD affects genetic diversity in fragmented populations have been poorly reported. Thus, we attempted to indirectly evaluate the influence of seed LDD by estimating maternal and paternal inbreeding in the seed rain of fragmented 8 Pinus densiflora populations. In total, the sample size was 458 seeds and 306 adult trees. Inbreeding was estimated by common parentage analysis to evaluate gene flow within populations and by sibship reconstruction analysis to estimate gene flow within and among populations. In the parentage analysis, the observed probability that sampled seeds had the same parents within populations was significantly larger than the expected probability in many populations. This result suggested that gene dispersal was limited to within populations. In the sibship reconstruction, many donors both within and among populations appeared to contribute to sampled seeds. Significant differences in sibling ratios were not detected between paternity and maternity. These results suggested that seed-mediated gene flow and pollen-mediated gene flow from outside population contributed some extent to high genetic diversity of the seed rain (H E > 0.854). We emphasize that pine seeds may have excellent potential for gene exchange within and among populations.

  7. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  8. Volatile compounds and antioxidant capacity of the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (pinus densiflora siebold and zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Kim, Sung Hong; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of paternal and maternal immigrant gene flow and the implications for the overall genetic composition of Pinus densiflora dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ubukata, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    When considering the genetic implications of immigrant gene flow, it is important to evaluate both the proportions of immigrant gametes and their genetic composition. We simultaneously investigated paternal and maternal gene flow in dispersed seeds in a natural population of Pinus densiflora located along a ridge. The paternity and maternity of a total of 454 dispersed seeds (in 2004 and 2005) were accurately and separately assigned to 454 candidate adult trees, by analyzing the nuclear DNA of both diploid biparentally derived embryos and haploid maternally derived megagametophytes of the seeds. The relative genetic diversities and differences between within-population and immigrant groups of both paternally and maternally derived gametes (4 groups) that formed the genotypes of the seeds were evaluated. Using 8 microsatellite markers, we found that 64.0-72.6% of paternally derived gametes, and 17.8-20.2% of maternally derived gametes, were from other populations. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the 4 gamete groups tended to be plotted at different locations on the scattergram, indicating that they each have different genetic compositions. Substantial paternal and maternal immigrant gene flow occurred in this population, and therefore, the overall genetic variation of dispersed seeds is enhanced by both paternally and maternally derived immigrant gametes.

  10. Physiological and morphological properties of the Japanese black and red pine trees (Pinus thundergii Parl. and P. densiflora sieb. et zucc. ) on the resistance to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, A.; Hasegawa, M.

    1974-01-01

    The physiological effects of SO/sub 2/ to Japanese black and red pines (Pinus Thunbergii Parl. and P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have been studied. After exposure to 3 ppm of SO/sub 2/ gas, photosynthesis by the 1-0 year old seedlings of black pine was conducted for 3 hours with 200..mu..C /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ under 20,000 lux. Hot water soluble materials from the seedlings were analyzed. The results indicated that photosynthetic ability of seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 19% of that of the control seedlings. The rate of the photosynthesis decreased 22% when the seedlings were cultivated under nutrient defficient condition. The radioactivity of fixed amino acids, organic acids and sugar components in the seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 28%, 58% and 8% respectively, of the control plants. The organic acid components were analyzed by paper chromatography and gas chromatography. The results showed a quantitative decrease of critic and succinic acids and especially remarkable decrease of malic acid. Japanese red pine seedlings which are more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ than black pine seedlings were analyzed under similar conditions. The differences of sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ between these two plants were compared and discussed. Concerning the decrease of photosynthetic ability, changes of morphological structures in chloroplast were observed by an electron microscopy. The deformation of lamellar structures of chloroplast exposed to SO/sub 2/ was found.

  11. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-07-23

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities.

  13. Estimation of carbon storage based on individual tree detection in Pinus densiflora stands using a fusion of aerial photography and LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; oLee, Woo-Kyun; Son, Yowhan; Bae, Sang-Won; Kim, Choonsig; Yoo, Seongjin

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon storage capacity of Pinus densiflora stands using remotely sensed data by combining digital aerial photography with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. A digital canopy model (DCM), generated from the LiDAR data, was combined with aerial photography for segmenting crowns of individual trees. To eliminate errors in over and under-segmentation, the combined image was smoothed using a Gaussian filtering method. The processed image was then segmented into individual trees using a marker-controlled watershed segmentation method. After measuring the crown area from the segmented individual trees, the individual tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was estimated using a regression function developed from the relationship observed between the field-measured DBH and crown area. The above ground biomass of individual trees could be calculated by an image-derived DBH using a regression function developed by the Korea Forest Research Institute. The carbon storage, based on individual trees, was estimated by simple multiplication using the carbon conversion index (0.5), as suggested in guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The mean carbon storage per individual tree was estimated and then compared with the field-measured value. This study suggested that the biomass and carbon storage in a large forest area can be effectively estimated using aerial photographs and LiDAR data.

  14. An AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) using haploid DNA samples of megagametophytes from a single maternal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Yul; Choi, Hyung-Soon; Kang, Bum-Yong

    2005-10-31

    We have constructed an AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc.) using haploid DNA samples of 96 megagametophytes from a single maternal tree, selection clone Kyungbuk 4. Twenty-eight primer pairs generated a total of 5,780 AFLP fragments. Five hundreds and thirteen fragments were verified as genetic markers with two alleles by their Mendelian segregation. At the linkage criteria LOD 4.0 and maximum recombination fraction 0.25(theta), a total of 152 markers constituted 25 framework maps for 19 major linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2,341 cM with an average framework marker spacing of 18.4 cM. The estimated genome size was 2,662 cM. With an assumption of equal marker density, 82.2% of the estimated genome would be within 10 cM of one of the 230 linked markers, and 68.1% would be within 10 cM of one of the 152 framework markers. We evaluated map completeness in terms of LOD value, marker density, genome length, and map coverage. The resulting map will provide crucial information for future genomic studies of the Japanese red pine, in particular for QTL mapping of economically important breeding target traits.

  15. Tricholoma matsutake in a natural Pinus densiflora forest: correspondence between above- and below-ground genets, association with multiple host trees and alteration of existing ectomycorrhizal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chunlan; Narimatsu, Maki; Nara, Kazuhide; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2006-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake (matsutake) is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus that produces economically important mushrooms in Japan. Here, we use microsatellite markers to identify genets of matsutake sporocarps and below-ground ECM tips, as well as associated host genotypes of Pinus densiflora. We also studied ECM fungal community structure inside, beneath and outside the matsutake fairy rings, using morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism analysis. Based on sporocarp samples, one to four genets were found within each fairy ring, and no genetic differentiation among six sites was detected. Matsutake ECM tips were only found beneath fairy rings and corresponded with the genotypes of the above-ground sporocarps. We detected nine below-ground matsutake genets, all of which colonized multiple pine trees (three to seven trees per genet). The ECM fungal community beneath fairy rings was species-poor and significantly differed from those inside and outside the fairy rings. We conclude that matsutake genets occasionally establish from basidiospores and expand on the root systems of multiple host trees. Although matsutake mycelia suppress other ECM fungi during expansion, most of them may recover after the passage of the fairy rings.

  16. Seasonal changes in needle water content and needle ABA concentration of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, in declining forests on Mt. Gokurakuji, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi; Hanba, Yuko T; Nakane, Kaneyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of air pollution on the decline of Pinus densiflora forests, various research has been conducted around Mt. Gokurakuji (34 degrees 23'N, 132 degrees 19'E, 693 m a.s.l.) north of the Seto Inland Sea, west Japan. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for decreases in photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gl), delta13C of needles and seasonal changes in the water content (WC) and abscisic acid concentration (ABA) of needles were measured in various stands. The delta13C values were less negative in declining stands and younger needles. ABA and WC were not correlated with each other. WC decreased consistently with needle age while the ABA showed a minimum in August and a smaller content in older needles. Monthly precipitation and the daily maximum vapor pressure were not correlated with ABA and WC. In declining stands, WC and ABA tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than in nondeclining stands. These results suggest that the trees in declining stands received less water stress than those in nondeclining stands and the differences in gl and delta13C are not caused by the difference in water stress. The possibilities of the effects of air pollution and the infection of pine-wood nematode on the physiological decline on the pine needles are discussed.

  17. Newly Discovered Transmission Pathway of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Males of the Beetle Monochamus alternatus to Pinus densiflora Trees via Oviposition Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoh; Togashi, Katsumi

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Monochamus alternatus males to Pinus densiflora trees via oviposition wounds has been determined. Nematode-infested males, with mandibles fixed experimentally to prevent feeding, were placed for 48 hours with pine bolts containing oviposition wounds that had been made by nematode-free females. After removal of the nematode-infested males, the pine bolts were held for 1 month and then examined for the presence of nematodes. Reproducing nematode populations were recovered from pine bolts that were exposed to male beetles carrying a high number of nematodes. No reproducing nematode population could be recovered from pine bolts exposed to beetles with a small number of nematodes. Nematode reproduction in the pine bolts was not related to the number of oviposition wounds per bolt. Fourth-stage dispersal B. xylophilus juveniles, collected from beetle body surfaces, were inoculated on pine bolt bark 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm away from a single artificial, small hole. These dauer juveniles successfully entered some bolts. The probability of successful nematode reproduction decreased with increased distance between inoculation point and artificial hole. The results indicated that B. xylophilus can move a significant distance to oviposition wounds along the bark surface and enter a tree via the wounds. The new transmission pathway is considered important for the nematode to persist in pine forests such as in North America where pine wilt disease does not occur.

  18. Estimation of carbon storage based on individual tree detection in Pinus densiflora stands using a fusion of aerial photography and LiDAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; So-Ra; KWAK; Doo-Ahn; LEE; Woo-Kyun; SON; Yowhan; BAE; Sang-Won; KIM; Choonsig; YOO; Seongjin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon storage capacity of Pinus densiflora stands using remotely sensed data by combining digital aerial photography with light detection and ranging(LiDAR) data.A digital canopy model(DCM),generated from the LiDAR data,was combined with aerial photography for segmenting crowns of individual trees.To eliminate errors in over and under-segmentation,the combined image was smoothed using a Gaussian filtering method.The processed image was then segmented into individual trees using a marker-controlled watershed segmentation method.After measuring the crown area from the segmented individual trees,the individual tree diameter at breast height(DBH) was estimated using a regression function developed from the relationship observed between the field-measured DBH and crown area.The above ground biomass of individual trees could be calculated by an image-derived DBH using a regression function developed by the Korea Forest Research Institute.The carbon storage,based on individual trees,was estimated by simple multiplication using the carbon conversion index(0.5),as suggested in guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.The mean carbon storage per individual tree was estimated and then compared with the field-measured value.This study suggested that the biomass and carbon storage in a large forest area can be effectively estimated using aerial photographs and LiDAR data.

  19. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake [Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 {mu}M each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat. - Fluoranthene and phenanthrene caused negative effects on the needles of Japanese red pine.

  20. Bactericidal Mechanism of Bio-oil Obtained from Fast Pyrolysis of Pinus densiflora Against Two Foodborne Pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne bacteria are the leading cause of food spoilage and other related diseases. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of bio-oil (BO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of pinewood sawdust (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) against two disease-causing foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated. BO at a concentration of 1000 μg/disc was highly active against both B. cereus (10.0-10.6 mm-inhibition zone) and L. monocytogenes (10.6-12.0-mm inhibition zone). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values of BO were 500 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, for both pathogens. At the MIC concentration, BO exhibited an inhibitory effect on the viability of the bacterial pathogens. The mechanism of action of BO revealed its strong impairing effect on the membrane integrity of bacterial cells, which was confirmed by a marked release of 260-nm absorbing material, leakage of electrolytes and K(+) ions, and reduced capacity for osmoregulation under high salt concentration. Scanning electron microscopy clearly showed morphological alteration of the cell membrane due to the effect of BO. Overall, the results of this study suggest that BO exerts effective antibacterial potential against foodborne pathogens and can therefore potentially be used in food processing and preservation.

  1. Consecutive five-year analysis of paternal and maternal gene flow and contributions of gametic heterogeneities to overall genetic composition of dispersed seeds of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Isoda, Keiya; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    Genetic variability in monoecious woody plant populations results from the assemblage of individuals issued from asymmetrical male and female reproductive functions, produced during spatially and temporarily heterogeneous reproductive and dispersal events. Here we investigated the dispersal patterns and levels of genetic diversity and differentiation of both paternal and maternal gametes in a natural population of Pinus densiflora at the multiple-year scale as long as five consecutive years. • We analyzed the paternity and maternity for 1576 seeds and 454 candidate adult trees using nuclear DNA polymorphisms of diploid biparental embryos and haploid maternal megagametophytes at eight microsatellite loci. • Despite the low levels of genetic differentiation among gamete groups, a two-way AMOVA analysis showed that the parental origin (paternal vs. maternal gametes), the year of gamete production and their interaction had significant effects on the genetic composition of the seeds. While maternal gamete groups showed a significant FST value across the 5 years, this was not true for their paternal counterparts. Within the population, we found that the relative reproductive contributions of the paternal vs. the maternal parent differed among adult trees, the maternal contributions showing a larger year-to-year fluctuation. • The overall genetic variability of dispersed seeds appeared to result from two sources of heterogeneity: the difference between paternal and maternal patterns of reproduction and gamete dispersal and year-to-year heterogeneity of reproduction of adult trees, especially in their maternal reproduction.

  2. Volatile Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of the Bio-Oil Obtained by Pyrolysis of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus Densiflora Siebold and Zucc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc. sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  3. 抗松材线虫赤松组培繁殖优良家系的筛选%Selection of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora superior families for tissue culture propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清清; 叶建仁; 吴小芹

    2013-01-01

    Using the embryo seedlings with cotyledons of 27 wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora families as explants, superior families which were good growth vigor, high multiplication rate and strong rooting ability were selected. The average e-longation percentages of No. 1, 8, 10, 13, 22 and 25 families were up to above 100% ; With the increase of proliferation generations, the multiplication coefficient of clustered shoots in each family was variable, but the overall trend was that multiplication coefficient of clustered shoots from generation 1 to generation 2 increased with generation increase, and multiplication coefficient from generation 2 to generation 3 decreased; Adventitious root induction rate of wilt-resistant P. densiflora clones was different, 19-B clone of wilt-resistant P. densiflora was the highest,up to 95. 8% .%以抗松材线虫赤松(简称抗病赤松)27个家系带子叶顶芽的胚苗为外植体,筛选生长势好、增殖系数高和生根能力强的组培繁殖优良家系.结果表明:1、8、10、13、22和25家系的平均伸长率都达到了100%以上;随着增殖代数的增加,各家系丛生芽增殖系数表现不一致,但总体趋势是l至2代丛生芽增殖系数随代数增加而增加,2至3代增殖系数随代数增加而下降;抗病赤松不同无性系不定根诱导率不同,19-B无性系的不定根诱导率最高为95.8%.

  4. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the communities of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine marsh sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemaneh eZeleke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant invasion on the microorganisms of soil sediments is very important for estuary ecology. The community structures of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB as a function of Spartina alterniflora invasion in Phragmites australis-vegetated sediments of the Dongtan wetland in the Yangtze River estuary, China, were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA and dissimilatory sulfite-reductase (dsrB genes. Sediment samples were collected from two replicate locations, and each location included three sampling stands each covered by monocultures of P. australis, S. alterniflora and both plants (transition stands, respectively. qPCR analysis revealed higher copy numbers of mcrA genes in sediments from S. alterniflora stands than P. australis stands (5- and 7.5-fold more in the spring and summer, respectively, which is consistent with the higher methane flux rates measured in the S. alterniflora stands (up to 8.01 ± 5.61 mg m-2 h-1. Similar trends were observed for SRB, and they were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanogens. Diversity indices indicated a lower diversity of methanogens in the S. alterniflora stands than the P. australis stands. In contrast, insignificant variations were observed in the diversity of SRB with the invasion. Although Methanomicrobiales and Methanococcales, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated in the salt marsh, Methanomicrobiales displayed a slight increase with the invasion and growth of S. alterniflora, whereas the later responded differently. Methanosarcina, the metabolically diverse methanogens, did not vary with the invasion of, but Methanosaeta, the exclusive acetate utilizers, appeared to increase with S. alterniflora invasion. In SRB, sequences closely related to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae dominated in the salt marsh, although they displayed minimal changes with the S

  5. Is denitrification driven by elevation or plant type at a Gulf coast Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora mixed saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, B.; Chanton, P. R.; Cherry, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Wetlands provide a crucial ecosystem service by reducing anthropogenic nitrogen released from industrial and agricultural sources. Understanding the mechanisms controlling nitrogen removal in marshes is critical as human populations increase and as marsh areas decrease. Marshes in the U.S. Gulf coast are primarily populated by Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus. Previous research has indicated that sulfide concentrations are lower in J roemerianus than in S alterniflora marshes. Higher sulfide concentrations could inhibit nitrogen removal by reducing nitrification-denitrification. However, it has yet to be determined if variability in sulfide concentration is a result of differences in elevation and inundation that impact redox conditions, or higher belowground biomass allocation by J roemerianus that ultimately results in more oxygen release to anoxic sediments. We, therefore, measured denitrification rates within an S alterniflora dominated marsh that is interspersed with J roemerianus to determine if variability in sulfide concentrations impact denitrification. We quantified denitrification with intact cores and sediment slurries and examined pore water geochemistry. J roemerianus sediment sulfide concentrations (3.6-419.4 μmol) were consistently lower than those measured in S alterniflora sediments (325.1-2246.6 μmol). NH4 flux was higher in J roemerianus cores and both NH4 and PO4 were present in higher concentration in pore water. Denitrification measured with IPT was higher in J roemerianus (21.0-81.2 μmol N2 m-2 hr-1) than in S alterniflora (14.7-52.1 μmol N2 m-2 hr-1). Potential denitrification in J roemerianus (0.5-128.1 nmole N cm-3 hr-1) was generally higher than in S alterniflora (4.1-34.2 nmole N cm-3 hr-1). By affecting sediment redox conditions, plant type rather than elevation appears to drive patterns of denitrification in this marsh. The imapct of sea level rise on vegetation distribution and nitrogen removal capacity for these

  6. Seed dispersal capacity and post-dispersal fate of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in saltmarshes of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Derong; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Liquan; Zhu, Zhenchang; Tian, Kun; Gao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Spartina alterniflora is one of the most serious invasive species in the coastal saltmarshes of China. Seeds are generally considered to be the main method for this species to colonise new habitat, but little is known quantitatively about the seed dispersal capacity and post-dispersal fate (i.e., germination and survival time). We measured the duration of seed flotation, seed persistence and seed germination of S. alterniflora in three intertidal zones [low intertidal zone (LIT), middle intertidal zone (MIT) and high intertidal zone (HIT)] in the Yangtze Estuary on the eastern coast of China. The results showed that (1) the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds ranged from 3 to 13 days, and the values were higher in HIT and MIT than in LIT; (2) the period of seed germination was from February to June, mainly in March and April, and seed source affected seed germination as the values for seeds from HIT and MIT were much higher than those from LIT, while burial sites had no effect on germination percentages, and (3) the seed persistence was less than a year regardless of seed source, which was characterised by a transient seed bank, with values being higher in HIT and MIT than in LIT. Our results suggested that low marsh plants were far less able to produce successful seeds, or conversely, that the mid-marsh location had plants with the greatest seed production and seed mass, and the high- and mid-marsh plants had good seed floatation ability, germination and survival. Thus, plants in the mid-and high-marsh may contribute disproportionally to an invasion.

  7. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  8. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  9. Ecophysiological characteristics of invasive Spartina alterniflora and native species in salt marshes of Yangtze River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Fen; Luo, Yi-Qi; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions represent one of the significant components of global change. A comparative study of invaders and co-occurring natives is a useful approach to gaining insights into the invasiveness of exotic plants. Spartina alterniflora, a C 4 grass, is a widespread invader in the coastal wetlands in China and other regions of the world. We conducted a comparative study of S. alterniflora and native C 3 species, Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter, in terms of their gas exchange and efficiencies in resource utilization. We tested the hypothesis that S. alterniflora has growth-related ecophysiological advantages over the natives in its non-native range, which result in its rapid growth and enhance its invasiveness. Photosynthesis, leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), and the efficiency of resource use (light, water, and nitrogen) were examined monthly for eight months in 2004. Overall, S. alterniflora had greater LAI, higher maximal net photosynthetic rate ( Amax), and longer growing season than those of the native species. On average, the efficiencies of S. alterniflora in light, water, and nitrogen utilization were respectively 10.1%, 26.1%, and 33.1% higher than those of P. australis, and respectively 70.3%, 53.5%, 28.3% higher than those of S. mariqueter. However, SLA of S. alterniflora was significantly lower than those of P. australis and S. mariqueter. Although there was no general pattern in the relationship between invasiveness and plant photosynthetic types, in this study, most of the ecophysiological characteristics that gave S. alterniflora a competitive advantage in the Yangtze River estuary were associated with photosynthetic pathways. Our results offer a greater understanding of the relationship between invasiveness and plant photosynthetic type. Our results also indicate that LAI and the length of the photosynthetic season, which vary with habitats, are also important in invasion success.

  10. Stability of organic carbon accumulating in Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marshes of the Mid-Atlantic U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Viktoria; Elsey-Quirk, Tracy; Sommerfield, Christopher; Velinsky, David

    2016-12-01

    Organic carbon sequestration in salt marsh soils is a function of factors that influence both spatial variability and chemical stability of accumulating carbon. Refractory carbon (slowly decomposed) may be the most important in terms of long-term sequestration and is widely referred to in models of carbon storage; however, little information exists about the quantity and variability of refractory carbon accumulation in marshes. In this study, total (CT), labile (CL) and refractory (CR) organic carbon accumulation rates were measured for Spartina alterniflora-dominated marshes representing different geomorphological settings with a range of vertical accretion rates. Three 50-cm long cores were collected in each of three marshes in Barnegat Bay and three marshes in Delaware Estuary, USA. Rates of C accumulation were calculated using Cesium-137 dating and the relative stability of soil organic carbon was quantified using acid-hydrolysis. CT accumulation ranged over fourfold among marshes from 72 to 346 g m-2 yr-1. CT and CL accumulation increased with increasing mineral sediment accumulation, while CR accumulation was uniform across cores averaging 78 ± 5 g m-2 yr-1. Similar rates of CR accumulation across marsh areas with different accretion and mineral sediment accumulation rates was associated with a decline in the CR:CL density ratio as mineral volume increased. Our results suggest that carbon accumulation is higher in salt marshes with higher mineral sedimentation due, primarily, to the burial of labile carbon, and that there is a limit on the rate of chemically recalcitrant carbon accumulation in marsh soils.

  11. Detecting and assessing Spartina invasion in coastal region of China:A case study in the Xiangshan Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Changming; ZHANG Xin; QI Jiaguo

    2016-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora is one of exotic plants along the coastal region in China. It was introduced as an important engineering approach to ecological restoration in the later 1970s. However, owing to its good adaptability and strong reproductive capacity, the introduced species is explosively spreading along the coastal region quickly and resulting in a significant impact on the health and safety of coastal wetland ecosystems. It is imperative to quantify the spatial extent and the rate ofS. alterniflora sprawl in order to assess its ecological damages and economic impacts. Remote sensing techniques have been used to address these challenges but large unsuccessful due to mixed spectral properties. In this study, a hybrid method was proposed forS. alterniflora detection using medium resolution remote sensing images by integrating both spatial and spectral features ofS. alterniflora. The hybrid method consists of two phases: (1) delineation of intertidal zone as the potential area ofS. alterniflora distribution and (2) extraction ofS. alterniflora fraction distribution with a mixture pixel analysis. The proposed method was tested at the Xiangshan Bay on the east coastal region of Zhejiang Province, China, and mapped the spatial extent ofS. alterniflora with Landsat datasets in the 2003, 2009 and 2014. The results showed that, theS. alterniflora has grown exponentially over past 10 years. In 2003, the total area ofS. alterniflora was about 590 hm2, but quickly reached to 1 745 hm2 in 2009, and 5 715 hm2 in 2014. With a rate of approximately 10-folds growth within a decade, the invasive species almost occupied all muddy beaches to become the most dominant coastal salt vegetation in this region. It is believed that the strong biological reproductive capacity was the primary reason for such quick spread and at the same time human reclamation activities were also believed to have facilitated the environmental conditions forS. alterniflora sprawl.

  12. Invasion chronosequence of Spartina alterniflora on methane emission and organic carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jian; Liu, Deyan; Ding, Weixin; Yuan, Junji; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-07-01

    Spartina alterniflora was intentionally introduced to China in 1979 for the purpose of sediment stabilization and dike protection, and has continuously replaced native plants or invaded bare mudflats in the coastal marsh. To evaluate the spatial variation of CH4 emission and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage along the invasion chronosequence, we selected four sites including bare mudflat (Control, as first year invasion), and marshes invaded by S. alterniflora in 2002 (SA-1), 1999 (SA-2) and 1995 (SA-3), respectively, in Sheyang county, Jiangsu, China and set up the marsh mesocosm system for flux measurement. The mean accumulation rate of SOC in the 0-30 cm layer exponentially increased with the invasion time, ranging from 1.08 (over the first 9 years) to 2.35 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (over the period of 12-16 years). The cumulative CH4 emission during the growth season was 20.5, 75.4, 81.0 and 92.2 kg CH4 ha-1 in Control, SA-1, SA-2 and SA-3, respectively, and there was a binomial relationship between CH4 emission and invasion time. Cumulative CH4 emission was logarithmically increased with SOC concentration; however the ratio of CH4 emission to SOC concentration was inversely correlated with the invasion time in the S. alterniflora marsh, suggesting that the less increased SOC in the S. alterniflora marsh was converted into CH4. The net global warming potential (GWP) was estimated at 733 kg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 in the tidal mudflat and reduced to -1273 (SA-1) to -2233 kg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 (SA-3) in the S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicated that S. alterniflora invasion effectively sequestrated atmospheric CO2 and mitigated GWP in the coastal marsh of China.

  13. 抗松材线虫病赤松组培苗的抗病性测定1)%Resistance Determination of Wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora Tissue Culture Seedling to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the resistance of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora to Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus from Japan.Six months old tissue culture seedlings of Pinus densiflora were inoculated with middle virulence aseptic pine wood nematode under aseptic conditions.There are obvious differences of resistance in Pinus densiflora families.No.1 and 10 families have better resistant effects, followed by No.2, 13, 19, 22 and 23 families.The resistance difference of clones mainly originates from the families.Meanwhile, the relationship between pine wood nematode breeding rates and disease incidence was discussed.There is a low correlation between the disease incidence of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora and pine wood nematode propagation coefficient.In addition, the susceptible tissue culture seedlings were isolated.The pine wood nematode remains aseptic.%  为了评价从日本引进的抗性赤松对松材线虫的抗病性,在无菌条件下,用中强毒力无菌松材线虫对6个月生的无菌赤松组培苗进行接种。结果表明:抗性赤松不同家系间抗病性差异明显,1号和10号家系抗病性表现较好,2、13、19、22和23号家系抗病性表现次之,3、14和16号家系未表现出抗病性;抗性赤松不同无性系间的抗病性存在极显著差异,无性系间的抗病性差异主要来源于家系间的抗病性差异。发病率与松材线虫繁殖倍数相关性极低。从发病组培苗上分离的松材线虫仍然无菌。

  14. A new species of Stenodiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Spartina grasses (Poaceae) with notes on its biology and its parasitoid Tetrastichus bromi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J Manuel Perilla; Johnson, Paul J; Gagné, Raymond J; Boe, Arvid

    2015-12-09

    Stenodiplosis spartinae Gagné new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described from eastern South Dakota and coastal North Carolina, and compared with other American congeners. The known host plants are Spartina alterniflora and S. pectinata. The larva is a seed predator of the ovule and immature caryopsis of the host plant. Adult activity is from the early emergence of the host inflorescence through anthesis. Oviposition occurs in the floret with eggs laid under the edges of the palea and lemma. The larva apparently overwinters in dehisced spikelets in the soil among rhizomes of S. pectinata, with pupation in late spring. Laboratory emergence and field activity of the adults suggest a potentialsecond or third generation developing on late emerging inflorescences. Larval feeding does not induce external color or shape changes in the spikelet. Apparently all three instars are ectoparasitized by Tetrastichus bromi Kostyukov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) that was probably introduced to North America in the late 1800's and is inculcated into parasitoid guilds of several Stenodiplosis species. Resource partitioning appears to occur between the gall midge and early instars of Aethes spartinana Barnes and McDunnough (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) that feed on maturing caryopses. The feeding of this gall midge and the moth probably account for most of the reduced seed production in both natural and agronomic populations of S. pectinata.

  15. Diversity in leaf anatomy, and stomatal distribution and conductance, between salt marsh and freshwater species in the C(4) genus Spartina (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricle, Brian R; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Thomasson, Joseph R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, and leaf conductance were studied in 10 species of Spartina (Poaceae) from low versus high salt marsh, and freshwater habitats. Internal structure, external morphology, cuticle structure, and stomatal densities were studied with light and electron microscopy. Functional significance of leaf structure was examined by measures of CO(2) uptake and stomatal distributions. All species have Kranz anatomy and C(4)delta(13)C values. Freshwater species have thin leaves with small ridges on adaxial sides and stomata on both adaxial and abaxial sides. By contrast, salt marsh species have thick leaves with very pronounced ridges on the adaxial side and stomata located almost exclusively on adaxial leaf surfaces. Salt marsh species also have a thicker cuticle on the abaxial than on the adaxial side of leaves, and CO(2) uptake during photosynthesis is restricted to the adaxial leaf surface. Salt marsh species are adapted to controlling water loss by having stomata in leaf furrows on the adaxial side, which increases the boundary layer, and by having large leaf ridges that fit together as the leaf rolls during water stress. Differences in structural-functional features of photosynthesis in Spartina species are suggested to be related to adaptations to saline environments.

  16. In vitro plantlet regeneration from seedling explants of Pinus densiflora%赤松离体培养植株再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽华; 吴小芹; 戴培培; 张红岩

    2010-01-01

    以无菌条件下萌发21~28 d的赤松(Pinus densiflora)幼苗子叶-胚轴材料为起始外植体建立了植株再生体系.结果表明:在添加4 mg/L 6-BA和0.05 mg/L NAA的GD培养基上培养5周可诱导丛生芽形成,无6-BA但添加0.1 mg/L NAA的DCR培养基促进了芽的进一步生长,DCR培养基中添加0.5~1.0 g/L活性炭促进了芽的伸长,在添加2 mg/L 6-BA和0.1~0.2 mg/L NAA的GD培养基上丛生芽大量增殖.伸长的丛生芽接种在附加0.2 mg/L NAA的1/2 GD培养基中培养4周后,不定根发生率达68.4%,转移至无激素但添加0.5 g/L活性炭的1/2 GD中不定根迅速伸长.将完整的再生植株移栽于蛭石-珍珠岩-河沙等比混合的基质中,12周后成活率约为60%.

  17. Developing xylem-preferential expression of PdGA20ox1, a gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 from Pinus densiflora, improves woody biomass production in a hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Park, Eung-Jun; Han, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-04-01

    Woody biomass has gained popularity as an environmentally friendly, renewable and sustainable resource for liquid fuel production. Here, we demonstrate biotechnological improvement of the quantity and quality of woody biomass by employing developing xylem (DX)-preferential production of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone that positively regulates stem growth. First, for the proof of concept experiment, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GA20-oxidase, a key enzyme in the production of bioactive GAs, from Pinus densiflora (PdGA20ox1) under the control of either a constitutive 35S promoter, designated 35S::PdGA20ox1, or a DX-specific promoter (originated from poplar), designated DX15::PdGA20ox1. As we hypothesized, both transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) exhibited an accelerated stem growth that resulted in a large increase of biomass, up to 300% compared to wild-type control plants, together with increased secondary wall thickening and elongation of fibre cells. Next, we applied our concept to the production of transgenic poplar trees. Both transgenic poplar trees (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) showed dramatic increases in biomass, up to 300%, with accelerated stem growth and xylem differentiation. Cell wall monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that in both Arabidopsis and poplar, glucose and xylose contents were significantly increased. However, undesirable phenotypes of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar, including poor root growth and leaf development, were found. Interestingly, DX15::PdGA20ox1 poplar resulted in a reduction of undesirable phenotypes. Our results indicate that the controlled production of GAs through a tissue-specific promoter can be utilized as an efficient biotechnological tool for producing enhanced plant biomass, minimizing unwanted effects.

  18. Pinus densiflora extract protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs and increasing type I procollagen expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68 cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1 activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.

  19. Carbons prepared from Spartina alterniflora and its anaerobically digested residue by H3PO4 activation: characterization and adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Nie, Er; Li, Jihua; Zhao, Yongjun; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2011-04-15

    Two series of activated carbons were prepared from Spartina alterniflora and from its anaerobically digested residue by H(3)PO(4) activation at various process conditions, and used as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium (II) in aqueous solutions. The surface areas and pore volumes of carbons were derived from adsorption isotherms (N(2) at 77K). The surface chemistry of carbons was investigated by infrared spectroscopy. Comparison study indicated that physicochemical properties of the activated carbons were strongly dependent not only on activation conditions but also on biopolymer contents of precursors. Several isotherm models were investigated and the adsorption isotherm data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 47.85 mg/g at 25 °C. The results showed that the activated carbon produced from S. alterniflora could be employed as a promising adsorbent for removing cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions.

  20. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  1. Leaf-age effects on seasonal variability in photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen concentration within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    In the temperate zone of Japan, Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. bears needles of up to three age classes in the upper crown and up to five age classes in the lower crown. To elucidate the effects of leaf age on photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen (N(l)) concentration on an area (N(a)) and mass (N(m)) basis, we measured seasonal variations in LMA, N(l), light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) in leaves of all age classes in the upper and lower crown. Leaf mass per unit area increased by 27% with increasing leaf age in the lower crown, but LMA did not depend on age in the upper crown. Leaf age had a significant effect on N(m) but not on N(a) in both crown positions, indicating that decreases in N(m) resulted from dilution. Photosynthetic parameters decreased significantly with leaf age in the lower crown (39% for A(max) and 43% for V(cmax)), but the effect of leaf age was not as great in the upper crown, although these parameters exhibited seasonal variation in both crown positions. Regression analysis indicated a close relationship between LMA and N(a), regardless of age class or when each age class was pooled (r(2) = 0.57-0.86). Relationships between LMA and N(a) and among A(max), V(cmax) and J(max) were weak or not significant when all age classes were examined by regression analysis. However, compared with older leaves, relationships among LMA, N(a) and A(max) were stronger in younger leaves. These results indicate that changes in LMA and N(l) mainly reflect light acclimation during leaf development, but they are only slightly affected by irradiance in mature leaves. In conclusion, LMA and N(l) are useful parameters for estimating photosynthetic capacity, but age-related effects need to be taken into account, especially in evergreen conifers.

  2. Diversity and Ecological Characterization of Sporulating Higher Filamentous Marine Fungi Associated with Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in Two Portuguese Salt Marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Maria da Luz; Carvalho, Luís; Pang, Ka-Lai; Barata, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Fungal communities associated with early stages of decomposition of Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald were assessed in two geographically distinct salt marshes in Portugal by direct observation of fungal sporulating structures. Twenty-three fungal taxa were identified from 390 plant samples, 11 of which were common to both study sites. Natantispora retorquens, Byssothecium obiones, Phaeosphaeria spartinicola, Phoma sp. 1 and Stagonospora sp. were the most frequent fungal taxa in the studied communities. The fungal species Anthostomella spissitecta, Camarosporium roumeguerii, Coniothyrium obiones, Decorospora gaudefroyi, Halosarpheia trullifera, Leptosphaeria marina and Stagonospora haliclysta were recorded for the first time on S. maritima plants; with the exception of C. roumeguerii and L. marina, all of these species were also new records for Portugal. The differences between species composition of the communities associated with S. maritima were attributed to differences in abiotic conditions of the salt marshes. Although the fungal taxa were distributed differently along the host plants, common species to both fungal communities were found on the same relative position, e.g. B. obiones, Lulworthia sp. and N. retorquens occurred on the basal plant portions, Buergenerula spartinae, Dictyosporium pelagicum and Phoma sp. 1 on the middle plant portions and P. spartinicola and Stagonospora sp. on the top plant portions. The distinct vertical distribution patterns reflected species-specific salinity requirements and flooding tolerance, but specially substrate preferences. The most frequent fungi in both communities also exhibited wider distribution ranges and produced a higher number of fruiting structures, suggesting a more active key role in the decay process of S. maritima.

  3. Growth performance on regenerated plantlets of Pinus densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease%抗松材线虫病赤松组培再生植株田间生长表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉; 吴小芹; 朱丽华; 叶建仁; 张红岩

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of regenerated plantlets of Pinus densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease,research has advanced to the field testing stage. The results showed that 0.5 year-old plantlets survival rate was apparently lower than that of 2.5,2,1.5,1 year-old. There were obvious growth difference among different clones. Mycorrhizal foresting test indicated that ectomycorrhizal fungi Rhizopogen luteous and Boletus edulis facilitated the growth of disease-resistant P. densiflora 1 # -A 5 and 8 generation. This research provided reference for breeding and afforestation of regenerated plantlets of P. densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease.%为了评价从日本引进的抗松材线虫病赤松通过无性快繁获得的再生植株在我国的生长状况.本研究对田间试种的抗病赤松6个家系12个无性系共688株再生植株进行跟踪监测.结果表明,抗病赤松0.5年生再生植株试种成活率明显低于2.5年、2年、1.5年及1年生再生植株;不同无性系间抗病赤松再生植株生长状况存在明显差异.其中,1#-A和5#-5无性系再生植株生长较好.菌根化造林试验表明,两种外生菌根菌美味牛肝菌(Be)和黄色须腹菌(R1)对抗病赤松1#-A5代、8代再生植株具有明显促生效果.此研究为今后抗病赤松再生植株造林育种提供了参考依据.

  4. Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound: A Research Plan in Support of the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    an increased threat of alien and invasive plant and animal species such as four species of Spartina (cordgrass), Sargassum , green crab, and dozens...surfgrass (Phyllospadix spp.) and native eelgrass (Zostera marina). Non-indigenous vegetation (Zostera japonica, Sargassum muticum, and Spartina...Contaminant species change and uptake • Food web ○ Primary production and reproduction ○ Production of seeds and other propagules ○ Primary

  5. 山东赤松种群的个体生长规律%On the individual growth disciplinarian of Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2002-01-01

    利用Logistic增长模型对山东赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群个体生长规律进行了初步研究.结果表明,赤松个体生长密切符合Logistic方程;人工林个体生长好于天然次生林;人工林与次生林个体生长规律一致;树高成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现最早,胸径成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现较晚,材积成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现最迟.

  6. 影响沙区赤松造林成活率的主要因素分析%Main Factors Affecting the Afforestation Survival Rate of Pinus densiflora in Sandy Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云波; 宋佩东

    2015-01-01

    通过试验分析沙区赤松造林中采取不同整地方式、不同质量苗木及不同管护措施对造林成活率及生长量的影响,结果表明:伏前全面整地的赤松造林成活率、当年高生长最大,分别为93%和12.8 cm,玉米茬地好于现整现造地;不同等级、不同类型苗木中以容器苗造林成活率最高,为94.4%;不同立地条件以沙壤土的条件下造林苗木成活率最高,为95%。%The effects of different land preparation methods,quality of different seedlings and different management measures on survival rate and growth of Pinus densiflora were analyzed.Result shows that survival rate and height growth in the very year of Pinus densiflora with full preparation before the hot summer days are the highest,being 93% & 12.8 cm,respectively.Stub land of Zeamays is optimal than extempore soil preparation and extempore af-forestation.Survival rate of container seedlings among different grade and types of seedlings is the highest,being 94.4%;the survival rate under sandy loam is the highest,being 95%.

  7. 基于个体的空间显性模型和遥感技术模拟入侵植物扩张机制%The dispersal mechanism of invasive plants based on a spatially explicit individual-based model and Remote sensing technology:a case study of Spartina alterniflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会玉; 林振山; 齐相贞; 刘金雪; 许晓娟

    2015-01-01

    spatial and temporal land use changes. In this study, a spatially explicit, individual-based model, combined with remote sensing technology, was built to simulate the range expansion of Smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora ) in Yancheng Coastal Wetlands, China, from 1999 to 2010, and to reveal how land use and tideland elevation impact range expansion. Furthermore, a global sensitivity analysis was used to identify the relative importance of adult survival rate, seed dispersal, and sexual and asexual reproduction on range expansion. The results show that removing sexual propagation or asexual reproduction greatly reduces the expansion rate. Thus, rapid expansion requires both sexual and asexual reproduction. Land use changes and tideland elevation reduce simulation accuracy, indicating that they have significant impacts on range expansion. In the global sensitivity analysis, adult survival rate and long-distance seed dispersal distance represented the two most important factors influencing S. alterniflora invasion, while seed production, maximum capacity, and the proportion of long-distance dispersal were the three least important factors. Asexual reproduction contributes much more significantly to quick range expansion than sexual reproduction, except for long-distance dispersal. Seeds dispersed long distances contribute more to quick range expansion than local seed dispersal. Moreover, even a few long-distance dispersal events are enough for quick range expansion. Therefore, invasion control strategies should target a single reproduction mode to decrease expansion rates. Here, realistic strategies for controlling and managing invasion are suggested to remove low density, small patches formed by long-distance seed dispersal at the invasion front before the onset of the growing period, and to limit long-distance seed dispersal during the growing period. The integration of these results to control strategies for S. alterniflora and similar invasive species would

  8. Characteristics and Grafting and Breeding Technology of Pinus.densiflora var.Zhanguensis---A Case in Jiuliangwa Forest Farm in Datong%彰武松的特性及嫁接繁育技术--以大同九梁洼林场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雁春

    2015-01-01

    彰武松是山西省杨树丰产林实验局于2005年从辽宁省引进的针叶树种。笔者从彰武松的起源、形态特征、生物学特性3个方面介绍了彰武松的特性,并在山西省大同市九梁洼林场以樟子松为砧木、彰武松为接穗进行了嫁接试验,总结了彰武松嫁接繁育的关键技术,为山西省北部地区丘陵风沙区、龙岗火山厚土区彰武松的繁育提供技术指导。%Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis was a new variety introduced from Liaoning Province in Shanxi Poplar planta -tion Experiment Bureau.The author introduced characteristics of Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis from origin, morpholog-ical characteristics and biological characteristics , studied the experiment of grafting the Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis on Pinus sylvestris as stock in Jiuliangwa forest farm in Datong in Shanxi Province , summaried the key technology of grafting and breeding to provide technology guide of grafting and breeding in hilly sandy and Longgang volcano thick soil area in northern region in Shanxi Province .

  9. Effects of nutrient level on phenotypic plasticity of Spartina alterniflora%养分条件对互花米草表型可塑性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊改; 石福臣

    2011-01-01

    通过栽培实验研究了高、中、低不同养分水平对外来入侵种互花米草(Spartina alterniflora)表型可塑性的影响.结果表明:随着养分含量的增加,互花米草分枝强度不断增加,低养分处理与中、高养分处理间差异显著;间隔子长度随着养分含量的增加而增加,但分枝角度不受养分含量的影响;互花米草生物量分配格局显著受养分水平的影响,随着养分的降低,互花米草对地上部分(茎和叶)的生物量投资减小,而对地下部分(根和根茎)的生物量投资增加.这些结果说明,养分水平对互花米草的克隆生长有显著影响,互花米草对不同的养分条件表现出较强的可塑性.%A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nutrient levels ( high, medium, and low) on the phenotypic plasticity of invasive species Spartina alterniflora. With increasing nutrient level, the branching intensity of S. alterniflora mcreased, and there was a significant difference between low and other two nutrient levels. The spacer length also increased with increasing nutrient level, but the branching angle was not affected by nutrient level. Nutrient level had significant effects on the biomass allocation pattern. With decreasing nutrient supply, the biomass allocation to aboveground parts ( stems and leaves) decreased, whereas that to belowground parts ( roots and thizomes) increased. These results suggested that nutrient level had significant effects on the clonal growth of S. alterniflora, and S. alterniflora showed a strong phenotypic plasticity in response to different nutrient levels.

  10. 牛粪对互花米草混合厌氧消化过程的影响研究%Effect of Cow Feces on Anaerobic Digestion Process of Spartina alterniflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 郑正; 邹星星; 杨世关

    2009-01-01

    以互花米草和牛粪为原料,采用中温(35℃)批式发酵的方式,考察了添加牛粪对互花米草厌氧消化过程的影响.结果表明,互花米草单独发酵时,单位VS产气量为222.61 mL/g,发酵过程出现酸化现象,pH最低为5.60;添加牛粪改善了厌氧微生物的生存环境,提高了系统的缓冲能力,发酵过程未出现酸化现象,pH经短暂下降后很快恢复到7.2~7.5,累积产气量提高了38.83%,互花米草单位VS产气量为309.05 mL/g.混合发酵对消化液中有机酸产量影响不大,但有机酸高峰提前5d出现.FTIR表明,混合发酵促进了微生物对互花米草中易分解有机物的利用.发酵前、后和混合发酵互花米草的结晶度指数C_rI分别为0.617 6、0.620 0和0.615 4.%Effects of cow feces on anaerobic digestion process of Spartina alterniflora was studied by batch model at 35 ℃ .When Spartina alterniflora was digested alone, the biogas yield was 222.61 mL/g,and it was acidified from 10 d to 15 d. When cow feces was added, the environment where microorganisms lived in was meliorated, pH value was stabilized and bingas production was improved by 38.83 % . Volatile fatty acids production was not affected significantly, but the peak was advanced. FTIR and XRD analysis of solid residue substances further proved that co-digestion promoted the removal of carbohydrates and resulted in higher content of lignin than Spartina alterniflora straw digested alone,and promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose. The crystallinity index ( C_rI) of Spartina altemiflora, digested Spartina alterniflora and co-digested Spartina alterniflora were 0.6176, 0.6200 and 0.615 4, respectively. Therefore, adding cow feces was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of Spartina alterniflora straw.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment: Installation of Digital Airport Surveillance Radar at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Marsh Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), Bottlebrush Sedge ( Carex comosa), Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata ‘Red River Germplasm’), Wooly Sedge ... Carex lanuginose), Awl-Fruit Sedge ( Carex stipata), Baltic Rush (Juncus balticus), Wool-Grass (Scripus cyperinus), Soft-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus...sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne), Slender Wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), Hairy Fruit Sedge ( Carex trichocarpa), Needle Spike-rush (Eleocharis

  12. Ecological DYnamics Simulation Model - Light (EDYS-L): User’s Guide Version 4.6.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    processes operating at large spatial scales (1 km2 and larger). These include fire initiation regimes, climatic regimes, watershed-level water movement ...area. Cumulative Sediment Grid Spatial display of sediment movement within the simulation area. Cells with total sediment loss are shown in shades...thistle Salsola kali Saltgrass Distichlis spicata Smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Sunflower Helianthus sp. Sweetclover Melilotus sp

  13. 米草生态工程加环效益能值分析%Emergy analysis on an added loop in Spartina alterniflora ecological engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金娥; 钦佩; 周虹霞; 谢民

    2004-01-01

    根据生态工程加环原理,在互花米草生态工程(Spartina alterniflora Ecological Engineering,SAEE)基础上设计一个深度开发的增益环,选取天然植物纤维与互花米草提取物--生物矿质液(Biological Mineral Liquid,BML)共同制成降脂胶囊,并应用能值分析的方法对SAEE+胶囊的加环设计(SAEEand Capsule SAEEC)进行了经济、生态、社会复合效益评估.与SAEE相比,加环设计(SAEEC)的经济投入增加,能值投资比率(Emergy investment ratio,EIR)是SAEE的1.37倍;经济收益是SAEE的2.13倍,经济收益产投比是SAEE的1.46倍;净能值效益(Net emergy yield,NEY)是SAEE的3.18倍,净能值产出率(Emergy yield ratio,EYR)是SAEE的2.20倍,经济效益和生态效益均得到提高,体现了生态工程加环增益的基本设计原则.

  14. Role of Spartina alterniflora on sediment dynamics of coastal salt marshes-case study from central Jiangsu and middle Fujian coasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun WANG; Yaping WANG; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes represent an important coastal wetland system.In order to protect coastlines from erosion and rapid increase in accumulation rate,Spartina alterniflora (S alterniflora)was introduced into the Chinese coast.Two study areas(Wanggang and Quanzhou Bay)were selected that represent the plain type and embayment type Of the coastal salt marshes.In situ measurements show that the tidal current velocities are stronger on the intertidal mudflat without S.alterniflora than that with S.alterniflora,and the velocity above the canopy surface is larger than that in the salt marsh canopy.The existence of S.alterniflora also influences the velocity structure above the bare flat during ebb tide.With the decrease in current flow velocity when seawater enters into the S. alterniflora marsh,suspended sediments are largely entrapped on the marshsurface,leading to increase in sedimentation rates and change in physical evolution processes of the coastal salt marshes.The highly developed root system of S. alterniflora induces sediment mixing and exchange between subsurface sediment strata and affects the vertical sediment distribution remarkably.The sedimentation rate Of S. alterniflora marsh at the Wanggang area is much higher than the relative sea level rise rate,where rapid progradation of the Wanggang salt marshes that is protecting the coast from sea erosion is observed.

  15. Seasonal variation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations in the root-sediment system of Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides from Tagus estuary salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçador, I; Vale, C; Catarino, F

    2000-04-01

    Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd have been determined in leaves, stems and roots of Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides from the Tagus estuary salt mash (Corroios) and in the sediments between their roots. Biological materials and sediments were sampled every 2 months, between July 1991 and July 1992. Root biomass increased from July to September and from January to March. The greatest metal concentrations occurred in the roots, with lowest levels in January and increasing levels during the growth periods. Zn, Pb and Cu in sediments exhibited a corresponding change in concentrations, reaching maximum in January and subsequently decreasing in spring. The ratios between metal concentrations in the root and in sediments were higher for H. portulacoides when compared to S. maritima, whose roots are surrounded by a more acidic and reduced sediment environment. It was concluded, therefore, that H. portulacoides is a more effective accumulator of metals than S. maritima, and both root-sediment systems exhibited a seasonal variation of metal concentrations.

  16. 射阳河口互花米草入侵对大型底栖动物群落的影响%EFFECT OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA INVASION ON THE MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY IN THE SHEYANG ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯森林; 余晓韵; 鲁长虎

    2012-01-01

    2008年11月至2009年10月,在盐城自然保护区射阳河口滩涂分别于潮间带、潮上带和潮沟中设置互花米草区与非米草区2类对照样地(共6类生境),按月份取样来研究大型底栖动物群落特征的差异,探讨互花米草入侵对底栖动物的影响.共发现大型底栖动物22种,隶属3门4纲17科,其中软体动物13种,节肢动物6种,环节动物3种.米草区和非米草区的物种组成不同,各生境在不同月份大型底栖动物的物种数、密度、生物量和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数均在不断波动,在潮间带上述指标均为In>Ig,潮上带除密度外均为Sn>Sg,潮沟边滩除个别月份外均为Cg>Cn;3类互花米草生境中大型底栖动物群落各项指标月间变动趋势基本一致(仅个别月份例外),均表现为Cg>Sg>Ig,互花米草生境存在共同的优势种,但数量有一定的差异.分别对潮间带、潮上带和湖沟中互花米草区与非米草区2类对照样地的物种数、密度、生物量以及Shannon-Weiner 多样性指数H进行生境-月份间无重复双因素方差分析,结果显示湖间带2类对照样地各项指标在生境间差异均极显著,月份间差异均不显著;潮上带2类对照样地各项指标生境间存在极其显著的差异(除密度外),月份间差异显著(除多样性外);潮沟2类对照样地生境间差异显著(除生物量外),月份间差异均显著.研究结果表明不同生境中的互花米草对底栖动物的影响不甚相同:湖间带互花米草的入侵降低了大型底栖动物的物种数、密度、生物量和多样性;潮沟米草的入侵提高了大型底栖动物的物种数、密度和多样性;而潮上带来草入侵对大型底栖动物的各指标影响不一.%The macrobenthic community from Nov. 2008 to Oct. 2009 was studied monthly in order to know the effect of Spartina alterniflora invasion on them in Sheyang estuary, Yancheng Nature Reserve. Six habitats were

  17. The Characteristics of Soil Seed Bank and Natural Regeneration of Pinus densiflora Plantation in Zhanggutai Sandyland%章古台沙地赤松人工林土壤种子库及天然更新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑玲; 宋鸽; 刘敏; 陈江燕; 肖巍

    2014-01-01

    研究了章古台沙地赤松人工林土壤种子库及天然更新特征。结果表明:在赤松人工林土壤种子库中,47.47%的种子分布在枯枝落叶层中,种子平均密度可达253粒ûm -2;52.53%的种子分布在0~5 cm 深的土层中,种子平均密度为280粒ûm -2。从种子品质来看,空粒种子占种子总数的40.90%,腐烂种子占39.96%,完整种子占19.14%。赤松天然更新主要为林下更新,更新幼树呈不规则分布,密度为20348~71798株ûhm -2;其次为林隙更新,更新幼树以群团状分布为主,带状分布为辅,密度为7659~14836株ûhm -2;赤松林缘更新的主要条件是有林缘扩展带,林缘更新密度为856~10810株ûhm -2。%This paper studied the characteristics of soil seed bank and natural regeneration of Pinus densiflora planta-tion in Zhanggutai .The result showed that in the seed bank of Pinus densiflora plantation ,47 .47% of the seeds was distributed in the litter layer ,with the average density up to 253 grain ûm - 2 ;52 .53% of the seeds was distributed in soil layer of 0 to 5cm depth ,with average density 280 grain ûm - 2 .From the point of seed quality ,empty seeds ,rot-ten seeds and complete seeds accounted for 40 .90% ,39 .96% and 19 .14% of the total number of seeds separately . The leading natural regeneration of Pinus densiflora was under forest canopy that regenerated saplings were distrib-uted irregularly with the density from 20 348 to 71 798 plant ûhm - 2 .The secondly natural regeneration was in the gap which the distribution of the regenerate saplings was principal in shape of cluster and supplementary in shape of zone ,with the density from 7 659 to 14 836 plant ûhm - 2 .The main condition of natural regeneration in plantation edge was with forest edge extension zone ,with the density from 856 to 10 810 plant ûhm - 2 .

  18. Investigation of the Transcriptome of Prairie Cord Grass, a New Cellulosic Biomass Crop

    KAUST Repository

    Gedye, Kristene

    2010-09-15

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is being developed as a cellulosic biomass crop. Development of this species will require numerous steps, including breeding, agronomy, and characterization of the species genome. The research in this paper describes the first investigation of the transcriptome of prairie cordgrass via Next Generation Sequencing Technology, 454 GS FLX. A total of 556,198 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced from four prairie cordgrass tissues: roots, rhizomes, immature inflorescence, and hooks. These ESTs were assembled into 26,302 contigs and 71,103 singletons. From these data were identified, EST-SSR (simple sequence repeat) regions and cell wall biosynthetic pathway genes suitable for the development of molecular markers which can aid the breeding process of prairie cordgrass by means of marker assisted selection.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of nutrient accumulation and partitioning in the perennial C{sub 4}-grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beale, C.V. [Writtle College, Chelmsford (United Kingdom)] Long, S.P. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1997-12-31

    Seasonal variation in the accumulation and partitioning of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was determined in both the above-ground and below-ground dry matter of the potential energy crops Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides. It is desirable from both economic and environmental perspectives that such crops should exhibit a high nutrient use efficiency and minimal nutrient losses to the environment. The N, P and K concentrations in the above-ground dry matter, at final harvest, were 5.0, 0.6 and 12.0 mg g{sup -1} respectively in M. x giganteus and 3.0, 0.4 and 1.0 mg g{sup -1} in S. cynosurodes. Both species exhibited the high N-use efficiency expected of C{sub 4} plants. Nitrate leaching was negligible. At the end of the growing season, nutrients were translocated to the rhizomes and, in the case of M. giganteus, recycled to the soil in shed leaves. Consequently the nutrient content of the crop offtake was low. It was calculated that the N, P and K requirements of a M. x giganteus crop producing an above-ground harvest of 1.5 kg m{sup -2} dry matter would be 9.2, .3 and 20.4 g m{sup -2} respectively. The corresponding nutrient requirements for S. cynosuroides would be 7.5, 1.7 and 8.8 g m{sup -2}. Except for the K requirements of M. x giganteus, the N, P and K demands of both species were less than those of typical graminaceous crops, including maize. (Author)

  20. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools and surface flux under different brackish marsh vegetation types, common reed (Phragmites australis) and salt hay (Spartina patens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The current expansion of Phragmites australis into the high marsh shortgrass (Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata) communities of eastern U.S. salt marshes provided an opportunity to identify the influence of vegetation types on pools and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Two brackish tidal marshes of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system were examined, Piermont Marsh of the Hudson River NERR in New York and Hog Island in the Jacques Coustaeu NERR of New Jersey. Pools of DIN in porewater and rates of DIN surface flux were compared in replicated pairs of recently-expanded P. australis and neighboring S. patens-dominated patches on the high marsh surface. Both marshes generally imported nitrate (NO3-) and exported ammonium (NH4+), such that overall DIN was exported. No differences in surface exchange of NO3- or NH4+ were observed between vegetation types. Depth-averaged porewater NH4+ concentrations over the entire growing season were 56% lower under P. australis than under S. patens (average 1.4 vs. 3.2 mg NH4+ L-1) with the most profound differences in November. Porewater profiles showed an accumulation of NH4+ at depth in S. patens and constant low concentrations in P. australis from the soil surface to 50 cm depth, with no significant differences in porewater salinity. Despite these profound differences in porewater, NH 4+ diffusion from soils of P. australis and S. patens were not measurably different, were similar to other published rates, and were well below estimated rates based on passive diffusion alone. Rapid adsorption and uptake by litter and microbes in surface soils of both communities may buffer NH4+ loss to flooding tides in both communities, thereby reducing the impact of P. australis invasion on NH4+ flux to flooding waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora from 1993 to 2014 with Landsat TM and SPOT 6 Satellite Data in Yueqing Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Chen, Jiadai; Jing, Changwei; Ye, Guanqiong; Wu, Jiaping; Huang, Zhixing; Zhou, Chaosheng

    2015-01-01

    The exotic plant Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Yueqing Bay more than 20 years ago for tidal land reclamation and as a defense against typhoons, but it has rapidly expanded and caused enormous ecological consequences. Mapping the spread and distribution of S. alterniflora is the first step toward understanding the factors that determine the population expansion patterns. Remote sensing is a promising tool to monitor the expansion of S. alterniflora. Twelve Landsat TM images and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to delineate the invasion of S. alterniflora from 1993 to 2009, and SPOT 6 images and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) were used to map the distribution of S. alterniflora in 2014. In situ data and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images were used as supplementary data. S. alterniflora spread rapidly in Yueqing Bay over the past 21 years. Between 1993 and 2009, the area of S. alterniflora increased by 608 times (from 4 to 2432 ha). The rapid expansion of S. alterniflora covered almost all of the bare mudflats around the mangrove forests and the cultivated mudflats. However, from 2009 to 2014, the rate of expansion of S. alterniflora began to slow down in Yueqing Bay, and the total area of S. alterniflora in Yantian decreased by 275 ha. These phenomena can be explained by the landscape changes and ecological niches. Through the expansion of S. alterniflora, it was found that the ecological significance and environmental impact of S. alterniflora was different in different regions in Yueqing Bay. The conservation plans for Yueqing Bay should consider both the positive and negative effects of S. alterniflora, and the governmental policy should be based on the different circumstances of the regions.

  2. Exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion alters ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    Coastal salt marshes are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in mitigating global warming. To evaluate the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on global warming potential (GWP) in Chinese coastal areas, we measured CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil organic carbon sequestration rates along a transect of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province, China, including open water; bare tidal flat; and invasive S. alterniflora, native Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis marshes. Annual CH4 emissions were estimated as 2.81, 4.16, 4.88, 10.79, and 16.98 kg CH4 ha(-1) for open water, bare tidal flat, and P. australis, S. salsa, and S. alterniflora marshes, respectively, indicating that S. alterniflora invasion increased CH4 emissions by 57-505%. In contrast, negative N2O fluxes were found to be significantly and negatively correlated (P carbon sequestration rate of S. alterniflora marsh amounted to 3.16 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the top 100 cm soil profile, a value that was 2.63- to 8.78-fold higher than in native plant marshes. The estimated GWP was 1.78, -0.60, -4.09, and -1.14 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat, P. australis marsh and S. salsa marsh, respectively, but dropped to -11.30 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicate that although S. alterniflora invasion stimulates CH4 emissions, it can efficiently mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2 and N2O along the coast of China.

  3. 昆嵛山天然赤松种群的数量特征及更新动态%The Natural Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.Population in the Mount Kunyu:Quantitative Characteristics and Regenerative Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁卿; 张淑萍; 张治国; 朱建中; 吕以璞

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc.)天然分布于朝鲜、日本和中国,它在我国的天然分布从黑龙江东南部(宁安、东宁)、吉林东部(长白山)、辽东半岛经山东半岛(昆嵛山、崂山、沂山东部)到江苏东北部云台山区,是我国暖温带沿海地区温性针叶林的主要建群种之一[1].昆嵛山地处山东半岛东端,位于N37°16′,E121°43′附近,是赤松在山东半岛的最集中分布地.赤松林在该地区从山麓一直到海拔800m左右都有分布,并与落叶栎林共同组成该地区的地带性天然次生森林植被[2],在调节生态系统结构与功能方面起到重要作用.

  4. Effect of air pollution on annual ring width of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don, in Kitakyushu city. Kitakyushu shi deno Sugi, Akamatsu no nenrinhaba ni oyobosu taiki osen no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Kido, K. (The Kitakyushu Municipal Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1993-05-10

    There is a little of examples to have numerically evaluated an influence of the air pollution in the field for the long period. By using the conifer species growing in the Kitakyushu city and its periphery, in this report, a relation between the annual ring width and the air pollution has been investigated. Two tree species of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria japonica D.Don were selected as the tree species. The individuals, with a breast height diameter of about 50cm, more than 10 pieces for each were selected, and then the annual ring specimens for about 50 years upto 1990 were obtained by using the increment borer. The annual ring width was normalized by converting to the annual ring indices. It was found that there is a significant relation between the annual ring indices obtained from the trees in the city and the air pollution, and that the annual ring growth in the 1990's has recovered to a same degree of the growth in the 1940's. As a result of comparing the multiple regression in 3 cases using the air pollution statistics, meteorological statistics and both of them, in addition, it was found that, while both of the air pollution and climatic factors influence on the growth of annual ring, the influence of air pollution is greater than the climate at the stand in the city. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. 不同坡位人工林赤松物理力学性质的比较%Physico-mechanical Properties of Pinus densiflora Plantations on Different Slope Positions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 崔京日

    2009-01-01

    对延吉市帽儿山坡下和坡中的人工林赤松(Pinus densiflora)的物理力学性质差异进行研究.结果表明:坡下人工林赤松的弦向、径向和体积干缩率比坡中小;抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉和抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度,坡中材高于坡下材;气干密度、弦向和径向抗剪强度、弦向和径向抗劈力,均坡下材高于坡中材;坡下和坡中人工林赤松的气干密度、径向和体积干缩率、顺纹抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度、弦向和径向抗剪强度差异达0.01显著水平,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、弦向抗劈力差异达0.05显著水平,弦向干缩率、顺纹抗拉强度、径向抗劈力无显著差异.

  6. GC- MS analysis of volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora and Pinus sylvestris var.sylvtriforms%赤松与长白赤松松针挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕坤; 张海丰; 徐敏; 朱俊义

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To analyze volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc. And Pinus syl-vestris L. Var. Sylvtriforms Cheng et C. D. Chu by GC - MS. Methods; The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation from the pine needles of P. Densiflora and P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry( GC - MS) technology, injector temperature was 230 ℃. The GC - MS analysis with a HP -5 fused silica capillary column(0. 25 mm ×30 m,0. 25 μm). Flow rate was 1 mL · Min-1. The split ratio was 40: 1. The injection volume was 0. 5 μL. The temperature programming was begun at 50 ℃, then programmed from 50 to 120 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1 ,then programmed from 120 to 180 ℃ at 8 ℃ · Min-1 and finally,programmed from 180 to 200 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1. Mass spectrometer conditions were;ionization mode,El; electron energy 70 eV; interface temperature 280 °C; ion source temperature 230℃. The mass selective detector was operated in the TIC mode,mass scan range,20 -500 amu. Results; From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Densiflora, 36 compounds were separated,30 of them were identified; These 30 compounds amounted totally to about 98. 37% of the total peak area; The major components in the volatile oil were β - phellandrene (20. 96% ) , α - pinene (16. 081 % ) , camphene ( 11. 529 % ) , and santolina triene ( 16. 471 % ). From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, 34 compounds were separated, 31 of them were identified; These 31 compounds amounted totally to about 99. 24% of the total peak area; The major components of the volatile oil were 1 -R-α- pinene (17. 592% ) ,caryophyllene( 15. 398% ) ,β - phellandrene ( 14. 813% ),[ S -(E,E)]- 1 - methyl - 5 - methyl-ene - 8 - ( 1 - methylethyl) -1,6- cyclodecadiene ( 7. 573% ) ,β - pinene ( 5. 929% ) , 1 - methyl - 4 - ( 1 -methylethylidene) - cyclohexene (4. 663% ). Conclusions: Components of volatile oil of the

  7. Carbon distributions in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes in Galveston, Texas: The role of elevation, relative sea level history, and land cover conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawardhana, R. W.; Feagin, R. A.; Popescu, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands, including salt marshes, are considered to be large carbon sinks. Yet, there is little knowledge about how the terrain and land cover of these environments are related to carbon distribution. An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon held in both the biomass and soil, and the factors that influence its distribution, will be necessary to allow coastal managers to initiate and verify "Blue Carbon" projects. In this study, we attempt to understand: 1) the temporal changes in salt marsh distributions as affected by marsh submergence, vertical accretion and land cover conversions; 2) patterns of soil carbon across different depths of the soil profile; and 3) to evaluate how changes in relative water level governs the spatial and temporal variability of salt marsh carbon storage ability. Our results indicate that over the study period (1954 to present) a considerable portion of salt marsh extents were submerged, while at the higher terrains these salt marshes indicated a landward shift in response to the sea level rise. Soil carbon measured in the soil profile, revealed a gradual depletion of soil carbon with depth. However, both the soil bulk density and the percent carbon indicated an abrupt and significant change at a depth of 15cm (p=0.05), which we interpreted as distinct of two different environments. As evidenced by historical aerial imagery (1954, 1969), the first (15-30 cm depth) coincided with an unvegetated salt flat at the sample locations, which were then overlain by lower bulk density and higher carbon Spartina alterniflora low marsh (0-15 cm depth) that migrated upslope in response to rapid relative sea level rise. However, within each of these two environments separately, carbon distribution followed a unique pattern with respect to elevation. Our results further point to two different processes, each acting at a different time scale (daily tides versus relative sea level rise), and each results in distinct spatial

  8. Spartina alterniflora alters ecosystem DMS and CH4 emissions and their relationship along interacting tidal and vegetation gradients within a coastal salt marsh in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxin; Wang, Jinshu

    2017-10-01

    Invasive Spartina alterniflora accumulates organic carbon rapidly and can utilize a wide range of potential precursors for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production, as well as a wide variety of methanogenic substrates. Therefore, we predicted that S. alterniflora invasion would alter the relationships between DMS and methane (CH4) fluxes along the interacting gradients of tidal influence and vegetation, as well as the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of DMS and CH4. In this study, we used static flux chambers to measure DMS and CH4 fluxes in August (growing season) and December (non-growing season) of 2013, along creek and vegetation transects in an Eastern Chinese coastal salt marsh. S. alterniflora invasion dramatically increased DMS and CH4 emission rates by 3.8-513.0 and 2.0-127.1 times the emission rates within non-vegetated regions and regions populated with native species, respectively, and significantly altered the spatial distribution of DMS and CH4 emissions. We also observed a substantial amount of variation in the DMS and CH4 fluxes along the elevation gradient in the salt marsh studied. A significant relationship between DMS and CH4 fluxes was observed, with the CH4 flux passively related to the DMS flux. The correlation between CH4 and DMS emissions along the vegetation transects was more significant than along the tidal creek. In the S. alterniflora salt marsh, the relationship between DMS and CH4 fluxes was more significant than within any other salt marsh. Additionally, CH4 emissions within the S. alterniflora salt marsh were more sensitive to the variation in DMS emissions than within any other vegetation zone. The spatial variability in the relationship observed between DMS and CH4 fluxes appears to be at least partly due to the alteration of substrates involved in DMS and CH4 by S. alterniflora invasion. In the S. alterniflora salt marsh, methanogenesis was more likely to be derived from non-competitive substrates than competitive substrates, but within

  9. The role of elevation, relative sea-level history and vegetation transition in determining carbon distribution in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawardhana, Ranjani W.; Feagin, Rusty A.; Popescu, Sorin C.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Yeager, Kevin M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2015-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems on earth, and represent a substantial global carbon sink. Understanding the spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of both above- and below-ground carbon in these wetland ecosystems is especially important considering their potential in carbon sequestration projects, as well as for conservation efforts in the context of a changing climate and rising sea-level. Through the use of extensive field sampling and remote sensing data (Light Detection and Ranging - LiDAR, and aerial images), we sought to map and explain how vegetation biomass and soil carbon are related to elevation and relative sea-level change in a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh on Galveston Island, Texas. The specific objectives of this study were to: 1) understand the relationship between elevation and the distribution of salt marsh vegetation percent cover, plant height, plant density, above-and below-ground biomass, and carbon, and 2) evaluate the temporal changes in relative sea-level history, vegetation transitions, and resulting changes in the patterns of soil carbon distribution. Our results indicated a clear zonation of terrain and vegetation characteristics (i.e., height, cover and biomass). In the soil profile, carbon concentrations and bulk densities showed significant and abrupt change at a depth of ∼10-15 cm. This apparent transition in the soil characteristics coincided temporally with a transformation of the land cover, as driven by a rapid increase in relative sea-level around this time at the sample locations. The amounts of soil carbon stored in recently established S. alterniflora intertidal marshes were significantly lower than those that have remained in situ for a longer period of time. Thus, in order to quantify and predict carbon in coastal wetlands, and also to understand the heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, it is essential to understand not only the elevation, the

  10. 淹水调控对互花米草生长的影响%Effects of Waterlogging Regulation on Growth of Spartina Alterniflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正勇; 王国祥; 刘金娥; 徐伟伟; 任丽娟

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of waterlogging stress on Spartina alterniflora growth, five levels of waterlogging time treatment (2,4,6,12 and 24 h/d) and three levels of waterlogging depth treatment (0,10 and 20 cm) were configured. 5. Alterniflora seedlings with 7- 10 cm height were cultivated for experimentation. Responses of growth index, tiller number and aboveground biomass were determined over the course of four months. The results showed that: (1) There was extremely significant differences among the waterlogging depth treatments 0, 10 and 20 cm ( P leaves correlation coefficient > asexual reproduction coefficient. Thus, persistent waterlogging treatment is an effective physical measure to control 5. Alterniflora growth.%为了研究不同淹水深度和淹水时间胁迫下互花米草的适应能力,设置不同淹水深度(0,10和20 cm)与不同淹水时间(2,4,6,12和24 h/d)处理,以7~10 cm互花米草为试验对象,4个月后统计其生长发育参数与分蘖数,并测定地上部分的生物量.结果表明:①在淹水0,10和20 cm 3组试验之间呈极显著差异(P<0.01),随淹水深度的增加,互花米草分蘖数和地上生物量显著减少;②不同淹水时间各组之间株高呈极显著差异(P<0.01),随淹水时间的增加,互花米草分蘖数和地上生物量相应减少,且一直淹水于20 cm的互花米草全部死亡;③不同淹水时间、淹水深度对互花米草的影响大小主要表现为植株高度系数>叶片相关系数>无性生殖系数.持续淹水是控制互花米草的行之有效的物理措施.

  11. Regulation of resin acid synthesis in Pinus densiflora by differential transcription of genes encoding multiple 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Bok; Kim, Sang-Min; Kang, Min-Kyoung; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Lee, Jong Kyu; Park, Seung-Chan; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Soo-Un

    2009-05-01

    Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. is the major green canopy species in the mountainous area of Korea. To assess the response of resin acid biosynthetic genes to mechanical and chemical stimuli, we cloned cDNAs of genes encoding enzymes involved in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway (1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (PdDXS), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PdDXR) and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (PdHDR)) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. In addition, we cloned the gene encoding abietadiene synthase (PdABS) as a marker for the site of pine resin biosynthesis. PdHDR and PdDXS occurred as two gene families. In the phylogenetic trees, PdDXSs, PdDXR and PdHDRs each formed a separate clade from their respective angiosperm homologs. PdDXS2, PdHDR2 and PdDXR were most actively transcribed in stem wood, whereas PdABS was specifically transcribed. The abundance of PdDXS2 transcripts in wood in the resting state was generally 50-fold higher than the abundance of PdDXS1 transcripts, and PdHDR2 transcripts were more abundant by an order of magnitude in wood than in other tissues, with the ratio of PdHDR2 to PdHDR1 transcripts in wood being about 1. Application of 1 mM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) selectively enhanced the transcript levels of PdDXS2 and PdHDR2 in wood. The ratios of PdDXS2 to PdDXS1 and PdHDR2 to PdHDR1 reached 900 and 20, respectively, on the second day after MeJA treatment, whereas the transcript level of PdABS increased twofold by 3 days after MeJA treatment. Wounding of the stem differentially enhanced the transcript ratios of PdDXS2 to PdDXS1 and PdHDR2 to PdHDR1 to 300 and 70, respectively. The increase in the transcript levels of the MEP pathway genes in response to wounding was accompanied by two orders of magnitude increase in PdABS transcripts. These observations indicated that resin acid biosynthesis activity, represented by PdABS transcription, was correlated

  12. 赤松不定根和愈伤组织与松口蘑外生菌根菌的相互作用%INTERACTION BETWEEN ROOT AND CALLUS OF PINUS DENSIFLORA AND AN ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS, TRICHOLOMA MA TSUTAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅禄敏; 铃木和夫

    2003-01-01

    A simple in vitro system is described for interaction between tissues ofPinus densiflora andan ectomycorrhiza fungus, Tricholoma matustake. The callus and roots, which were initiated fromhypocotyl segments, were inoculated with T. matsutake in artificial condition. After two-week incubation,fungal hyphae had colonized the root surface. Fungal hyphae occurred within the root cortex, and Hartignet was formed after three-week. A few fungal hyphae and Hartig net-like structures were also visiblewithin the callus after three-week, while they were rather less abundant in callus as compared with roots.%本实验报道了以简单的离体培养方式来诱导赤松不定根和愈伤组织与松口蘑的菌根反应.不定根和愈伤组织均起源于无菌苗的下胚轴,接种2周后,菌丝体开始包围不定根.接种3周后,菌丝体出现在不定根皮层细胞间,哈蒂氏网型的形成也同时被确认.在愈伤组织培养物中,细胞间也能观察到菌丝体及拟-哈蒂氏网结构.这是第一个离体条件下成功地诱导赤松培养组织与松口蘑形成外生菌根的报道.

  13. 不同林分密度人工林赤松物理力学性质的比较%Physico-mechanical Properties of Pinus densiflora Plantations of Different Stand Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔京日; 金春德

    2009-01-01

    对延吉市帽儿山不同林分密度的人工林赤松(Pinus densiflora)的物理力学性质差异进行研究.结果表明:2个不同林分密度材绝干密度平均值相同;弦向、径向和纵向干缩率,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松大于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉和抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松要高于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;弦面和径面抗剪强度,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松低于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;2个不同林分密度人工林赤松的径向干缩率、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度差异达0.01显著水平,抗弯强度差异达0.05显著水平,绝干密度、弦向干缩率、纵向干缩率、顺纹抗拉强度无显著差异.

  14. 抗松材线虫病赤松家系的抗性测定及组织病理学观察%Resistance Determination and Histopathological Observation of Induced Pinus densiflora Families from Japan to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺; 吴小芹; 王钰; 叶建仁

    2007-01-01

    对自日本引进的赤松(Pinus densiflora)27个抗病家系进行人工抗病性测定,结果发现抗病各家系对3个不同来源的松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)虫株都表现出不同程度的抗病性,且差异明显.综合3次接种试验结果发现,引进赤松中有13个家系(1、4、5、6、7、8、13、14、15、17、20、23和25 号)抗病表现较好.对5号抗病家系接种松材线虫后,分别按时间进程(4、8、12、24、36、48、72、96、120 h)进行茎段取样,组织病理学观察发现松材线虫在引进的抗病赤松体内的迁移速度较普通赤松慢,且松树茎内木射线细胞和树脂道泌脂细胞周围的薄壁细胞出现病变较普通赤松晚,病变程度也比普通赤松轻.

  15. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  16. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  17. Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses%盐碱胁迫下沙地彰武松和樟子松苗木生理特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 张柏习

    2013-01-01

    为了在北方沙漠化、盐碱化土地上推广应用沙地彰武松这一新的造林树种,客观评价彰武松的耐盐碱性及其耐盐碱机理,本文以4年生的彰武松和樟子松为试材,采用盆栽试验方法,研究NaCl、Na2CO3和NaHCO33种单盐胁迫及NaOH碱胁迫对苗木生长和叶片生理生化特性的影响.结果表明:盐碱胁迫下,彰武松苗木的受害级别较小,根系忍耐指数较大,叶片的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著提高,最高为对照的22.6倍,丙二醛(MDA)含量没有显著提高,叶绿素(Chl)含量降幅较小,其叶片含水量(LWC)有所提高.樟子松则表现出与彰武松不同的变化规律,各处理MDA含量显著提高,CAT活性没有显著变化,Chl含量显著下降,LWC有所下降.说明彰武松的耐盐碱性高于樟子松.彰武松针叶内较高的Fe含量使其CAT活性和Chl含量较高,而Zn、Cu含量较高与其抗性强有关.%For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses-, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase ( CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde ( MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt

  18. 互花米草纤维与造纸污泥混合制作污泥纤维板%Development of novel sludge fiberboard combined with fibers of Spartina alterniflora and paper sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃佐东; 金磊磊; 王建华; 陈集双

    2014-01-01

    The research mainly focused on utilizing long fiber and paper sludge to make fiberboard,raw fiber prepared from straw of Spartina alterniflora, textile fiber and scrap pulp were respectively used to pulpe with paper sludge,and then molded by paper-producing machine followed by hot press treatment to make industrial sludge fiberboard�Analysis of different fiber-board products shows that based on the"bio-reinforced bar plus cement" theory,sludge fiberboard compound by Spartina alterniflora fiber and paper sludge had obvious advantages in stiffness,bursting strength,density,and water absorption properties�The study provides the technical foundation for comprehensive utilization of industrial waste sludge, and a scientific basis for the use of straw biomass materials from S�alterniflora�%利用长纤维与造纸污泥混合制作纤维板,以互花米草秸秆、纺织长纤维和废纸浆与造纸污泥混合制浆,经抄纸板机复合热压成型得到工业污泥纤维板材,并分析不同纤维板材的性能差异。结果表明:基于“生物钢筋+水泥”模型,互花米草秸秆纤维与造纸污泥复合成的纤维板材在硬挺度、耐破度、密度和吸水性能上均具有明显优势。此工艺为综合利用造纸污泥等工业废弃污泥提供了可借鉴的工艺技术,并为综合利用秸秆纤维提供了相关参考。

  19. Biological and Ecological Characteristics of an Invasive Alien Species Spartina in Yellow River Delta%黄河三角洲外来入侵物种米草的生物学与生态学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东里; 田家怡; 陈印平

    2009-01-01

    In Yellow River Delta,the biological and ecological characteristics of an invasive alien spe-cies spartina were investigated. The results showed that the stem of spartina is tenacious and many gas chambers are in epidermal parencbyma of its rhizome. These characteristics ensure that it can live in flooding conditions. Salt gland that is under surface of its leaf and can secret and discharge salt. Water loss can make seed fail to germination. Its capability of asexual reproduction is strong and that is the bio-logical base of its spreading. Its euryhalinity, submergence tolerance, high adaptability and reproductive capacity,strong high invasion capacity and great ecological amplitude are the ecological base of its inva-sion and development.%对黄河三角洲外来入侵物种米草的生物学、生态学特性进行了观测和研究.结果表明:米草茎秆坚韧,不易倒伏;根状茎表皮薄壁组织内有许多气腔,与淹水条件下生活的习性相适应;米草叶背面有盐腺,便于泌盐和排盐;米草种子失水即失去萌发力,无性繁殖力强,是其扩散的生物学基础;米草的广盐性、耐淹性、高适应性、强繁殖扩散能力、强竞争入侵能力、生态幅宽,是其入侵和爆发的生态学基础.

  20. 赤松、侧柏两树种含碳量方程的构建%Construction of Carbon Content Equations of Pinus densiflora and Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宁; 李建华; 崔传洋; 周才平; 冯燕; 刘新; 侯化洋

    2016-01-01

    To get the carbon content of tissues and whole trees from Pinus densiflora and Platycladus orientalis, this paper took the live data by way of excavating whole trees and weighing dividually in combination with sampling in the wild and determining carbon rate in door to construct the regression equations at diameters and heights as independent variables, carbon content as dependent variables. The results showed there were significant difference in the single-variable carbon content equation with DBH as the independent variable and the binary carbon content equation with DBH and height as the independent variables. This method saved time, labor and had a specific target compared with traditional methods. Therefore, the equations not only could be used to measure the carbon storage of the two species, but also provide technology way to measure other species for reference.%本文采用整株挖掘、分割称重法野外获得15株赤松和16株侧柏的单木及器官生物量实测数据,结合野外取样和室内含碳率测定求算出树木各器官及整株含碳量。以含碳量为因变量,树木胸径和树高为自变量建立含碳量回归方程。结果表明:以胸径为自变量的一元含碳量方程与以胸径、树高同时为自变量的二元含碳量方程均达到极显著水平。该方法与传统的方法相比,具有省时、省力、针对性强的特点,因此,所建方程不仅可用于两树种的碳储量计测研究,同时也为今后其他树种的碳储量计测提供了可供借鉴的技术方法。

  1. A neighboring plant species creates associational refuge for consumer and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A Randall

    2012-06-01

    Examples of plant-animal and plant-plant associational defenses are common across a variety of systems, yet the potential for them to occur in concert has not been explored. In salt marshes in the Gulf of Mexico, the marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) is an abundant and conspicuous member of the community, climbing up the stems of marsh plants to remain out of the water at high tide. Though Littoraria are thought to primarily utilize stems of marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora as a source of food and refuge, Littoraria were more abundant in mixed assemblages of Spartina and Juncus roemerianus than in Spartina-only areas at the same tidal height. Mesocosm experiments confirmed that Juncus provided a refuge for Littoraria, with predation by Callinectes sapidus (but not Melongena corona) reduced when Juncus was present. However, Littoraria's utilization of Juncus as well as the effectiveness of Juncus as a refuge depended strongly on plant height: when Juncus was experimentally clipped to a shorter height than Spartina, snail abundance on Spartina and snail predation by crabs increased. Interestingly, this plant animal refuge led to a corresponding refuge for Spartina from Littoraria: Spartina plants lost less biomass to snail grazing when growing with Juncus in mesocosm and field experiments, and Spartina plants in natural assemblages were taller when growing with Juncus than when growing alone, even in the presence of abundant snails. This example highlights the potential importance of plant plant and plant-animal associational refuges in competitive plant assemblages.

  2. 昆嵛山赤松林不同林型结构特征与生产力的研究%Community structure characteristics and productivity of varied Pinus densiflora forest types in Kunyu Mountain,Shandong Province of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华

    2012-01-01

    It held the largest area of nature Pinus densiflora forests in the world in Kunyu Mountain National Nature Reserve,Shandong Province of eastern China.According to the slope aspect,slope position,soil thickness of the sites and dominant tree species,we classified P.densiflora forests in this reserve into 4 groups,and then investigated the structure and productivity of the forest community in relation to different forest types.The results showed that the pure P.densiflora forests occupied the largest area in this reserve,and it was predominately characterized by even-aged stands and half-mature forests of 30-50 years old mixed with Quercus spp.The shrub and herb layers of undergrowth developed well,and we recorded about 20 species of shrub and 40 species of herb in the sample plots.The stand productivity,however,was rather lower.The middle-aged forest located at suitable sites held 30-50 m3/hm2 of the stand volume and 1-2 m3/hm2 of the annual average increment.In addition,the stand volume of the mixed forest of P.densiflora and broadleaved tree species was more than 90 m3/hm2 and the annual increment was 2-3 m3/hm2.%根据立地主导因子(坡向、坡位、土层厚度)与混交状况,对山东昆嵛山赤松林划分林型,将其归纳为4个林型组(山脊阳坡薄土赤松林,阳坡中土厚土赤松林,阴坡中土厚土赤松林,阴坡阳坡中厚土松阔混交林)。并对不同林型的群落结构与林分生产力进行了研究。结果表明:赤松纯林面积较大,林龄多为30~50年生的中龄林、同龄林,混交树种多为栎类(麻栎、栓皮栎等)。林下灌木层与草本层发育较好,样地中常见约20个灌木种,近40种草本。林木与林分生产力较低,立地较好的中龄林林分蓄积量约30~50m3/hm2,平均材积生长量1~2m3/hm2;松阔混交林蓄积量超过90m3/hm2,年均材积生长量达2~3m3/hm2。

  3. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  4. Characteristics of photosynthetic productivity and water-consumption for transpiration in Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%彰武松、樟子松光合生产与蒸腾耗水特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 尤国春; 王曼

    2012-01-01

    采用Li-6400光合测定系统对性成熟(18 a)阶段彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis)和樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)光合及蒸腾指标不同季节日变化进行了测定,并采用切枝蒸腾法对两个树种叶片气孔蒸腾和角质层蒸腾进行对比测定,评价了气孔开闭敏感性,探讨了两个树种光合生产与蒸腾耗水特性.结果表明:在同样生境条件下,彰武松比樟子松有较大的光合速率(Pn)和较小的蒸腾速率(Tr).在5月和7月,彰武松的Pn和Tr日变化呈现明显双峰型,其Pn和Tr“午休”现象均主要受气孔限制;在10月呈单峰型.樟子松的Pn和Tr日变化在整个生长季均呈单峰型,而且,彰武松日光合量(DAP)均高于樟子松,是樟子松的163.4%(5月)、211.1%(7月)和183.6%(10月).光响应曲线参数表明:在不同月份,彰武松最大光合速率(Pmax)均大于樟子松,且光饱和点(LSP)较高,光补偿点(LCP)较低.在任意被测时刻,彰武松气孔导度(Ga)和Tr都小于樟子松.彰武松具有较小气孔和角质层蒸腾速度,并且在同样干旱条件下,彰武松气孔下陷,其气孔的开闭反应更加敏感.彰武松水分利用效率(WUE)较高,约是樟子松的2.29倍.这些结果暗示,彰武松以其高的光合速率和低的蒸腾耗水特性,提高水分利用效率,以其敏感的气孔开闭机制和旱生叶片结构进而实现在干旱半干旱地区的速生特性.

  5. FIavonoid IeveIs in Spartina alterniflora LoiseI (CyperaIes:Poaceae) and their ecoIogicaI significance%互花米草黄酮含量分析及其生态学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金珂; 王天弘; 周长芳; 胡楚琦; 王涵兴

    2014-01-01

    互花米草原产于北美洲大西洋沿岸和墨西哥海湾,经引种和其他原因,已扩散到包括中国在内的多个国家和地区,并对被入侵地生态系统的结构和功能均造成了显著影响。有关该物种的入侵机制和控制策略是当前入侵生态学研究领域的热点。互花米草生物质材料中富含黄酮类物质,与该物种向海扩张的能力可能存在一定联系。鉴于黄酮广泛的应用价值,能否借助黄酮成分的开发带动生物质的收割,以达到有效控制该物种的目的,也是当前研究者所关注的问题。以芦丁为标准参照物,NaNO2-Al( NO3)3法比较温室互花米草不同器官中总黄酮含量的差异,分析盐城滩涂互花米草越冬芽黄酮含量与所在地理位置之间的关系,采用L9(34)正交试验对干储互花米草叶总黄酮的提取工艺进行优化。互花米草叶片中黄酮类物质远高于根、根状茎、茎、叶鞘、颖稃及种子。盐城滩涂上互花米草越冬芽的黄酮含量随着由陆向海方向基本呈升高趋势。互花米草总黄酮最佳提取工艺为料液比1∶30,乙醇浓度70%,水浴温度80℃,水浴时间2h。互花米草植物材料中,尤其在叶部,黄酮含量十分丰富。该黄酮物质与互花米草在海岸带盐沼生态系统中的适应和向海扩张也存在正相关关系,可作为探索互花米草入侵机制的一个方向。利用本研究中所得优化提取工艺可从互花米草干储生物质中获得稳定的黄酮来源。配合黄酮经济成分的开发而推动生物质材料的收割利用,将成为互花米草生态控制的一项潜在策略。%Background Spartina alterniflora Loisel, originally distributed along the Atlantic coasts of North America and the Gulf of Mexico, has been introduced into many countries including China , and has often become invasive , causing significant changes in both the structure and functioning of

  6. OMWM - Quality Mosquito Control on Cordgrass Salt Marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Open marsh water management ( OMWM) has evolved from over twenty years of cooperative efforts between mosquito control and conservation agencies. Its beginning came...

  7. Restoration through eradication? Removal of an invasive bioengineer restores some habitat function for a native predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsman, Kirstin K; McDonald, P Sean; Barreyro, Pablo A; Armstrong, David A

    2010-12-01

    Invasive aquatic macrophytes increase structural complexity in recipient systems and alter trophic and physical resources; thus, eradication programs that remove plant structure have potential to restore some impaired ecological functions. In this study we evaluate how an invasive ecosystem engineer, Atlantic smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), interferes with the movement and foraging activity of a mobile predator, Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), and whether removal of aboveground cordgrass structure rapidly reestablishes access to foraging habitats. By 2004, smooth cordgrass had invaded >25% of crab foraging habitat in Willapa Bay, Washington (USA), and transformed it into a highly structured landscape. However, by 2007 successful eradication efforts had eliminated most meadows of the cordgrass. In order to investigate the effect of smooth cordgrass on the habitat function of littoral areas for foraging crabs, we integrated field, laboratory, and statistical modeling approaches. We conducted trapping surveys at multiple sites and used a hierarchical model framework to examine patterns in catches prior to and following cordgrass removal (i.e., before-after control-impact design, BACI). Prior to eradication, catches of Dungeness crabs in unstructured habitats were 4-19 times higher than catches in adjacent patches of live cordgrass. In contrast, the results of post-eradication trapping in 2007 indicated similar catch rates of crabs in unstructured habitats and areas formerly invaded by the cordgrass. Subsequent laboratory experiments and video observations demonstrated that the rigid physical structure of smooth cordgrass shoots reduces the ability of Dungeness crabs to access prey resources and increases the risk of stranding. Taken together, these findings suggest that eliminating the structural complexity of invasive macrophytes may rapidly restore some ecological function (i.e., foraging area) for migratory predators like Dungeness crab. However

  8. Expansion Ability of Spartina alterniflora Ramets on Coastal Wetland of North Jiangsu.%苏北海滨湿地互花米草无性分株扩张能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟伟; 王国祥; 刘金娥; 陈正勇; 任丽娟

    2011-01-01

    在新洋港滩涂由海向陆建立样地:光滩(mudflat)、零星互花米草(Spartina alternifiora)斑块(SAP)、稳定互花米草滩下边缘(SAFI)、2003年互花米草定居处(SAF03)、1989年互花米草定居处(SAF89)、碱蓬(Suaeda salsa)滩(SS)及禾草滩(GF),各样地原位栽培9株生长无差异的互花米草分蘖幼苗(1 m×1 m样方,3次重复),分析互花米草生长指标和繁殖成功率,研究互花米草在苏北海滨湿地的扩张能力.结果表明:(1)mudflat处互花米草分蘖幼苗存活率为7.8%,极显著低于其他样地,SAP、SAFI、SAF03、SAF89、SS和GF样地互花米草存活率分别为88.9%、77.8%、60.0%、81.1%、0和66.6%;(2)mudflat处根状茎数量显著高于其他样地,但互花米草种子千粒重显著低于其他样地,127 d时mudflat、SAP、SAFI、SAF03、SAF89及GF处互花米草数量比原先存活的互花米草数量分别增加了24.8、19.7、30.2、6.7、5.8和3.0倍;(3)SAP、SAFI及SAF89间总生物量无显著差异(P>0.05),且显著高于其他样地,并表现出以SAFI为中心,分别向海洋和陆地递减的趋势,mudflat与GF处穗生物量分配低,根状茎生物量分配高.结果显示受潮汐、土壤水分和风浪影响,互花米草在研究区内近海潮滩带有较强的扩张能力,但光滩处植株矮小,且在近海潮滩带与近岸潮滩带两端更趋向于选择无性繁殖方式,而中部潮滩带则是以有性繁殖和无性繁殖相结合的方式来进行种群延续和扩张.%Seven plots were laid out from sea to land along the intertidal gradient on tideland of the coast of Xinyanggang,North Jiangsu and labeled as mudflat, Spartina alterniflora patch ( SAP), lower edge of stable S. alternifiora flat ( SAFI),S. alternifiora flat 2003( SAF03), S. alterniflora flat 1989(SAF89), Suaeda salsa (SS) and grass flat (GF). In each plot ( 1 m × 1 m in quadrat, 3 replicates), 9 S. alterniflora tiller seedlings, similar in growth for all the plots, were cultivated in

  9. 抗松材线虫病赤松组培苗的生根与移栽研究%Study on rooting and transplanting of the tissue-cultured plantlets from Pinus densiflora with good resistance to pine wilt disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉; 吴小芹; 王张丽

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing rooting and transplanting of tissue-cultured plantlets from Pinus densiflora with excellent resistance to pine wilt disease but poor ability of rooting were investigated. The results showed that the induction rate of the adventitious root reached 93% after treating the shoots at 17 ℃ for 5 days, and it was beneficial for adventitious root induction as adding 30-50 mg/L banana juice into the rooting medium with a controlled temperature of 25 ℃. To sterilize the transplant matrix at high temperature or with 0.2% KMnO4 for two times would be helpful for improving the survival ratio of the tissue-cultured plantlets. Spraying nutrition solution could stimulate the plantlets growth. This research contributed to improve the root induction and transplanting survival rate, which provided factory style breeding system and practice evidences.%以抗病性较好但不易生根的抗松材线虫病赤松无性系为试验材料,对影响组培苗生根移栽的因素进行了研究.结果表明:将待生根的丛生芽置于17 ℃条件下处理5 d后,不定根诱导率最高达93%;在生根培养基中添加30~50 mg/L香蕉汁有利于不定根诱导;对移栽基质进行高温灭菌或0.2%高锰酸钾消毒2次的处理均可有效提高组培苗移栽成活率;喷施营养液对组培苗的长势具有促进作用.

  10. Methane Production by Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Manure and Spartina alterniflora Residue After Producing Methane%鸡粪与互花米草沼渣混合发酵产甲烷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 常志州; 叶小梅; 杜静; 徐跃定; 张建英

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of Spartina alterniflora residue after producing methane (SAR) digested alone and co-digestion of various proportions of chicken manure and SAR were investigated by batch model at 35℃±1℃. The initial total solid (TS) loading of all treatments was 8.0%. The results indicated that there was still some biogas produced by SAR with TS biogas yield of 107.25 mL·g-1 and average methane content of 76.92%. The cellulose crystallinity of re-digested SAR was destructed by anaerobic microorganisms, and the destruction rate was 5.55%. Co-digestion meliorated the environment where microorganisms lived in and increased the cumulative biogas yield. When the ratio of chicken manure to SAR was 4∶1, the cumulative biogas yield was highest while the cumulative biogas yield of T1 (the rate of chicken manure to SAR is 5∶0 based on TS), T3-T6 (the rate of chicken manure to SAR are 3∶2, 2∶3, 1∶4 and 0∶5 based on TS, respectively) were 61.31%, 62.09%, 52.15%, 39.74% and 31.67% of it. The anaerobic fermentation type of co-digestion is mix acid type fermentation. Co-digested with chicken manure promoted the destruction of cellulous crystallinity by 1.13%-21.61% and especially when the rate of chicken manure to SAR was 4∶1.%在中温(35℃±1℃)条件下,采用批式发酵方式,进行了鸡粪与互花米草沼渣不同混合比例的厌氧发酵实验.实验设置鸡粪∶互花米草沼渣干物质(TS)比分别为5∶0(T1)、4∶1(T2)、3∶2(T3)、2∶3(T4)、1∶4(T5)和0∶5(T6)共6个处理.结果表明,经中温干发酵后的互花米草沼渣仍具有一定的厌氧产沼气能力,TS产气量为107.25 mL·g-1,甲烷含量为76.92%,厌氧微生物对互花米草沼渣纤维素的结晶区有一定的破坏作用,厌氧发酵后纤维素的相对结晶度指数CrI下降了5.55%; 将鸡粪与互花米草沼渣混合发酵,明显提高了原料的厌氧产气性能,T2的产气效果最好,T1、T3~T6

  11. 闽江口湿地互花米草地上生物量的月动态特征%Monthly Dynamics of Aboveground Biomass of Spartina Alterniflora in Minjiang River Estuary Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽纯; 林瑞坤; 吴振海; 陈家金; 杨凯; 徐宗焕

    2009-01-01

    The Minjiang River estuary wetland, one of the most important wetlands in Fujian province, China, is currently being increasingly dominated by alien invasive species Spartina alterniflora, causing its native species such as Phragmites australis and habitats for animals to be dangerous. The S. alterniflora has been spreading rapidly since its invasion in year 2004. However, there are still no effective measures to deal with these problems, with showing little research about the treatment for protecting native species over this area. The authors carefully examined the invasive situation regarding S. alterniflora over the Minjiang river estuary wetland in Shanyu floodplain, whose edge was seriously dominated by S. alterniflora in year 2008. Based on observations of community characteristics including aboveground biomass, height and density of S. alterniflora in the Minjiang river estuary wetland from March to October in 2008, monthly dynamics of aboveground biomass, average height, average density, absolute growth rate and absolute growth rate of aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora were extensively investigated. A correlation analysis among aboveground biomass, average height and average density were also performed. Field investigations of aboveground biomass were conducted by a harvest method, randomly selecting four 0.5m×0.5m quadrats in the study site. Results indicated that: l) from March to October, the aboveground biomass first increased, peaked in the middle of July with a maximum of 2658.9g/m~2, thereafter decreased from late July to the middle of August, and slowly increased from the late August to the middle of October; 2) the absolute growth rate reached a maximum of 32.48g/(m~2·d) from May to June, fluctuating thereafter. A negative value of-21.63 g/(m~2·d) even occurred from July to August; 3) the relative growth rate reached a maximum of 0.043g/(g·d) from pril to May and a negative value of-0.009g/(g·d) was also observed from July to August; 4

  12. 互花米草与土豆混合厌氧发酵产酸和产沼气特性%Characteristics of acidification fermentation and biogas production for co-digestion of Spartina alterniflora and potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继红; 杨世关; 郑正

    2011-01-01

    研究了中温(35℃)批量发酵条件下互花米草与土豆VS配比分别为6∶1、7∶1和9∶1时混合厌氧发酵的产酸发酵和产沼气特性.试验结果表明:1)与互花米草单独发酵时的丙酸型产酸发酵不同,混合发酵的产酸发酵表现为丁酸型发酵:混合发酵时发酵液中总挥发性有机酸(TVFAs)的浓度比互花米草单独发酵时提高了1倍多;混合发酵时发酵液中各单一有机酸浓度依次为乙酸>丙酸>丁酸,而互花米草单独发酵时为丙酸>乙酸>丁酸;2)6∶l、7∶1和9∶l三种配比下的沼气产量分别为460、431和415mL/g VS,比互花米草单独发酵时的361 mL/gVS分别提高了27.4%、19.3%和15.0%;3)6∶1、7∶1和9∶1三种配比下的沼气中的甲烷含量分别为60.3%、62.4%和62.7%,比互花米草单独发酵条件下57.4%的平均甲烷含量提高了大约3%~5%.总之,混合发酵显著改变了互花米草的产酸发酵特性,这些改变对促进互花米草的厌氧发酵和提高所产沼气的质量均具有积极的意义.%Influences of anaerobic co-digestion of Spartina alterniflora, a lignocellulosic material, and potato on acidification fermentation of S. Alterniflora and its biogas production were investigated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments conducted at S. Alterniflora to potato ratio of 6:1, 7:1 and 9:1 at 35 ℃. The results indicated that acidification fermentation for co-digestions was butyrate type compared with that of propionate type for mono-digestion of pure S. Alterniflora, and the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations for co-digestion increased more than twice compared with that of mono-digestion of pure S.alterniflora. The results also indicated that the cumulative biogas yields for co-digestion at SC∶P ratios of 6∶1, 7∶1 and 9∶1, respectively amounted to 460, 431 and 415 mL/g VS, increased by 27.4%, 19.3% and 15.0% than the 361 mL/g VS obtained in mono-digestion of pure S

  13. The planthopper genus Spartidelphax, a new segregate of Nearctic Delphacodes (Hemiptera, Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bartlett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The new genus Spartidelphax is described to house three species removed from the polyphyletic genus Delphacodes. The members of Spartidelphax are coastal species native to eastern North America, and probably feed exclusively on cordgrass (Poaceae, Spartina Schreb.. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the included species (viz. S. detectus, S. luteivittus, and S. penedetectus are reviewed. Spartidelphax luteivittus is a nomen dubium, whose type material is inadequate to provide diagnostic features contrasting with S. detectus and S. penedetectus. Diagnoses and a key are provided for the remaining Spartidelphax.

  14. C4 bioenergy crops for cool climates, with special emphasis on perennial C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; de Melo Peixoto, Murilo; Friesen, Patrick; Deen, Bill

    2015-07-01

    There is much interest in cultivating C4 perennial plants in northern climates where there is an abundance of land and a potential large market for biofuels. C4 feedstocks can exhibit superior yields to C3 alternatives during the long warm days of summer at high latitude, but their summer success depends on an ability to tolerate deep winter cold, spring frosts, and early growth-season chill. Here, we review cold tolerance limits in C4 perennial grasses. Dozens of C4 species are known from high latitudes to 63 °N and elevations up to 5200 m, demonstrating that C4 plants can adapt to cold climates. Of the three leading C4 grasses being considered for bioenergy production in cold climates--Miscanthus spp., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)--all are tolerant of cool temperatures (10-15 °C), but only cordgrass tolerates hard spring frosts. All three species overwinter as dormant rhizomes. In the productive Miscanthus×giganteus hybrids, exposure to temperatures below -3 °C to -7 °C will kill overwintering rhizomes, while for upland switchgrass and cordgrass, rhizomes survive exposure to temperatures above -20 °C to -24 °C. Cordgrass emerges earlier than switchgrass and M. giganteus genotypes, but lacks the Miscanthus growth potential once warmer days of late spring arrive. To enable C4-based bioenergy production in colder climates, breeding priorities should emphasize improved cold tolerance of M.×giganteus, and enhanced productivity of switchgrass and cordgrass. This should be feasible in the near future, because wild populations of each species exhibit a diverse range of cold tolerance and growth capabilities.

  15. In situ spectral reflectance studies of tidal wetland grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. S.; Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    Field measurements of wetland spectral canopy reflectance in the Landsat-MSS wavebands were correlated with biotic factors. The highest single band correlations were observed between visible (MSS Band 4: 0.5 to 0.6 micron and Band 5: 0.6 to 0.7 micron) canopy reflectance and the percentage, by weight, of live (green) vegetation in the canopies of Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow grass), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass). Infrared canopy reflectance displayed significant but weaker dependence on canopy parameters such as live and total biomass and canopy height. The Band 7 (0.8 to 1.1 microns)/Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron) reflectance ratio was found to be highly correlated with green biomass for S. alterniflora. Highest spectral separability between the 'low marsh' S. alterniflora and the 'high marsh' Salt Hay (S. patens and D. spicata) communities in Delaware occurs during December.

  16. Herbivore impacts on marsh production depend upon a compensatory continuum mediated by salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeremy D; Porturas, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Plant communities are disturbed by several stressors and they are expected to be further impacted by increasing anthropogenic stress. The consequences of these stressors will depend, in part, upon the ability of plants to compensate for herbivory. Previous studies found that herbivore impacts on plants can vary from negative to positive because of environmental control of plant compensatory responses, a.k.a. the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis. While these influential studies enhanced our appreciation of the dynamic nature of plant-herbivore interactions, they largely focused on the impact of resource limitation. This bias limits our ability to predict how other environmental factors will shape the impact of herbivory. We examined the role of salinity stress on herbivory of salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, by an herbivore previously hypothesized to influence the success of restoration projects (the scale insect, Haliaspis spartinae). Using a combination of field and mesocosm manipulations of scales and salinity, we measured how these factors affected Spartina growth and timing of senescence. In mesocosm studies, Spartina overcompensated for herbivory by growing taller shoots at low salinities but the impact of scales on plants switched from positive to neutral with increasing salinity stress. In field studies of intermediate salinities, scales reduced Spartina growth and increased the rate of senescence. Experimental salinity additions at this field site returned the impact of scales to neutral. Because salinity decreased scale densities, the switch in impact of scales on Spartina with increasing salinity was not simply a linear function of scale abundance. Thus, the impact of scales on primary production depended strongly upon environmental context because intermediate salinity stress prevented plant compensatory responses to herbivory. Understanding this context-dependency will be required if we are going to successfully predict the success of

  17. 互花米草与3种本地红树植物叶片化感潜力比较%Comparison of the Leaf Allelopathic Potential of the Invasive Wetland Plant Spartina alterniflora and Three Native Mangrove Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段琳琳; 梁士楚; 李富荣; 周巧劲

    2015-01-01

    为揭示化感作用在湿地入侵植物互花米草与本地红树植物竞争关系中的影响,本研究以萝卜为受体,用培养皿法比较互花米草与3种本地红树植物叶片化感潜力大小.结果表明:各植物浸提液对受体植物不同检测指标的化感效应不一致.木榄浸提液在0.2 g•mL-1浓度下对萝卜种子萌发抑制率达最大值34.3%,但并不显著,而互花米草的高浓度浸提液均明显抑制萝卜种子萌发,且高于其他2种红树植物.4种植物浸提液对萝卜根长生长均在高浓度时表现为明显的抑制作用,且在浸提液浓度为0.2 g•mL-1时,桐花树对萝卜幼苗根长的化感抑制作用达最大76.4%,而对幼苗苗高则普遍表现为化感促进效应.在萝卜幼苗鲜质量方面,互花米草和秋茄表现为促进作用,而木榄和桐花树的化感效应表现出“高抑低促”的规律.%To compare the allelopathic potential of the wetland invasive plant Spartina alterniflora and the native mangrove plants Bruguiera gymnorrhiza,Aegiceras corniculatum,and Kandelia candel, the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of the four plants on seed germination and seedling growth of radish (Raphanus sativus)were studied by using indoor Petri dish bioassay method.The results showed that both S.alterniflora and the native mangrove plants had allelopathic potential.But their allelopathic effects on the different examination indexes of radish were diverse.When the aqueous extract concentration was 0.2 g•mL-1 ,the inhibitory rate of B.gymnorrhiza reached 34.3% of the maximum, but it was not significant.Under the relatively high concentrations of plant extracts,S.alterniflora had significantly inhibitory effect on the radish seed germination,which was stronger than those of the other two mangrove plants.All the four plant extracts with high concentrations significantly exhibited inhibitory effects on the radish root growth.And the

  18. A Simple, Inexpensive, and Field-Relevant Microcosm Tidal Simulator for Use in Marsh Macrophyte Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. MacTavish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A microcosm unit with tidal simulation was developed to address the challenge of maintaining ecologically relevant tidal regimes while performing controlled greenhouse experiments on smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Methods and Results: We designed a simple, inexpensive, easily replicated microcosm unit with tidal simulation and tested whether S. alterniflora growth in microcosms with tidal simulation was similar to that of tidally influenced plants in the field on Sapelo Island, Georgia. After three months of exposure to either natural or simulated tidal treatment, plants in microcosms receiving tidal simulation had similar stem density, height, and above- and belowground biomass to plants in field plots. Conclusions: The tidal simulator developed may provide an inexpensive, effective method for conducting studies on S. alterniflora and other tidally influenced plants in controlled settings to be used not only to complement field studies, but also in locations without coastal access.

  19. Biogeochemical processes in an urban, restored wetland of San Francisco Bay, California, 2007-2009; methods and data for plant, sediment and water parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Erikson, Li H.; Ward, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    The restoration of 18 acres of historic tidal marsh at Crissy Field has had great success in terms of public outreach and visibility, but less success in terms of revegetated marsh sustainability. Native cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) has experienced dieback and has failed to recolonize following extended flooding events during unintended periodic closures of its inlet channel, which inhibits daily tidal flushing. We examined the biogeochemical impacts of these impoundment events on plant physiology and on sulfur and mercury chemistry to help the National Park Service land managers determine the relative influence of these inlet closures on marsh function. In this comparative study, we examined key pools of sulfur, mercury, and carbon compounds both during and between closure events. Further, we estimated the net hydrodynamic flux of methylmercury and total mercury to and from the marsh during a 24-hour diurnal cycle. This report documents the methods used and the data generated during the study.

  20. Foundation species' overlap enhances biodiversity and multifunctionality from the patch to landscape scale in southeastern United States salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Christine; van der Heide, Tjisse; Griffin, John N; Morton, Joseph P; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Lamers, Leon P M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Silliman, Brian R

    2015-07-22

    Although there is mounting evidence that biodiversity is an important and widespread driver of ecosystem multifunctionality, much of this research has focused on small-scale biodiversity manipulations. Hence, which mechanisms maintain patches of enhanced biodiversity in natural systems and if these patches elevate ecosystem multifunctionality at both local and landscape scales remain outstanding questions. In a 17 month experiment conducted within southeastern United States salt marshes, we found that patches of enhanced biodiversity and multifunctionality arise only where habitat-forming foundation species overlap--i.e. where aggregations of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) form around cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) stems. By empirically scaling up our experimental results to the marsh platform at 12 sites, we further show that mussels--despite covering only approximately 1% of the marsh surface--strongly enhance five distinct ecosystem functions, including decomposition, primary production and water infiltration rate, at the landscape scale. Thus, mussels create conditions that support the co-occurrence of high densities of functionally distinct organisms within cordgrass and, in doing so, elevate salt marsh multifunctionality from the patch to landscape scale. Collectively, these findings suggest that patterns in foundation species' overlap drive variation in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning within and across natural ecosystems.We therefore argue that foundation species should be integrated in our conceptual understanding of forces that moderate biodiversity--ecosystem functioning relationships, approaches for conserving species diversity and strategies to improve the multifunctionality of degraded ecosystems.

  1. Impacts of temperature and nitrogen addition on greenhouse gas fluxes from turfgrass and coastal salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, K.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Brown, R.; Quinn, R. K.; Brannon, E.; Amador, J.; Craver, V.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and nitrogen (N) loading from wastewater and fertilization are both increasingly significant anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem change. Among the ecosystems affected by these drivers are coastal salt marshes, although turf grasses are often direct recipients of N inputs prior to their discharge to the coast. To estimate changes in greenhouse gas emissions from coastal marsh grasses and turfgrasses, we created a mesocosm experiment using a common turfgrass (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and a dominant native coastal cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in growth chambers kept under current and projected future temperatures with or without added N inputs. For N fertilization, we used recovered biosolids from wastewater sludge. We measured fluxes of N2O, CO2, and CH4 in the mesocosms through a growing season, the summer of 2016. Above and belowground biomass will be compared between experimental treatments and tested as a potential proxy for CO2 fluxes along with soil properties, including salinity, moisture, and DIN. Preliminary results indicate that there were few significant fluxes of N2O from the mesocosm plots. Both the highest N2O and CO2 emissions (9.6 umol m-2 h-1 and 15.1 m-2 s-1 respectively) were measured from turfgrass mesocosms. The highest CH4 emissions (61.9 umol m-2 h-1) were measured from cordgrass mesocosms. This data will be used to determine if fertilization using recovered biosolids is a sustainable method of fertilizer application.

  2. Environmental conditions in the Namskaket Marsh Area, Orleans, Massachusetts: A summary of studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1989–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2016-09-23

    Namskaket Marsh and its tidal creek system are potential receptors for a treated wastewater plume originating from a septage treatment facility in the northwest part of Orleans, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. From 1989 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and local partners, conducted a series of studies in the Namskaket Marsh area to characterize the potential effects of the plume on the marsh and its tidal creek system. Studies included characterizing the baseline vegetation and salinity distribution in the marsh, monitoring the movement of the wastewater plume downgradient of the septage treatment facility, and sampling nutrient concentrations in the tidal creek system during a baseline period prior to the arrival of the plume at the marsh boundary. The Inner Namskaket Marsh baseline vegetation survey in 1995 found it to be dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed, 44 percent of vegetative cover), Spartina patens (salt marsh hay, 17 percent), and Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass, 9 percent). Phragmites occurrence was correlated with shallow pore-water salinity in the marsh peat and was largely confined to areas with salinities less than 4 parts per thousand. Baseline, ebb-tide nutrient concentrations at the tidal creek sampling stations during 1994–96 showed strong seasonal variations for ammonium, likely associated with the seasonal cycle of growth and senescence for the dominant salt marsh grasses (S. alterniflora and S. patens). The seasonal cycle for nitrate was generally less pronounced.

  3. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  4. Caracterização das atividades econômicas tradicionais no entorno das marismas no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano César Marangoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes are predominant intertidal coastal ecosystem in 29º S and higher latitudes. At Patos Lagoon estuary (RS, 6.837 ha of salt marshes occupy margins and islands that have been used by farming and ranching since XVII century. This study aimed to characterize the use of salt marshes by economical activities (farming and ranching at Patos Lagoon estuary. This study was carried out in the counties ofRio Grande and São José do Norte throughout semi-structured interviews with representative of farmers, ranchers and urban residents living nearby salt marshes. Neighboring ranches have an average area of 306ha with a stocking density of 1 animal.ha-1. Cattle graze Spartina densiflora (during winter and Scirpus olneyi (during summer, and animals can eat 4.6% to 15.3% of plant biomass production, respectively. Neighboring farms have small areas (average of 19.3 ha with 4.2 ha planted and onion and vegetables are the main crops. Farmers utilize 6.4% of annual biomass of S. densiflora and 20.5% of Juncus kraussii for ground cover, manuring and construction of small sheds. Most of farmers and ranchers described the expansion along the last 50 years of J. kraussii over grasslands, crop areas and S. densiflora salt marshes, and urban residents reported the erosion of estuarine margins during the same period. The farming and ranching techniques used in the last decades at Patos Lagoon estuary allowed the social reproduction of economical activity together with the conservation of salt marshes.

  5. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pretreated Pinus densiflora using enzymes from brown rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Ho-Yong; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass was performed using culture filtrates of brown rot fungi including Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Fomitopsis pinicola, and Laetiporus sulphureus. Biological treatment with white rot fungi was used as pretreatment prior to enzymatic saccharification. Endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and cellobiohydrolase activities were determined from concentrated culture filtrates of the brown rot fungi. L. sulphureus has the highest endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase activities, and F. pinicola has the highest cellobiohydrolase activity. When enzymes from L. sulphureus were used along with the lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with Stereum hirsutum as the carbon source, the total sugar yield was 11.36 mg/0.25 g of dry weight biomass, with the highest activities of cellulase and hemicellulase. In order to increase the sugar yield, the enzymes from L. sulphureus were mixed with those from F. pinicola, which showed high cellobiohydrolase activity. This caused an increase in the sugar yield from 11.36 mg to 15.22 mg. When temperature was increased to 50 degrees C, the total sugar yield increased to 17.74 mg for the same reaction time. The crystallinity of lignocellulosic biomass decreased from 68.4% to 60.2%, when lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with S. hirsutum was hydrolyzed using enzymes from L. sulphureus.

  6. Grafting Experiments of Pinus densiflora%东宁赤松嫁接育苗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡丽; 郑兴伟; 王亚利

    2013-01-01

    通过以樟子松容器苗为砧木进行东宁赤松嫁接试验,结果表明:在砧木和接穗径长生旺盛期(7月)和径生长末期(8月)2个时期进行东宁赤松嫁接,其成活率都很高,分别达到98.0%和98.7%,且接穗没有伸长生长,可安全越冬.利用嫁接方法繁殖东宁赤松是可行的.

  7. Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Soo; Jeon, Min Hee; Hwang, Hyun Jung; Park, Mi Ra; Lee, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Gu; Kim, Mihyang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants.

  8. Paenibacillus pinihumi sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Eun-Mi; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Kwon, O-Yu; Shin, Kee-Sun

    2009-10-01

    A novel cellulolytic bacterium, strain S23(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of the pine trees in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. This isolate was Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and tested positive for alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, leucine arylamidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase activities. The DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol%. The main cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (51.9%), iso-C(16:0) (14.7%), and iso-C(15:0) (13.2%). The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). Diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall pepti-doglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this strain clustered with Paenibacillus species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between S23(T) and other Paenibacillus species were between 89.9% and 95.9%, and S23(T) was most closely related to Paenibacillus tarimensis SA-7-6(T). On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of strain S23(T), the isolate is considered as a novel species belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. Therefore, the name, Paenibacillus pinihumi sp. nov., is proposed for the rhizosphere isolate; the type strain is S23(T) (=KCTC 13695(T) =KACC 14199(T) =JCM 16419(T)).

  9. Antithrombosis activity of protocatechuic and shikimic acids from functional plant Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Lee, Beomgi; Choi, Hakjoon; Kim, Woong; Kim, Ho-Joong; Cheong, Hyeonsook

    2016-07-01

    Pine needle extract (PE) and fermented pine needle extract (FPE) have been reported to show various biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cholesterol, gastrointestinal motility control, and fibrinolytic effect. The aims of our research were to isolate fibrinolytic compounds from PE and FPE and evaluate their antithrombotic activity in vitro and in vivo. Protocatechuic (1) and shikimic (2) acids were isolated and identified from FPE. 1 and 2 not only have fibrinolysis activity but also inhibit fibrin formation similar to aspirin. Lysis of fibrin clots by 1 and 2 occurred completely at pH 2-4. Results of SDS-PAGE showed that fibrin polypeptide chains (Aα, Bβ, γ) lysed by 1 and 2 were intact. The antithrombotic effects of 1 and 2 were confirmed by models of carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis, collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism in mice, and FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus. Moreover, 1 and 2 did not induce hemorrhage in the tail veins of mice, unlike common antithrombotic compounds. We also measured changes in the quantities of 1 and 2 obtained from FPE. As fermentation progressed, we demonstrated that the quantity of 1 steadily increased, while the quantity of 2 did not significantly change. We therefore demonstrated that FPE is an excellent resource for 1 and 2 and can be produced inexpensively in sufficient quantities for industrial-scale extraction.

  10. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-11

    A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

  11. Impacts of Nitrogen Removal and Re-Application on N2O fluxes from Narragansett Bay: Contrasting Turfgrasses, Salt Marshes, and Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, E.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Quinn, R. K.; Amador, J.; Brown, R.; Lancellotti, B.; Glennon, K.; Celeste, G.; Craver, V.

    2016-12-01

    Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island is characterized by a substantial, historic bay-wide nitrogen (N) gradient. Centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major anthropogenic N source. Onsite wastewater treatments systems (OWTS), which serve 1/3 of all households in the state, are another anthropogenic N source. Recent state regulation has prompted upgrades to both WWTPs and OWTS to increase N removal capacities. Although this should lower N loads to Narragansett Bay, it has the potential to increase the flux of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We measured summer-time (2016) N2O fluxes of a major WWTP (biological N removal system at Field's Point in Providence) and three of the most common advanced OWTS in the Narragansett Bay watershed (Orenco Advantex AX20, BioMicrobics FAST, SeptiTech D Series). We also tested impacts of application of recovered N (biosolids from wastewater sludge) on N2O fluxes from a turfgrass (Schedonerus arundinaceus) and dominant native coastal cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in mesocosm experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the largest N2O fluxes (245 ± 72 µmol N2O m-2 h-1) were from the Field's Point WWTP. Significant, but smaller N2O fluxes (6 ± 3 µmol N2O m-2 h-1 were also measured from the OWTS. In contrast, N2O fluxes from the N-enriched native coastal cordgrass and turfgrass mesocosms were often non-detectable. However, fluxes from a few mesocosms (max. of 25 µmol N2O m-2 h-1) were on the same order of magnitude as fluxes from the OWTS. A state-wide budget of N2O emissions from turfgrasses, intertidal marshes, and OWTS will be estimated to determine their significance as sources relative to the Field's Point WWTP. This data will be used to identify areas where N2O fluxes can be minimized in the state of RI.

  12. Examining effects of sea level rise and marsh crabs on Spartina patens using mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal salt marshes provide essential ecosystem services but face increasing threats from habitat loss, eutrophication, changing precipitation patterns, and accelerating rates of sea level rise (SLR). Recent studies have suggested that herbivory and burrowing by native salt mars...

  13. Maximizing Empower on a Human-dominated Planet: The Role of Exotic Spartina (Eco Eng.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy signature of the Earth has changed dramatically over the past 250 years as a result of the development of technologies to use fossil fuels for human purposes. This change has resulted in the self-organization of modern industrial societies and their concomitant process...

  14. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Invasive Species Mapping and Monitoring - Spartina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plant species are ubiquitous in the Northwest and cover large areas of the Refuge. If new invasions can be contained early, large infestations can often be...

  15. Sea level rise, drought and the decline of Spartina patens in New England marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Already heavily impacted by coastal development, estuarine vegetated habitats (seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves) are increasingly affected by climate change via accelerated sea level rise, changes in the frequency and intensity of precipitation and storms, and warmer ocean...

  16. A Generic Modeling Approach to Biomass Dynamics of Sagittaria latifolia and Spartina alterniflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    years. In general, variation in environmental factors such as water depth, temperature, clarity, current, wave action, and substrate characteristics... phenological cycle of the community. The ERDC TN-SWWRP-11-1 January 2011 4 dry weights (DW) of the plant organs are obtained by integration of their...ANSI Standard FORTRAN F77. Central Features. Central features of the model are the (1) link between the species-charac- teristic phenological cycle

  17. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. A Late Holocene Paleoecological Record from Torrey Pines State Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Wahl, Eugene

    2000-05-01

    Paleoenvironments of the Torrey Pines State Reserve were reconstructed from a 3600-yr core from Los Peñasquitos Lagoon using fossil pollen, spores, charcoal, chemical stratigraphy, particle size, and magnetic susceptibility. Late Holocene sediments were radiocarbon dated, while the historical sediments were dated using sediment chemistry, fossil pollen, and historical records. At 3600 yr B.P., the estuary was a brackish-water lagoon. By 2800 yr B.P., Poaceae (grass) pollen increased to high levels, suggesting that the rising level of the core site led to its colonization by Spartina foliosa (cord-grass), the lowest-elevation plant type within regional estuaries. An increase in pollen and spores of moisture-dependent species suggests a climate with more available moisture after 2600 yr B.P. This change is similar to that found 280 km to the north at 3250 yr B.P., implying that regional climate changes were time-transgressive from north to south. Increased postsettlement sediment input resulted from nineteenth-century land disturbances caused by grazing and fire. Sedimentation rates increased further in the twentieth century due to closure of the estuarine mouth. The endemic Pinus torreyana (Torrey pine) was present at the site throughout this 3600-yr interval but was less numerous prior to 2100 yr B.P. This history may have contributed to the low genetic diversity of this species.

  19. A tide prediction and tide height control system for laboratory mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke P. Miller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental mesocosm studies of rocky shore and estuarine intertidal systems may benefit from the application of natural tide cycles to better replicate variation in immersion time, water depth, and attendant fluctuations in abiotic and edaphic conditions. Here we describe a stand-alone microcontroller tide prediction open-source software program, coupled with a mechanical tidal elevation control system, which allows continuous adjustment of aquarium water depths in synchrony with local tide cycles. We used this system to monitor the growth of Spartina foliosa marsh cordgrass and scale insect herbivores at three simulated shore elevations in laboratory mesocosms. Plant growth decreased with increasing shore elevation, while scale insect population growth on the plants was not strongly affected by immersion time. This system shows promise for a range of laboratory mesocosm studies where natural tide cycling could impact organism performance or behavior, while the tide prediction system could additionally be utilized in field experiments where treatments need to be applied at certain stages of the tide cycle.

  20. Transitions in sandflat biota since the 1930s: effects of sea-level rise, eutrophication and biological globalization in the tidal bay Königshafen, northern Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juliane; Dolch, Tobias; Reise, Karsten

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous macrozoobenthos and vegetation of intertidal sandflats in Königshafen (Island of Sylt, SE North Sea) were mapped in 1932, 1988 and 2008. Higher water levels since the 1930s with a concomitant increase in tidal dynamics are assumed to have weakened sediment stability. This dissolved the distinctly banded macrobenthic zonation of the 1930s. Near high water level, cyanobacterial mats with associated beetles, belts of the mudshrimp Corophium volutator and the seagrass Zostera noltii have vanished, while the range of the lugworm Arenicola marina has extended towards the shore. Near low water level, sandy elevations have become permanently submerged because a tidal creek has widened its bed. In 1988, extensive green algal mats and the almost complete absence of seagrass are attributed to peak eutrophication. This partially reversed until 2008. The mussel Mytilus edulis had strongly extended its beds along the creek in 1988. These were taken over by introduced Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 2008. Also in 2008, the cordgrass Spartina anglica, another introduced species, grew into large tussocks where cyanobacterial mats and a Corophium-belt had been mapped in the 1930s. Former benthic patterns may have little chance of resurrection by conventional nature protection because these small-scale shifts represent responses to regional and global change.

  1. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Stands of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh in soil respiration (Rs components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1 were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05 in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47, followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64. The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application.

  2. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, Hyeji; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

    2010-02-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products.

  3. Injury to Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. ) forest in the vicinity of the smelting works at Hitachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okanoue, M.

    1958-03-01

    In the summer of 1965, smoke from a smelter at Hitachi caused injury to a national forest approximately one to three km distant. The smelter had been equipped with control devices and no previous injuries had been reported. An investigation of meteorological conditions at the time of the emission revealed the presence of a temperature inversion between Mt. Kamimine (594 m) and Sukegawa (52 m). However, these inversions are not uncommon in the area. Presumably, poisonous gas was emitted from the smelter chimney as a result of equipment malfunction just at the time of unfavorable meteorological conditions.

  4. Rainfall, Stemflow and Throughfall Chemistry at Declined and Non-Declined Areas of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus Densiflora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwa, M.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-12-01

    Rainfall, stemflow and throgufhall were collected from 1996 to 1999 at seaward side, pine declined area, and mountain summit and inland side, non-declined area at Mt. Gokurakuji, western Japan. Rainfall deposition showed small differences among seaward side, mountain summit and inland side. Inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+) and S deposition of rainfall were estimated to be 5.6 kgNha-1yr-1 and 6.3 kg Sha-1yr-1, respectively at the seaward side and 5.8 kg Nha-1yr-1 and 5.9 kg Sha-1yr-1, respectively at non-declined area (mountain summit and inland side). NO3- and SO42- concentrations in stemflow were significantly higher at seaward side (34.4 and 25.0 EM, respectively) than at inland side (4.8 and 14.4 EM, respectively) and were several times higher compared to those of rainfall collected simultaneously. Throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- also significantly higher at seaward side, whereas bulk depostion showed small differences between study sites. Net throughfall (NTF) deposotion of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 80 and 53 % of total deposition at seaward side, respectively, while 47 and 33 % at inland side, respectively. From these results it can be concluded that there are small spatial changes for fluxes of wet deposition, while dry deposition is significantly higher at seaward side compared to at inland side at Mt. Gokurakuji. Inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+) deposition was estimated to be more than 20 kgNha-1yr-1 at seaward side, which was greater than the literature threshold of nitrogen deposition that could cause nitrogen saturation in Europe and United States.

  5. 赤松木材材质早期预测%Early Prediction of Wood Quality for Pinus densiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 吴义强; 张美淑; 张鹏

    2005-01-01

    根据人工林赤松的管胞长度、微纤丝角、管胞长宽比、基本密度、晚材率及生长轮宽度等材性指标的测试数据,采用有序聚类分割法划分出赤松的幼龄期为12a;根据幼龄材的构造特征和材性指标,运用回归分析方法,推导出成熟材的理论预测值,经误差分析,该值与实测值比较接近,平均相对误差最小为5.2%,最大为25.7%.

  6. Radionuclides transfer into halophytes growing in tidal salt marshes from the Southwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Carlos J; Vaca, Federico; García-Trapote, Ana; Hierro, Almudena; Bolívar, Juan P; Castellanos, Eloy M

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries are sinks of materials and substances which are released directly into them or transported from rivers that drain the basin. It is usual to find high organic matter loads and fine particles in the sediments. We analyzed radionuclide concentrations ((210)Po, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (40)K) in sediments and three different organs (roots, stems and leaves) of three species of halophytes plants (Spartina maritima, Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis). The study was carried out in two tidal salt marshes, one polluted by U-series radionuclides and another nearby that was unpolluted and was used as a control (or reference) area. The Tinto River salt marsh shows high levels of U-series radionuclides coming from mining and industrial discharges. On the contrary, the unperturbed Piedras River salt marsh is located about 25 km from the Tinto marsh, and shows little presence of contaminants and radionuclides. The results of this work have shown that natural radionuclide concentrations (specially the U-isotopes) in the Tinto salt marsh sediments are one order of magnitude higher than those in the Piedras marsh. These radionuclide enhancements are reflected in the different organs of the plants, which have similar concentration increases as the sediments where they have grown. Finally, the transfer factor (TF) of the most polluted radionuclides (U-isotopes and (210)Po) in the Tinto area are one order of magnitude higher than in the Piedras area, indicating that the fraction of each radionuclide in the sediment originating from the pollution is more available for the plants than the indigenous fraction. This means that the plants of the salt marshes are unhelpful as bioindicators or for the phytoremediation of radionuclides.

  7. First nesting record of the Bay-Capped Wren-Spinetail Spartonoica maluroides (Aves, Furnariidae in Brazil, with nest and nestling descriptions and notes on breeding behavior Primeiro registro de nidificação da boininha Spartonoica maluroides (Aves, Furnariidae no Brasil, incluindo a descrição do ninho e ninhego e notas sobre o comportamento reprodutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The only breeding record of Spartonoica maluroides (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 for Brazil is based on the observation of a fledgling in southern Rio Grande do Sul in January 1976. On 7 December 2005 we discovered a nest containing three nestlings at the southeastern end of Lagoa Pequena, municipality of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The nest was concealed at the base of a cavity in a Spartina densiflora (Poaceae tussock located at the edge of a saltmarsh. The nest was built of fine pieces of dead Scirpus olneyi (Cyperaceae and S. densiflora leaves firmly interlaced to the internal leaves of the tussock. Live leaves of S. densiflora lining the cavity comprised a substantial part of the nest's architecture, forming most of its upper lateral walls and roof. The lower section was more elaborate, resembling a deep cup and forming a distinct incubation chamber. Adults reached the nest's interior through an irregular apical opening amidst the leaves. The nest was 244 mm high and 140 mm wide. The incubation chamber had an external diameter of 138.5 mm, an internal diameter of 79.4 mm and was 86 mm deep. It was lined with fine leaves and white plant fibers. Nestlings were five to six days old. A total of 107 neossoptiles restricted to the capital, spinal and alar tracts were recorded in one nestling. The distribution of neossoptiles in the ocular region of S. maluroides forms a distinct pattern which can be typical of Furnariidae and related families. Two adults attended the nest, bringing small insects to the nestlings and removing fecal sacs. We recorded at least 74 visits to the nest during a ca. 6 h period during an afternoon. The average number of visits per hour was 12.8 ± 1.3. An adult bird spent on average 0.7 ± 0.56 minutes inside the nest attending nestlings. The nest remained unattended on average for 3.61 ± 3.13 minutes. The hour of the day had no influence on the amount of time spent by an adult in the nest or away from it. We returned to

  8. Early diagenesis of vascular plant tissues: Lignin and cutin decomposition and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen; Benner, Ronald

    1995-12-01

    Long-term subaqueous decomposition patterns of five different vascular plant tissues including mangrove leaves and wood ( Avicennia germinans), cypress needles and wood ( Taxodium distichum) and smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alternifora) were followed for a period of 4.0 years, representing the longest litter bag decomposition study to date. All tissues decomposed under identical conditions and final mass losses were 97, 68, 86, 39, and 93%, respectively. Analysis of the lignin component of herbaceous tissues using alkaline CuO oxidation was complicated by the presence of a substantial ester-bound phenol component composed primarily of cinnamyl phenols. To overcome this problem, we introduce a new parameter to represent lignin, Λ6. Λ6 is comprised only of the six syringyl and vanillyl phenols and was found to be much less sensitive to diagenetic variation than the commonly used parameter Λ, which includes the cinnamyl phenols. Patterns of change in lignin content were strongly dependent on tissue type, ranging from 77% enrichment in smooth cordgrass to 6% depletion in cypress needles. In contrast, depletion of cutin was extensive (65-99%) in all herbaceous tissues. Despite these differences in the overall reactivity of lignin and cutin, both macromolecules were extensively degraded during the decomposition period. The long-term decomposition series also provided very useful information about the compositional parameters which are derived from the specific oxidation products of both lignin and cutin. The relative lability of ester-bound cinnamyl phenols compromised their use in parameters to distinguish woody from herbaceous plant debris. The dimer to monomer ratios of lignin-derived phenols indicated that most intermonomeric linkages in lignin degraded at similar rates. Acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols became elevated, particularly during the latter stages of decomposition supporting the use of these parameters as indicators of diagenetic

  9. Effects of Substrate Salinity on Early Seedling survival and Growth of Scirpus robustus Pursh and Spartina alterniflora Loisel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooted aquatic plants are being used increasingly as test species in estuarine sediment toxicity evaluations. Effects of naturally occurring substrate constituents on most potential test species however, are not well understood even though their effects could impact the data int...

  10. Inundation Effects on Growth and Decomposition of Two Tidal Marsh Plant Species, Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidal marshes of southern New England have exhibited substantial changes over the past century: multiple anthropogenic stressors, such as enhanced rates of sea level rise, hydrological modifications, the introduction of invasive species, and increased nutrient loading have result...

  11. Silica uptake by Spartina – evidence of multiple modes of accumulation from salt marshes around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Joanna C.; Robinson W. Fulweiler

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) plays a critical role in plant functional ecology, protecting plants from multiple environmental stressors. While all terrestrial plants contain some Si, wetland grasses are frequently found to have the highest concentrations, although the mechanisms driving Si accumulation in wetland grasses remain in large part uncertain. For example, active Si accumulation is often assumed to be responsible for elevated Si concentrations found in wetland grasses. However, life stage and differ...

  12. High tides and rising seas: potential effects on estuarine waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Greenberg, Russell; Maldonado, Jesus; Droege, Sam; McDonald, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    breeding range in the mid-Atlantic and their saltmarsh specialization. At a scale of 1?2 decades, vegetation changes (saltmeadow cordgrass [Spartina patens] and salt grass [Distichlis spicata] converting to smooth cordgrass [Spartina alternifl ora]), interior pond expansion and erosion of marshes will reduce nesting habitat for many of these species, but may enhance feeding habitat of migrant shorebirds and/or migrant or wintering waterfowl. At scales of 50?100 yr, reversion of marsh island complexes to open water may enhance populations of open-bay waterfowl, e.g., Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) and Canvasback (Aythya valisneria), but reduce nesting habitats dramatically for the above named marsh-nesting species, may reduce estuarine productivity by loss of the detrital food web and nursery habitat for fish and invertebrates, and cause redistribution of waterfowl, shorebirds, and other species. Such scenarios are more likely to occur in the mid- and north Atlantic regions since these estuaries are lower in sediment delivery on average than those in the Southeast. A simple hypothetical example from New Jersey is presented where waterbirds are forced to shift from submerged natural marshes to nearby impoundments, resulting in roughly a 10-fold increase in density. Whether prey fauna are sufficiently abundant to support this level of increase remains an open question, but extreme densities in confined habitats would exacerbate competition, increase disease risk, and possibly increase predation.

  13. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  14. Uptake and distribution of N, P and heavy metals in three dominant salt marsh macrophytes from Yangtze River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, W M; Han, J D; Shen, A L; Ping, X Y; Qian, P L; Li, C J; Shi, L Y; Chen, Y Q

    2007-07-01

    We examined the variation in aboveground biomass accumulation and tissue concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in Phragmites australis (common reed), Spartina alterniflora (salt cordgrass), and Scirpus mariqueter throughout the growing season (April-October 2005), in order to determine the differences in net element accumulation and distribution between the three salt marsh macrophytes in the Yangtze River estuary, China. The aboveground biomass was significantly greater in the plots of S. alterniflora than in the plots of P. australis and S. mariqueter throughout the growing season (Pbiomass was 1246+/-89 gDW/m(2), 2759+/-250 gDW/m(2) and 548+/-54 gDW/m(2) for P. australis, S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter, respectively. The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in plant tissues showed similar seasonal patterns. There was a steady decline in element concentrations of the aboveground tissues from April to October. Relative element concentrations in aboveground tissues were at a peak during the spring sampling intervals with minimum levels during the fall. But the concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the belowground tissues were relatively constant throughout growing season. Generally, trace metal concentrations in the aboveground tissues of S. mariqueter was the highest throughout the growing season, and the metal concentrations of S. alterniflora tissues (aboveground and belowground) were greater than those of P. australis. Furthermore, the aboveground pools of nutrients and metals were consistently greater for S. alterniflora than for P. australis and S. mariqueter, which suggested that the rapid replacement of native P. australis and S. mariqueter with invasive S. alterniflora would significantly improve the magnitude of nutrient cycling and bioavailability of trace metals in the salt marsh and maybe transport more toxic metals into the water column and the detrital food web in the

  15. Trajectory of early tidal marsh restoration: elevation, sedimentation and colonization of breached salt ponds in the northern San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, L. Arriana; Smith, Lacy M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Taylor, Karen; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Spenst, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration projects that cover large areas are critical for maintaining target species, yet few large sites have been studied and their restoration trajectories remain uncertain. A tidal marsh restoration project in the northern San Francisco Bay consisting of three breached salt ponds (≥300 ha each; 1175 ha total) is one of the largest on the west coast of North America. These diked sites were subsided and required extensive sedimentation for vegetation colonization, yet it was unclear whether they would accrete sediment and vegetate within a reasonable timeframe. We conducted bathymetric surveys to map substrate elevations using digital elevation models and surveyed colonizing Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The average elevation of Pond 3 was 0.96 ± 0.19 m (mean ± SD; meters NAVD88) in 2005. In 2008–2009, average pond elevations were 1.05 ± 0.25 m in Pond 3, 0.81 ± 0.26 m in Pond 4, and 0.84 ± 0.24 m in Pond 5 (means ± SD; meters NAVD88). The largest site (Pond 3; 508 ha) accreted 9.5 ± 0.2 cm (mean ± SD) over 4 years, but accretion varied spatially and ranged from sediment loss in borrow ditches and adjacent to an unplanned, early breach to sediment gains up to 33 cm in more sheltered regions. The mean elevation of colonizing S. foliosa varied by pond (F = 71.20, df = 84, P S. foliosa. Our results suggest that sedimentation to elevations that enable vegetation colonization is feasible in large sites with sufficient sediment loads although may occur more slowly compared with smaller sites.

  16. Waterbird Population Changes in the Wetlands at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Wang, Yong; Gan, Xiaojing; Li, Bo; Cai, Yinting; Chen, Jiakuan

    2009-06-01

    We studied the changes in wetland habitats and waterbird communities between the 1980s and the 2000s at Chongming Dongtan, a Ramsar site in the Yangtze River estuary, an ecologically important region. This region is an important stopover site for shorebirds along the East Asian-Australasian flyway and is extensively used by waterfowl. A net loss of 11% of the wetland area was estimated during study periods at Chongming Dongtan. The change was dependent on wetland types: while the area of artificial habitats such as paddy fields and aquacultural ponds more than doubled, more than 65% of natural habitats including sea bulrush ( Scirpus mariqueter) and common reed ( Phragmites australis) marshes were lost over the two decades. An exotic plant species introduced from North America, smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora), occupied 30% of the vegetated intertidal zone by the 2000s. Although waterbird species richness did not change between the 1980s (110) and the 2000s (111), 13 species found in 1980s were replaced by 14 newly recorded species. Moreover, there were more species with declining trends (58) than with increasing trends (19). The population trends of species were affected by residential status and habitat types. Transients, wintering migrants, and habitat specialists were more likely to show declining trends compared to those breeding at Dongtan (including year-round and summer residents) and habitat generalists. Furthermore, species associated mainly with natural wetlands were more likely to decline than those associated mainly with artificial wetlands. These patterns suggest that the loss and change of wetland habitats at Chongming Dongtan adversely affected local population dynamics and might have contributed to the global decline of some waterbird species. Because Chongming Dongtan provides stopover and wintering habitats for many migratory waterbirds, protection and restoration of natural wetlands at Chongming Dongtan are urgently needed.

  17. 不同坡向人工林赤松材性变异%Variations of Wood Property for Pinus densiflora Plantation at Different Slope Directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 张美淑; 吴玉德; 刘继生; 金春德

    2003-01-01

    以延吉市林业局帽儿山林场赤松人工林为例,对北坡和南坡两种坡向赤松人工林木材的管胞形态特征和物理力学特征的径向变异模式及差异进行研究.结果表明,管胞直径和微纤丝角及生长轮宽度等指标表现为差异显著.在相同轮龄范围内,管胞长度、管胞宽度、管胞长宽比、管胞壁腔比、微纤丝角、生长轮基本密度、晚材率、生长轮宽度等指标中,除生长轮基本密度平均值指标北坡的比南坡的大之外,其它指标的平均值均为南坡的大于北坡.

  18. Pinus Densiflora Bark Extract (Pinexol) Decreased Adiposity in Mice by Down-Regulation of Hepatic de novo Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyemyoung; Go, Gwang-Woong

    2017-01-12

    PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight. Body weight and body fat mass in the PX50 group were statistically lower than those in the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of hepatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced in the PX50 group compared to HFD group (P < 0.01). Acetyl CoA carboxylase (P < 0.01), elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6 (P < 0.01), stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (P < 0.05), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (P < 0.01), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in the PX50 group compared with that in the HFD group. In the white adipose tissue, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (P < 0.05), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P < 0.001), and perilipin (P < 0.01) were decreased in the PX50 group compared with those in the HFD group. Therefore, the current study implies the potential of PineXol for the prevention and/or amelioration of obesity, in part, by inhibition of both hepatic lipid synthesis and adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue.

  19. Effective measures for enhancing survival percent of transplanting tree of Pinus densiflora%提高赤松大树移栽成活率的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑麟模; 朴青浩; 廉成哲; 朴永济; 朴哲浩; 李正春

    2001-01-01

    图们市园林处在街道两旁于1999年清明前移栽赤松大树220株,由于移栽后实施了促进新吸收根产生、减少叶面蒸腾、减轻营养消耗等枝术措施,其成活保存株数为214株,成活率达到97.3%.这些大树移栽后经过3 a的生长,完全适应了新的环境条件.

  20. The Study of Conservation on Pinus densiflora Forest in Kunyushan,Shandong%山东省昆嵛山赤松林保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the community in maintaining the ecological balance,regulating ecosystem structure and function,improving forest biological diversity were described,and some suggestions were put forward.%介绍了赤松群落对于维持生态平衡、调节生态系统结构和功能、提高森林生物多样性等方面起到的重要意义,并提出了相应的保护建议。

  1. Growth law of natural Pinus densiflora in Yanbian region%延边地区天然赤松生长规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗广军; 王庆茹; 黄世臣; 张美淑; 刘继生

    2005-01-01

    对延边地区天然赤松进行了全生长季各种生长因子的测定.结果表明,赤松全年出现1次生长高峰,树高生长呈近S型曲线,生长停止后,胸径生长出现2次生长峰,呈双峰型,叶生长率随林龄的增加而减小,侧枝生长与树高生长同时进行.

  2. A Study on Rules of the Transpiration Rates of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis%彰武松蒸腾速率规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 雷泽勇; 韩辉

    2005-01-01

    彰武松和樟子松生长季各月蒸腾速率与当月的平均气温、平均风速和地面温度有关,一般来说,平均气温高、地面温度值高、平均风速大的月份,彰武松和樟子松的月平均蒸腾速率也大.降水量大的月份,彰武松和樟子松的月平均蒸腾速率较小.彰武松每个季节的蒸腾速率日变化明显不同,6月份呈双峰型,8月份的蒸腾速率日变化也呈双峰型,10月份呈现单峰型;彰武松的年蒸腾速率的走势呈现单峰型,全年蒸腾速率的最高值出现在7月份;与樟子松进行比较研究发现,在同样生态条件下,彰武松比樟子松有较小的蒸腾强度.

  3. Interactive effects of simultaneous ozone and fluoranthene fumigation on the eco-physiological status of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Forest decline has long been attributed to air pollution and acid rain/fog, with ozone having a record for damaging trees. This study investigated eco-physiological changes on Japanese red pine caused by simultaneous fumigation of O(3) (O) and fluoranthene (F) over a 90 day period. Seedlings were exposed individually or in combinations to 10 muM fluoranthene and O(3) (3 ppm and 6 ppm in 60 days and 90 days, respectively) inside growth chambers. Eco-physiological parameters monitored included gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chlorophyll content, and visual appearance. After 90 days, O + F treatment showed deleterious effects on visual needle appearance and the net photosynthesis rate near saturated irradiance. In addition, decreased levels in stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of PS II in the dark, and total chlorophyll and Chl a: Chl b were observed. F only treatment showed similar results but in lesser magnitude compared with F + O treatment. O treatment alone showed no significant negative effect, probably due to its low concentration in the 60 day treatment. The addition of mannitol (OH radical scavenger) mitigated O + F and F negative effects. Fluoranthene deposited on Japanese red pine presents great eco-physiological damage risk, even at low O(3) concentration. Furthermore, the effects of O(3) assisted phyto-toxicity of fluoranthene on red pine may have relevance to other plant species.

  4. 赤松人工林生长与立地因子的关系%Relationship between the Growth of Pinus densiflora Plantation and the Site Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗广军

    2006-01-01

    根据延边地区的25块赤松人工林标准地资料,以其平均优势木的解析材料确定20年生优势木树高.按单项立地因子实际分布区间进行3组以上的分组,然后进行方差分析,计算差异显著性,再进行多重比较,分析各因子的变化规律.通过上述研究,明确了赤松人工林生长与立地因子的关系,初步确定了赤松人工林适宜的立地条件为:阳坡、半阳坡,中下坡位,坡度10°以上的缓斜坡,有效土层厚度30cm以上.

  5. Technology on Improving the Grafting Survival Rate of Pinus Densiflora%提高彰武松嫁接成活率的技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 孟鹏; 刘建华; 曹红丽

    2008-01-01

    从砧木选择、接穗的采集以及嫁接的时间和速度等方面,对彰武松嫁接技术进行了研究.结果表明:髓心形成层贴接法是最有效的方法,该方法从时间、砧木的生长量、接穗的切口长度以及嫁接速度等方面提高了彰武松的成活率.

  6. Phenolic phytochemicals derived from red pine (Pinus densiflora) inhibit the invasion and migration of SK-Hep-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ki Won; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Chun, Ji Young; Kim, Seo Young; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2007-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been focused on identifying chemopreventive phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants. Here, we analyzed phenolic phytochemicals from red pine (RP) leaves and found epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC), and catechin gallate (CG) as their major phenolic phytochemicals. This article also investigated whether RP leaf extract and its phenolic phytochemicals inhibit the invasion of SK-Hep-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SK-Hep-1 cells). RP suppressed the invasion and the migration of SK-Hep-1 cells. EGCG and CG also inhibited the invasion and migration, with EGC exhibiting a lower efficacy. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly gelatinase-A (MMP-2) and gelatinase-B (MMP-9), degrade components of the basement membrane and are strongly implicated in invasion and metastasis formation of malignant tumors. RP suppressed both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. EGCG and CG reduced the activities of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner, with EGC exhibiting a lower efficacy on both MMPs. Our results suggest that RP inhibits tumor invasion and migration, which may be attributed to the effects of EGCG and CG. In particular, EGCG plays a key role in the efficacy of RP against hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. Fluoranthene fumigation and exogenous scavenging of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in evergreen Japanese red pine seedlings (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), and *OH is known to be a major mechanism of damage in biological systems. This study investigated and compared effectiveness of scavenging ROI generated in fluoranthene (FLU) pre-fumigated Japanese red pine seedlings. Three kinds of eco-physiological assessments were used to express the impact of the different fumigants used inside the green house. Gas exchange measurements showed negative changes induced by 10 microM FLU on Japanese pine seedlings during a 10 d exposure period whilst no negative change was found during a 5 d exposure period. Moreover, during a 14 d FLU exposure incorporating ROI scavengers, results revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chemical contents and needle dry mass per unit area of the seedlings were affected. The negative effects of FLU on the conifer were dependent on both the dose and period of FLU fumigation. Peroxidase (PERO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mannitol (MANN) were all effective scavengers of ROI. MANN scavenged *OH, the most lethal of the ROI. For practicable use, MANN is more economical, and may be the best ROI scavenger among the three considered. It can be concluded that efficient scavenging of ROI in biological systems is important to mitigate the negative effects of FLU on Japanese red pine trees.

  8. Radial and vertical distributions of radiocesium in tree stems of Pinus densiflora and Quercus serrata 1.5 y after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shinta; Okada, Naoki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Nakai, Wataru; Takano, Shigeyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocesium in tree stems were investigated to understand radiocesium transfer to trees at an early stage of massive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. A conifer species (Japanese red pine) and a broad-leaved species (Japanese konara oak) were selected to determine whether the radiocesium contamination pattern differs between species. Stem disks were collected at several heights and separated into outer bark, inner bark, and wood. The radiocesium concentration was the highest in the outer bark, followed by that in the inner bark and wood. The vertical distribution of the radiocesium concentration at each stem part differed between the species. The difference between species in radiocesium concentration of the outer bark could be explained by presence or absence of leaves at the time of the disaster. However, the reasons for the differences between species in the radiocesium concentration of the inner bark and wood are unclear. The radial distribution in the wood of the studied species showed a common pattern across stem disk heights and species. However, the radiocesium concentration ratio between sapwood and inner bark was significantly different between species. Although the radial contamination pattern in the wood was similar in the studied species during the early stage of contamination, the radiocesium transport pathway and allocation would be different between the species, and the contamination pattern will likely be different between the species at later stages. Continued investigations are important for understanding the radiocesium cycle and the accumulation of radiocesium in the tree stems of each species.

  9. Study on the Shoot Cutting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis%彰武松扦插繁殖技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽勇; 孟鹏; 周凤艳

    2005-01-01

    系统研究了彰武松扦插基质、扦插时间、扦插过程的生根特点、插穗生根与温度的关系,结果表明:河沙作为扦插基质生根率达到50%,蛭石达到38%,珍珠岩+草炭(1:1)达到35%,细沙作为基质扦插生根率只有11%.用生根促进剂处理插穗,是提高难生根树种扦插成活率的重要措施,彰武松扦插用100μg·g-1生根促进剂L1处理插穗4h最适宜.彰武松属于愈伤组织生根型.生根长达2~4个月之久,扦插时的地表温度过低(低于20℃)不利于生根;彰武松扦插的最好时间为6月上中旬,在北方地区不要进行秋季扦插.

  10. The Technical Research of Cultivate Pinus densiflora's Mycorrhizal Seedling%赤松菌根化育苗技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿东; 潘丽梅; 姜贵全

    2007-01-01

    以赤松外生茵根菌种为试材,对茵根化育苗生产技术进行了研究.结果表明:在常规培养基(PDA中)中以加入20%的麦麸汁培养基效果最好;松茸茵的最佳培养温度是25℃,最适pH值是5.5;经松茸液体茵剂处理的赤松种子的出苗率比对照提高了32%;赤松茵根化育苗技术的实施使赤松接种苗比对照在株高、地径、干重等方面都有极其显著的提高,3项指标分别提高44.85%、31.3%和33.3%.

  11. Efeitos da densidade de plantio e da adição de nutrientes na produção de mudas de gramas halófitas em recipientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Guedes de Azevedo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As gramas halófitas Spartina alterniflora e Spartina densiflora são espécies bioengenheiras, que podem ser utilizadas para mitigação de áreas degradadas de marismas e manguezais, para o controle da erosão costeira e para estabilização de dragado depositado em regiões estuarinas e costeiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da densidade de plantio e da adubação com nitrogênio (N e fósforo (P sobre mudas de propagação vegetativa destas duas espécies, crescendo em bandejas (0,15 m2; 7500 cm3. Para isto, foram realizados em estufa agrícola, não climatizada, dois experimentos nos anos de 2009 e 2011. Em 2009, apenas S. alterniflora foi cultivada, em duas densidades de plantios (133 e 400 mudas m-2 e com dois níveis de adição de nutrientes (sem adubação e com adição total de 50,8 gN m-2 e 16 gP m-2. Em 2011, bandejas com 80 mudas m-2 de ambas as espécies foram adubadas com razões 2N:1P, 6N:1P, 10N:1P e 14N:1P (adição total de 115 gN m-2. A adubação com NP estimulou a formação foliar e, em recipientes fertilizados, o número médio de hastes de S. alterniflora, após 80 dias, foi o dobro do observado nos recipientes-controle. Entretanto, densidades iniciais de 400 ou mais hastes m-2 nas bandejas resultaram em alongamento vertical excessivo das hastes de S. alterniflora (cerca de 100 cm de altura, o que prejudica o manuseio e o plantio. A adubação com razão 2N:1P resultou em melhor perfilhamento de ambas as espécies.

  12. 互花米草根际镰刀菌的分离鉴定及致病性测定%Separation and identification of Rhizosphere fusarium spp.in smooth cord-grass and its pathogenicity examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包衍; 罗江兰; 张伟琼; 聂明; 肖明

    2006-01-01

    原产北美的互花米草已经成功入侵许多河口湾和海湾的潮间带.5株镰刀菌分离于上海崇明东滩湿地互花米草根际,初步鉴定分别为异孢镰刀菌(Fusarium heterosporum)、半裸镰刀菌(Fusarium semitectum)、胶孢镰刀菌(Fusarium subglutinans)、禾谷镰刀菌(Fusarium graminearum)、串珠镰刀菌(Fusarium moniliforme).采用幼苗浸渍法研究镰刀菌培养滤液对互花米草和水稻的致萎效果.结果表明,F1菌株对互花米草有较强的致萎作用,对水稻无致萎作用.

  13. Long-Term Spartina alterniflora biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry and marsh elevation in North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC: 1984-2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The salt marsh in the North Inlet estuary was sampled approximately monthly for estimates of biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry, and salt marsh elevation....

  14. Assessment of carbon allocation and biomass production in a natural stand of the salt marsh plant Spartina anglica using C- 13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Steegstra, M.; Van Soelen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The proportional allocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon to the root and shoot system of salt marsh plants is an important element in the carbon cycle of tidal salt marshes. The commonly applied field methods giving insight on this point are based on successive harvesting of biomass. These met

  15. Identification of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze Estuary between Bayes and BP neural network using hyper-spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Zhou, Jiayuan; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Chaoshun; Sun, Zhibin; Gao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the coastal wetland plants between Bayes and BP neural network using hyperspectral data in order to optimize the classification method. For this purpose, we chose two dominant plants (invasive S. alterniflora and native P. australis) in the Yangtze Estuary, the leaf spectral reflectance of P. australis and S. alterniflora were measured by ASD field spectral machine. We tested the Bayes method and BP neural network for the identification of these two species. Results showed that three different bands (i.e., 555 nm 711 nm and 920 nm) could be identified as the sensitive bands for the input parameters for the two methods. Bayes method and BP neural network prediction model both performed well (Bayes prediction for 88.57% accuracy, BP neural network model prediction for about 80% accuracy), but Bayes theorem method could give higher accuracy and stability.

  16. Use of CT imaging to examine the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat associated with creek bank Spartina alterniflora in fertilized and control creeks in Plum Island (MA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) to quantify the wet mass, abundance, and diameter of coarse roots and rhizomes as well as the wet mass and particle density of marsh peat in 7-year fertilized and control creeks in Plum Island (MA). In shallow soils (0 – 10 cm) and at dep...

  17. Influence of flooding and vegetation on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in the pore water of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesa L. Negrin; Carla V. Spetter; Raúl O. Asteasuain; Gerardo M. E. Perillo; Jorge E. Marcovecchio

    2011-01-01

    Four sites were selected in a salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina): (1) low marsh (flooded by the tide twice daily) vegetated by S.alterniflora; (2) non-vegetated low marsh; (3) high marsh (flooded only in spring tides) vegetated by S.alterniflora;(4) non-vegetated high marsh.The pH and Eh were measured in sediments, while dissolved nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in pore water.pH (6.2-8.7) was only affected by vegetation in low areas.Eh (from -300 to 250 mV) was lower at low sites than at high ones; in the latter, the values were higher in the non-vegetated sediments.The POM concentration was greater in the high marsh than in the low marsh, with no effect of vegetation.Ammonium was the most abundant nitrogen nutrient species in pore water, except in the non-vegetated high marsh where nitrate concentration was higher.All nitrogen nutrients were affected by both flooding and vegetation.Phosphate was always present in pore water at all sites throughout the year and its concentration varied within narrow limits, with no effect of flooding and greater values always at non-vegetated sites.Our results showed that the variability of the pore water composition within the marsh is greater than the temporal variation, meaning that both tidal flooding and vegetation are important in the dynamics of nutrients and organic matter in the sediment pore water.

  18. Selenium removal and mass balance in a constructed flow-through wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S; Tanji, K K; Lin, Z Q; Terry, N; Peters, D W

    2003-01-01

    A field study on the removal of Se from agricultural subsurface drainage was conducted from May 1997 to February 2001 in the Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) of San Joaquin Valley, California. A flow-through wetland system was constructed consisting of ten 15- x 76-m unlined cells that were continuously flooded and planted with either a monotype or combination of plants, including sturdy bulrush [Schoenoplectus robustus (Pursh) M.T. Strong], baltic rush (Juncus balticus Willd.), smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.), rabbitsfoot grass [Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.], salt-grass lDistichlis spicata (L.) Greene], cattail (Typha latifolia L.), tule [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. Löve & D. Löve], and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima L.). One cell had no vegetation planted. The objectives of this research were to evaluate Se removal efficiency of each wetland cell and to carry out a mass balance on Se. The inflow drainage water to the cells had average annual Se concentrations of 19 to 22 microg L(-1) dominated by selenate [Se(VI), 95%]. Average weekly water residence time varied from about 3 to 15 d for Cells 1 through 7 (target 7 d), 19 to 33 d for Cells 8 and 9 (target 21 d), and 13 to 18 d for Cell 10 (target 14 d). Average weekly Se concentration ratios of outflow to inflow ranged from 0.45 to 0.79 and mass ratio (concentration x water volume) from 0.24 to 0.52 for year 2000, that is, 21 to 55% reduction in Se concentration and 48 to 76% Se removal in mass by the wetland, respectively. The nonvegetated cell showed the least Se removal both in concentration and in mass. The global mass balance showed that on the average about 59% of the total inflow Se was retained within the cells and Se outputs were outflow (35%), seepage (4%), and volatilization (2%). Independent measurements of the Se retained in the cells totaled 53% of the total Se inflow: 33% in the surface (0-20 cm) sediment, 18% in the organic detrital layer above the

  19. Tidal marsh susceptibility to sea-level rise: importance of local-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing concern over sea-level rise impacts to coastal tidal marsh ecosystems has led to modeling efforts to anticipate outcomes for resource management decision making. Few studies on the Pacific coast of North America have modeled sea-level rise marsh susceptibility at a scale relevant to local wildlife populations and plant communities. Here, we use a novel approach in developing an empirical sea-level rise ecological response model that can be applied to key management questions. Calculated elevation change over 13 y for a 324-ha portion of San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA, was used to represent local accretion and subsidence processes. Next, we coupled detailed plant community and elevation surveys with measured rates of inundation frequency to model marsh state changes to 2100. By grouping plant communities into low, mid, and high marsh habitats, we were able to assess wildlife species vulnerability and to better understand outcomes for habitat resiliency. Starting study-site conditions were comprised of 78% (253-ha) high marsh, 7% (30-ha) mid marsh, and 4% (18-ha) low marsh habitats, dominated by pickleweed Sarcocornia pacifica and cordgrass Spartina spp. Only under the low sea-level rise scenario (44 cm by 2100) did our models show persistence of some marsh habitats to 2100, with the area dominated by low marsh habitats. Under mid (93 cm by 2100) and high sea-level rise scenarios (166 cm by 2100), most mid and high marsh habitat was lost by 2070, with only 15% (65 ha) remaining, and a complete loss of these habitats by 2080. Low marsh habitat increased temporarily under all three sea-level rise scenarios, with the peak (286 ha) in 2070, adding habitat for the endemic endangered California Ridgway’s rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus. Under mid and high sea-level rise scenarios, an almost complete conversion to mudflat occurred, with most of the area below mean sea level. Our modeling assumed no marsh migration upslope due to human

  20. Investigation of the Transcriptome of Prairie Cord Grass, a New Cellulosic Biomass Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristene Gedye

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass ( Bosc ex Link is being developed as a cellulosic biomass crop. Development of this species will require numerous steps, including breeding, agronomy, and characterization of the species genome. The research in this paper describes the first investigation of the transcriptome of prairie cordgrass via Next Generation Sequencing Technology, 454 GS FLX. A total of 556,198 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were produced from four prairie cordgrass tissues: roots, rhizomes, immature inflorescence, and hooks. These ESTs were assembled into 26,302 contigs and 71,103 singletons. From these data were identified, EST–SSR (simple sequence repeat regions and cell wall biosynthetic pathway genes suitable for the development of molecular markers which can aid the breeding process of prairie cordgrass by means of marker assisted selection.

  1. 人工林赤松幼龄材与成熟材力学性质的比较%Mechanical properties of juvenile and mature wood of Pinus densiflora from plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 张美淑; 文桂峰; 汤燕平; 徐策

    2006-01-01

    根据人工林赤松Pinus densiflora木材的管胞长度、微纤丝角、管胞长宽比、基本密度、晚材率及生长轮宽度等材性指标的测试数据,采用最优分割法划分出人工林赤松的幼龄材与成熟材的界限,分析了人工林赤松幼龄材与成熟材力学性质差异的表现.结果表明:赤松的幼龄期为小于12 a,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉强度、顺纹抗压强度和弦向横纹抗压强度等指标成熟材高于幼龄材,径向横纹抗压强度、弦面抗剪强度、径面抗剪强度、弦向抗劈强度和径向抗劈强度等项指标幼龄材高于成熟材.其中,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、径向横纹抗压强度和弦面抗剪强度差异达0.01显著水平,顺纹抗拉强度差异达0.05显著水平.图1表6参6

  2. Matrix Combinations of Container Seedling of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis on Sand Land%沙地彰武松容器育苗基质配比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 张柏习; 王曼; 张日升

    2007-01-01

    在彰武松容器育苗过程中进行了育苗基质不同配比和不同施肥对比试验,结果表明,最适合彰武松容器苗高生长的基质配比草炭∶沙壤土∶三元素复合肥为1∶1∶0.05,其平均苗高为28.4 cm,方差分析表明各处理间差异极显著.

  3. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS AND INTENSITY OF PINUS DENSIFLORA POPULATION IN SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东赤松种群的空间分布型及强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2001-01-01

    利用分布类型和聚集强度指数对山东主产区赤松种群的空间分布型及强度进行了初步研究.结果表明,鲁东丘陵区的赤松种群次生林一般表现为负二项分布和奈曼分布,鲁中南山地丘陵区的人工林则呈现均匀分布;在赤松种群不同发育阶段,出现了由幼苗→幼树→大中树扩散态势的一般规律,但鲁东丘陵区次生林由于受人为、虫害等因素的影响,其分布类型和聚散态势呈明显的多样化,鲁中南山地丘陵区人工林则表现为聚集→扩散的独特态势. 表5参4

  4. Optimization of PCR-DGGE reaction system on rhizosphere soil microorganism for Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc%赤松根际土壤微生物PCR-DGGE反应体系优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽娜; 朴春根; 杭秋瑜; 金东淳

    2013-01-01

    为建立赤松根际土壤微生物的PCR-DGGE反应体系,以赤松根际土壤为材料,利用PCR-DGGE技术,对反应体系中的几个重要因素不同梯度进行优化,包括模板DNA、dNTPs、引物及Mg2+的用量.在25 μLPCR反应体系中,模板DNA浓度为10 ng,dNTPs浓度为0.15 mM,引物浓度为0.32 μM,Mg2+浓度为1.0 mM时,其PCR效果最佳.用该反应体系扩增出来的PCR产物,在DGGE凝胶上能够清晰地分辨出赤松根际土壤细菌和真菌多样性.这为进一步研究赤松根际土壤微生物,特别是研究赤松外生菌根奠定了基础.

  5. 松口蘑与赤松形成的外生菌根形态结构初步研究%Studies on Mycorrhizic Structure Formed Between Pinus densiflora and Tricholoma matsutake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓光; 曾宪录

    2006-01-01

    对松口蘑菌丝与赤松根形成的外生菌根形态特征和解剖结构进行了初步研究.结果表明:感染松口蘑菌丝的赤松根呈不规则的多分支状或扫帚状,表面覆有松口蘑菌丝,但不形成由菌丝构成的菌鞘.赤松幼根感染松口蘑菌丝的部分呈暗褐色至黑色.被菌丝侵染表皮的细胞壁明显增厚,细胞内容物浓缩、变暗,皮层细胞内有明显的、淀粉粒样的大颗粒,细胞质浓缩、变暗.皮层细胞间不形成明显的"哈蒂氏网".以上结果表明,松口蘑与赤松形成的外生菌根与典型的外生菌根明显不同.

  6. 山东赤松种群直径结构及其动态研究%A study on the structure and dynamics of the diameter of Pinus densiflora population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦; 吴志芬

    2001-01-01

    利用维泊尔(Weibull)分布函数对山东赤松种群直径的分布规律及其动态进行了初步研究.结果表明,赤松种群直径分布的概率密度分布曲线,由幼龄阶段到成熟阶段,其峰值由左向右移动,由左偏单峰分布过渡为非偏单峰近似正态分布,最后趋于右偏单峰分布.针对不同林型的直径结构,探讨了赤松林的保护和管理.

  7. The Variation Patterns of Wood Tracheid Morphological Characteristics and Density of Pinus densiflora/%赤松木材管胞形态特征及密度的变异规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 刘继生; 张鹏; 张美淑; 李永德

    2001-01-01

    研究分析了人工林赤松木材管胞形态和密度的变异规律,得出了管胞长度、管胞直径、管胞长宽比和生长轮密度等材性指标的变异规律的数学模型,为实现林木定向培育和速生优质制定科学集约经营措施以及材质的早期预测提供科学的理论依据.

  8. Changes in assimilation of C3 marsh plants by resident fishes in estuarine systems with distinct hydrogeomorphology features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Ferreira Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although saltmarshes are widely recognized as important habitats providing shelter for estuarine organisms and protection against predators, there is still no consensus on the trophic value of marsh plants for estuarine food webs. We employed stable isotopes to evaluate differences in assimilation of nutrients derived from marsh plants with C3 (Juncus acutus, Scirpus maritimus, Scirpus olneyi and C4 (Spartina densiflora photosynthetic pathways by resident fishes in three estuaries with contrasting hydrogeomorphology characteristics. Carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotope ratios of basal food sources (C3 and C4 marsh plants, macroalgae, seagrass and seston and estuarine resident fishes (Achirus garmani, Atherinella brasiliensis, Genidens genidens, Ctenogobius shufeldti, Jenynsia multidentata, Odonthestes argentinensis were analyzed in two choked lagoons (Tramandai-29°S, Patos-30°S and a coastal river (Chui-33°S. Average δ13C values of consumers were statistically significant higher in the two choked-type estuaries (Tramandaí: -16.11; Patos: -15.82 than in the coastal river (Chui: -24.32 (p0.292. SIAR mixing models revealed that the most assimilated basal food sources by consumers in the choked-type lagoon estuaries were a pool of 13C enriched food sources (macroalgae, C4 marsh and seagrass and seston (95% credibility interval: 0.38 to 0.80 and 0.00 to 0.54, respectively. In contrast, nutrients derived from C3-marsh plants were the main basal food source assimilated by estuarine resident fishes at the coastal river (0.33 to 0.87. These findings could be explained by the absence of extensive shallow embayments and a steeper slope at the coastal river that could promote higher transport of C3-marsh detritus and, consequently, higher assimilation by estuarine fishes. In contrast, detritus derived from C3 marsh plants could be trapped in the upper intertidal zone of choked-typed estuaries and, consequently, be less available for aquatic

  9. Effects of NaCl Concentration on Protective Enzyme and Osmotic Regulation of Spartina anglica%NaCl浓度对大米草保护酶活性和渗透调节的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康浩; 潘文平; 石贵玉

    2009-01-01

    研究不同NaC1浓度下大米草根部和叶片中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)、游离脯氨酸及可溶性糖的变化.结果表明:CNaC1等于100 mmol/L时,大米草生长良好;Cnacl高于100 mmol/L时,大米草通过提高SOD、POD和CAT活性,增加游离脯氨酸和可溶性糖含量,以适应NaCl浓度变化;CNacl达到500 mmol/L后,保护酶活性开始下降,而游离脯氨酸和可溶性糖含量却持续上升,叶片MDA含量亦持续上升,根部MDA却略有下降.在NaC1胁迫下,大米草叶片较根部对NaC1浓度更为敏感.

  10. A space-for-time substitution reveals the long-term decline in genotypic diversity of a widespread salt marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, over a span of 1500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Hester, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    1. Clonal populations face a trade-off between sexual recruitment and vegetative growth and, once established, may undergo continuous declines in genotypic diversity if their sexual recruits make poor competitors. The geological history of delta formation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley was used to age eight 5. alterniflora marshes for use in a space-for-time substitution ranging over 1500 years, in order to determine the long-term effects of clonal growth on genotypic diversity in natural populations. 2. We also predicted that highly heterozygous clones are competitively superior, leading to an increase in the overall level of genetic diversity as a marsh ages and/or to an increasingly positive relationship between clone size and individual heterozygosity, and that the clumping of ramets within clones will occur over increasingly large distances as populations age, while the clumping of genetically related clones will become less pronounced as intraclonal competition begins to obscure the initial effects of localized seedling recruitment. 3. Using molecular markers to differentiate clones, we documented a decline in clonal richness at the rate of approximately 1% 100 years -1 that was accompanied for the first 300-500 years by an increase in the distance over which clumping of ramets within genets occurred. Older populations, in the 500-1500-year range, showed evidence of clone fragmentation. 4. The spatial clustering of kin was observed for only two marshes, and exhibited no clear relationship with marsh age. 5. Whereas the overall level of genetic diversity was consistent among marshes and showed no clear relationship with marsh age, the relationship between heterozygosity and individual clone size became increasingly pronounced within older marshes. 6. Our results suggest that under natural conditions S. alterniflora marshes will rarely reach ages sufficient for the loss of all clonal diversity, or for the effects of inbreeding and drift to pose a significant threat to population viability. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  11. Experiment on producing biogas by anaerobic co-digestion of cow feces and Spartina alterniflora%牛粪与互花米草混合厌氧消化产沼气的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 郑正; 邹星星; 杨世关; 方彩霞; 冯景伟

    2009-01-01

    在中温(35℃)条件下,采用批式发酵方式,研究了牛粪对互花米草厌氧生物转化的影响以及牛粪与互花米草不同混合比例对互花米草厌氧生物转化的影响.试验设置了互花米草与牛粪VS(挥发性固体)比分别为7:1(SC71)、3:1(SC31)、1:1(SC11)、1:3(SC13)和1:7(SC17)等5个处理.结果表明:混合发酵对系统产气有促进作用,日产气量稳定,产气高峰较单独发酵提前了13 d,累积产气量提高了38.83%.牛粪与瓦花米草不同比例混合发酵的试验中,SC71、SC11、SC13和SC17的累积产气量分别为SC31的92.99%、79.00%、73.59%和61.17%;混合发酵提高了系统的缓冲能力,牛粪的比例越高,系统的缓冲能力越强,且不会出现有机酸的积累;X射线衍射谱图和傅里叶红外光谱的结果进一步证明,混合发酵促进了微生物对互花米草中有机物的分解,对纤维素结晶区的破坏有一定的促进作用.以互花米草与牛粪VS比3:1的效果最好.

  12. Studies on the production of alcohol from woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of Pinus densiflora, P. rigida, Larix leptolepis, Alnus japonica, Castanea crenata and Populus euramericana (canadensis) were chemically analysed and optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation established.

  13. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W.K.; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Pohlman, John; Suttles, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM–fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m−1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from −19.7 to −26.1 ‰ and −20.8 to −26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of

  14. Salt marsh dieback in coastal Louisiana: survey of plant and soil conditions in Barataria and Terrebonne basins, June 2000-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Materne, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden and extensive dieback of the perennial marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), which dominates regularly flooded salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines, occurred in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The objectives of this study were to assess soil and plant conditions in dieback areas of the Barataria-Terrebonne estuarine system as well as vegetative recovery during and after this dieback event. Multiple dieback sites were examined along 100 km of shoreline from the Atchafalaya River to the Mississippi River during the period from June 2000 through September 2001. The species primarily affected was S. alterniflora; sympatric species such as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn (black mangrove) and Juncus roemerianus Scheele (needlegrass rush) showed no visible signs of stress. The pattern of marsh dieback was distinctive with greatest mortality in the marsh interior, suggesting a correlation with local patterns of soil chemistry and/or hydrology. Little or no expansion of dieback occurred subsequent to the initial event, and areas with 50 percent or less mortality in the fall of 2000 had completely recovered by April 2001. Recovery was slower in interior marshes with 90 percent or greater mortality initially. However, regenerating plants in dieback areas showing some recovery were robust, and reproductive output was high, indicating that the causative agent was no longer present and that post-dieback soil conditions were actually promoting plant growth. Stands of other species within or near some dieback sites remained largely unchanged or expanded (A. germinans) into the dead salt marsh. The cause of the dieback is currently unknown. Biotic agents and excessive soil waterlogging/high sulfide were ruled out as primary causes of this acute event, although they could have contributed to overall plant stress and/or interacted with the primary agent to cause plant mortality. Our observations over the 15 month study

  15. Mangrove expansion into salt marshes alters associated faunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbert L. Smee; James A. Sanchez; Meredith Diskin; Carl Trettin

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is altering the distribution of foundation species, with potential effects on organisms that inhabit these environments and changes to valuable ecosystem functions. In the Gulf of Mexico, black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) are expanding northward into salt marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora (hereafter Spartina). Salt marshes are essential...

  16. Modelling the soil carbon cycle of pine ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, K. [Hiroshima, Univ., Dept. of Environ. Studies, Fac. of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Higashi Hiroshima (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Soil carbon cycling rates and carbon budgets were calculated for stands of four pine species. Pinus sylvestris (at Jaedraaas, Sweden), P. densiflora (Hiroshima, Japan), P. elliottii (Florida, USA) and P. radiata (Canberra, Australia), using a simulation model driven by daily observations of mean air temperature and precipitation. Inputs to soil carbon through litterfall differ considerably among the four pine forests, but the accumulation of the A{sub 0} layer and humus in mineral soil is less variable. Decomposition of the A{sub 0} layer and humus is fastest for P. densiflora and slowest for P. sylvestris stands with P. radiata and P. elliottii intermediate. The decomposition rate is lower for the P. elliottii stand than for P. densiflora in spite of its higher temperatures and slightly higher precipitation. Seasonal changes in simulated soil carbon are observed only for the A{sub 0} layer at the P. densiflora site. Simulated soil respiration rates vary seasonally in three stands (P. sylvestris, P. densiflora and P. radiata). In simulations for pine trees planted on bare soil, all soil organic matter fractions except the humus in mineral soil recover to half their asymptotic values within 30 to 40 years of planting for P. sylvestris and P. densiflora, compared with 10 to 20 years for P. radiata and P. elliottii. The simulated recovery of soil carbon following clear-cutting is fastest for the P. elliottii stand and slowest for P. sylvestris. Management of P. elliottii and P. radiata stands on 40-years rotations is sustainable because carbon removed through harvest is restored in the interval between successive clear-cuts. However p. densiflora and P. sylvestris stands may be unable to maintain soil carbon under such a short rotation. High growth rates of P. elliottii and p. radiata stands in spite of relatively poor soil conditions and slow carbon cycling may be related to the physiological responses of species to environmental conditions. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Accommodation experiment in fields of smoke-resistant trees. Part VII. (A) experiment of field planting of trees of Pinus genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, K.; Hirayama, S.

    1974-12-01

    In an experimental planting field in Kurashiki City, the following pine trees were planted in February 1968, in fertilized and non-fertilized plots: 38 Pinus densiflora, 39 P. thumbergii, 33 P. teda, 38 P. liquida, 38 P. slash and 27 P. densiflora formosana. The growth state, damage due to pests and the effects of air pollution of these trees were investigated by evaluating the sulfur content, the color and number of needles, as well as the monthly concentration of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere. In 1973 the growth of trees was best in P. slash followed by P. teda and P. thumbergii, P. densiflora, and P. liquida. P. densiflora formosana did not grow normally. The sulfur content of dry leaves of the trees listed in the above order in 1973 in the fertilized plot was 0.244, 0.198, 0.259, 0.262, 0.182, and 0.242%. In P. densiflora, the content of sulfur was greater in trees of abnormal appearance. The atmospheric sulfur oxides content was, on the average, 0.48 and 0.50 ppM respectively in 1972 and 1973.

  18. Shore Stabilization with Salt Marsh Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Poaceae), sedge family ( Cyperacea ), and rush family (Junoaowa.) commonly form coastal marshes. Coastal marshes occur naturally in the intertidal zone...Maine) ............................... 18 4 Pacific cordgrass marsh (San Francisco, California) .................. 19 5 Lyngbye’s sedge marsh (Oregon...26 Harvesting Pacific cordgrase seed..................... 59 27 Ordgrase-auasel plugs of Pacific cordgrassoo.. 9 . ..... . , 61 28 Lyngbye’a sedge

  19. Control Effects of Ten Agents on Pinus densiflora Needle Cast in Eastern Area of Liaoning Province%10种化学药剂对辽宁东部地区赤松落针病药剂的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成杰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]筛选控制赤松落针病的有效药剂.[方法]采用室内孢子萌发法筛选抑制赤松落针病病原菌(Lophodermium conigenium)的无公害化学药剂,在此基础上室外采用喷雾法开展林间小区防治试验.[结果]室内10种化学药剂中抑制效果达到100%的药剂有4种,分别是40%多菌灵可湿性粉剂、75%百菌清可湿性粉剂、45%代森铵水剂和45%石硫合剂.林间防治试验效果最好的是40%多菌灵可湿性粉剂300倍稀释液和45%代森铵水剂100倍稀释液,平均防治效果均达到80%以上.[结论]试验结果为辽宁地区赤松落针病的防治提供了理论依据.

  20. Heavy metal uptake by selected marsh plant species grown in hydroponic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.R.; Sturgis, T.C.; Landin, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    Eight marsh plant species (Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus validus, Spartina patens, Scirpus robustus, Triglochin maritima, Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina foliosa) were grown under greenhouse conditions in chemically controlled nutrient solutions. Heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and lead) were added to the nutrient solutions at levels of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/l. Plant parts (leaves, rhizomes, tubers, and roots) were harvested separately for each species and analyzed for heavy metal content. The concentration and plant uptake of heavy metals in each plant species will be discussed.

  1. El género Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae en Mesoamérica, una especie nueva y una combinación nueva The genus Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae in Mesoamerica, a new species and a new combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión taxonómica del género Deguelia Aubl. (Millettieae: Leguminosae para Mesoamérica; para ello fue necesario describir e ilustrar a una nueva especie, Deguelia alata M. Sousa y proponer una nueva combinación, D. densiflora (Benth.. A. M. G. Azevedo ex M. Sousa, para una especie previamente incluida en el género Lonchocarpus.A revision of the genus Deguelia Aubl. (Millettieae: Leguminosae in Mesoamerica is presented. A new species, Deguelia alata is described and illustrated, and a new combination, D. densiflora is proposed for a species formerly included in Lonchocarpus.

  2. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  3. Preconstruction Biogeochemical Analysis of Mercury in Wetlands Bordering the Hamilton Army Airfield (HAAF) Wetlands Restoration Site. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    rats, feral cats , red foxes EN 6 Geukinsia demissa Nearshore bay Suspension feeder; herbivorous Spartina detritus; phytoplankton Shore...insectivore; seed eater Insects feeding (in)directly on Salicornia; seeds; amphipods Cats , hawks, owls EN 4, 8, 9 Potamocorbula amurensis

  4. Palatability and chemical defense of Phragmites australis to the marsh periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Lindsey G; Mossop, Hannah E; Kicklighter, Cynthia E

    2011-08-01

    Coastal marsh habitats are impacted by many disturbances, including habitat destruction, pollution, and the introduction of invasive species. The common reed, Phragmites australis, has been particularly invasive in the mesohaline regions of the Chesapeake Bay, but few studies have investigated its role in trophic interactions with North American marsh consumers. The marsh periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata is a common grazer in marshes and grazes on the native grass Spartina alterniflora. Whether this snail grazes on Phragmites has not been addressed. We found Spartina leaves to be tougher than those of Phragmites, but despite this, snails consumed significantly more Spartina than Phragmites. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that Phragmites is chemically deterrent to snails by an unknown, moderately polar, compound. Further studies are required to more fully understand the interactions between Phragmites, herbivores, and Spartina, and how they may impact marsh ecosystems.

  5. Palm Beach County FL 2007 Seagrass GIS Maps and Trends Analysis (NODC Accession 0061752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of Palm Beach County seagrasses, mangrove habitat, oyster reef, and spartina. The mapped area is the Lake Worth Lagoon...

  6. Mangrove expansion into salt marshes alters associated faunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Delbert L.; Sanchez, James A.; Diskin, Meredith; Trettin, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is altering the distribution of foundation species, with potential effects on organisms that inhabit these environments and changes to valuable ecosystem functions. In the Gulf of Mexico, black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) are expanding northward into salt marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora (hereafter Spartina). Salt marshes are essential habitats for many organisms, including ecologically and economically important species such as blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Penaeid shrimp (e.g., Penaeus aztecus), which may be affected by vegetation changes. Black mangroves occupied higher tidal elevations than Spartina, and Spartina was present only at its lowest tidal elevations in sites when mangroves were established. We compared nekton and infaunal communities within monoculture stands of Spartina that were bordered by mangroves to nearby areas where mangroves had not yet become established. Nekton and infaunal communities were significantly different in Spartina stands bordered by mangroves, even though salinity and temperature were not different. Overall abundance and biomass of nekton and infauna was significantly higher in marshes without mangroves, although crabs and fish were more abundant in mangrove areas. Black mangrove expansion as well as other ongoing vegetation shifts will continue in a warming climate. Understanding how these changes affect associated species is necessary for management, mitigation, and conservation.

  7. Efectos de la invasión de "Spartina patens" (Aiton) Muhl. (Orden: Cyperales; Familia: Poaceae) sobre la ecología, las características edáficas y los flujos de carbono de tres marismas del litoral de Galicia: predicciones en un escenario de cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual De Pedro, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Las marismas son ambientes litorales de transición entre los ecosistemas terrestre y marino. Estas fronteras ecológicas están caracterizadas por intensos procesos de intercambio de materia y energía. Son uno de los ecosistemas más productivos del mundo, ya que secuestran grandes cantidades de dióxido de carbono de la atmósfera (CO2, el principal gas de efecto invernadero) y lo transforman en carbono orgánico. Debido a que menos del 5% se exporta en forma de carbono inorgánic...

  8. Genetic divergence, range expansion and possible homoploid hybrid speciation among pine species in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G-P; Abbott, R J; Zhou, Y-F; Zhang, L-R; Peng, Y-L; Liu, J-Q

    2012-05-01

    Although homoploid hybrid speciation in plants is probably more common than previously realized, there are few well-documented cases of homoploid hybrid origin in conifers. We examined genetic divergence between two currently widespread pines in Northeast China, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus densiflora, and also whether two narrowly distributed pines in the same region, Pinus funebris and Pinus takahasii, might have originated from the two widespread species by homoploid hybrid speciation. Our results, based on population genetic analysis of chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) DNA, and nuclear gene sequence variation, showed that the two widespread species were divergent for both cp- and mtDNA variation, and also for haplotype variation at two of eight nuclear gene loci surveyed. Our analysis further indicated that P. sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora remained allopatric during the most severe Quaternary glacial period that occurred in Northeast China, but subsequently exhibited rapid range expansions. P. funebris and P. takahasii, were found to contain a mixture of chlorotypes and nuclear haplotypes that distinguish P. sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora, in support of the hypothesis that they possibly originated via homoploid hybrid speciation following secondary contact and hybridization between P. sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora.

  9. Combustion tests for hot-water boiler with fuelwoods. II. Combustion in hot water storage type boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, T.; Sugiura, G.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison is made of sugi blocks (30X3X3 cm), konara (Quercus serrata) logs (30X3 cm), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora) blocks (8x3x2 cm) or half-carbonized wood, Ogalite wood briquettes and kerosene. 6 references.

  10. Micromorphology of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution imaging and quantitative surface analysis of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species were performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. Both juvenile and adult needles were collected from the two-year-old seedlings of Pinus rigida and Pinus densiflora and subjected to surface observations. Epicuticular wax structures developed on the cuticle layer as well as in the epistomatal chambers and appeared to occlude the cavities in the two pine species. The stomata of P. densiflora were characterized by more distinctly raised rings around openings than P. rigida. The most common epicuticular wax structures of the two pine species included tubules with terminal openings and coiled rodlets. Wax platelets were deposited on epistomatal chambers. Either rodlets or tubules seemed to be longer and thicker in P. rigida than those in P. densiflora. White light scanning interferometry revealed quantitative surface profiles, demonstrating more ridged (ca. 4 μm high) stomatal apertures and nearly twofold deeper (ca. 20 μm deep) epistomatal chambers of P. densiflora than those of P. rigida. These results suggest that white light scanning interferometry can be applied to unravel the quantitative surface features of epicuticular sculptures on plant leaves.

  11. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2011-30 september 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procon...

  12. Antiprotozoal assessment and phenolic acid profiling of five Fumaria (fumitory) species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan; Nilgun Ozturk; Bilge Sener

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore some Fumaria species which were recorded to be traditionally used against malaria and other protozoal diseases. Methods: Consequently, in the current study, antiprotozoal effect of the ethanol extracts obtained from five Fumaria species (Fumaria densiflora, Fumaria cilicica, Fumaria rostellata, Fumaria kralikii, and Fumaria parviflora) was investigated against the parasites; Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) and Trypanosoma bruceirhodesiense (human African trypanosomiasis) at 0.81 and 4.85 μg/mL concentrations. Results: Among them, Fumaria densiflora extract exerted the highest antiplasmodial (93.80%) and antitrypanasomal effect (55.40%), while the ethanol extracts of Fumaria kralikii (43.45%) and Fumaria rostellata (41.65%) showed moderate activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Besides, phenolic acid contents of the extracts were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and trans-cinnamic (4.32 mg/g) and caffeic (3.71 mg/g) acids were found to be the dominant phenolic acids in Fumaria densiflora. Conclusions: According to our results, Fumaria densiflora deserve further study for its promising antiprotozoal activity.

  13. Application of SRAP in the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The study firstly applied SRAP technique into genetic diversity of T. matsutake. A total of ... widely in coniferous trees, especially Pinus densiflora forests, and ..... Lian CL, Oishi R, Miyashita N, Nara K, Nakaya H, Wu B, Zhou Z,.

  14. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Irving, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds). Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass-mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades, despite the lack of a

  15. Release of Dimethylsulfide from Dimethylsulfoniopropionate by Plant-Associated Salt Marsh Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Bacic, M K; Newell, S. Y.; Yoch, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    The range of types of microbes with dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase capability (enzymatic release of dimethylsulfide [DMS] from DMSP) has recently been expanded from bacteria and eukaryotic algae to include fungi (a species of the genus Fusarium [M. K. Bacic and D. C. Yoch, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:106–111, 1998]). Fungi (especially ascomycetes) are the predominant decomposers of shoots of smooth cordgrass, the principal grass of Atlantic salt marshes of the United States. Since t...

  16. Environmental Assessment: Replace Sanitary Sewer from Building 801 to Lagoons at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    for Grand Forks AFB include Marsh Milkweed , Bottlebrush Sedge, Prairie Cordgrass, Wooly Sedge, Awl- Fruit Sedge, Baltic Rush, Wool-Grass, Soft-stem...AFB has a humid continental climate that is characterized by frequent and drastic weather changes. The summers are short and humid with frequent...Vegetation is robust at GFAFB wetlands and many are characterized as typical prairie potholes found within the northern plains ecoregion. Wetlands

  17. Interactive effects of vegetation and sediment properties on erosion of salt marshes in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, V B; Bouma, T J; van Belzen, J; Van Colen, C; Airoldi, L

    2017-09-12

    We investigated how lateral erosion control, measured by novel photogrammetry techniques, is modified by the presence of Spartina spp. vegetation, sediment grain size, and the nutrient status of salt marshes across 230 km of the Italian Northern Adriatic coastline. Spartina spp. vegetation reduced erosion across our study sites. The effect was more pronounced in sandy soils, where erosion was reduced by 80% compared to 17% in silty soils. Erosion resistance was also enhanced by Spartina spp. root biomass. In the absence of vegetation, erosion resistance was enhanced by silt content, with mean erosion 72% lower in silty vs. sandy soils. We found no relevant relationships with nutrient status, likely due to overall high nutrient concentrations and low C:N ratios across all sites. Our results contribute to quantifying coastal protection ecosystem services provided by salt marshes in both sandy and silty sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental investigation of submicron and ultrafine soot particle removal by tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hee-Jae; Yook, Se-Jin; Ahn, Kang-Ho

    2011-12-01

    Soot particles emitted from vehicles are one of the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. In this study, five kinds of trees were selected as Pinus densiflora, Taxus cuspidata, Platanus occidentalis, Zelkova serrata, and Ginkgo biloba, and the removal of submicron (densiflora showed the greatest deposition velocity, followed by T. cuspidata, Platanus occidentalis, Zelkova serrata, and Ginkgo biloba. In addition, from the comparison of deposition velocity between two groups of Platanus occidentalis leaves, i.e. one group of leaves with front sides only and the other with back sides only, it was supposed in case of the broadleaf trees that the removal of airborne soot particles of submicron and ultrafine sizes could be affected by the surface roughness of tree leaves, i.e. the veins and other structures on the leaves.

  19. THE TYPES AND GROOWTH RATES OF THE TREES IN WUSULI RIVER VALLEY%乌苏里江流域森林类型及森林生长率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2000-01-01

    乌苏里江流域森林有红松林、落叶松林、赤松林、兴凯湖松林、云冷杉林、针阔混交林和阔叶林等类型;指出了地理环境和人为活动对森林生长率的影响;提出培育经营和保护并重的可持续林业策略。%There are severel types of trees in ussuri valley, such as Pinus koraiensis, arix olgensis.]Pinus densiflora, Pinus densiflora var ussuriensis picea[l1]. Abies. etc. For the growth rates of trees, analyzed both physical environmental factors and human activities impacts. Finally, put forward a sustainable forest strategy.

  20. Antioxidant principles from the needles of red pine, Pinus densi fl ora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jin Ho; Choi, Jae Sue

    2003-11-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (Pinaceae) was evaluated for potential to inhibit hydroxyl radicals, inhibit total reactive oxygen species generation in kidney homogenates using 2',7'-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) and scavenge authentic peroxynitrites. The methanolic extract of P. densiflora showed strong antioxidant activity in the tested model systems and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate > n-butanol > water > dichloromethane fraction. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting strong antioxidant activity was further puri fi ed by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. An active lignan (+)-isolarisiresinol xylopyranoside, as well as two active flavonoids [kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside and its 6"-acetyl derivative], were isolated.

  1. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. 赤松松针提取物中的挥发性成分及其抗菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim; Y; S; 张曼(摘)

    2006-01-01

    在东亚,赤松Pinus densifloraS&Z的松针、球果外皮及花粉广泛用于传统药物或食品。作者研究了在不同提取条件下得到的赤松松针挥发性成分的抑菌作用。

  3. Studies on the utilization from (i. e. of) forest wood residues. Report I. Study on the chipping from forest wood residues. [Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lee, Y.; Cheon, J.

    1972-01-01

    This study tabulates and discusses data from a trial of chip production with a portable chipper from wood residues and small logs of Quercus aliena, Q. serrata, and Pinus densiflora left in an exploited logging area at Kangneung. The results showed that barked chips for paper-pulp and unbarked chips for fiberboard manufacture could be economically produced and supplied at distances of up to 500 and 240 km respectively.

  4. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  5. Visualization of wound periderm and hyphal profiles in pine stems inoculated with the pitch canker fungus Fusarium circinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Thoungchaleun, Vilakon; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2009-12-01

    Postpenetration behavior of Fusarium circinatum in stems of pine species was investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. Two-year-old stems of Pinus rigida and P. densiflora were wound-inoculated with the fungal conidial suspension and subjected to 25 degrees C for up to 30 days. It was common to observe the formation of wound periderm on each pine species, recovering wounded sites with newly formed tissues. The outermost thick layer of wound periderm was pink to red colored with the phloroglucinol-EtOH staining, indicating heavy deposition of lignin in wound periderm. The cork layers in the wound periderm of the two pine species consisted of cells that were mostly devoid of cellular contents in cytoplasm. The cork cells showed convoluted cell walls with different electron density (lamellations), which was seemingly more prevalent in P. densiflora than P. rigida. Hyphae of F. circinatum appeared normal with typical eucaryotic cytoplasm in P. rigida on ultrathin sections. Meanwhile, hyphae in P. densiflora were found to possess highly vacuolated cytoplasm, implying hyphal weakening and disintegration. Hyphal cytoplasm appeared to be a thin layer between the vacuole and the plasma membrane surrounded by cell wall. In addition, intrahyphal hyphae and concentric bodies were observed in hyphal cytoplasm. These results suggest that the architecture of wound periderm may be responsible for different responses of pine species to the invasion of F. circinatum.

  6. Woody-biomass production in Michigan: species, genotype, and cultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    A stepwise approach was adopted in 1978 for developing a comprehensive woody-biomass production system for Michigan. The program consisted of four phases: 1) identification of the most promising biomass species through trial plantings on abandoned agricultural fields and cleared forest stands, 2) preliminary yield comparisons of several species growing in existing experimental plantations, 3) species improvement using standard tree improvement techniques, and 4) development of cultural techniques designed to optimize woody-biomass yield from energy plantations. This dissertation summarizes results of research in each of these areas. Species recommendations for each of three climatic zones in Michigan are based on survival and growth of 23 species at nine oil-field sites after four growing seasons. Pinus sylvestris, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, and Picea abies are recommended for use in the Upper Peninsula; Pinus sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, Picea abies, and Quercus robur are recommended for use in the northern Lower Peninsula; and Pinus sylvestris, Alnus glutinosa, Larix leptolepis, Populus, Quercus robur, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Salix are recommended for use in the southern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Yield predictor equations were developed and yields analyzed for 13 species. The best yielding species in the older plantations (14- 16-years old) were Pinus nigra x P. densiflora and Betula alleghaniensis. The best species in the group of younger plantations (five- to nine-years old) were a Populus hybrid mixture and Ailanthus altissima.

  7. [Sibling species of rein orchid (Gymnadenia:Orchidaceae, Magnoliophyta) in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, P G

    2013-03-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the genus Gymnadenia have demonstrated that it contains sibling taxa, i.e., species that are hardly distinguishable according to morphological traits, yet are phylogenetically rather distant and distinctly distinguishable by molecular methods, which is a rare phenomenon for angiosperms. The sequencing of the ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 fragment allowed us the presence of the species G. densiflora to be demonstrated in Russia. The Russian specimens have confirmed a high degree of genetic differentiation between G. conopsea s. str. and G. densiflora, which proves their taxonomic status rank of species. Morphological analysis has shown that the features that allow for the best discrimination between these two species in Northwestern Russia are the length of the lower bract, length of the mid-lobe of the lip, and width of leaves. The ecological and phenological discrimination between G. conopsea s. str. and G. densiflora is briefly reviewed. The ITS sequence variation in these species has been analyzed; the molecular genetic distinctions of the G. conopsea individuals from the eastern part of the distribution area have been discovered for the first time. Different taxonomic interpretations of the Gymnadenia phylogenetic tree topology taking into account the presence sibling species are discussed in general.

  8. The effects of herbivory on neighbor interactions along a coastal marsh gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.L.; Grace, J.B.; Marx, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    Many current theories of community function are based on the assumption that disturbances such as herbivory act to reduce the importance of neighbor interactions among plants. In this study, we examined the effects of herbivory (primarily by nutria, Myocastor coy-pus) on neighbor interactions between three dominant grasses in three coastal marsh communities, fresh, oligohaline, and mesohaline. The grasses studied were Panicum virgatum, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora, which are dominant species in the fresh, oligohaline, and mesohaline marshes, respectively. Additive mixtures and monocultures of transplants were used in conjunction with exclosure fences to determine the impact of herbivory on neighbor interactions in the different marsh types. Herbivory had a strong effect on all three species and was important in all three marshes. In the absence of herbivores, the impact of neighbors was significant for two of the species (Panicum virgatum and Spartina patens) and varied considerably between environments, with competition intensifying for Panicum virgatum and decreasing for Spartina patens with increasing salinity. Indications of positive neighbor effects (mutualisms) were observed for both of these species, though in contrasting habitats and to differing degrees. In the presence of herbivores, however, competitive and positive effects were eliminated. Overall, then, it was observed that in this case, intense herbivory was able to override other biotic interactions such as competition and mutualism, which were not detectable in the presence of herbivores.

  9. Large-scale 3-D experiments of wave and current interaction with real vegetation. Part 2: Experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J.L.; Losada, I.J.; Ondiviela, B.; Trinogga, J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the influence of different flow and vegetation parameters on the wave attenuation providedby two contrasting salt marsh species: Puccinellia maritima and Spartina anglica. Differentwater depths and waveparameters (height and period) are considered for both regular and irregular w

  10. Growth and photosynthesis responses of two co-occurring marsh grasses to inundation and varied nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    For southern New England tidal marshes, the late twentieth century decline of Spartina patens has been attributed to increased flooding associated with accelerated sea level rise and nitrogen over-enrichment from cultural eutrophication, either singly or in combination. The obje...

  11. Linking Leaf Chlorophyll Fluorescence Properties to Physiological Responses for Stress Detection in Coastal Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    temperature and light. Stress may be apparent in morphological and physiological character- istics, which represent integrated responses to multiple...australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed), Poaceae , is an invasive perennial grass that has formed numerous large colonies, fringing freshwater and...EP, Guntenspergen GR, Brown JJ, Nelson SG (2006) Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora ( Poaceae ) and the invasive M

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, F.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Otero, X.L.; Buurman, P.

    2013-01-01

    To characterise soil humic acids (HAs) extracted from Spanish marshes formed under different vegetation types (Spartina maritima (GSp), Juncus maritimus (GJc), Phragmites australis (GPh), and Scirpus maritimus (VSc)), soil depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm), physiographic position (low and high marsh

  13. Identification, Development, and Release of Insect Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    for wildlife value include species of Typha, Spartina, Carex , Scirpus, Eleocharis, Juncus, Zizania, Arundinaria, and Calamagrostis. Experimental...Agropyron cristatum Crested wheatgrass 2. Andropogon gerardii Big bluestem 3. Arundinaria gigantea subsp. tecta Switch cane 4. Carex lurida Shallow... sedge 5. Cortaderia selloana Pampas grass 6. Dactylis glomerata Orchardgrass 7. Distichlis spicata Saltgrass 8. Elymus virginicus Virginia wildrye 9

  14. Nutrient cycling in salt marshes: An ecosystem service to reduce eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebø, A. I.; Sousa, A. I.; Flindt, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    and discussed: By comparing young and mature marshes colonised by Saprtina maritima, we will evaluate their behaviour as sink or source of nutrients; By comparing two halophytes with distinct life cycles (Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus), we will evaluate species-specific N and P cycling...

  15. Crabs mediate interactions between native and invasive salt marsh plants: a mesocosm study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil disturbance has been widely recognized as an important factor influencing the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Although soil reworkers were shown to increase habitat complexity and raise the risk of plant invasion, their role in regulating the interactions between native and invasive species remains unclear. We proposed that crab activities, via improving soil nitrogen availability, may indirectly affect the interactions between invasive Spartina alterniflora and native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter in salt marsh ecosystems. We conducted a two-year mesocosm experiment consisting of five species combinations, i.e., monocultures of three species and pair-wise mixtures of invasive and native species, with crabs being either present or absent for each combination. We found that crabs could mitigate soil nitrogen depletion in the mesocosm over the two years. Plant performance of all species, at both the ramet-level (height and biomass per ramet and plot-level (density, total above- and belowground biomass, were promoted by crab activities. These plants responded to crab disturbance primarily by clonal propagation, as plot-level performance was more sensitive to crabs than ramet-level. Moreover, crab activities altered the competition between Spartina and native plants in favor of the former, since Spartina was more promoted than native plants by crab activities. Our results suggested that crab activities may increase the competition ability of Spartina over native Phragmites and Scirpus through alleviating soil nitrogen limitation.

  16. Relative importance of macrophyte leaves for nitrogen uptake from flood water in tidal salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Stapel, J.; Van der Heiden, J.; Koutstaal, B.P.; Van Soelen, J.; Van IJzerloo, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen limits plant growth in most salt marshes. As foliar N-uptake makes a significant contribution to the overall N-requirements of submerged plant species such as (e.g.) seagrasses, we tested if foliar N-uptake was also significant in Spartina anglica Hubbard, a species that dominates the lowes

  17. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  18. Growth and photosynthesis responses of two co-occurring marsh grasses to inundation and varied nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    For southern New England tidal marshes, the late twentieth century decline of Spartina patens has been attributed to increased flooding associated with accelerated sea level rise and nitrogen over-enrichment from cultural eutrophication, either singly or in combination. The obje...

  19. Good Crab, Bad Crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are crabs friends or foes of marsh grass, benefit or detriment to the salt marsh system? We examined Uca pugilator (sand fiddler) and Sesarma reticulatum (purple marsh crab) with Spartina patens (salt marsh hay) at two elevations (10 cm below MHW and 10 cm above MHW) in mesocosms...

  20. Determination of food sources for benthic invertebrates in a salt marsh (Aiguillon Bay, France) by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: importance of locally produced sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riera, P.; Stal, L.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Richard, P.; Blanchard, G.F.; Gentil, F.

    1999-01-01

    delta(13)C and delta(15)N were measured in benthic invertebrates and food sources collected in the salt marsh of the Aiguillon Bay, France. The results showed that, although Spartina anglica was dominant, this marine phanerogame did not contribute significantly to the carbon and nitrogen requirement

  1. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability.

  2. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Verbena braziliensis 1 -- -- Part henocissus quinquefolia 1 3 4 Ptilimniwn capillacewn -- 6 -- Spartina cynosuroides -- 4 - Sonchus oleraceus -- 4...ty Zis castanea -- 2 -- Verbena spp. I- -- Calium hispiduiwn -- I -- Rubus flagilaris -- 1 2 Phytolacca canericana 1 4 Sonchus as per -- I -- Acer

  3. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  4. Water use characteristics of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) communities along an ecotone with marsh at a northern geographical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Hester, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are expanding into warm temperate-zone salt marsh communities in several locations globally. Although scientists have discovered that expansion might have modest effects on ecosystem functioning, water use characteristics have not been assessed relative to this transition. We measured early growing season sapflow (Js) and leaf transpiration (Tr) in Avicennia germinans at a latitudinal limit along the northern Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana, United States) under both flooded and drained states and used these data to scale vegetation water use responses in comparison with Spartina alterniflora. We discovered strong convergence when using either Js or Tr for determining individual tree water use, indicating tight connection between transpiration and xylem water movement in small Avicennia trees. When Tr data were combined with leaf area indices for the region with the use of three separate approaches, we determined that Avicennia stands use approximately 1·0–1·3 mm d–1 less water than Spartina marsh. Differences were only significant with the use of two of the three approaches, but are suggestive of net conservation of water as Avicennia expands into Spartina marshes at this location. Average Js for Avicennia trees was not influenced by flooding, but maximum Js was greater when sites were flooded. Avicennia and Spartina closest to open water (shoreline) used more water than interior locations of the same assemblages by an average of 1·3 mm d−1. Lower water use by Avicennia may indicate a greater overall resilience to drought relative to Spartina, such that aperiodic drought may interact with warmer winter temperatures to facilitate expansion of Avicennia in some years.

  5. The flux of chloroform and tetrachloromethane along an elevational gradient of a coastal salt marsh, East China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinxin [Halophyte Research Lab, Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qin Pei [Halophyte Research Lab, Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun Shucun [Halophyte Research Lab, Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) and Center for Ecological Research, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu 610041 (China)]. E-mail: shcs@nju.edu.cn

    2007-07-15

    The fluxes of trichloromethane (CHCl{sub 3}, CM) and tetrachloromethane (CCl{sub 4}, TCM) were seasonally measured using static flux chambers over an annual cycle in a coastal salt marsh, East China. The salt marsh presented as a large sink for both the compounds in the growing season (from April to October), but it was a minor source for the gas species in the non-growing season. Generally, the cordgrass marsh acted as a sink of CM and TCM. The net consumption of CM and TCM observed in the study marsh may result from the high ambient atmospheric concentrations and enriched soil organic matter that result in anoxic sediments. Higher plants were suggested to be an important sink for CM and TCM in the growing season, but a net source in the non-growing season. However, the mechanism responsible for the plant removal process is not clear. - Cordgrass marshes as a sink for CHCl{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4}.

  6. [Photosynthetic functions and chlorophyll fast fluorescence characteristics of five Pinus species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nian-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Gu, Zhu-Jun; Jia, Shu-Qin; Wang, Xing-An

    2012-05-01

    A comparative study was made on the needle morphological characteristics, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of five representative Pinus species P. parvifiora, P. armandii, P. bungeana, P. tabuliformis, and P. densiflora. Significant differences were observed in the needle morphological characteristics among the five species. P. tabuliformis had the longest needle length and highest needle density, whereas P. bungeana had the highest chlorophyll content. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum photosynthetic rate, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance across the five species. The differences in the chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of the five species were mainly manifested in J-step and I-step. Although the five species had similar values of Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and Tfm, P. parviflora had significantly higher values of dV/dt(o), dVG/d(o), V and Vi, but lower energy flux ratio psi(o), phiEo and phiRo, compared with the other four species. The low PSII activity and efficiency of P. parviflora might relate to its smallest Sm, Sm/Tfm and N. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum vitality indices PI(ABS/CSo/CSm) and DF, respectively, and there existed significant positive correlations between the PI(CSo) and PI(CSm) and the net photosynthetic rate of the five species, suggesting that PI(CSo) and PI(CSm) could be used to estimate the photosynthetic activity of Pinus trees.

  7. 山东五莲山植物群落结构及物种多样性%Community Structure and Species Diversity in Wulian Mountain of Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高远; 姚亮; 邱振鲁; 颜景浩

    2008-01-01

    五莲山自然保护区地处鲁东南沿海地区,为全面了解其群落结构组成及物种多样性,作者进行了野外调查,共获得11个标准样方,面积6 600 m2.样方内记录到高等植物52科141种.该保护区地带性植被为常绿-落叶针阔叶天然次生混交林、落叶阔叶林,主要森林植被为赤松-板栗群落(Pinus densiflora-Castanea mollissima community)、麻栎-赤松群落(Quercus acutissima-Pinus densiflora community)、赤松-杜鹃群落(P.densiflora-Rhododendron simsii community)、麻栎-杜鹃群落(Q.acutissima-Rhododendron simsii community).样方数据显示该区域木本植物种类不是很丰富,但植物群落结构复杂,具有明显的生境异质性,其多样性指数乔木层<木本层<灌木层.作者认为影响该保护区核心区多样性的最显著特征应该为海拔和坡度,而人为干扰会严重影响外围保护区植被类型及其物种多样性.整体上看,本区域正处于群落演替早期,种间竞争尚不充分,物种多样性偏低.

  8. Ancient and Famous Trees in Dandong:Investigation,Management and Protection%丹东市主要古树名木及管理现状和保护建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳红

    2008-01-01

    初步调查得知,丹东市现有古树名木20多种,其中达到辽宁省比较古老的树种的有6种:最古的银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、五针松(Pinus parviflora)、赤松(Pinus densiflora)、腺柳(Salix chaenomeloides)、水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)、圆柏(Sabina chinensis)、榆树(Ulmus pumila).同时指出了丹东市古树名木管理的不足以及整改的有关措施.

  9. REEVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE EXTINCIÓN DE CINCO ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO POLIANTHES L. (AGAVACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo; Eloy Solano; Abisaí García-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Con base en el método de evaluación del riesgo de extinción de las especies silvestres en México (MER), se redefinió el de Polianthes densiflora, P. howardii, P. longiflora, P. palustris y P. platyphylla. Estas cinco plantas se encuentran listadas en la categoría de protección especial en la Norma Oficial Mexicana y fueron catalogadas como raras por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). El criterio A del MER (amplitud de la distribución geográfica) se estimó med...

  10. Comparison of Natural Regeneration for Three Different Conifer Species on Zhanggutai Sandyland%章古台沙地3种不同针叶树种天然更新对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长全; 刘淑玲; 郝春英; 吴晓文

    2012-01-01

    通过对章古台沙地樟子松、赤松、油松等3种不同针叶树种天然更新对比试验,结果表明,3种针叶树1年生天然更新强度分别为3 594~5 133、20 300~50 000和8 300~13 900株.hm-2;赤松天然更新的强度好于油松,油松好于樟子松;樟子松天然更新1年生幼苗较难越冬,经覆盖后幼苗越冬成活率达66%;赤松、油松1年生幼苗相对较易越冬,越冬成活率分别为17.20%和20%,经覆盖后幼苗越冬成活率分别为54.94%和51.28%。因此,应采取人工促进措施进行樟子松、赤松、油松天然更新。%Comparative experiments of natural regeneration for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.and Pinus tabulaeformis exist on Zhanggutai’s sandyland in Zhangwu county of Liaoning province were conducted.Natural regeneration intensity of one-year-old three conifer species are separately 3 594-5 133,20 300-50 000 & 8 300-13 900 plants·hm-2;the intensity of natural regeneration of Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.is optimal than that of Pinus tabulaeformis;the intensity of natural regeneration of Pinus tabulaeformis is optimal than that of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica;natural regeneration of one-year-old Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica seedlings are difficult to live through winter.Survival rate of seedlings should increase by 66% after covering.One-year-old seedlings of Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.& Pinus tabulaeformis whose overwintering survival rate are 17.20% & 20%,respectively,are relatively easy to live through winter;survival rate of seedlings are 54.94% & 51.28% after covering.Therefore,artificial measures should be taken to promote the natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.,Pinus tabulaeformis. 更多

  11. ERTS-1 investigation of wetlands ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V.; Mcginness, J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from aircraft can be used for large scale mapping where detailed information is necessary, whereas Landsat-1 data are useful for rapid mapping of gross wetland boundaries and vegetative composition and assessment of seasonal change plant community composition such as high and low growth forms of Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemarianus, and Spartina cynosuroides. Spoil disposal and wetland ditching activities may also be defined. Wetland interpretation is affected by tidal stage; drainage patterns are more easily detected at periods of low water. Species discrimination is easier at periods of high water during the growing season; upper wetland boundaries in fresh water tidal marshes are more easily delineated during the winter months when marsh vegetation is largely dead or dormant. Fresh water discharges from coastal streams may be inferred from the species composition of contiguous wetlands.

  12. Sedimentation rates in the Wanggang salt marshes, Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGAijun; GAOShu; JIAJianjun; PANShaoming

    2005-01-01

    Coastal salt-marshes represent an important coastal wetland system. The total area of coastal wetlands exceeds 5000 km2 in Jiangsu Province, China, but it is decreasing rapidly in response to the intense reclamation activities and coastal erosion along a part of the coastline. Hence, two types of plants, Spartina angelica and Spartina alterniflora, were introduced successively into the Jiangsu coastal areas, in order to protect the coastline from erosion and to increase the accumulation rate. Pb-210 and Cs-137 analyses were carried out for sediment samples from the salt-marshes of Wanggang to determine the sedimentation rate, on the basis of an evaluation of the background activity values and the factors affecting the enrichment of Pb-210. Analysis of a typical sediment column of the tidal flat shows that there is weak absorption of Pb-210 in the silt-dominated sediment. Because of the influences of factors such as storm events, bioturbation, material sources and analytical error, some abnormal data points appear in the Pb-210 record. After ignoring these data the calculated sedimentation rate was 3.3 cm yr-1 on average. Based upon analysis of the Cs-137 dating, the rate since 1963 was 3.1 cm yr-1 on average, similar to the data by Pb-210 dating and the previous studies. The dating results show that there were three stages of sedimentation, with the most rapid accretion being taking place after Spartina angelica was introduced into the area. The study also shows that at the stage of Spartina alterniflora growth, the accretion rate was higher than on the flat surface with the same elevation without the cover of this plant.

  13. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Review of Senescence as an Important Factor Determining the Relationship Among Aquatic Plants, Their Epiphytes, and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    R. V. 1980. "Degradative Enzyme Production by Salt-Marsh Fungi," Botanica Marina, Vol 23, pp 133-139. Gessner, R. V., and Kohlmayer, J. 1976...1983. "Observations on the Association of Thraustochytrid Marine Fungi with Decaying Seaweed," Botanica Marina, Vol 26, pp 345-351. Misaghi, I. J...Fungus Buergenerula spartinae," Botanica Marina, Vol 23, pp 645-650. Trudeau, P. N. 1982. "Nuisance Aquatic Plants and Aquatic Plant Management

  14. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  15. 江苏王港盐沼的现代沉积速率%Sedimentation rates in the Wanggang salt marshes, Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱军; 高抒; 贾建军

    2005-01-01

    Coastal salt-marshes represent an important coastal wetland system. The total area of coastal wetlands exceeds 5000 km2 in Jiangsu Province, China, but it is decreasing rapidly in response to the intense reclamation activities and coastal erosion along a part of the coastline. Hence, two types of plants, Spartina angelica and Spartina alterniflora, were introduced successively into the Jiangsu coastal areas, in order to protect the coastline from erosion and to increase the accumulation rate. Pb-210 and Cs-137 analyses were carried out for sediment samples from the salt-marshes of Wanggang to determine the sedimentation rate, on the basis of an evaluation of the background activity values and the factors affecting the enrichment of Pb-210. Analysis of a typical sediment column of the tidal flat shows that there is weak absorption of Pb-210 in the silt-dominated sediment. Because of the influences of factors such as storm events, bioturbation, material sources and analytical error, some abnormal data points appear in the Pb-210 record. After ignoring these data the calculated sedimentation rate was 3.3 cm yr-1 on average. Based upon analysis of the Cs-137 dating, the rate since 1963 was 3.1 cm yr-1 on average, similar to the data by Pb-210 dating and the previous studies. The dating results show that there were three stages of sedimentation, with the most rapid accretion being taking place after Spartina angelica was introduced into the area. The study also shows that at the stage of Spartina alterniflora growth, the accretion rate was higher than on the flat surface with the same elevation without the cover of this plant.

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and Microbial Degradation of Specifically Radiolabeled [14C]Lignocelluloses from Marine and Freshwater Macrophytes †

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Specifically radiolabeled [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses were prepared from the aquatic macrophytes Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, Rhizophora mangle, and Carex walteriana by using [14C]phenylalanine, [14C]tyrosine, and [14C]cinnamic acid as precursors. Specifically radiolabeled [14C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses were prepared by using [14C]glucose as precursor. The rates of microbial degradation varied among [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses labeled with different lignin precursors within...

  17. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  18. Intelligent Data Fusion for Wide-Area Assessment of UXO Contamination. SERDP Project MM-1510. 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Ustin, S.L.; Hastings, A.’ “Use of lidar to study changes associated with Spartina invasion in San Francisco Bay marshes,” Remote Sensing of...produce magnetic anomalies; (5) structures that occur at tectonic plate boundaries (magnetics can be positive or negative) (6) fault zones, and (7...that utilized by Bai , Shen and Wang in their radial symmetry feature finding algorithm. [54] Pixels with gradient magnitudes less than 0.1 units were

  19. Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Rhizosphere Soils of Three Plants in Rapidly Changing Salt Marshes Using 16S rDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The structure and diversity of the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils of native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter and alien Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze River Estuary were investigated by constructing 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries. The bacterial diversity was quantified by placing the clones into operational taxonomic unit (OTU) groups at the level of sequence similarity of > 97%. Phylogenetic analysis of the resulting 398 clone sequences indicated a high diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of these plants. The members of Alphaproteobacteria,Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria were the most abundant in rhizobacteria. Chao 1 nonparametric diversity estimator coupled with the reciprocal of Simpson's index (1/D) was applied to sequence data obtained from each library to evaluate total sequence diversity and quantitatively compare the level of dominance. The results showed that Phragmites, Scirpus, and Spartina rhizosphere soils contained 200, 668, and 382 OTUs, respectively. The bacterial communities in the Spartina and Phragmites rhizosphere soils displayed species dominance revealed by 1/D, whereas the bacterial community in Scirpus rhizosphere soil had uniform distributions of species abundance. Overall, analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries from the rhizosphere soils indicates that the changes in bacterial composition may occur concomitantly with the shift of species composition in plant communities.

  20. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  1. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  2. Morphometric Variation in Pine Wood Nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus, Isolated from Multiple Locations in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yil-Sung Moon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation in morphometry of pine wood nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in relation to geographical locations in South Korea was investigated using morphometric characters (body length, a, b and c ratio, stylet length, and spicule length for a male nematode and V (% value for a female nematode. B. xylophilus was isolated from Pinus thunbergii in Jinju (1998, Ulsan (2000, Yangsan (2000, Mokpo (2001 and Jeju (2004, and from P. densiflora in Gumi (2001. B. mucronatus was isolated from P. thunbergii in Jinju (1991 and from P. densiflora in Milyang (2001. The body length of male and female B. xylophilus had the highest coefficient of variability and showed significant differences among geographical locations. The V (% value for female B. xylophilus showed the lowest coefficient of variability, changing little with geographical area and host plant. All morphometric characters in B. mucronatus except for stylet length and female body length showed no significant differences between locations or hosts, suggesting they may not be affected by geographical area or host plant.

  3. A study of the carbon dynamics of Japanese grassland and forest using 14C and 13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Kazumi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Tamura, Kenji; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    We quantified the carbon contents of grassland and forest soil using conventional methods and studied the changes in their dynamics by measuring δ 13C and Δ 14C. Soil samples were taken from a neighboring Miscanthus sinensis grassland and Pinus densiflora forest in central Japan. Both had been maintained as grassland until the 1960s, when the latter was abandoned and became a pine forest by natural succession. The soil carbon content of the forest was much lower than that of the grassland, implying that the soil carbon decreased as the grassland became forest. The δ 13C values were very similar in the grassland and forest, at approximately -20‰, suggesting that M. sinensis (a C4 plant) contributed to carbon storage, whereas there was little carbon accumulation from P. densiflora (a C3 plant) in forest soil. The Δ 14C values and calculated soil carbon mean residence time (MRT) showed that the soil carbon in the upper A horizon was older, and that in the lower A horizon was younger in forest than in grassland. From these results, we conclude that young, fast-MRT soil carbon is decomposed in the upper A horizon, and old, stable soil carbon was decomposed in the lower A horizon after the pine invasion.

  4. A study of the carbon dynamics of Japanese grassland and forest using {sup 14}C and {sup 13}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuno, Kazumi, E-mail: katsuno@nenv.k.u-tokyo.ac.j [University of Tokyo, Department of Natural Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Miyairi, Yosuke [University of Tokyo, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tamura, Kenji [University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, 1-1-1 Tennnodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Fukuda, Kenji [University of Tokyo, Department of Natural Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    We quantified the carbon contents of grassland and forest soil using conventional methods and studied the changes in their dynamics by measuring delta{sup 13}C and DELTA{sup 14}C. Soil samples were taken from a neighboring Miscanthus sinensis grassland and Pinus densiflora forest in central Japan. Both had been maintained as grassland until the 1960s, when the latter was abandoned and became a pine forest by natural succession. The soil carbon content of the forest was much lower than that of the grassland, implying that the soil carbon decreased as the grassland became forest. The delta{sup 13}C values were very similar in the grassland and forest, at approximately -20 per mille , suggesting that M. sinensis (a C4 plant) contributed to carbon storage, whereas there was little carbon accumulation from P. densiflora (a C3 plant) in forest soil. The DELTA{sup 14}C values and calculated soil carbon mean residence time (MRT) showed that the soil carbon in the upper A horizon was older, and that in the lower A horizon was younger in forest than in grassland. From these results, we conclude that young, fast-MRT soil carbon is decomposed in the upper A horizon, and old, stable soil carbon was decomposed in the lower A horizon after the pine invasion.

  5. Application of Normal Distribution Model to Estimate Root Water Uptake Profile by an Isotopic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, T.; Matsuo, D.; Hirota, M.

    2008-12-01

    To confirm usefulness of a diagnostic model for estimating root water uptake profile by an isotopic approach, isotopic measurements of plant xylem water, soil water and groundwater were conducted at seven Japanese red pine forest sites and then the model was applied to the measured results. The model assumes that depth profile of relative uptake rate can be approximated by the normal distribution function, and xylem water isotopic composition is computed from interpolated depth profile of isotopic composition of subsurface waters. The peak depth and distribution range of water uptake zone for a given species at a given site are inversely determined by direct search method (assuming depth interval of 5 cm up to 2 m) so as to minimize root mean square error throughout observation period. Estimated water uptake profiles showed that in six sites the uptake zone of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) ranged from 5 to 60 cm depth, while it was changed to deeper depths in the other site where Quercus myrsinaefolia and Pleioblastus chino coexist. On the other hand, Populus sieboldi and Malus sieboldii take up water from depths deeper than those for Pinus densiflora within a community, although the two species are usually considered as shallow rooted plants. These results indicate water source partitioning under inter-species competition, and we conclude that the present model is capable of making clear the plant water use strategy. Estimated water uptake zone also provides useful information for improving/calibrating prognostic, physical models of root water uptake.

  6. Development of environmental assessment by tree ring (1). Characteristics of tree ring width in pine tree. Jumoku nenrin ni yoru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho no kaihatsu (1). Matsu no nenrin haba no jittai to kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinada, Yasushi; Nashimoto, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu.

    1988-12-01

    In order to investigate the causal relation of change in vegetation status with the power station after starting the operation, pine trees in the surrounding area were studied in tree ring characteristics. The sampling was made at six stands ranged from the Tohhoku district to the Chugoku district. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 0.1 to 16.2mm and 0.05 to 9.05mm, respectively, in tree ring width. They were, in frequency distribution, both a logarithmic normal distribution with 1.05 to 1.50mm in mode. Their frequency distribution being a logarithmic normal distribution, along with advance in years thereafter it transfers to a normal distribution, then to a logarithmic normal distribution, then to an L-shaped distribution. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 6.5+-3.5mm and 6.5+-2.5mm, respectively, in maximum tree ring width, of which the appearance ratio was high in trees, 4 to 12 years old. While the minimum tree ring width appears, when the tree is very young in age and in specific calendar years during its second half of life. As for the time series of tree ring width, it, small when one year old, continues to enlarge along with advance in years until about ten years old, attains the maximum and, after then, diminishes along with advance in years. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  8. Nitrogen isotopic patterns of vegetation as affected by breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris): A coupled analysis of feces, inorganic soil nitrogen and flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizota, C., E-mail: mizota@iwate-u.ac.jp [Iwate University, Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Two currently breeding colonies (Matsushima Bay and Rishiri island; northern Japan) of predominant Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris) were studied for N isotopic patterns of flora, which is affected by increased supply of inorganic soil N derived from the microbial transformation of feces. Coupled samples of feces, topsoil and flora were collected in early to mid July (2008), when input of fecal N onto soils was at its maximum. As bird migration and breeding continued, native Japanese red-pine (Pinus densiflora), junipers (Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus rigita; Matsushima Bay colony) and Sasa senanensis (Rishiri colony) declined, while ornithocoprophilus exotic plants succeeded. Among tree species on the islands, P. densiflora with ectomycorrizal colonization appears highly susceptible to elevated concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N in the topsoil. A mechanism for best explaining the plant succession associated with the breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull was evidenced by two parameters: first, concomitant elevation of N content in the flora and second, inorganic soil N content, along with changes in N isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N). Earlier isotopic data on the foliar N affected by breeding activity were compiled and reviewed. Emphasis was put on isotopic information for inorganic N in soils that controls plant succession.

  9. ITS2 secondary structure for species circumscription: case study in southern African Strychnos L. (Loganiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Adekunle; Lamb, Jennifer; Nicholas, Ashley; Naidoo, Yougasphree

    2016-12-01

    Recently developed computational tools in ITS2 sequence-structure phylogenetics are improving tree robustness by exploitation of the added information content of the secondary structure. Despite this strength, however, their adoption for species-level clarifications in angiosperms has been slow. We investigate the utility of combining ITS2 sequence and secondary structure to separate species of southern African Strychnos, and assess correlation between compensatory base changes (CBCs) and currently recognised species boundaries. Combined phylogenetic analysis of sequence and secondary structure datasets performed better, in terms of robustness and species resolution, than analysis involving primary sequences only, achieving 100 and 88.2 % taxa discriminations respectively. Further, the Strychnos madagascariensis complex is well-resolved by sequence-structure phylogenetic analysis. The 17 Strychnos species corresponded to 14 ITS2 CBC clades. Four of the five taxa in section Densiflorae belong to a single CBC clade, whose members tend to form natural hybrids. Our finding supports the application of ITS2 as a complementary barcoding marker for species identification. It also highlights the potential of comparative studies of ITS2 CBC features among prospective parental pairs in breeding experiments as a rapid proxy for cross compatibility assessment. This could save valuable time in crop improvement. Patterns of CBC evolution and species boundaries in Strychnos suggests a positive correlation. We conclude that the CBC pattern coupled with observed ITS2 sequence paraphyly in section Densiflorae points to a speciation work-in-progress.

  10. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp. caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  11. Eugenol synthase genes in floral scent variation in Gymnadenia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok K; Schauvinhold, Ines; Pichersky, Eran; Schiestl, Florian P

    2014-12-01

    Floral signaling, especially through floral scent, is often highly complex, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary causes of this complexity. In this study, we focused on the evolution of "floral scent genes" and the associated changes in their functions in three closely related orchid species of the genus Gymnadenia. We developed a benchmark repertoire of 2,571 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Gymnadenia odoratissima. For the functional characterization and evolutionary analysis, we focused on eugenol synthase, as eugenol is a widespread and important scent compound. We obtained complete coding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of two copies of putative eugenol synthase genes in each of the three species. The proteins encoded by these cDNAs were characterized by expression and testing for activity in Escherichia coli. While G. odoratissima and Gymnadenia conopsea enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of eugenol only, the Gymnadenia densiflora proteins synthesize eugenol, as well as a smaller amount of isoeugenol. Finally, we showed that the eugenol and isoeugenol producing gene copies of G. densiflora are evolutionarily derived from the ancestral genes of the other species producing only eugenol. The evolutionary switch from production of one to two compounds evolved under relaxed purifying selection. In conclusion, our study shows the molecular bases of eugenol and isoeugenol production and suggests that an evolutionary transition in a single gene can lead to an increased complexity in floral scent emitted by plants.

  12. Differential response of two Pinus spp. to avian nitrogen input as revealed by nitrogen isotope analysis for tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-01

    Temporal variations in N concentration and δ(15)N value of annual tree rings (1 year of time resolution) of two Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) and three Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) trees under current breeding activity of the Great Cormorant (Pharacrocorax carbo) and the Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris), respectively, in central and northeastern Japan were studied. Both species from control sites where no avian input occurs show negative values (δ(15)N = around -4 ‰ to -2 ‰) which are common among higher plants growing under high rainfall regimes. The δ(15)N values of P. densiflora show uniformly positive values several years before and after the breeding event, indicating N translocation that moved the absorbed N of a given growth year to tree rings of the previous year while a clear historical value of soil N dynamics was kept intact in the annual rings of P. thunbergii. Long-term N trends inferred from tree rings must take into account tree species with limited translocation rates that can retain actual N annual acquisition.

  13. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  14. Insect diversity and its influencing factors in Jiuduansha wetland national nature reserve,Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xiuzhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on insect diversity on order and family levels in five dominant plant communities on four shoals and different gradient tidal creeks in Jiuduansha Nature Reserve.A total of 35444 specimens were collected,belonging to 64 families and 13 orders.According to species number,the dominant families ranked as Chloropidae (42,Eulophidae (29,Pteromalidae (24,Braconidae (22,Ichneumonidae (15,Scelionidae (12,and the dominant orders as Hymenoptera (137,Diptera (85,Coleoptera (32,Hemiptera (10.Our analyses showed:(1 The insect species richness in summer was higher than those in other three seasons;(2 In Phragmites australis community on low tidal flat in summer,the species richness of insects was the highest,that on high tidal flat ranked the second,then that on middle tidal flat.On the low tidal flat,the individual number of Blissidae,Chloropidae,Coccinellidae and Anthicidae was much higher than those on the middle and high tidal flats.The individual number of Blissidae and Delphacidae increased from Lower to High tidal flat.Compared with that on the low tidal flat,the insect composition on the middle tidal flat was closer to that on the high tidal flat.(3 The family and individual numbers of insects in Spartina alterniflora community were higher than those in Phragmite australis community on Middle shoal in summer.Psocoptera and Chloropidae were two dominant families in Spartina alterniflora community,their individuals accounting for 86.83% of the total.While in Phragmite australis community,Chloropidae,Anthicidae and Coccinellidae were three dominant families,their individuals accounting for 79% of the total.In the Scirpus mariqueter-S.triqueter community on Jiangyanansha,the dominant insect families were Phlaeothripidae,Cicadellidae,Chloropidae,Chironomidae and Braconidae,their individual accounting for 96.82% of the total,those in Zizania latifolia community only accounting for 31.52% of the total.(4 The shannon

  15. Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Flux and Its Influence Factors in Yancheng Coastal Wetland in Spring%盐城滨海湿地春季温室气体通量及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鑫王豪; 邹欣庆; 吴丹丹; 张东菊; 田野; 赵善道

    2013-01-01

    通过在盐城滨海湿地进行植被调查、气体以及表层沉积物样品的采集与分析,探讨温室气体通量与植被状况、表层沉积物理化性质之间的关系.结果表明:不同植被覆盖下的滨海湿地,温室气体通量表现各异,其中CO2在滨海湿地5月份表现为碳源,且有植被覆盖的互花米草滩和芦苇滩的CO2排放通量明显大于无植被覆盖的光滩,盐蒿滩植被的盖度和密度较低,故排放也较低,光滩、互花米草滩、盐蒿滩以及芦苇滩CO2通量分别为26.99、865.2、100.87和1 942.03 mg/(m2·h);CH4在光滩,互花米草滩,盐蒿滩上则为弱汇,在芦苇滩为弱源,通量值分别为-0.13、-0.14、-0.02和0.55 mg/(m2·h);光滩和芦苇滩是N2O吸收汇,为-12.29,-56.83 μg/(m2·h),互花米草滩和盐蒿滩为源,为18.56,25.64 μg/(m2·h).表层沉积物理化性质存在显著的空间差异:其中粒径与容重均是光滩最大,互花米草滩最小,盐蒿滩、芦苇滩居中;TN、TOC、微生物生物量C、微生物生物量N均是光滩最小,互花米草滩最大,盐蒿和芦苇居中;C/N为互花米草滩和芦苇滩较大,而光滩和盐蒿滩则较小.全盐分布表现为互花米草滩>盐蒿滩>光滩>芦苇滩.pH表现为:芦苇>光滩>盐蒿滩>互花米草滩.通过相关分析,回归分析以及主成分分析,得出CO2和CH4通量与箱温、10~20 cm沉积物温度以及pH呈显著相关,而N2O则主要与pH、全盐、容重、微生物生物量N的相关性较大.%Relationship between greenhouse gas flux of Yancheng coastal wetland and vegetation, the physicochemical properties of soil was studied based on the field investigation as well as sampling and indoor analysis of gas and surficial sediments. Results showed that greenhouse gas flux in different vegetation covers exhibited big difference. In May for CO2 flux the coastal wetland appeared to be source of carbon. CO2 emission flux on Spartina alterniflora flat and

  16. Marsh Pool and Tidal Creek Morphodynamics: Dynamic Equilibrium of New England Saltmarshes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; FitzGerald, D. M.; Hughes, Z. J.

    2012-12-01

    Under natural conditions, high saltmarsh platforms in New England exhibit poor drainage, creating waterlogged pannes (where short-form Spartina alterniflora dominates) and stagnant pools that experience tidal exchange only during spring tides and storm-induced flooding events. It is well accepted that a legacy of ditching practices (either for agriculture or mosquito control purposes) provide "overdrainage" of saltmarshes (after Redfield, 1972) and a shift in biogeochemical conditions: lowering of groundwater tables, aeration of soil, and decrease in preserved belowground biomass. Analysis of historical imagery in the Plum Island Estuary of Massachusetts reveals closure and decrease in length of anthropogenic ditches in recent decades is closely linked to marsh pool evolution. Field analyses including stratigraphic transects and elevation surveys suggest these marshes are reverting to natural drainage conditions. Further, an important dynamic interaction exists between saltmarsh pools and natural tidal creeks: creeks incise into pool areas, causing drainage of the pools, and formation of an unvegetated mudflat which can be rapidly recolonized by halophytic Spartina alterniflora vegetation. It was determined that pool and creek dynamics are cyclic in nature. The marsh platform is in dynamic equilibrium with respect to elevation and sea-level whereby marsh elevation may be lost (due to degradation of organic matter and formation of a pool) however may be regained (by creek incision into pools, restoration of tidal exchange, and rapid vertical accretion with Spartina alterniflora recolonization. Since vertical accretion in saltmarshes is a function of both organic and inorganic contributions to the marsh subsurface, it is hypothesized that cannibalization of existing muds is supplying inorganic material in this sediment starved system.

  17. Colonization, succession, and nutrition of macrobenthic assemblages in a restored wetland at Tijuana Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman, Serena M.; Levin, Lisa A.; Currin, Carolyn; Forder, Charlotte

    2004-08-01

    Modes of colonization, the successional trajectory, and trophic recovery of a macrofaunal community were analyzed over 19 months in the Friendship marsh, a 20-acre restored wetland in Tijuana Estuary, California. Traditional techniques for quantifying macrofaunal communities were combined with emerging stable isotopic approaches for evaluation of trophic recovery, making comparisons with a nearby natural Spartina foliosa habitat. Life history-based predictions successfully identified major colonization modes, although most taxa employed a variety of tactics for colonizing the restored marsh. The presence of S. foliosa did not seem to affect macrofaunal colonization or succession at the scale of this study. However, soil organic matter content in the restored marsh was positively correlated with insect densities, and high initial salinities may have limited the success of early colonists. Total macrofaunal densities recovered to natural marsh levels after 14 months and diversity, measured as species richness and the Shannon index ( H'), was comparable to the natural marsh by 19 months. Some compositional disparities between the natural and created communities persisted after 19 months, including lower percentages of surface-feeding polychaetes ( Polydora spp.) and higher percentages of dipteran insects and turbellarians in the Friendship marsh. As surficial structural similarity of infaunal communities between the Friendship and natural habitat was achieved, isotopic analyses revealed a simultaneous trajectory towards recovery of trophic structure. Enriched δ 13C signatures of benthic microalgae and infauna, observed in the restored marsh shortly after establishment compared to natural Spartina habitat, recovered after 19 months. However, the depletion in δ 15N signatures of macrofauna in the Friendship marsh indicated consumption of microalgae, particularly nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, while macroalgae and Spartina made a larger contribution to macrofaunal

  18. Studies on the chemical constituents of Fusarium sp.from seagrass endophytic fungus%海草内生真菌Fusarium sp.F-1化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖义平; 陈晶晶; 张云海; 邵志宇; 徐德强

    2004-01-01

    从海草互花米草(Spartina alterni flora)中分离到真菌Fusarium sp.,从该菌株的培养物中首次分离到5个化合物,经TLC对照,MS,NMR等光谱技术鉴定,确定其结构分别为麦角甾醇(Ⅰ)、过氧化麦角甾醇(Ⅱ)、肉桂酸(Ⅲ)、对羟基苯丙酸(Ⅳ)和白僵菌素(Ⅴ).

  19. Growth and use of energy grasses as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This summary outlines the main conclusions of the project which aims to provide information on the growth, yields, and combustion characteristics of Miscanthus, switchgrass, Spartina, rye, and reed canary grass. Details are given of the small-plot trials of the non-wood biomass fuels, the planting, pests and diseases, the falling over of crops, the time of harvest, moisture content, yields, combustion trials, fuel and ash characterisation, and costs/income. Tables are provided illustrating the cumulative yield, the costs of the different species of energy grasses, and the annual mean gross margins over 5, 10, 15, and 20 years.

  20. Diversity and Phylogenetic Structure of Two Complex Marine Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Du, Y., et al. (2002) The comparative RNA web (CRW) site: an online database of comparative sequence and structure information for ribosomal, intron...C.A., Newell, S.Y., and Paerl, H.W. (1995) The role References of standing dead Spartina alternfflora and benthic microal- gae in salt marsh food webs ...q Ja 1,4 1 S., fn.i.to) 47. 145-1 156 (19r . lntiutoide Geologia’ Mineria , Universidad Nactonalde Jujuy, Avenida Bolwiva . V~a. C 3. j kLmnnnaommntal

  1. Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera da zona entre-marés e fundos rasos dos estados de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera from the lotertidal zone and shallow botioms or the States or São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setúbal Pires

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with twelve species of Sphaeromatidae from several substrata in the intertidal and shallow infralittoral zone in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, Brazil. Sand, stones, empty tests of barnacles, empty tubes of polychaete, byssus of mussels, oyster beds, macroscopic algae and sea grass (Spartina alterniflora were collected and analysed. The following nomenclatural changes have been made: Pseudosphaeroma jakobii and Exosphaeroma platense are synonymyzed with Cassidinidea tuberculata; Pseudosphaeroma rhombofrontalis is placed in the genus Tholozodium; Paradynoides brasiliensis antonii with D. tropica. A key to species, the geographical distribution and notes on the habitat of the species are also furnished.

  2. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  3. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15364-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.025 2 ( DR387438 ) RTHG1_21_F04.g2_A029 Roots plus added mercury Pin... 42 0.0...c... 42 0.027 2 ( DR020892 ) STRS1_40_A08.b1_A034 Shoot tip pitch canker susce... 42 0.027 2 ( DR386272 ) RTHG1_14_B09.b1_A029 Roots...tch canker susce... 42 0.028 2 ( DR386343 ) RTHG1_14_B09.g1_A029 Roots plus added... mercury Pin... 42 0.028 2 ( DR384615 ) RTHG1_3_A03.g1_A029 Roots plus added mercury Pinu... 42 0.028 2 ( FG...615284 ) FEGLCD004_04-B05-F PD_BX library Pinus densiflora... 42 0.028 2 ( CO366684 ) RTK1_29_H10.b1_A029 Roots

  5. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-10-01

    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  6. Recovery and reutilization of cellulases used for the hydrolysis of wood. I. Fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, S; Yaku, F.; Koshijima, T.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the quantity of enzyme from the CD spectrum of cellulase without interference due to coexisting lignin and saccharides in solution, and the properties of cellulase from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger used for the enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora, were investigated. The cellulase from T. viride has an intense affinity with wood, 50% of the enzyme added to the reaction system was adsorbed by the wood after 30 minutes and kept its activity in the adsorbed state, whereas the cellulase from A. niger had little affinity with wood, and activity remaining in the solution was twice as high as that in the residual wood after enzymic hydrolysis for 24 hours. The activity remaining in the solution decreased with an increase in reaction time and a decrease in pH of the solution.

  7. Results of investigation on the effects of air pollution on trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanibuchi, M.; Usui, Y.

    1975-03-01

    The results of 3 yr of investigation starting in 1971 on the effects of sulfur oxides on trees in 10 forests around the Tokushima power station are described in terms of the declining state of the trees, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the air, and the sulfur content of the leaves. No relationship was observed between the index of tree decline and air pollution. No symptoms appeared on tree leaves which were attributable to air pollution. The concentration of sulfur dioxide in the air showed a decreasing tendency in areas near the station. The correlation between the concentration of airborne sulfur dioxide and the sulfur content of leaves was highest for Pinus densiflora.

  8. MODIS GPP/NPP for complex land use area: a case study of comparison between MODIS GPP/NPP and ground-based measurements over Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)/Net Primary Productivity (NPP) has been widely used for the study on global terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle. The current MODIS product with ~ 1 km spatial resolution, however, has limitation on the information on local scale environment (Pinus densiflora) agreed well with -0.2% of bias (1.6 gCm-2yr-1). The fairly comparable values of the MODIS here however, cannot assure the quality of the MOD17 over the complex vegetation area of Korea since the ground measurements except the eddy covariance tower flux measurements are highly inconsistent. Therefore, the comprehensive experiments to represents GPP/NPP over diverse vegetation types for a comparable scale of MODIS with a consistent measurement technique are necessary in order to evaluate the MODIS vegetation productivity data over Korea, which contains a large portion of highly heterogeneous vegetation area.

  9. Permeability and meniscus phenomenon in four Korean softwood species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Kyoung Chun; Sheikh Ali Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    The safranine impregnation differences in Pinus koraiensis, P densiflora, P. rigida, and Larix kaempferi were studied.Among them, P. koraiensis conducted higher depth of safranine in radial and L. kaempferi in longitudinal direction. High magnification was used to observe the safranine penetration behavior in longitudinal direction especially in longitudinal tracheids. Safranine impregnation in longitudinal tracheids was captured in digital video mode to observe the formation of curved and flat air-safranine meniscus. Given the tracheid radius 16-20 μm, surface tension of water at 72 dynes per centimeter at 23℃ and a contact angle 30°,the capillary pressure ranges from 0.06 to 0.08 bar. The lower the lumen diameter is, the higher the capillary pressure is. It was assumed that due to the differences of total water pressure under the safranine-water interface and total air pressure above the interface,curved meniscus was formed in the cell lumen.

  10. Actual conditions of damage to agricultural and forestry products due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisei, K.

    1975-03-01

    The vigor and the sulfur content of leaves from several species of trees in the Tokyo area were investigated to assess the relationship between the two factors and to determine whether the leaf sulfur content indicates the degree of air pollution. The sulfur content of leaves of Pinus densiflora and Cryptomeria japonica, although showing age and seasonal differences, was greater in places where air pollution was higher, and the relationship was represented by a linear regression formula. The same tendency existed for Zelkova serrata. The content of water-soluble inorganic sulfur showed a closer relationship to air pollution, and in the peak season it amounted to 65% of the total leaf sulfur in polluted areas. Maximum sulfur values of leaves appeared to indicate the extent of damage due to air pollution.

  11. Structural analysis of lignin by pyrolysis-gas chromatography. 7. Conditions for acid hydrolysis of wood pulp and characteristics of acid-insoluble residues; Netsubunkai gas chromatography ni yoru lignin no kozo kaiseki. 7. Mokuzai pulp no sankasuibunkai joken to sanfuyosei zansa no seijo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, H.; Ju, Y.; Kuroda, K. [The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to simply analyze lignin present in wood/pulp and the carbohydrate composition, an attempt was made to improve hydrolysis conditions. The tests used pulp samples from degreased akamatsu (Pinus densiflora) meals, akamatsu holocellulose and akamatsu chips. Four methods were tested for acid hydrolysis; the Klason lignin, Yoshiwara, carbohydrate composition and modified carbohydrate composition methods. The acid-insoluble residues were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography, and the pyrograms prepared under different hydrolysis conditions were compared with each other. The test results indicate that the lignin and composition methods need 2.5h of the primary hydrolysis treatment with 72% sulfuric acid, time of this treatment should be increased to 2.5h for the carbohydrate composition method, and the modified carbohydrate method can quantitatively analyze lignin present in many wood and pulp samples. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Phytofabrication of bioinspired zinc oxide nanocrystals for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Yi, Young-Joo; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Min; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the extract of young cones of Pinus densiflora as a reducing agent. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, and XRD. TEM images showed that various shapes of ZnO NPs were synthesized, including hexagonal (wurtzite), triangular, spherical, and oval-shaped particles, with average sizes between 10 and 100 nm. The synthesized ZnO NPs blended with the young pine cone extract have very good activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, similar to that of commercial ZnO NPs.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. III. Pretreatment of woods with acidic methanol-water mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Usami, K.

    1980-01-01

    Wood meal of Pinus densiflora (I) and Fagus crenata (II) was heated in aqueous methanol containing 0.1-0.6% HCl for 15-90 minutes at 120-170 degrees Centigrade to remove lignin and hydrolyse hemicelluloses. About 75% of the lignin could be removed from (I) and 90% from (II) under appropriate conditions. The cellulosic residues were hydrolysed with Trichoderma viride; it was necessary to remove more than 70% of the lignin from (I) and 80% from (II) for complete hydrolysis of the cellulose. Lignin was precipitated from the hydrolysis liquor by distilling off the methanol. The effects of composition of the MeOH-H/sub 2/O mixture, temperature, reaction time and HC1 concentration were studied.

  14. 日本赤松良种选育技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑臣; 孙柏友; 占臣祥; 李观合; 袁涛; 朱东方; 姜召成; 张自和

    2008-01-01

    赤松别名日本赤松Pinus densiflora Sieb、et Zucc、,松科常绿乔木,高可达30m。是沿海丘陵区的主要造林树种之一。国内主要分布于黑龙江东部、吉林长白山区、辽宁中部至辽东半岛,山东主要分布于胶东沿海山地丘陵地区,蒙山、泰山亦有分布。赤松垂直分布可达海拔900m,但以海拔500m以下的地方为宜。

  15. Cleaning procedures for removal of external deposits from plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salkl, H.; Maeda, O.

    1982-08-01

    Foliar samples of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese white oak (Quercus myrsinaefolia), and Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) were washed with running tap water, a 2% detergent solution, or 0.2 M HCl. The concentration of 16 elements were determined by inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometry to compare the effects of the three cleaning procedures on removal of external deposits. Among the three washing procedures, the most effective was the acid washing, which removed significant proportions of the total Al, Cr, Fe, Pb, Ti, and other elements from crude foliar samples without causing any measurable loss of K. It was ascertained by scanning electron microscopy that this treatment effectively removed particulate fallout on leaf surfaces without doing any visual damage to the plant material.

  16. 欧洲赤松引种试验初报%Primary Report of the introduction Experiment on Pinus densifiora Sieb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪杰; 张召军; 倪柏春

    2006-01-01

    树木引种驯化在林业发展中,始终具有较强的魅力.这是由于一个优良的树种,理性地引入一个地区后,所带来的良性变化决定的.欧洲赤松生长快、抗性强、耐干旱瘠薄、耐高寒.我们从80代即开始了国内外松属植物的引种工作,其中欧洲赤松(pinus densiflora sieb.et zucc)是较为成功的一例.本文实录了20余年赤松引种驯化情况,以供同行们参考.

  17. The (oxalato)aluminate complex as an antimicrobial substance protecting the "shiro" of Tricholoma matsutake from soil micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Katsutoshi; Shiro, Misao; Okura, Ryuki; Oizumi, Kazuya; Fujita, Toru; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Tanaka, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Muneyoshi; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete, forms ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densiflora as the host tree. Its fruiting body, "matsutake" in Japanese, is an edible and highly prized mushroom, and it grows in a circle called a fairy ring. Beneath the fairy ring of T. matsutake, a whitish mycelium-soil aggregated zone, called "shiro" in Japanese, develops. The front of the shiro, an active mycorrhizal zone, functions to gather nutrients from the soil and roots to nourish the fairy ring. Bacteria and sporulating fungi decrease from the shiro front, whereas they increase inside and outside the shiro front. Ohara demonstrated that the shiro front exhibited antimicrobial activity, but the antimicrobial substance has remained unidentified for 50 years. We have identified the antimicrobial substance as the (oxalato)aluminate complex, known as a reaction product of oxalic acid and aluminum phosphate to release soluble phosphorus. The complex protects the shiro from micro-organisms, and contributes to its development.

  18. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  19. 沈阳地区红头阿扁叶蜂的研究初报%A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE SAWFLY,ACANTHOLYDA ERYTHROCEPHALA (HYMENOPTERA:PAMPHILIIDAE) IN SHENYANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂清

    2000-01-01

    Acantholyda erythrocephala, a kind of destructire insec t, is found recently in Shenyang, China. Its host tree is Pinus spp. especia lly Pinus tabulaeformis and P.densiflora. The injured branch, tip will b e withered or even died. The harmful period of the larvae is about one month. Th ere is one generation during a year in Shenyang area. Winter is passed as prepup ae by making earth cells in the soil at the depth of 0~10cm. It can be controll e d by many ways:set up closed forest; making conopy density be more than 0.7; dig ging out the forest soil in autumm, winter or early spring; cutting the larval n ests and burning up; spraying 10% pyrethrum at 8000x ditution to the early insta r larvae.

  20. Artificial Shiro formation of Tricholoma matsutake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Zhiming; LI Yuhua; XING Shutang; Vaario Lumin

    2006-01-01

    One type of soil collected from Maoer-shan in Heilongjiang Province,China was selected to induce hyphal growth of Tricholoma matsutake by a soil screening experiment.It was confirmed that hyphal growth of all the tested T.matsutake isolates was significantly stimulated in soil by supplemented with 0.5%~2.0% olive oil.The aggregation of hyphae and soil resembled natural Shiro.The biomass of hyphae in the soil increases with increasing olive oil concentrations.Moreover,seedlings of Pinus densiflora grew well in the soil containing 0.5%~1.0% olive oil and were also successfully infected by T.matsutake isolate A in the soil containing 1.0% olive oil.This study established a culture system of artificial Shiro formation and also provided a premise for formulation of culture substratum for fruit body formation of T.matsutake.

  1. Soil Inorganic Nitrogen and Microbial biomass Carbon and Nitrogen Under Pine Plantations in Zhanggutai Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-Yuan; CHEN Fu-Sheng; ZENG De-Hui; ZHAO Qiong; CHEN Guang-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen (NH+4-N and NO-3N) and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) under 30-year-old fenced Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SF), unfenced P. sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SUF), and unfenced Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. (DUF) plantations in the Zhanggutai sandy soil of China were studied during Apr. to Oct. 2004 by the in situ closed-top core incubation method. All mentioned C and N indices in each stand type fluctuated over time. The ranges of inorganic N, Cmic, and Nmic contents in the three stand types were 0.7-2.6, 40.0-128.9, and 5.4-15.2 μg g-1, respectively. The average contents of soil NH+4-N and Cmic under the three 30-year-old pine plantations were not different. However, soil NO-3-N and total inorganic N contents decreased in the order of SUF > SF > DUF, the Nmic content was in the order of SF = SUF > DUF, and the Cmic:Nmic ratio was in the order of SUF = DUF > SF. Seasonal variations were observed in soil inorganic N, microbial biomass, and plant growth. These seasonal variations had certain correlations with microbe and plant N use in the soil, and their competition for NH+4-N was mostly regulated by soil N availability. The influence of tree species on inorganic N and Nmic were mainly because of differences in litter quality. Lack of grazing decreased the Cmic:N ratio owing to decreased carbon output and increased the ability of soil to supply N. The soil N supply under the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantation was lower than under the P. densiflora plantation.

  2. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae at La Gamba (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found.Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression.A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  3. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  4. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  5. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.

    1967-11-01

    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  6. Diversidade Palinológica das Convolvulaceae do Parque Nacional do Catimbau, Buíque, PE, Brasil Pollen diversity of Convolvulaceae at Catimbau National Park, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Aureliano Buril Vital

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas quatorze espécies de Convolvulaceae no Parque Nacional do Catimbau. Com base na morfologia polínica, os táxons foram subdivididos em dois grupos: Psiloconiae - Evolvulus elegans Moric, E. frankenioides Moric, E. glomeratus Choisy, E. linarioides Meisn, Jacquemontia densiflora Hallier, J. montana Meisn, Jacquemontia sp. e Merremia cissoides Hallier, e Echinoconieae - Ipomoea bahiensis Willd., I. brasiliana (Choisy Meissn, I. pintoi O'Donnel, I. rosea Choisy, I. subincana Meisn e Turbina cordata (Choisy Austin & Staples. As espécies de Evolvulus são diferenciadas por diâmetro dos grãos de pólen e espessura da exina. Jacquemontia mostrou dois tipos polínicos - pantocolpado e tricolpado. Em Merremia cissoides, os grãos de pólen são tricolpados e as columelas são ramificadas. Ipomoea e Turbina têm grãos de pólen espinhosos. Entretanto, apenas em Ipomoea os espinhos apresentam base bulbar. Palinologicamente, Convolvulaceae no Parque Nacional do Catimbau é bastante diversificada e com grupos facilmente reconhecidos.Fourteen species of Convolvulaceae from Catimbau National Park were recognized. Based on pollen-grain morphology, the taxons were split into two groups: Psiloconiae - Evolvulus elegans Moric, E. frankenioides Moric, E. glomeratus Choisy, E. linarioides Meisn, J. densiflora Hallier, J. montana Meisn, Jacquemontia sp. and Merremia cissoides Hallier, and Echinoconieae - Ipomoea bahiensis Willd., I. brasiliana (Choisy Meissn, I. rosea Choisy, I. pintoi O'Donnel, I. subincana Meisn, and Turbina cordata (Choisy Austin & Staples. Evolvulus species are distinguished by differences in exine thickness and pollen-grain diameter. Merremia cissoides has tricolpate pollen grains and bifid columellae. The pollen grains of both Ipomoea and Turbina are echinate; however, the spines have a bulbous base only in Ipomoea. This paper confirms the high diversity of pollen morphology in the family.

  7. Modeling the effects of nutria (Myocastor coypus) on wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Foote, A.L.; Johnson-Randall, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    We created a model to study the process in which nutria (Myocastor coypus) feeding activities lead to erosion and loss of marsh area. This model ties together data on nutria population dynamics and feeding behavior from the literature with data from field studies on the phenology of Scirpus americanus and Spartina patens conducted in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA in 1992. The complete model consists of three linked models: a model of nutria population dynamics (nutria model), a model of the annual marsh biomass cycle of Scirpus americanus and Spartina patens (biomass model), and a plant-biomass density-dependent marsh area model (area model). When all three models are linked together, they form the 'nutria-biomass-area model.' Analysis of the models indicated the following. (1) The high population densities and low survivorship rates as reported in the literature are incompatible. (2) the nutria model is sensitive to adult and juvenile survivorship and, to a lesser extent, young born per female. It is not particularly sensitive to gestation periods, impregnation rates, or time to maturity. (3) The marsh area model is not sensitive to the marsh loss equation nor to the density at which loss of marsh area begins but is sensitive to the amount of biomass destroyed per nutria. (4) Nutria numbers do not significantly decrease in the nutria-biomass-area model until the total marsh area approaches zero because marsh loss occurs only during winter when marsh biomass is at its annual low.

  8. Hydrodynamics and Associated Sediment Transport over Coastal Wetlands in Quanzhou Bay,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-jun

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes represent an important coastal wetland system.In order to understand the differences between boundary layer parameters of vegetated and unvegetated areas,as well as the mechanisms of sediment transport,several electromagnetic current meters(AEM HR,products of Alec Electronics Co.Ltd.)were deployed in coastal wetlands in Quanzhou Bay,China,to measure current velocity.During the low tide phase,the surficial sediment was collected at 10 m intervals.In situ measurements show that the current velocities on the bare flat were much higher than those in the Spartina alterniora marsh.Current velocity also varied with distance from marsh edge and plant canopy height and diameter.Around 63% of the velocity profiles in the tidal creek can be described by a logarithmic equation.Over the bare flat and Spartina alterniglora marsh,a logarithmic profile almost occurs during the flood tide phase.Sediment analysis shows that mean grain size was 6.7(D along the marsh edge,and surface sediments were transported from bare flat to marsh;the tidal creeks may change this sediment transport pattern.The hydrodynamics at early flood tide and late ebb tide phases determined the net transport direction within the study area.

  9. Ecogeomorphic Properties of Flood-ebb Flows on a Coastal North Carolina Salt-marsh Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S.; Furbish, D.; Mudd, S.

    2006-12-01

    Salt marsh ecosystems play a vital role in nutrient processing, shoreline defense, and as habitats for commercially important species. Along the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, North Carolina, where the tidal amplitude ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 m, salt marsh communities are expected to undergo a transition from intertidal marshes to subtidal habitats in response to sea-level rise and associated increases in inundation and possibly tidal range. Intertidal areas along the back-barrier sound of Bogue Banks feature well developed networks of tidal channels and exhibit classic macrophyte zonation, with Spartina spp. residing along lower elevations and Juncus roemerianus at higher elevations. As part of a long-term study of macrophyte dynamics, sedimentation and geomorphology in the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds area, here we describe the pattern of flood-ebb flow on a marsh platform. Continuous measurements from a set of pressure transducers arranged along a marsh transect are used to describe spatial variations in the frequency, duration and depth of inundation as a function of platform elevation, macrophyte biomass, and proximity to the tidal creek. Stem density and diameter of Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus affect the magnitude of drag forces on the marsh platform during flooding; our field measurements are used to constrain the relationship between macrophyte stand characteristics and these drag forces.

  10. Plant communities as indicators of salt marsh hydrology A study at Goose Fare Brook, Saco, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millette, P.M. (Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Salt marsh stratigraphy often relies on vegetation fragment distribution as an indicator of paleo-sea level. This study is attempting to validate the use of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at Goose Fare Brook in Saco, Maine as paleo-sea level indicators. Plant zones were mapped and each zone boundary was surveyed to describe the relationship between sea level and plant species zonation. Data showing the contact elevations between S. patens and S. alterniflora were examined, and contacts from different environments in the marsh were compared. Differences in contact elevations ranged from only a few centimeters to more than eighty centimeters. Three series of groundwater monitoring wells were installed along transects. Within a single transect, one well was placed in the creek bottom, measuring the free water surface, and one was placed at each of several plant zone boundaries. Strip chart recordings from one series of monitoring wells show the flood dominated patterns of tidally influenced groundwater fluctuations in the wells. Root depths of 100 plugs each of S. alterniflora and S. patens were also measured. A comparison of these measurements and those from monitoring wells will assist in the determination of the average length of submergence time for each species. Preliminary findings suggest that sea level is not the only force affecting the modern zonation of these two indicator plants in Goose Fare Brook.

  11. Integration of vegetation inventory data and ALOS image for vegetation classification in Yancheng coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunmei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Wang, Yanfei; Jin, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Systematic mapping and monitoring of wetland landscape are of fundamental importance for wetland development and management. To accurately classify wetland in Yancheng coastal wetland, ground investigation was conducted in 2006. Integrated with ground investigation, the wetland was classified into 8 categories such as Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Farm land, Phragmites Australis, Artemisia halodendron Turcz, Bare beach, Salt field, Fish & shrimp pond, and Sea water. A total of three decision trees were successfully produced. The first represented broad divisions of vegetation (in fact, at this stage, it just can be called vegetated cover like) and non-vegetation, and the second two represented more detailed vegetation classes and non-vegetation classes. To construct the decision trees, NDVI and principal component analysis were used as the evaluation factors. The thresholds were built combining with ground investigation and spectral property. Firstly, almost all kinds of vegetable were divided out of non-vegetation by NDVI. Secondly, the different species of vegetation were distinguished and some vegetated cover like was eliminated out of vegetation. Phragmites Australis belt, Artemisia halodendron Turcz belt, Spartina alterniflora Loisel belt and bare beach belt were distributed regularly from land to sea.

  12. Response of xylem-feeding leafhopper to host plant species and plant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A M; Brodbeck, B V; Strong, D R

    1996-04-01

    Carneocephala floridana, an oligophagous leafhopper that inhabits the salt marshes along the coasts of Florida, utilizesBorrichia frutescens andSalicornia virginica (both herbs) as primary summer hosts, but uses two grasses,Distichlis spicata andSpartina alterniflora, during the winter. We tested whether the seasonal patterns of abundance and apparent host-switching byCarneocephala are related to plant quality. In laboratory experiments, nymphs ofCarneocephala reared on nonfertilized control plants of the two herbs produced adults that were similar in size to field-collected insects. OnlyCarneocephala raised at the lowest densities onSpartina andDistichlis from the highest fertilizer treatments produced adults similar in body mass to those reared on nonfertilizedBorrichia andSalicornia. ForDistichlis, superior quality (high foliar nitrogen) plants were able to mitigate the negative effect of nymphal crowding on adult body mass. However, laboratory fertilization regimes produced an extremely high foliar nitrogen content in the two herbs and the organic acid concentration in the xylem fluid ofBorrichia, the only host species suitable for xylem fluid extraction, increased 2.5- to 3-fold. Total amino acid concentration in the xylem fluid of fertilizedBorrichia decreased compared to nonfertilized plants.Carneocephala demonstrated reduced feeding efficiencies on high nitrogenBorrichia. Our results suggest thatCarneocephala prefers, and performs better on, plants with high nitrogen content up to a threshold, beyond which high nitrogen levels result in reduced leafhopper feeding rates and assimilation efficiencies.

  13. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  14. Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comparison of saline tolerance among genetically similar species of Fusarium and Meloidogyne recovered from marine and terrestrial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.

  16. Structural Characterization and Reactivity of Pyrogenic Water-Soluble Organic Matter Derived from Biomass Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, M. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Combustion processes, whether from natural or anthropogenic origin, are major sources of particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere as well as soils and aquatic environments. The ubiquitous presence of biomass combustion by-products in atmospheric particles and soils could potentially lead to a large transfer of pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Pyr-WSOM) to the surface of watersheds and aquatic systems. In spite of this, there is a dearth of studies that have characterized the sources, and particularly the fate, of Pyr-WSOM to aquatic systems. In the present study, Pyr-WSOM was extracted from plant-derived chars (feedstocks: honey mesquite, cordgrass, and loblolly pine) produced at a range of temperatures (150-850C), and were then characterized using elemental analyses and ATR-FTIR. Low temperature (250C) Pyr-WSOM, extracted from honey mesquite and cordgrass biochars, were then incubated with aliquots of filtered water from the Trinity River (TX) for one month under dark conditions. Consistent with prior studies on combustion molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols, the total amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from biochars peaks around 200-250C and then decreases with increasing temperature of combustion. Elemental and structural analyses of biochar-derived WSOM reflect the selective solubility of certain functional groups. For example, despite the predominance of aromatic units and soot structures in biochars formed at high temperatures, such functionalities are not as predominant in their respective Pyr-WSOM. In addition, the high proportion of O-containing functionalities suggests that Pyr-WSOM may be more biodegradable than the particulate residues of biomass combustion. Indeed, low temperature Pyr-WSOM decomposed rapidly with half-lives ranging ~30 days for total DOC to 4-5 days for specific molecular markers of biomass combustion. These rapid turnover rates are in

  17. Concentrations of foliar and surface soil in nutrients Pinus spp.plantations in relation to species and stand age in Zhanggutai sandy land,northeast China%章古台沙地不同树种年龄和树种的生态系统叶片和土壤养分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广生; 曾德慧; 陈伏生

    2004-01-01

    对辽宁省章古台地区的几种主要针叶树种的针叶养分及其林分表层(0-15cm)土壤养分进行研究.结果表明,不同年龄樟子松(45、29和20年) (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica)林地表层土壤养分并无显著差别,而29年樟子松林分表层土壤全N、全P和N: P比显著高于相近年龄的赤松(P. densiflora) (29年)和油松林(P. tabulaeformis)(31年).随着樟子松年龄的增加,叶片P含量逐渐减少,而叶片N和K含量则未表现出随年龄而变化的趋势;对于年龄相近的三个树种,叶片N和P含量表现为:樟子松>赤松>油松,而叶片K含量在三个树种中并无显著差别.表层土壤的全N和全P,有机质和全P以及叶片N和P含量之间表现出了显著的相关性,但是,林分表层土壤养分和树木针叶养分之间并无显著相关关系,这可能与当地对凋落物的过度收集,过度放牧以及土壤水分含量低有关.最后,根据国外研究结果引入N: P比阈值来分析研究区域的N, P养分状况,基于章古台地区这几种针叶树种针叶N: P比,我们认为研究区域的樟子松随着年龄的增加受N限制的可能性降低,29年的赤松林整体表现出不受N和P养分限制,而31年的油松林则表现为系统N和P都供应不足.图3表3参45.%The concentrations of the foliar and surface soil nutrients and the variation with species and stand age were studied in Pinus spp. plantations in Zhanggutai area, northeast China. The results showed that the total N, total P and C: N ratio of the soil in P. sylvestris var. mongolica stands were significantly higher in comparison with those in P. tabulaeformis and P. densiflora stands. For P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the foliar P concentration appeared to decrease with age, and the foliar N and K concentrations did not show a consistent change with age. As for the different tree species of the similar age, the foliar N and P concentrations were significantly different (p P. densiflora > P

  18. Pilot estuarine mesocosm study on the environmental fate of Silver nanomaterials leached from consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Long, Stephen E; Pennington, Paul L; Cooper, Emily; Fulton, Michael H; Scott, Geoffrey I; Brewer, Timothy; Davis, Jeff; Petersen, Elijah J; Wood, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Although nanosilver consumer products (CPs) enjoy widespread availability, the environmental fate, leaching, and bioaccumulation behaviors of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from these products are not well understood. In this work, three nanosilver CPs, two AgNP standards, and an ionic silver (Ag(+)) standard were studied in estuarine mesocosms. The CPs exhibited long-term release of significant amounts of silver over a 60d residence time in the mesocosms, and ultimately released 82 - 99% of their total silver loads. Measurements of total silver as a function of time, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), indicated that the silver was transferred from the water column and accumulated in the estuarine biota, including hard clams, grass shrimp, mud snails, cordgrass stalks and leaves, biofilms, intertidal sediment, and sand. The ICP-MS results and calculations of bioconcentration and trophic transfer factors indicated that significant amounts of silver were taken up by the organisms through trophic transfer. Silver was also adsorbed from the seawater into the biofilms, sediment, and sand, and from the sand into the clams.

  19. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  20. Vegetation Impact and Recovery from Oil-Induced Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Wetland Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Shapiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available April 20, 2010 marked the start of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in US history, which contaminated coastal wetland ecosystems across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We used hyperspectral data from 2010 and 2011 to compare the impact of oil contamination and recovery of coastal wetland vegetation across three ecologically diverse sites: Barataria Bay (saltmarsh, East Bird’s Foot (intermediate/freshwater marsh, and Chandeleur Islands (mangrove-cordgrass barrier islands. Oil impact was measured by comparing wetland pixels along oiled and oil-free shorelines using various spectral indices. We show that the Chandeleur Islands were the most vulnerable to oiling, Barataria Bay had a small but widespread and significant impact, and East Bird’s Foot had negligible impact. A year later, the Chandeleur Islands showed the strongest signs of recovery, Barataria Bay had a moderate recovery, and East Bird’s Foot had only a slight increase in vegetation. Our results indicate that the recovery was at least partially related to the magnitude of the impact such that greater recovery occurred at sites that had greater impact.