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Sample records for corcyra cephalonica stainton

  1. Development and reproductive performance of rice moth Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in different rearing media

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    N. Chaudhuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate different rearing media for mass production of rice moth Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae an important host of several bio-control agents. The development and reproductive performance of Corcyra was evaluated to twelve (12 different combinations of food containing maize, wheat, Italian millet and scented rice-alone and fortified with 3% dextrose and yeast. Results showed that the net reproductive rate; innate capacity for increase; number of hypothetical females; daily finite rate of increase; weekly multiplication; and potential fecundity were highest and true generation time and doubling time were shortest in Italian millet (alone/fortified. The performance was better in wheat alone (second to Italian millet than its fortification with dextrose and yeast and also superior to maize and scented rice. Hence, Italian millet alone or fortified with 3% dextrose and yeast was the most suitable rearing media for mass production of Corcyra.

  2. Low Temperature Storage of Telenomus remus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and its Factitious Host Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

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    Queiroz, A P; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A; Grande, M L M; Bortolotto, O C; Silva, D M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted three bioassays to evaluate the effect of low-temperature storage of eggs (host) and pupae and adults (parasitoid) on the biology and parasitism capacity of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Viable stored Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were parasitized to the same degree or even higher than fresh eggs when stored until 14 days at 5°C or until 21 days at 10°C. In contrast, the percentage of parasitized sterilized eggs was equal to the control only when stored for 7 and 14 days. Survival of T. remus pupae declined with storage time at both studied temperatures (5 and 10°C). However, after 7 days of storage, survival of pupae was still 86.3 and 64.9% at 10 and 5°C, respectively. The number of adult male survivors remained similar until the fourth storage day at both 5 and 10°C. In contrast, female survival did not differ until day 8 at 10°C or day 6 at 5°C. Parasitism capacity of stored adults was not altered by storage compared with the control. Therefore, we conclude that the maximal storage time at 10°C is 21 days for viable C. cephalonica eggs and 7 days for T. remus pupae, while parasitoid adults should not be stored for more than 4 days at either 5 or 10°C.

  3. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the wsp gene of Wolbachia in Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)%米蛾体内Wolbachia的wsp基因序列测定与系统发育分析

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    丛斌; 付海滨; 王翠敏; 戴秋慧

    2005-01-01

    Wolbachia是广泛分布于节肢动物体内的一类共生菌,它们参与多种调控寄主的生殖活动机制.通过对wsp基因的特异性扩增和测序,发现了Wolbachia在米蛾Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton)体内的感染.利用所测序列和其他已发表的序列建立系统树,结果表明米蛾体内Wolbachia属于B大组的Pip类群,与其寄生物茧蜂及赤眼蜂中的Wolbachia各株系遗传距离相差较远.据此推测米蛾体内感染的Wolbachia不是由寄生物(茧蜂、赤眼蜂)水平传播所致.

  4. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

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    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  5. 转Bt cry1F基因抗虫玉米对米蛾生长发育的影响%Effect of Transgenic Insect-resistant Corn with crylF Gene on Growth and Development of Rice Moth,Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton)

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    姜松男; 丛斌; 马晓慧; 张柱亭; 吴尊曌

    2011-01-01

    In this article,three varieties of transgenic insect-resistant corn with cry1F gene, 32A91, 32W09 and X1132X,and non-transgenic corn were used as test materials to feed Corcyra cephalonica larvae.In contrast to non-transgenic corn,the survial rate of larvae in transgenic con showed a signficant decrease.For the emergence rate of adult Corcyra cephalonica, 32W09 group demostrated an obvious decline in comparison with non-transgenic corn XY420.However, the other two groups had no significant differences.%采用转Bt cry1F基因的32A91、32W09和X1132X 3个玉米品种及其对应的3种非转基因玉米为试材,分别饲养米蛾幼虫,比较转基因和非转基因玉米对米蛾生长发育的影响.结果表明,转cry1F基因玉米对米蛾幼虫存活率的影响均表现为显著降低;转基因玉米32W09饲养的米蛾成虫羽化率显著低于非转基因玉米XY420饲养的米蛾成虫羽化率.

  6. Cloning and characterization of a riboflavin-binding hexamerin from the larval fat body of a lepidopteran stored grain pest, Corcyra cephalonica.

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    Rao, V Venkat; Ningshen, Thuirei Jacob; Chaitanya, R K; Senthilkumaran, B; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a riboflavin-binding hexamerin (RbHex) was cloned and characterized from the larval fat body of Corcyra cephalonica. The complete cDNA (2121bp) encodes a 706-amino acid protein with a molecular mass ~82kDa. Expression of RbHex 82 was predominant in fat body among larval tissues. Further, it is prominently expressed during the last instar larval development. Homology modeling and docking studies predicted riboflavin binding site of the hexamerin. Spectrofluorimetric analysis further confirmed riboflavin release from the hexamerin fraction. Quantitative RT-PCR studies demonstrated hormonal regulation of RbHex 82. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20HE) had a stimulatory effect on its transcription whereas JH alone did not show any effect. However, JH in the presence of 20HE maintains the RbHex 82 expression which indicates the JH's role as a status quo factor. This study is the first to report the characterization of riboflavin-binding hexamerin in a lepidopteran pest. Further, the possibility of RbHex 82 as a pest control target is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel Wolbachia strain from the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica induces reproductive incompatibility in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci: sequence typing combined with phenotypic evidence.

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    Hu, Hong-Yan; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2015-06-01

    Wolbachia are a group of maternally inherited bacteria frequently found in arthropods and filarial nematodes. They have recently attracted attention for their ecological roles in manipulating host reproduction, their potential use in biological control of pest insects and medical significance. Classification of Wolbachia strains is currently solely based on molecular methods. However, the strains even with identical sequence types may induce different host phenotypes. Here we isolated a Wolbachia strain from the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (designated as wCcep_B_BJ), which was shown to share multilocus sequence typing and Wolbachia surface protein hypervariable region profiles with a cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)-inducing strain in supergroup B, but the phenotype wCcep_B_BJ may induce needs to be determined. We thus transinfected it into the whitefly Bemisia tabaci harbouring an A-Wolbachia through nymphal microinjection. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated that wCcep_B_BJ was successfully transinfected into B. tabaci and transmitted to offspring through host eggs. Reciprocal cross showed that wCcep_B_BJ induced a strong bidirectional CI in the transinfected host without imposing a significant cost on female fecundity. Our results suggest that wCcep_B_BJ may be a promising strain for biocontrol of B. tabaci, an important agricultural pest insect.

  8. Life Table of Experimental Population of Mallada sp.Feeding on Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton) and Pseudococcidae%玛草蛉捕食米蛾卵和粉蚧的实验种群生命表比较

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    叶静文; 黄林茂; 李志刚; 韩诗畴

    2012-01-01

    分别以米蛾卵和粉蚧若虫作为食料饲养玛草蛉Mallada sp.,并采用实验种群生命表的方法进行饲养效率评价。结果显示:米蛾卵和粉蚧若虫处理的幼期累计存活率(ΠSi)分别为0.5679和0.4859;世代历期(T)分别为57.3913 d和51.8126 d;单雌平均产卵量分别为128.8750粒和33.9000粒;雌性比率分别为0.5217和0.3125;种群趋势指数(Ⅰ)分别为38.1822和5.1475;内禀增长率(rm)分别为0.0635和0.0316;周限增长率(λ)分别为1.0656和1.0321。表明玛草蛉捕食米蛾卵的实验种群特定年龄生命表参数均高于以粉蚧若虫为食料饲养的参数。%The rearing efficiency of Mallada sp.on eggs of Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton) or Pseudococcidae was evaluated by life table analysis of experimental populations.The results showed cumulative survival rate of immature(ΠSi) on eggs of C.cephalonica and Pseudococcidae was 0.5679 and 0.4859 respectively,generation duration(T) was 57.3913 d and 51.8126 d,average fecundity was 128.8750 and 33.9000,female rate was 0.5217 and 0.3125,population trend index(I) was 38.1822 and 5.1475,intrinsic rate of increase(rm) was 0.0635 and 0.0316,finite rate of increase(λ) was 1.0656 and 1.0321.The age-specific life table parameters of experimental population of Mallada sp.feeding on eggs of C.cephalonica were all larger than those on Pseudococcidae.

  9. Quality Control of Mass Rearing of Egg Parasitoids of Yellow Rice Stem Borer Scirpophaga Incertulas Walker

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    Wilyus Wilyus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out: suitability of eggs of Corcyra cephlalonica Stainton as a factitious host of S. incertulas egg parasitoids and techniques of parasitoid stock provision, serially conducted from February 2011 to December 2011. The researches were carried out in four laboratory experiments, consisting of the study of ultraviolet (UV irradiation on C. cephalonica eggs; suitability of C. cephlalonica eggs as a factitious host of Telenomus rowani Gahan, Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere; storage method of C. cephalonica eggs; and storage method of parasitoids. The research design was suited to the research needs. The results showed that; The C. cephalonica eggs irradiated by the minimum of 28.48 minute 15 watt ultraviolet (UV at a distance +15 cm between the lamp and the eggs could suppress the hatching eggs to zero (no emerged larvae. Among the three species of egg parasitoids of S. incertulas found in Jambi Province, only T. japonicum could be rearing on C. cephalonica eggs. The relationship between storage duration of C. cephalonica eggs irradiated by the 30 minutes 15 watts UV at 5oC and the emerged T. japonicum wasps was expressed by the equation of y = 31.04-1.151x, R²=0.865, P=0.000. The storage of T. japonicum pupae for six weeks at 5°C did not reduce the number of emerged T. japonicum wasps. The emerged wasps reduced significantly if the storage duration of T. japonicum pupae was increased to seven weeks or more.

  10. Diversity in needle morphology and genetic markers in a marginal Abies cephalonica (Pinaceae population

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    Aristotelis C. Papageorgiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in needle traits of coniferous tree species are considered as the combined result of direct environmental pressure and specific genetic adaptations. In this study, diversity and differentiation within and among four Abies cephalonica subpopulations of a marginal population on Mt. Parnitha - Greece, were estimated using needle morphological traits and gene markers. We tested the connection of morphological variability patterns of light and shade needles with possible adaptation strategies and genetic diversity. Six morphological characteristics were used for the description of both light and shade needles at 100 trees, describing needle size and shape, stomatal density and needle position on the twigs. Additionally, six RAPD and three ISSR markers were applied on DNA from the same trees. Light needles were significantly different than shade needles, in all traits measured, apparently following a different light harvesting strategy. All four subpopulations exhibited high genetic diversity and the differentiation among them was relatively low. Differences among populations in light needles seemed to depend on light exposure and aspect. In shade needles, the four subpopulations seemed to deviate stronger from each other and express a rather geographic pattern, similarly to the genetic markers. Two of the subpopulations studied were lost during a wildfire, two years after sampling. Although the subpopulations burnt were most diverse and most differentiated, we expect a large part of the total genetic diversity of the burnt trees to still exist in the surviving subpopulations, since gene flow must have been effective in keeping all subpopulations connected.

  11. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira Fertility life table of three neotropical species of Trichogrammatidae on factitious hosts as a criterion for selection of hosts

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    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo que permita o melhor desenvolvimento das três espécies neotropicais de tricogramatídeos, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 e Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, utilizando-se como parâmetro comparativo as tabelas de vida de fertilidade nos respectivos hospedeiros. Foram estimados a duração média de uma geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal (r m e a razão finita de aumento (λ. A tabela de vida de fertilidade pode ser utilizada para selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para as espécies de tricogramatídeos. Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae foi o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para criação de T. annulata e de T. bruni, enquanto que para T. atopovirilia, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae e/ou C. cephalonica foram os hospedeiros mais adequados. Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae apresentou baixa capacidade de aumento populacional para as três espécies de parasitóides, sendo, portanto, uma espécie inadequada como hospedeiro alternativo para as mesmas.The objective of this work was to select the factitious host that permit the best development of three neotropical Trichogrammatidae species, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983, and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, using the fertility life table on their respective hosts as a comparative parameter. Mean generation time (T, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and the finite rate of increase (λ were estimated. A fertility life table is useful to select the most adequate factitious hosts for the

  12. Biological aspects of Cirrospilus neotropicus Diez and Fidalgo (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoid of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae); Aspectos biologicos de Cirrospilus neotropicus Diez e Fidalgo (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoide de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

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    Foelkel, Ester [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnia; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Jahnke, Simone M.; Losekann, Paula B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2008-05-15

    The biology of Cirrospilus neotropicus Diez and Fidalgo reared on third instar Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton larvae having Citrus limonia Osbeck as host plant, was evaluated under controlled conditions (25 {+-} 1 deg C; 12 h photophase). The survival, immature development, longevity, sex ratio, host feeding and oviposition ratio of C. neotropicus, were registered. Two groups of parasitoid females were evaluated: one, with parasitoids obtained from P. citrella pupae collected in citrus orchards and the other group came from laboratory rearing. These females, after mating, were maintained individually on gerbox containers with honey and pollen as food source. At each 48h, 12 P. citrella larvae were changed. The average biological cycle of the female progenies from orchard and laboratory generation groups were 11.8 and 11.6 days, respectively. The males progenies had biological cycles of 11.6 and 10.9 days, as well. The shortest immature survival period, for both studied groups was the larval (57.3% - orchard group and 57.4% - lab group). The mated females average longevity (21.8 days) was superior than the non mated ones (9.1 days) for the orchard group. The average daily oviposition rate for this last group was also significantly superior (2.8 eggs /day) than the lab group (1.6 eggs / day). The same trend was observed for the average daily host feeding rate (1.7 larvae /day for the orchard group and 0.9 larvae/ day for the lab group). These data suggest that C. neotropicus have potential as a biological control agent of P. citrella. (author)

  13. Dinámica poblacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) y sus enemigos naturales en Jalisco y Colima, México

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Esta investigación se realizó en dos parcelas de limón (Citrus aurantifolia), ubicadas —una de ellas— en el municipio de Autlán de Navarro (AN), Jalisco; y la otra, en Colima, Colima (COL) México, durante el periodo de 1998 a 2000. El objetivo fue determinar la dinámica poblacional de la fase larvaria de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (minador de la hoja de los cítricos, MHC) y la contribución de varios gremios de artrópodos nativos en el control natural del insecto. En AN, las poblaciones d...

  14. Dinámica poblacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) y sus enemigos naturales en Jalisco y Colima, México

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Esta investigación se realizó en dos parcelas de limón (Citrus aurantifolia), ubicadas una de ellas en el municipio de Autlán de Navarro (AN), Jalisco; y la otra, en Colima, Colima (COL) México, durante el periodo de 1998 a 2000. El objetivo fue determinar la dinámica poblacional de la fase larvaria de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (minador de la hoja de los cítricos, MHC) y la contribución de varios gremios de artrópodos nativos en el control natural del insec...

  15. Influence of host preference, mating, and release density on the parasitism of Telenomus remus (Nixon (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

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    Ana Paula de Queiroz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of host preference, mating, and release density on Telenomus remus (Nixon, 1937 (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. First, we tested host preference of T. remus (free choice test offered a choice between eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and S. frugiperda. Parasitism capacity and host preference (S. frugiperda of T. remus reared on either of the two hosts did not differ. Secondly, we evaluated the influence of mating behavior of T. remus females on its parasitism. Only the offspring sex ratio differed between treatments, indicating that the species reproduces by parthenogenesis of the arrhenotoky type. Finally, we evaluated the influence of release density on T. remus parasitism. This was tested by releasing different numbers of the parasitoid per S. frugiperda egg using T. remus reared for different numbers of generations on C. cephalonica eggs. The regression analysis between percentage of parasitism and density of released T. remus females showed a quadratic effect for all tested parasitoid generations (F35, F40, and F45 with maximum parasitism from 65.07% to 71.69%. Our results allow the conclusion that (a T. remus prefers S. frugiperda eggs, regardless of the host on which this parasitoid was reared, showing no preimaginal conditioning; (b Mating does not affect the number of eggs parasitized by T. remus or the development of its offspring; and (c The optimal T. remus release density when reared on C. cephalonica is between 0.133 and 0.150 females/S. frugiperda.

  16. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

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    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  17. Production protocol for and storage efficacy of an anthocorid predator Cardiastethus exiguus Poppius

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    BALLAL Chandish R; GUPTA Tripti; JOSHI Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Cardiastethus exiguus Poppius is an indigenous anthocorid predator of eggs and neonates of the notorious pest, coconut black - headed caterpillar Opisina arenosella Walker in India. At the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects ( Indian Council of Agricultural Research ),Bangalore, India, a simple mass production protocol was developed for multiplying C. exiguus using UV - irradiated eggs of alternate laboratory host Corcyra cephalonica Stainton. Field evaluation of the predator in the states of Kerala and Karnataka indicated that this predator could bring about a significant reduction in the pest population. Subsequently, the need was felt to investigate the storage efficacy of the eggs and adults of C. exiguus so that sufficient numbers could be accumulated and transportation of the predator could be planned for field releases. Low temperature storage studies indicated that C. exiguus eggs can be safely stored for up to 5 days at 10℃ and 10 days at 15℃ and incubation period could be staggered for up to 10 and 13 days, respectively. The longevity of the C. exiguus adults was significantly reduced due to low temperature storage. However, for adult females, a storage temperature of 15℃ for 15 days could be recommended as they could live for a more than a month after removal from storage and their progeny production was comparable to that of the control adults.

  18. Damage caused by fungi and insects to stored peanut seeds before processing

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    Franciele dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to gather data on the incidence of fungi associated with peanut seeds stored in their pods, before being processed by the State of São Paulo seed-producing companies, and the relation of the fungi to the seed damage caused by insects and to the quality of the stored seeds. Samples were taken from seed lots of cultivars IAC 886 and IAC 503 stored by these companies at the beginning and end of a six-month storage period. The peanut seeds were shelled and half of each sample was treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl. Untreated and treated seeds were analyzed for moisture content, germination, vigor and health. The following insects were found to damage the peanut seeds: Cyrtomenus mirabilis (Perty (Hemiptera: Cydnidae and Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Both species reduced seed quality. When present, fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus infected seeds and seedlings during the germination process and were considered the main limiting factor for obtaining normal seedlings. Nevertheless, despite their presence, peanut seeds maintained their germination capacity and vigor after six months of storage in their pods.

  19. Evaluación de diferentes dosis y métodos de aplicación de insecticidas sistémicos para el control del minador de la hoja de los cítricos Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton en plantas de limonero Evaluation of different doses and application methods of systemic insecticides to control citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton on lemon plants

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    Hernán Salas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El minador de la hoja de los cítricos, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, afecta severamente las brotaciones de los limoneros provocando un daño directo importante de diciembre a marzo. Las galerías producidas por la larva son vías de entrada para patógenos, causando daños indirectos. Las plantas jóvenes son las más afectadas. Diversos productos químicos aplicados al follaje controlan eficazmente al minador, pero el período de control es muy breve, siendo necesario pulverizar con frecuencia para un buen control de la plaga. El objetivo de esta experiencia fue evaluar la efectividad de imidacloprid y tiametoxam en diferentes dosis aplicados al tronco y al suelo ("drench" en el control del minador de la hoja de los cítricos. Se ensayaron dos formulaciones de imidacloprid, en aplicaciones al suelo y al tronco, en un rango de dosis entre 0,1 a 0,7 g i.a/cm de diámetro de tronco y tiametoxam a 0,25 g i.a./cm de diámetro de tronco en aplicaciones al suelo solamente. Las evaluaciones se realizaron a partir del recuento de hojas con galería activas del minador. Posteriormente se estimó el porcentaje de área foliar dañada. Todos los tratamientos controlaron la plaga. En plantas de tres años de edad los niveles más elevados de control se obtuvieron con 0,25, 0,35 y 0,7 g i.a. de imidacloprid y 0,25 g i.a. de tiametoxam aplicados en "drench" con un daño foliar menor al 2% obtenido a los 100 días de aplicado. A los cuatro años, solo las dosis de 0,35 y 0,70 g i.a. de imidacloprid mantuvieron esos niveles aceptables de control. Los tratamientos al tronco tuvieron menor residualidad y mostraron mayor daño foliar que los tratamientos en "drench".The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, affects lemon flushes severely, producing direct damages from December to March. Winding mines allow pathogens to access the plant, causing indirect damages. Young plants are the most affected. Several chemical products sprayed on citrus

  20. Control del minador de la hoja de los cítricos Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton en plantas de limonero en vivero con insecticidas sistémicos Control of citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in nursery lemon plants with systemic insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El minador de la hoja de los citrus Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton es una plaga que daña las hojas de los cítricos por las galerías que realizan las larvas. Las plantas cítricas de vivero y las plantaciones jóvenes de hasta dos años de edad son las más afectadas, ya que presentan continuas brotaciones durante la primavera y el verano. El ataque del minador retrasa el crecimiento de las plantas y altera su estructura. Para el control efectivo de esta plaga se realizan cada 10 a 15 días, aplicaciones foliares con insecticidas durante el período de noviembre a marzo en plantas en vivero. En el presente trabajo se informa el control del minador obtenido con los insecticidas sistémicos imidacloprid y tiametoxan, aplicados en "drench" a plantas de limonero en macetas en vivero. Se evaluaron las siguientes dosis de los insecticidas en una sola aplicación por maceta de 5 l de capacidad: 0,035; 0,105 y 0,175 g de i.a. de imidacloprid y 0,025; 0,075 y 0,125 g i.a. de tiametoxan. Entre los tratamientos se incluyó un testigo sin aplicar. Las dosis intermedias y máximas de ambos productos controlaron eficazmente la plaga entre los meses de noviembre y marzo (120 días, mientras que en dos ensayos las dosis menores ejercieron control durante 25 y 45 días, y en un tercero no controlaron la plaga. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, se podría considerar más apropiado el uso de imidacloprid 35% SC en la dosis de 0,105 g i.a. por planta y tiametoxan 25% WG en la dosis de 0,075 g i.a. por planta, en un esquema de control del minador de la hoja de los cítricos en plantas de limonero en vivero.Citrus leafminer (CLM Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton damages citrus leaves by producing galleries during larval stage. Nursery citrus trees and one and two-year-old citrus trees, which flush constantly during spring and summer, are the most affected by CLM. Plant growth is delayed and tree structure changes. To control this insect in citrus nurseries

  1. 广东省几种野外赤眼蜂的采集及鉴定%The collection and description of several wild Trichogramma in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈轶; 张英杰; 黄寿山; 陈炳旭

    2011-01-01

    通过野外直接采卵(寄生昆虫卵)和野外挂卵(米蛾杀胚卵)诱集的方法,开展了广东省本地赤眼蜂野外采集工作.利用雄虫的外生殖器特征及ITS2序列聚类分析方法对采获的赤眼蜂种类进行鉴定,目前已鉴定出7个不同的赤眼蜂种类,其中小灰蝶分索赤眼蜂Trichogrammatoidsa hypsipylae Nagaraja为中国新记录种,广赤眼蜂Trichogrnna evanescense Westwood,食胚赤眼蜂Trichogramma embryophyagum (Harting)及暗黑赤眼蜂Trichogramma pintoi Voegele为广东省内首次采获.采集鉴定结果表明,广东省本地具有丰富的赤眼蜂优质种质资源,可为害虫生物防治提供更大的筛选利用空间.%Collection of native Trichogramma has been carried out in field by means of searching insect eggs directly and hanging the egg cards of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). The collected species of Tri-chogrammatidae were identified by the characteristic of male genitalia and ITS2 cluster analysis. At present, 7 different Trichogrammatidae species have been identified, among which, Trichogrammatoidea hypsipylae Nagaraja was the New Records in China, T. Evanescense Westwood, T. Embryophyagum (Halting) and T. Pintoi Voegele were collected for the first time in Guangdong Province. The results showed that there were abundant and high quality germplsm resources of Trichogramma in Guangdong Province, which will supply more opportunities for biological control of insect pests.

  2. 基于16S rDNA序列的Wolbachia的检测及分型%Detection and type determination of Wolbachia based on 16S rDNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲哲; 丛斌; 褚栋; 董辉

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia是广泛分布于节肢动物体内的一类共生细菌.采用16S rDNA特异片段的PCR-RFLP方法对烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)不同生物型及米蛾Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton)共生菌Wolbachia进行了检测与分型分析.基于wsp基因对烟粉虱共生菌B组Wolbachia以及米蛾共生菌Wolbachia进行了系统树分析,并对相应的Wolbachia16S rDNA特异片段进行了克隆、测序以及序列比对.结果表明:16S rDNA的特异片段经NheⅠ酶切后RFLP图谱可有效检测与鉴别Wolbachia.烟粉虱共生菌Wolbachia的16S rDNA特异片段经VspⅠ酶切后可得到预期RFLP图谱,而米蛾共生菌B组Wolbachia (基于wsp序列分析为B组)则产生不同的RFLP图谱.序列分析表明,Nauru型烟粉虱体内B组Wolbachia的16S rDNA片段序列与已知B组Wolbachia对应序列(DQ278884)同源性为100%;米蛾体内B组Wolbachia 16S rDNA特异片段有碱基变异,并存在于VspⅠ识别位点内,这是导致VspⅠ酶切后RFLP图谱不同的原因.结果提示,B组Wolbachia 16S rDNA特异片段经VspⅠ酶切的RFLP图谱存在多态性.本研究结果可为今后Wolbachia的检测与分型提供借鉴.

  3. Wolbachia在短管赤眼蜂和拟澳洲赤眼蜂种间的水平传递%Horizontal Transfer of Wolbachia between Trichogramma pretiosum and T.confusum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雪红; 何余容

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, eggs of Corcyra cephalonica Stainton were used as host eggs for synparasitism of Wolbachia-doner T. pretiosum and Wolbachia-recipient T. confusum . Interspecific horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between Trichogramma wasps was proved successfully. Wolbachia was detected by PCR of wsp gene of Wolbachia for up to 5 generations after transferring. The wsp sequence of Wolbachia in new hosts T. confusum was identical to that of T. pretiosum. Therefore, Wolbachia from an infected species, T. pretiosum, were successfully transferred into an uninfected species, T.confusum .%用米蛾卵作为短管赤眼蜂和拟澳洲赤眼蜂共寄生的寄主,实现Wolbachia在赤眼蜂种间的水平传递.对Wolbachia的wsp基因进行PCR检测,结果表明,这4头处女雌蜂体内有Wolbachia的存在,且在由这4头处女雌蜂为单系所建立第1~5代拟澳洲赤眼蜂群体内,Wolbaccha的检测均为阳性;wsp基因序列比对和同源性分析结果表明,拟澳洲赤眼蜂和短管赤眼蜂体内Wolbachia的wsp基因序列完全一致.证明未感染Wolbachia的拟澳洲赤眼蜂和感染Wolbachia的短管赤眼蜂在同一米蛾卵体内共同发育时,Wolbachia能从供体短管赤眼蜂成功地水平传递到新宿主拟澳洲赤眼蜂体内,并能在新宿主体内垂直传递5代.

  4. 印度查谟地区甜橙上柑桔潜叶蛾为害动态及其与重要气候因子的关系%Infestation dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton ( Lepidoptera: Phyllocnistidae) on Mosambi (Citrus sinensis) and its relation with important weather factors in Jammu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monika CHHETRY; Janak Singh TARA; Ruchie GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在揭示印度查谟柑桔潜叶蛾Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton为害甜橙Citrus sinensis的季节性变化.以及降雨量、相对湿度和温度等重要的气候因子对其种群的影响.本文对不同季节印度查谟的一个甜橙园里的柑桔潜叶蛾丰度进行了调查,从2005年3月到2008年2月每两周调查一次.柑桔潜叶蛾在一年内有3个为害高峰,分别是4月中旬、7月中旬和9月中旬,这与甜橙新营养梢的生长期相吻合.相关分析表明,上午和下午的相对湿度和平均相对湿度与柑桔潜叶蛾的数量呈负相关;然而,平均降雨量、最高气温、最低气温和平均气温与柑桔潜叶蛾的数量呈正相关.降雨量和温度与柑桔潜叶蛾为害程度呈显著正相关.总之,柑桔潜叶蛾的数量不能简单地通过观察某一特殊地区的相对湿度来预测,而降雨量和温度在影响虫害方面均起着重要的作用.%The objective of this work is to study the seasonal variation of percentage infestation, and effect of important weather factors viz. rainfall, relative humidity and temperature on the population of Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in J&K State of India. Seasonal abundance of Citrus leaf miner was investigated fortnightly in an orchard of Mosambi (Citrus sinensis) from March 2005 to Feb 2008, located in Jammu. There were three infestation peaks in a year that coincided with the availability of new vegetative flush viz. mid April, mid July and mid September. Correlation analysis indicated that morning,afternoon and average relative humidity were negatively correlated, whereas, average rainfall, and maximum, minimum and average temperature were positively correlated with the population of citrus leaf miner. Rainfall and temperature had significant positive correlation with the population infestation. In general, population of P. citrella can not be predicted simply by observing the relative humidity of a particular area

  5. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.

  6. SUB-SENTENTIAL LOGICAL FORM. ON ROBERT J. STAINTON'S "WORDS AND THOUGHTS"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia

    2011-01-01

    ... lógica, las proposiciones comunicadas de manera suboracional no derivan su forma lógica de ellos. En este breve comentario desarrollo un argumento a favor de la tesis de que los actos de habla suboracionales...

  7. Spatial distribution of parasitism on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae in citrus orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Jahnke

    Full Text Available Many species of microhymenopterous parasitoids have been registered on Phyllocnistis citrella, the citrus leafminer. The present study aimed to identify the spatial distribution pattern of the native and introduced parasitoids of P. citrella in two citrus orchards in Montenegro, RS. The new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees in each orchard were inspected at the bottom (0-1.5 m and top (1.5-2.5 m stratum and had their position relative to the quadrants (North, South, East and West registered at every 15 days from July/2002 to June/2003. The leaves with pupae were collected and kept isolated until the emergence of parasitoids or of the leaf miner; so, the sampling was biased towards parasitoids that emerge in the host pupal phase. The horizontal spatial distribution was evaluated testing the fitness of data to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. In Montenegrina, there was no significant difference in the number of parasitoids and in the mean number of pupae found in the top and bottom strata (χ2 = 0.66; df = 1; P > 0.05 (χ2 = 0.27; df =1; P > 0.05, respectively. In relation to the quadrants, the highest average numbers of the leafminer pupae and of parasitoids were registered at the East quadrant (χ2 = 11.81; df = 3; P < 0.05, (χ2 = 10.36; df = 3; P < 0.05. In the Murcott orchard, a higher number of parasitoids was found at the top stratum (63.5% (χ2 = 7.24; df =1 P < 0.05, the same occurring with the average number of P. citrella pupae (62.9% (χ2 = 6.66; df = 1; P < 0.05. The highest number of parasitoids and of miners was registered at the North quadrant (χ2 = 19. 29; df = 3; P < 0.05, (χ2 = 4.39; df = 3; P < 0.05. In both orchards, there was no difference between the numbers of shoots either relative to the strata as well as to the quadrants. As the number of shoots did not varied much relative to the quadrants, it is possible that the higher number of miners and parasitoids in the East and West quadrants would be influenced by the higher solar exposure of these quadrants. The data of the horizontal spatial distribution of the parasitism fit to the negative binomial distribution in all sampling occasions, indicating an aggregated pattern.

  8. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Kang, Min; Song, Kai; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2017-02-08

    Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis). In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha) in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis. In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  10. Distribution and genetic stability of Wolbachia in populations of Trichogramma chilonis%Wolbachia在螟黄赤眼蜂种群内的分布及其遗传稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋月; 沈佐锐; 王哲; 李振宇

    2010-01-01

    本文通过对Wolbachia的wsp及16S rDNA基因的PCR扩增及克隆测序,明确了Wolbachia在华南、华北不同作物田间螟黄赤眼蜂Trichogramma chilonis种群内的分布情况.结果表明,在所有检测的螟黄赤眼蜂个体内都存在着Kue和Pip两组Wolbachia,双重感染率达到了100%.在不同温度下用米蛾Corcyra cephalonica Stainton卵饲养多代后,螟黄赤眼蜂体内的Wolbachia类型及感染率未发生改变,表明Wolbachia能够在螟黄赤眼蜂体内稳定遗传,不受环境温度的直接影响.本研究中螟黄赤眼蜂为两性生殖或孤雌产雄生殖,Wolbachia未能引起赤眼蜂的产雌孤雌生殖.首次报道了Wolbachia在我国螟黄赤眼蜂野生种群内的分布情况及其遗传稳定性.

  11. Control Efficacy of Clothianidin 50% WG on Lcerya parchasi Maskell and Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton%50%噻虫胺WG防治柑橘吹绵蚧和潜叶蛾田间药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保同; 汤丽梅; 曾水根; 林燕春

    2009-01-01

    田间试验结果表明:50%噻虫胺WG 240、480、960 g a.i./hm2对柑橘吹绵蚧和潜叶蛾具有良好的防治效果,药后7~56对吹绵蚧的防效显著优于或相当于对照药剂25%噻虫嗪WG 240 g a.i./hm2处理和48%毒死蜱EC720 g a.i./hm2处理,埘柑橘潜叶蛾的防效显著优于或相当于对照药剂25%噻虫嗪WG 240 g a.i./hm2处理和18%杀虫双AS 900 g a.i./hm2处理.根据害虫发生的严重程度和从经济效益考虑,建议在生产上使用剂量为240~480 g a.i./hm2.

  12. An updated checklist of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of the Crimea, Sub-Mediterranean SE Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickaitė, Asta; Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2014-08-07

    This updated checklist is intended to be a collaborative effort by a team of taxonomists to present a hitherto little known diversity of the Nepticulidae of the Crimea. A total of 64 species of Nepticulidae are listed. The following 26 species are recorded for the first time from the Crimea: Stigmella confusella (Wood & Walsingham, 1894), S. tiliae (Frey, 1856), S. microtheriella (Stainton, 1854), S. alnetella (Stainton, 1854), S. glutinosae (Stainton, 1858), S. desperatella (Frey, 1856), S. torminalis (Wood, 1890), S. crataegella (Klimesch, 1936), S. hahniella (Wörz, 1937), S. catharticella (Stainton, 1853), S. malella (Stainton, 1854), S. rhamnella (Herrich-Schäffter, 1860), S. ulmivora (Fologne, 1860), S. trimaculella (Haworth, 1828), S. obliquella (Heinemann, 1862), S. tityrella (Stainton, 1854), S. carpinella (Heinemann, 1862), S. lemniscella (Zeller, 1839), S. plagicolella (Stainton, 1854), S. samiatella (Zeller, 1939), Bohemannia pulverosella (Stainton, 1849), Ectoedemia mahalebella (Klimesch, 1936), Fomoria septembrella (Stainton, 1849), Trifurcula silviae van Nieukerken, 1990, T. macedonica Z. Laštůvka & A. Laštůvka, 1998, T. eurema (Tutt, 1899). One species, Ectoedemia spinosella (Joannis, 1908), is excluded here from the list of the Nepticulidae of the Crimea. Thirty-nine selected species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, and forty-five species with photographs of genitalia. 

  13. Effect of Different Artificial Diets on the Development and Fecundity of the Green Lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur)%人工饲料对大草蛉生长发育和繁殖力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党国瑞; 张莹; 陈红印; 张礼生; 王孟卿; 刘晨曦

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rice moth {Corcyra cephalonica), eggs and yellow mealworms {Tenebrio molitor) protein based artificial diet on the life history parameters of green lacewing {Chrysopa pallens). [Method] Adult C. pallens were provided with artificial diet and subsequently larvae were supplied with rice moth eggs. In addition, both soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) and rice moth eggs were fed to larvae and adults, respectively, to assess the life table parameters. [Result] Rice moth eggs had no significant effect on the cocoon size, body length, survival rate, and adult longevity of C. pallens as compared with the soybean aphids. In contrast, larval and cocoon developmental durations and pre-oviposition period were prolonged. On the contrary, when reared on artificial diet, adult longevity and reproductive phase of C. pallens prolonged and survival rate, ovipositional rate and fecundity declined. However, their egg hatchability rate observed higher when fed with artificial diet. [Conclusion] Among the three tested food, rice moth eggs were suitable diet for the mass rearing C. pallens in laboratory. It was also established that mealworms protein could be used as a main componental artificial diet for mass-rearing of C. pallens adults.%[目的]研究应用米蛾卵和以黄粉虫蛋白为主要成分的人工饲料对大草蛉的饲养效果.[方法]用米蛾卵饲喂大草蛉幼虫、用基于黄粉虫蛋白的人工饲料饲养成虫,记录相关生物学参数,以米蛾卵和大豆蚜分别饲喂大草蛉幼虫至成虫为对照.[结果]米蛾卵饲喂大草蛉效果良好,茧的大小、成虫体长、结茧率、羽化率、成虫获得率、卵孵化率、成虫寿命和总产卵量均和对照无显著差异,但幼虫发育历期、茧的发育历期和产卵前期延长,发育整齐度稍下降.以人工饲料饲养的大草蛉成虫寿命、成虫产卵前期和产卵天数明显延长,卵孵化率明显上

  14. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds in the umb......Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds...

  15. The Gelechiidae of the Longarini salt marsh in the “Pantani della Sicilia Sud-Orientale” nature reserve in southeastern Sicily, Italy (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bella, S.; Karsholt, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Scrobipalpa peterseni (Povolny´, 1965) is new to Europe, Scrobipalpa bigoti (Povolny´, 1973), Scrobipalpa bradleyi Povolny´ 1971, Scrobipalpa spergulariella (Chrétien, 1910) and Scrobipalpa superstes Povolny´, 1977 are new records for Sicily and Italy, and Syncopacma sangiella (Stainton, 1863) and Scrobipalpa...

  16. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  17. Investigating dormant season application of pheromone in citrus to control overwintering and spring populations of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, reproduces on leaf flush during winter. Deployment of pheromone during winter could suppress moth populations in spring and summer more than a spring application alone. We tested the primary pheromone component of Phyllocnistis (P. citrella), (Z,Z,E)-7...

  18. Improving Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Developmental Nature of Analyzing Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Doner, Karen M.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Allen, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Authentic and constructive learning experiences that include analysis of primary source documents are necessary elements of effective social studies teaching (Bailyn, 1994; Leinhardt, Stainton, & Virji, 1994; Wineburg & Wilson, 1991; Young & Leinhardt, 1998). This study examines the abilities of 70 fifth and seventh grade students to complete…

  19. Coleophora salinella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae), a species new to Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Prins, W.

    2008-01-01

    On 30 June 2007 a female of Coleophora salinella Stainton, 1859 was caught at light in the nature reserve "Hobokense Polder" at Hoboken (Belgium, Province of Antwerpen). This is the first record of this species for the Belgian fauna. The caterpillars mine the leaves of Atriplex and Halimione. The sp

  20. Дополнения и уточнения к фауне чешуекрылых (Lepidoptera) Тульской области. 1 = Additions and corrections to the fauna of Lepidoptera of the Tula Province. 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolshakov, L.V.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Piskunov, V.I.; Lovtsova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    Additions and corrections to the lists of Lepidoptera of Tula Province are given, which contain 40 species, 36 of which species are listed for the province for the first time, 9 species (Stigmella naturnella (Klimesch, 1936), Stigmella tiliae (Frey, 1856), Stigmella microtheriella (Stainton, 1854),

  1. An estimate of the minting method of three silver coins of the 3rd century B.C. through their microstructural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dilo, T. [Department of Physics, FNSc, University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Civici, N. [Department of Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tirana (Albania); Gjongecaj, Sh. [Department of Antiquity, Institute of Archaeology, Tirana (Albania); Skolianos, S. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Polychroniadis, E.K., E-mail: polychr@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-05-01

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the 3rd century B.C. from the Illyrian King Monounios and the ancient Greek cities of Dyrrachion and Corcyra, belonging to the Kreshpan hoard, was determined with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy in order to investigate their minting method. It is deduced that the coins are characterized by a large number of structural defects, mainly dislocations, twins and microtwins, which in some cases were bent. These crystal defects are common in each of the coins examined. This information allowed the formulation of a possible minting method. Since twins in FCC metals are formed with thermal treatment, and mechanical twinning is rather improbable, it seems that the coins were initially hot-worked. Bent twins indicate that working continued during cooling. Especially for the Corcyra coin it was deduced that it was treated at higher temperature or its cooling rate was lower.

  2. Wood anatomical relationships within Abies spp. from the Mediterranean area: a phyletic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L. G.; Palacios, P. de; Garcia Fernandez, F.; Martin, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    An analysis was made of the wood anatomy of seven species, one subspecies and two varieties of the genus Abies from the Mediterranean area (A. alba, A. borisii-regis, A. cephalonica, A. cilicica, A. nordmanniana, A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, A. numidica, A. pinsapo, A. pinsapo var. marocana and A. pinsapo var. tazaotana) in order to find phyletically relevant features to help clarify and complement the evolutionary patterns based on molecular studies. The wood structure within the genus was qualitatively similar, except for specific features characteristic of certain provenances. However, the wood biometry allowed the different taxa to be grouped in accordance with their anatomical similarity. A. alba, A. pinsapo, A. pinsapo var. marocana and A. pinsapo var. tazaotana possess biometric features which distinguish them from the other Mediterranean firs. Furthermore, A. numidica showed biometric features which distinguish it from the eastern firs (A. borisii-regis, A. cephalonica, A. cilicica, A. nordmanniana and A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani) and place it closer to certain Iberian populations of A. pinsapo. The maximum ray height in number of cells, frequency of rays with more than 30 cells and tracheid length can be regarded as specific patterns of the Mediterranean fir phylum. (Author) 72 refs.

  3. KAPASITAS REPRODUKSI PARASITOID TELUR Trichogrammatoidea nana Zehntner (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sujak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nana is one species of egg parasitoids that are polifag. insect pests that attack crops such as soybean pod borer and rice. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops Malang in March until June 2009 that aims to determine the reproductive capacity of T. nana on eggs  C. cephalonica. Reproductive capacity of T. nana allegedly using the net reproductive rate (Ro, estimatedtime of one generation (T, the capacity of population growth (r, and the rate of parasitoids per day (λ. T. nana were tested  came from the rice stem borer  eggs collected from the land in the district of East Java Beji Pasuruan. Eggs C.cephalonica which is used as the host is the result of breeding in the laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops. The results showed that T. nana has greatpotential  as  biological agents.  Most  female  progeny  produced by adult females aged 1-2 days . On the first day produced 12 and 8 tails on the second day or 40% and 27% of the total of 30 females produced by a female during life.  Reproductive capacity of  T. nana on eggs C. cephalonica the net reproductive rate  Ro = 44.7, Capacity of population growth (r = 1.78,  parasitoid growth rate per day (λ=5.9, and mean - mean length of generation (T = 10, 9 days.

  4. Wolbachia和WO噬菌体的侵染关系及稳定性%Infection and stability of Wolbachia and WO phage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于娟娟; 丛斌; 董辉; 钱海涛

    2009-01-01

    WO噬菌体是侵染节肢动物体内Wolbachia的细菌病毒.人们猜测WO噬菌体可能参与控制寄主遗传改变的活动.对WO噬菌体与Wolbachia的侵染关系以及WO噬菌体在米蛾Corcyra cephalonica、黑腹果蝇Drosophila melanogaster不同地理种群和世代间存在的稳定性进行初步研究.结果表明,WO噬菌体是侵染胞内菌Wolbachia的专性病毒,WO噬菌体稳定的存在于米蛾和黑腹果蝇的种群和世代中.据此推测,WO噬菌体与Wolbachia很可能经历长期的协同进化过程.

  5. Contando historias sobre contadores de historias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ibáñez Gracia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hay personas que nos han dejado como legado un texto. Su texto. A veces, una obra ingente, fecunda, imprescindible. Hay otras que nos han dejado además la palabra, su palabra, su vida. Rex Stainton-Rogers es una persona del segundo tipo. Un ser humano excesivo, brillante, emprendedor, vivo. Su palabra es su herencia. Su legado, algunos y algunas de los más relevantes científicos sociales de la emergente generación, sobre todo en Gran Bretaña, que han sido personas educadas, entrenadas, formadas por esta figura excepcional. Su trabajo, más allá de los textos que nos ha legado, ha consistido especialmente en mostrar la vida, el laboratorio donde se forja realmente el conocimiento. Y así, quienes pudieron compartir una parte de su vida con él, han tenido el privilegio de estar en contacto con todo aquello que hace apasionante el saber, aquello que lo hace útil, aquello que te emborracha de placer. Rex murió en febrero de 1999 del mismo modo en que vivió, libre, espléndido. Un año más tarde, su compañera Wendy Stainton-Rogers organizó junto con algunas de las personas que más deben a la vida de Rex, un simposium para conmemorarle a él, a su vida y a su palabra. Ésta es la contribución que nosotros hicimos a ese homenaje.

  6. 替代饲料与自然猎物交替饲喂对小黑瓢虫产卵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟霞; 王竹红; 黄建

    2014-01-01

    研究了饲喂替代饲料后改喂自然猎物烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)对小黑瓢虫Delphastus catalinae(Horn)产卵的影响。结果表明,小黑瓢虫成虫分别用不同替代饲料饲喂15、25、35 d后改喂烟粉虱,都能在1-4 d内恢复产卵。但小黑瓢虫成虫随着替代饲料饲喂天数的增加,产卵期缩短,产卵量降低。不同替代饲料分别饲喂小黑瓢虫成虫35 d后改喂烟粉虱,以饲喂米蛾Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton)卵的小黑瓢虫产卵量最大(246.00粒)、产卵期最长(68.33 d),其次为饲喂黄粉虫Tenebrio molitor(Linnaeus)蛹脱脂粉(203.33粒,61.00 d)和橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)老熟幼虫脱脂粉(128.33粒,57.00 d)。

  7. Relative Susceptibility of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) to Commonly Used Insecticides in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Anjitha; Rao, C N; Ghike, Sonali; Dhengre, Vijay

    2017-04-01

    Foliar application of insecticides has been the most commonly followed practice to manage Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in nurseries and flush leaves in citrus groves. Leaf dip bioassays were conducted against insecticides, viz., acephate 75SP, dimethoate 30EC, abamectin 1.9EC, fenvalerate 20EC, imidacloprid 17.8SL, and thiamethoxam 25WG, and were tested against P. citrella larvae for their susceptibility. Among six insecticides tested on second-instar P. citrella larvae collected from Nagpur mandarin/acid lime cultivars during 2013-2016, abamectin was the most toxic insecticide for the initial year (LC50 values ranged from 20.99 to 49.00 ppm), while dimethoate (LC50 of 36.57-160.95 ppm) and thiamethoxam (39.90-71.96 ppm) were consistently effective against P. citrella larvae for the rest of the period. Resistance ratio (RR) values calculated based on the baseline susceptible culture, viz., abamectin (1.24-2.33), acephate (1.03-2.31), fenvalerate (1.54-3.45), dimethoate(1.28-5.63), imidacloprid (1.29-8.64), and thiamethoxam (1.05-1.80), indicated that the current RR values were in low levels (RR < 10). © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluating Toxicity of Extracted Destruxin from Metarhizium Anisopliae Against Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin produces some cyclic peptide toxins, destruxins, which exhibit a variety of insecticidal actions. Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of young citrus trees; therefore its effective and safe control is a important issue. Approach: Five isolates of M. anisopliae were inoculated in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB mediums. Destruxin was extracted by adding chloroform. Citrus leafminer was bioassayed by using the leaves containing early stages larvae and the data were recorded after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after treatment. Results: The range of mortality was between 30-65% based on the endpoint data. The minimum of three days to achieve 50% mortality was proved by probit analysis of time-mortality responses. The 10, 15 and 20 fold dilutions of extracted destruxins from isolates cause 17.2-48.5, 9.4-37.5 and 0-26.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Bioassay of destruxin by using citrus leafminer larvae shows its acceptable effect of destruxin. By considering biology of this species and calculated LT50s, destruxin seems to be an effectiveness component of IPM programs. The 10, 15 and 20 fold dilutions of extracted destruxin have a reduced amount of mortality, but in some cases it can balance the expensive production process of microbial agents and their efficacy.

  9. Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172. We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We

  10. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management.

  11. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin.

  12. Systematics, phylogeny and biology of a new genus of Lithocolletinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) associated with Cistaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prins, Jurate; Davis, Donald R; De Coninck, Eliane; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Triberti, Paolo

    2013-10-27

    The gracillariid genus Triberta gen. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854) is described to accommodate two species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822: Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) comb. nov. and T. cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) comb. nov. Triberta cistifoliella bona sp. is restored from synonymy based on morphological characters. The new genus is biologically associated with the plant family Cistaceae of the order Malvales and is endemic to the Palaearctics. Our molecular analysis of eleven nuclear genes failed to unambiguously place Triberta in the lithocolletine phylogeny, but revealed that this genus is distinct from either clade Phyllonorycter + Cremastobombycia and Cameraria. The distinctiveness of Triberta is also supported by inferred traits in wing venation, micro morphology of the last instar larva, pupa, genital morphology of the adult and life history. A key to the species of Triberta is provided. The interspecific homogeneity in external morphology, coupled with minor differences in genital traits, an apparent narrow specialization on Cistaceae host plants, restricted geographical range and molecular evidence based on multi-nuclear genes jointly suggest that the generic diversification of Triberta is a relatively old phenomenon and driven strongly by host selection.

  13. Comparison of mineral spray oil, Confidor, Dursban, and Abamectin used for the control of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae, and an evaluation of the activity of this pest in citrus orchards in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damavandian Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of three types of mineral spray oil (MSO, and Abamectin plus MSO to control the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton were compared with the conventional broad spectrum pesticides, Confidor, and Dursban, in two citrus orchards in northern Iran. Differences were found among the various concentrations of MSO in the number of mines and live larva per leaf, sampled 5 days after the application of 3 sprays at an interval of 5 days. Mineral spray oil applied at a rate of ≥ 0.65% in water, showed no significant differences when compared with Confidor, and Dursban. Abamectin plus MSO at a rate of 0.02% plus 0.50% in water respectively, provided the highest level of control and reduced the population of larva up to 85%. Generally, a concentration of ≥ 0.65% MSO in water caused a significant damage reduction. However, by reducing the MSO concentration, the rate of control was decreased. In another field experiment conducted in mature citrus orchards, the effect of two pest management types (applying just MSO vs. usage of synthetic pesticides on the activity of P. citrella, was evaluated. The comparison results indicated that there is more P. citrella damage in orchards under pressure of synthetic pesticides than in orchards in which the synthetic pesticides were eliminated for years.

  14. Local Adaptation in European Firs Assessed through Extensive Sampling across Altitudinal Gradients in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Dragos; Lascoux, Martin; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Källman, Thomas; Leonarduzzi, Cristina; Liepelt, Sascha; Piotti, Andrea; Popescu, Flaviu; Roschanski, Anna M.; Zhelev, Peter; Fady, Bruno; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. Methods A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced. Its power was assessed through simulations and compared to classical ‘within-site’ approaches (FDIST, BAYESCAN) and a simplified, within-site, version of the model introduced here (SBM). Results HBM demonstrates that hierarchical approaches are very powerful to detect replicated patterns of adaptive divergence with low false-discovery (FDR) and false-non-discovery (FNR) rates compared to the analysis of different sites separately through within-site approaches. The hypothesis of local adaptation to altitude was further addressed by analyzing replicated Abies alba population pairs (low and high elevations) across the species’ southern distribution range, where the effects of climatic selection are expected to be the strongest. For comparison, a single population pair from the closely related species A. cephalonica was also analyzed. The hierarchical model did not detect any pattern of adaptive divergence to altitude replicated in the different study sites. Instead, idiosyncratic patterns of local adaptation among sites were detected by within-site approaches. Conclusion Hierarchical approaches may miss idiosyncratic patterns of adaptation among sites, and we strongly recommend the use of both hierarchical (multi-site) and classical (within-site) approaches when addressing the question of adaptation across broad spatial scales. PMID:27392065

  15. Fluctuación poblacional del minador de la hoja de los cítricos y su parasitoide exótico Ageniaspis citricola en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina Population fluctuation of the citrus leafminer and its imported parasitoid, Ageniaspis citricola, in the province of Tucumán, Argentina

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    Lucía Goane

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del minador de los cítricos Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina, planteó nuevos problemas para el manejo fitosanitario de las quintas cítricas en producción. Actualmente una de las principales herramientas de control de esta plaga es el parasitoide específico Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya, introducido desde Perú en 1998. Con el propósito de definir estrategias de manejo adecuadas para esta plaga, se evaluó la fluctuación poblacional del minador de los cítricos y el parasitismo producido por A. citricola en diferentes puntos de la provincia. Para ello, se realizaron muestreos quincenales entre los meses de noviembre y abril durante cuatro campañas cítricas consecutivas en plantaciones de limonero ubicadas en la zona norte y sur de Tucumán. La infestación del minador se calculó a partir de la observación de brotes con hojas tiernas susceptibles al ataque, y el parasitismo se evaluó analizando cámaras pupales del minador tomadas de hojas maduras. En la zona norte de la provincia la infestación del minador alcanzó valores más elevados comparados con la zona sur. Las mayores tasas de parasitismo de A. citricola registradas en la zona sur, resultaron en una disminución anticipada de la infestación del minador, la cual tuvo lugar a mediados del verano. En esta última, los niveles de parasitismo de A. citricola fueron superiores. La temperatura media fue el factor meteorológico que mejor correlacionó con la fluctuación del minador, y la humedad relativa, con el parasitismo de A. citricola.Presence of citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in Tucumán province, Argentina, raised new problems for the phytosanitary management of citrus producing orchards. At present, one of the main tools used to control this pest is the specialized parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya, imported from Perú in 1998. With the aim to define adequate management strategies to

  16. Synthetic sex pheromone of citrus leafminer in Brazilian citrus groves Feromônio sexual sintético do minador-dos-citros em pomares brasileiros de citros

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    Ana Lia Parra-Pedrazzoli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the best conditions of use of the synthetic sex pheromone of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton for monitoring this species in citrus groves in northeastern Brazil. Pheromone doses (0.0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg and longevity (1, 15, 29, 43 and 57-day-old lures and trap height (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m, color (green, red, and white and model influence on P. citrella males capture were evaluated. The doses of 10 and 100 μg of the synthetic sex pheromone - a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal and (Z,Z-7,11-hexadecadienal - attracted the greatest number of P. citrella males. Traps baited with these two both dosages continued to capture P. citrella males at a comparable rate for over eight weeks in citrus groves. Although there was no significant decrease in activity of both dosages until 57 days of exposure to the environment, the higher dose, as time passed, attracted significantly more P. citrella males than the lower dose. There were no significant differences in male capture in traps with synthetic sex pheromone placed at 1.5 and 2.5 m height, wich had the better results. Trap color and model did not affect male capture.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as melhores condições de uso do feromônio sexual sintético de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton para o monitoramento dessa espécie em pomares de citros no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram avaliados: doses (0,0, 0,1, 1, 10 e 100 μg, duração (1, 15, 29, 43 e 57 dias de exposição do feromônio sexual sintético, altura de instalação (0,5, 1,5 e 2,5 m, cor (verde, vermelha e branca e modelo de armadilha na captura de machos de P. citrella. As doses de 10 e 100 μg do feromônio sintético - proporção de 3:1 da mistura de Z,Z,E-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal e (Z,Z-7,11-hexadecadienal - atraíram o maior número de machos de P. citrella. Armadilhas contendo a mistura feromonal nessas duas doses capturaram machos de P. citrella por mais de oito semanas

  17. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae

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    Erik van Nieukerken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921, comb. n. (from Antispila, described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, R. digitata, R. tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer H. rivillei (Stainton, 1855, is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African H. varii (Mey, 2011, comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species H. micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926, comb. n. and H. pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929, comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and H. selastis (Meyrick, 1926, comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920, comb. n. and H. argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918, comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and A. aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista salutans and H. varii are redescribed and diagnosed against H. capensis and other

  18. Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae, a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle

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    Erik van Nieukerken

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A grapevine leafminer Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner, sp. n., is described both from eastern North America (type locality: Georgia and as a new important invader in North Italian vineyards (Trentino and Veneto Region since 2006. The species is closely related to, and previously confused with A. ampelopsifoliella Chambers, 1874, a species feeding on Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L. Planchon., and both are placed in an informal A. ampelopsifoliella group. Wing pattern, genitalia, and DNA barcode data all confirm the conspecificity of native North American populations and Italian populations. COI barcodes differ by only 0–1.23%, indicating that the Italian populations are recently established from eastern North America. The new species feeds on various wild Vitis species in North America, on cultivated Vitis vinifera L. in Italy, and also on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in Italy. North American Antispila feeding on Parthenocissus include at least two other species, one of which is A. ampelopsifoliella. Morphology and biology of the new species are contrasted with those of North American Antispila Hübner, 1825 species and European Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855. The source population of the introduction is unknown, but cases with larvae or pupae, attached to imported plants, are a likely possibility. DNA barcodes of the three European grapevine leafminers and those of all examined Heliozelidae are highly diagnostic. North American Vitaceae-feeding Antispila form two species complexes and include several as yet unnamed taxa. The identity of three out of the four previously described North American Vitaceae-feeding species cannot be unequivocally determined without further revision, but these are held to be different from A. oinophylla. In Italy the biology of A. oinophylla was studied in a vineyard in the Trento Province (Trentino-Alto Adige Region in 2008 and 2009. Mature larvae overwinter inside their cases

  19. Jalisco y Colima, México

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    A. Talavera-Villarreal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó en dos parcelas de limón (Citrus aurantifolia, ubicadas —una de ellas— en el municipio de Autlán de Navarro (AN, Jalisco; y la otra, en Colima, Colima (COL México, durante el periodo de 1998 a 2000. El objetivo fue determinar la dinámica poblacional de la fase larvaria de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (minador de la hoja de los cítricos, MHC y la contribución de varios gremios de artrópodos nativos en el control natural del insecto. En AN, las poblaciones de larvas y pupas mostraron dos periodos de abundancia, asociados a los meses de agosto y noviembre, respectivamente; durante los meses de diciembre a mayo de 1999, la incidencia del insecto fue inapreciable. En COL, los periodos de abundancia de la fase larval fueron distintos a los de AN; en primer lugar, de noviembre a junio, las poblaciones se incrementaron paulatinamente; y de julio a septiembre, el MHC fue inapreciable debido a la presencia de un fitopatógeno que eliminó los brotes de los árboles en el sitio experimental. En ambas localidades, los patrones de mortalidad observados muestran que los depredadores tuvieron una incidencia importante en el tercer estadio y la pupa de P. citrella. Por otro lado, en COL fue posible observar que la mortalidad de las larvas del MHC se debió, principalmente, a depredadores que raptan la larva de la mina (82%; otra fracción de la población es depredada por insectos o artrópodos que punzan al insecto y lo consumen en la mina (9.5 % y por ectoparásitos (6.7%; una proporción reducida de la mortalidad (2% no fue posible asignarla a un gremio de depredador. La mortalidad de las pupas se debió, primordialmente, a ectoparásitos (91%, y el resto (9%, no fue posible asignarla a una fuente de mortalidad específica. En adición, se observó que hay una relación denso-dependiente positiva entre la abundancia de P. citrella y la mortalidad causada por los depredadores.

  20. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

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    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  1. Micro-computed tomography pore-scale study of flow in porous media: Effect of voxel resolution

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    Shah, S. M.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J. P.; Boek, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of flow in porous media at the pore-scale is necessary to be able to upscale average displacement processes from core to reservoir scale. The study of fluid flow in porous media at the pore-scale consists of two key procedures: Imaging - reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) pore space images; and modelling such as with single and two-phase flow simulations with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) or Pore-Network (PN) Modelling. Here we analyse pore-scale results to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity, single-phase permeability and multi-phase properties at different length scales. The fundamental issue is to understand the image resolution dependency of transport properties, in order to up-scale the flow physics from pore to core scale. In this work, we use a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner to image and reconstruct three dimensional pore-scale images of five sandstones (Bentheimer, Berea, Clashach, Doddington and Stainton) and five complex carbonates (Ketton, Estaillades, Middle Eastern sample 3, Middle Eastern sample 5 and Indiana Limestone 1) at four different voxel resolutions (4.4 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm), scanning the same physical field of view. Implementing three phase segmentation (macro-pore phase, intermediate phase and grain phase) on pore-scale images helps to understand the importance of connected macro-porosity in the fluid flow for the samples studied. We then compute the petrophysical properties for all the samples using PN and LB simulations in order to study the influence of voxel resolution on petrophysical properties. We then introduce a numerical coarsening scheme which is used to coarsen a high voxel resolution image (4.4 μm) to lower resolutions (6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) and study the impact of coarsening data on macroscopic and multi-phase properties. Numerical coarsening of high resolution data is found to be superior to using a lower resolution scan because it