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Sample records for corante azul patente

  1. Estudos sobre a intercalação dos corantes azul brilhante-FCF e azul de coomassie G-250 em ácido desoxirribonucléico (DNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Carmen Fabiola Otoni de

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho versa sobre o processo de intercalação de dois tipos de corantes em DNA, o Azul brilhante FCF, um corante alimentício e o Azul de Coomassie G-250, que é habitualmente usado em ensaios bioquímicos. Dados obtidos através de ensaios de espectrofotometria de absorção na região do UV/Vis e de infravermelho com relação ao complexo formado entre o DNA/Azul Brilhante mostram uma efetiva interação entre o Azul Brilhante FCF e o DNA, reforçando a possibilidade do corante estar intercaland...

  2. Utilização de resíduos de materiais cerâmicos na adsorção de corante azul de metileno

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    L. Dominguini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade de utilização de resíduos de materiais cerâmicos como agentes de adsorção de corantes utilizados em indústrias têxteis. Resíduos de materiais cerâmicos, oriundos de quebras de tijolos, azulejos e pisos foram selecionados, triturados e moídos a uma granulometria adequada, o que possibilitou o estudo da influência do tipo de material cerâmico (resíduo e da sua granulometria sobre a adsorção do corante azul de metileno. Os resíduos cerâmicos foram separados em três diferentes granulometrias, fina (0,15 mm < Dfino< 0,30 mm, média (0,30 mm < Dmédio< 1,18 mm e grossa (1,18 mm corante azul de metileno presente na amostra ensaiada. No entanto, os resultados também mostram que a absorção de água do material cerâmico pode não ser somente o fator que influencia na adsorção do corante.

  3. Uso de Materiais Alternativos em Processos de Adsorção de Corante Azul de Metileno

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    E. L. do Rego

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo empregar materiais alternativos, puros e/ou modificados com 5 ou 10% (m/m de  pentóxido de nióbio (Nb2O5, em processos de remoção de azul de metileno (AM. Entre os materiais alternativos foram utilizadas argila sanitária, argila de resíduo industrial, rochas sedimentares e cinzas de casca de arroz obtida pela queima a 350oC. Estes sólidos foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de difração de raios- X (DRX e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR. Os testes de remoção de AM foram realizados em frascos de 125 mL, sob agitação constante, contendo 100 mL de solução de AM (100mg/L a 2000mg/L e adsorvente (0,1 a 0,6g, sob uma mesa agitadora a 200 rpm, em temperatura ambiente. A quantificação da remoção de AM foi realizada com auxílio de um espectrofotômetro UV-Vis da Varian (Cary 50, coletando 2 mL de amostra nos períodos de 2 à 1440 min. Dados de DRX evidenciaram uma mistura de argilominerais nos sólidos baseados em argilas. Nos ensaios de adsorção os materiais demonstraram eficiência para a remoção do corante, com destaque aqueles modificados com 10% de Nb2O5 exibindo 95% de remoção, no tempo de 120min, em solução de pH de ~6,5.

  4. Uso do corante azul de metileno a 2% na localização do linfonodo axilar em cadelas (Canis familiaris – Linnaeus, 1758

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    Tábata Maués

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A biopsia de linfonodo sentinela (LS é cada vez mais utilizada para a determinação do estadiamento clínico tumoral. O acometimento de linfonodos em animais com doença oncológica possui forte valor prognóstico no tumor da glândula mamária. Em medicina veterinária faltam diretrizes bem estabelecidas para a avaliação do LS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do corante azul de metileno a 2% na identificação do linfonodo axilar em cadelas com lesões mamárias. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 101 cadelas, portadoras de lesões mamárias, submetidas à mastectomia radical unilateral ou bilateral. Antes do início da cirurgia, aplicou-se, por via intradérmica, na área ao redor da mama torácica cranial, solução de azul de metileno a 2% estéril. O corante foi eficaz na identificação do linfonodo axilar em 76,27% das cadeias mamárias. Obtiveram-se estruturas coradas em azul, semelhantes a linfonodos em 78,81% dos casos. Dessas estruturas, 96,77% foram confirmadas ao exame histopatológico como linfonodos. Dada a importância prognóstica do comprometimento de linfonodos em alguns tumores, a avaliação do LS deve ser incorporada à rotina clínica, de modo a permitir um estadiamento mais preciso das cadelas com neoplasia mamária.

  5. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy

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    Eduardo Dib

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Novas gerações de corantes incluem: azul tripan, azul patente, acetato de triancinolona, infracianina verde, fluoresceína sódica, azul de bromofenol, acetato de fluorometolona e azul brilhante. Novos instrumentos podem permitir um corar seletivo de estruturas durante a vitrectomia. Este artigo mostra que o campo da cromovitrectomia está em plena expansão de pesquisas. Os corantes de primeira linha são a indocianina verde, infracianina verde e o azul brilhante. Azul patente, azul de bromofenol e azul tripan surgem como novos adjuvantes para melhor observação da membrana epirretiniana. Demais corantes que surgiram merecem maior investigação.The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, "chromovitrectomy", as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal

  6. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

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    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  7. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

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    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS

  8. Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradação do corante Azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar Chitosan/Fe spheres on the Blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light

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    Kely V. de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação dos recursos hídricos é um dos maiores problemas ambientais da atualidade. Dentre as várias fontes poluidoras, destacam-se as indústrias têxteis, por serem fontes geradoras de grandes volumes de efluentes, muitas vezes tratados de maneira ineficiente. A principal causa do grande impacto ambiental decorrente deste descarte é a presença dos corantes, tais como os compostos do tipo azo, que podem gerar subprodutos de caráter carcinogênico e/ou mutagênico, ou como os de base antraquinona, que são muito resistentes à degradação natural e portanto persistem no efluente por um longo tempo. O objetivo do presente trabalho consiste na utilização de processos foto-Fenton assistidos por luz artificial e solar, utilizando ferro imobilizado em esferas de quitosana reticulada com glutaraldeído, para promover a degradação do corante reativo Azul QR-19, de base antraquinona, em solução aquosa. As esferas obtidas apresentaram tamanho regular com diâmetro de 4,0 mm. Os resultados demonstraram 90% de descoloração do sistema em 180minutos e redução de 60% do teor de carbono orgânico total (COT, para o sistema foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial. Para o sistema fotoassistido com luz solar, a descoloração foi integralmente obtida em 120 minutos com 70% de redução do teor de COT. Foi observado que o ferro permaneceu na matriz após o tratamento, possibilitando sua reutilização.The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a

  9. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

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    Marcelo Alexandre PRADO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes sintéticos, mas tendo em vista que produtos coloridos artificialmente são exportados e importados, a análise desses aditivos requer métodos eficientes e rápidos para a detecção, identificação e quantificação. A cromatografia em papel e em camada delgada, apesar de serem técnicas relativamente rápidas, apresentam dados com baixa exatidão e precisão. Já na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE as maiores dificuldades encontram-se nas etapas de extração, mas principalmente no alto custo do equipamento. A eletroforese capilar apresenta os mesmos problemas da CLAE, aliados ao fato de se tratar de uma técnica relativamente recente para a análise desse tipo de substância e, portanto, existem poucos estudos a cerca da determinação e quantificação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Corantes artificiais; análise; legislação; CLAE; EC

  10. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

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    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%; 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. chrysosporium used as reference. Extracellular extracts of 35 selected fungi grown on solid medium with sugar cane bagasse (BGS were evaluated for RBBR decolorization and peroxidase activity. All fungi showed peroxidase activities, but 5 of those were unable to decolorize the RBBR. Different patterns of ligninolytic enzymes were detected in 12 fungi extracts. Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP was produced by Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, three strains of Trametes villosa, T. versicolor, Melanoporia nigra and Trichaptum byssogenum. All 12 fungi had laccase activity. Trogia buccinalis showed the highest RBBR decolorization and did not produce MnP activity. RBBR decolorization without MnP production was also observed for three strains of Lentinum tested. Higher levels of peroxidase and laccase cannot be related to high RBBR decolorization. RBBR decolorization by extracellular extract was also detected during the growth of P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea and two strains of T. Villosa in pentachlorophenol- and hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soils. These fungi showed higher RBBR decolorization when grown in the presence of organochlorine compounds than when in non contaminated soil.O corante azul brilhante Remazol R (RBBR foi usado como substrato para avaliar 125 fungos basidiomicetos isolados de ecossistemas tropicais brasileiros quanto a atividade ligninolítica. A descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos do crescimento de fungos em meio sólido e

  11. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues,Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício [UNIFESP; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes [UNIFESP; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque [UNIFESP; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod [UNIFESP; Farah, Michel Eid

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Nova...

  12. Um pouco de azul

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Vista do espaço a Terra é azul. Visto da Terra, o céu também é azul. Azuis são mar e águas, lagos e lagoas, mas à parte isto o azul é uma cor relativamente rara na natureza e não fácil de capturar para a tina do tintureiro ou paleta do pintor. Com efeito, qualquer aprendiz de tintureiro, praticando com a natureza obterá com facilidade a partir do mundo vegetal uma vasta gama de castanhos, amarelos, alaranjados, verdes e esverdeados. Pretos, cinzentos e violetas são também relativamente ace...

  13. Influência de eletroconvulsões sôbre a permeabilidade da barreira sangue-cérebro ao azul tripan

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    Jaderson Costa da Costa

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência de eletroconvulsões sôbre a permeabilidade da BSC ao azul tripan, em ratos. Para a indução de eletroconvulsões foram usados eletródios corneais de Spiegel e um estimulador. A avaliação da permeabilidade da BSC foi feita mediante exame macro e microscópico do encéfalo de animais injetados com azul tripan, corante que normalmente não tinge o SNC. Foi verificado que as únicas estruturas intracranianas coradas, tanto nos animais submetidos a eletroconvulsões antes da injeção do corante, como nos testemunhas que não receberam eletrochoques, foram as meninges e a epífise. A intensidade de coloração da epífise dependia do tempo de permanência do corante no espaço vascular. Entretanto, quando o corante foi injetado antes de submeter os animais a eletroconvulsões, ocorreu tingimento do SNC, pelo azul tripan. Sugere-se a existência de um mecanismo homeostático para manter a integridade do meio interno do neurônio.

  14. Biossorção de azul de metileno utilizando resíduos agroindustriais

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    Andressa C. Honorato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno nos resíduos da palha de milho e da bainha do palmito pupunha in natura. A caracterização dos resíduos foi determinada utilizando-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho a qual indicou a presença de grupos carboxílicos, hidroxila e carbonila. O tempo necessário para que o sistema atingisse o equilíbrio para ambos os resíduos foi de 240 min, seguindo uma cinética descrita pelo modelo de pseudo-segunda ordem. A capacidade máxima de adsorção foi de 102,8 mg g-1 para o resíduo da palha de milho, seguindo o modelo de isoterma de Langmuir e 50,9 mg g-1 para o resíduo de palmito pupunha, sendo que o modelo que melhor se ajusta foi Freundlich. Desta forma, esses resíduos são promissores para a adsorção do corante azul de metileno em efluentes.

  15. Biodegradation of reactive textile dyes by basidiomycetous fungi from brazilian ecosystems Biodegradação de corantes têxteis reativos fungos basidiomicetos do ecossistema brasileiro

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    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Trametes villosa and Pycnoporus sanguineus to decolorize reactive textile dyes used for cotton manufacturing in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Growth and decolorization halos were determined on malt extract agar containing 0.002g L-1 of the dye. T. villosa decolorized all 28 of the tested dyes while P. sanguineus decolorized only 9. The effect of culture conditions (shaking and dye and nitrogen concentration on the degradation of Drimaren Brilliant Blue dye was evaluated during growth of the fungi in liquid synthetic medium. Shaking favored degradation and decolorization was not repressed by nitrogen. In pure culture, T. villosa and P. sanguineus decolorized synthetic effluent consisting of a mixture of 10 dyes. Higher decolorization of the synthetic effluent was observed when a mixed culture of the two fungi was used. This study demonstrated differences between tropical basidiomycete species in terms of their ability to degrade reactive dyes, and reinforces the potential of this group of fungi for the decolorization of textile effluents.O potencial de Trametes villosa e Pycnoporus sanguineus de descolorir corantes têxteis reativos utilizados na manufatura de algodão no estado de Minas Gerais foi avaliado. Halos de crescimento e descoloração foram determinados em agar extrato malte (MEA com 0,002g L-1 do corante. T. villosa descoloriu os 28 corantes testados e P. sanguineus apenas 9. A influência de condições de cultivo (agitação, concentração de corante e concentração de nitrogênio na degradação do corante azul brilhante Drimaren foi avaliada durante crescimento dos fungos em meio líquido sintético. Agitação favoreceu a degradação e não foi observada repressão da descoloração pelo nitrogênio. Em cultura pura, T. villosa e P. sanguineus descoloriram efluente sintético constituído por uma mistura de dez corantes. Maior descoloração do efluente sintético foi observada no cultivo

  16. Dye detoxification by Lentinula edodes INCQS 40220 | Detoxificação de corante por Lentinula edodes INCQS 40220

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    Ludmila R. Bergsten-Torralba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes belongs to the group of fungi known as ligninolytic fungi, due to its ability to degrade the aromatic structure of the lignin. Textile dyes also have aromatic structure, and after microbial degradation, some of them can be transformed into toxic compounds, when compared to the original structure, representing risk to environment and human health. Therefore, the potential of the fungus L. edodes INCQS 40220 to decolorize and to detoxify reactive red 198 (azo dye, reactive blue 214 (azo dye and reactive blue 21 (cooper phthalocyanine dye in a mixture (MXD, was evaluated. After 14 days of incubation, total decolorization in liquid media was obtained. The fungal treatment of MXD did not present toxic effects towards blood human cells. The genotoxicity of MXD, assessed by Comet assay, was efficiently reduced to 61% and in the Ames test presented negative response for mutagenicity for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains. The results indicated L. edodes INCQS 40220 efficiency on decolorization and genotoxicity reduction of a mixture of different dyes. Therefore, based on these results, obtained under laboratory conditions, L. edodes INCQS 40220 has potential for textile effluent treatment. ============================================= Lentinula edodes pertence ao grupo de fungos conhecidos como fungos ligninolíticos, devido a sua habilidade de degradar estruturas aromáticas da lignina. Corantes têxteis também possuem estruturas aromáticas e, após a degradação microbiana, alguns destes corantes podem ser transformados em compostos tóxicos quando comparados à estrutura original, representando risco à saúde ambiental e humana. Portanto, o potencial do fungo L. edodes INCQS 40220 para descolorir e detoxificar a mistura de vermelho reativo 198 (corante azo, azul reativo 214 (corante azo e azul reativo 21 (corante ftalocianina de cobre foi avaliada (MXD. Após 14 dias de incubação, foi

  17. Tratamento de corantes reativos em solução aquosa utilizando lodo de esgoto sanitário como biossorvente em reatores contínuos.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rene Pinto da

    2012-01-01

    Os tratamentos convencionais de efluentes da indústria têxtil, em geral, produzem quantidades significativas de subprodutos com características recalcitrantes. Dentre as novas tecnologias de tratamento, a adsorção se apresenta como um método alternativo. Neste estudo, foi feita a avaliação da eficiência do lodo de esgoto sanitário na remoção do corante reativo amarelo GR, azul GN e vermelho RB em reatores em fluxo contínuo, com e sem aeração, em relação ao pH, alcalinidade total, ácidos graxo...

  18. Influência do Hidróxido de Cálcio e do EDTA na Marcação da Infiltração Marginal de Azul de Metileno em Obturações de Canais Radiculares.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do hidróxido de cálcio e do EDTA na marcação da infiltração marginal de corante azul de metileno a 2% em canais radiculares obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral, foram empregados 188 dentes incisivos centrais superiores humanos extraídos. Após serem instrumentados e impermeabilizados, foram divididos em 3 grupos de 60 elementos cada, sendo que outros 8 dentes foram utilizados como controle. Cada grupo foi dividido em 2 subgrupos, os quais, foram...

  19. CORANTES TÊXTEIS: UMA REVISÃO

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    Fabia Pinho Peixoto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de corantes desenvolve um importante papel na economia do mundo, visto que estes são utilizados em várias atividades fabris. Os corantes têxteis causam especial impacto no meio ambiente principalmente por serem de difícil degradação. Vários processos tem sido estudados a fim de que se consiga realizar um tratamento realmente efetivo em remoção de corantes de efluentes têxteis, entre eles os processos biológicos estão recebendo uma particular atenção por sua eficiência.O tratamento microbiológico de efluentes, especialmente por espécies fúngicas tem ganhado espaço, por estes organismos serem bastante versáteis, tratarem uma grande variedade de tipos de corantes e apresentarem diferentes mecanismos de remoção de cor. Portanto os fungos apresentam-se bastante atrativos e demonstram ser os organismos mais adequados em relação a tratamento de efluentes têxteis.

  20. Avaliação da efetividade de remoção de cor de soluções corantes e efluentes têxteis pelo tratamento fotocatalítico de óxidos de ferro recobertos com dióxido de titânio

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Carlúcio Antônio Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a efetividade do uso de ferritas encapsuladas com titânio (CoFe2O4@TiO2) na remoção fotocatalítica de cor de soluções corantes (azul de metileno e azul HFRL) e de efluente têxtil. A síntese do CoFe2O4@TiO2 e do TiO2 foi realizada de acordo com o método dos precursores poliméricos, sendo os materiais obtidos caracterizados por difração de raios X, adsorção de nitrogênio (técnica BET), ponto de carga zero (PCZ), dentre outras técnicas. Ensaios fotocatalí...

  1. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  2. Métodos de coloração de Roeser (1972: modificado - e Kropp (1972 visando a substituição do azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX Staining methods of modified Roeser (1972 and Kropp (1972, aiming at substituing the astra blue by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Luque

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em folhas de Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica e Nymphaea mexicana foram testados métodos de coloração baseados em Roeser (1972 modificado e Kropp (1972, visando a substituição do corante azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA, desidratadas em série butílica terciária e incluídas em parafina. Os cortes histológicos transversais foram corados segundo diferentes baterias de coloração, modificadas quanto ao tipo de corante usado, diferenciador e série de desidratação. As lâminas permanentes foram preparadas com bálsamo-do-canadá sintético. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o método de Roeser (1972 modificado é melhor que o de Kropp (1972, nas condições deste experimento. O azul de astra pode ser substituído por azul de alcião 8GX e a desidratação pode ser em série isopropílica ou etílica, sem grande diferença entre elas. São discutidos os resultados provenientes das diferentes colorações.Staining methods based on modified Roeser (1972 as well as that of Kropp (1972 were done with leaves of Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica and Nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX. Samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. The histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. Permanent slides were prepared with synthetic Canada balsam. The results obtained indicate that the modified Roeser method (1972 is better than that of Kropp (1972 under present experimental conditions. The astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8GX and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. The results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.

  3. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Dib; Eduardo Büchelle Rodrigues; Maurício Maia; Meyer, Carsten H; Fernando Marcondes Penha; Bruno de Albuquerque Furlani; Elaine de Paula Fiod Costa; Michel Eid Farah

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Nova...

  4. Patente gera patente?

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Coeli Ribeiro Garcia

    2006-01-01

    A patente, fonte de informação e geradora de nova patente em condições e contexto favoráveis, constitui objeto desta pesquisa. Esta é respaldada em quadro teórico da Ciência da Informação e identifica os fatores intervenientes no fluxo das relações desde a patente-fonte até o registro de nova patente. Da amostra da pesquisa constam instituições privadas e públicas representadas por unidades situadas em Brasília, Belo Horizonte e Rio de Janeiro. A entrevista é a técnica usada para a coleta de ...

  5. Electrohemical properties of carbon nanotube paste electrodes modified with redox cationic dyes=Propriedades eletroquímicas de eletrodos a base de pasta de nanotubo de carbono modificados com corantes redox catiônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo César Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the electrochemical behavior of methylene blue and toluidine blue as electron mediators adsorbed in the multiwall carbon nanotubes paste. Based on midpoint potential and separation of cathodic and anodic peaks (ΔE, it was not observed interaction of different eletrolytes with the cationic dyes by an ion exchange reaction and, as a consequence, absence of leaching of cationic dyes to the solution phase. The kinetics of electron transfer on the surface electrode was not sufficiently fast showing a fairly resistence of carbon nanotube paste modified with the mediators. The midpoint potential and ΔE also were insentive to the pH range (4-8, confirming the protective effect of carbon nanotubes matrix, owing to strong interaction of between the latter and the nitrogen of nitrogen of cationic dyes with carbon nanotube matrix, minimizing the proton interaction under cationic dye. This result is very important for sensor/biosensor preparation, because the eletrooxidation behavior of the analyte will be only affected by its formal potencial shifting. Carbon nanotubes proved to be an efficient solid matrix for the adsorption of mediator electron in comparison to the electrochemical behavior of free cationic dyes in solution phase.O presente trabalho descreve o comportamento eletroquímico de azul de metileno e azul de toluidina como mediadores de elétrons adsorvidos em pasta de nanotubo de carbono multiparede. Com base no potencial médio e na separação de pico catódico e anódico (ΔE, não foi observada interação de diferentes eletrólitos com os corantes catiônicos por meio de reação de troca iônica e, como consequência, ausência de lixiviação dos corantes para solução. A cinética de transferência de elétron na superfície do eletrodo não foi suficientemente rápida, mostrando razoável resistência da pasta de nanotubo de carbono modificada com os mediadores. O potencial médio e ΔE também foram insens

  6. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  7. Dentin penetrability evaluation of three different dyes in root-end cavities filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Avaliação da penetração dentinária de três diferentes corantes em retrocavidades obturadas com agregado trióxido mineral (MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Farias Vogt

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the penetration of three dyes in MTA root-end fillings. In 30 single-rooted teeth, cavities for retrofilling were prepared with an ultrasound appliance and filled with MTA. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10 and immersed in the following solutions: 2% methylene blue (MET, 50% silver nitrate (NIT and 0.2% rhodamine B (ROD. Two transversal slices (1 mm of the retrofilling region were obtained and evaluated using the Image Tool 3.0 software to obtain a quantitative evaluation (in mm² of the dye penetration around the retrofillings. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test. The lowest degree of dye penetration was observed for the NIT group, in both slices (p A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar a penetração de três corantes em retrocavidades obturadas com MTA. As retrocavidades foram confeccionadas com aparelho de ultra-som em 30 dentes unirradiculares e obturadas com MTA. Os espécimes foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 10 e imersos nas seguintes soluções corantes: azul de metileno a 2% (MET, nitrato de prata a 50% (NIT e rodamina B a 0,2% (ROD. Duas fatias transversais (1 mm da região retrobturada foram obtidas e avaliadas através do software Image Tool 3.0, objetivando quantificar a área (em mm² de penetração do corante ao redor das retrobturações. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística, utilizando o teste t de Student. A menor área de penetração foi observada no grupo NIT, nas duas fatias (p < 0.05. A penetração de corante foi significativamente maior no grupo ROD quando comparado ao grupo NIT, nas duas fatias (p < 0.05, e ao grupo MET, somente na fatia 1 (p < 0.05. Dentro das limitações desta pesquisa, concluiu-se que a escolha da solução corante pode influenciar a avaliação da penetração em estudos sobre retrobturações e que o grupo NIT teve a menor capacidade de penetração na dentina

  8. 76 FR 67253 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL... the vessel ACERO AZUL is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger for hire.'' GEOGRAPHIC...

  9. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yuan Liu; James Chingyu Yang

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  10. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  11. Cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno para diagnóstico de esôfago de Barrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saporiti Marcela Rocha Loures

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O esôfago de Barrett é uma condição na qual a mucosa escamosa esofágica é substituída por metaplasia intestinal especializada, que predispõe o paciente ao desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Este é precedido por displasia e carcinoma precoce; o rastreamento dessas lesões faz-se através de endoscopias digestivas periódicas com biopsias randomizadas. A incidência aumentada desse, tem despertado interesse no desenvolvimento de novas técnicas endoscópicas, como a cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno, para melhorar a identificação do esôfago de Barrett e suas complicações. OBJETIVO: Determinar se as biopsias dirigidas pela cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno oferecem vantagem em relação ao método convencional na detecção do esôfago de Barrett. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudaram-se 45 pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de esôfago de Barrett, todos submetidos a dois exames de endoscopia digestiva alta com biopsias, em intervalo de 4 semanas, um convencional e outro com aplicação do corante, no período entre abril e outubro de 2002. RESULTADOS: Os resultados histológicos das biopsias de todos os exames foram comparados. Observou-se sensibilidade de 62,5%, especificidade de 15,4%, valor preditivo positivo de 57,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 18,2%. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de biopsias. O tempo de duração da técnica de cromoendoscopia foi significativamente maior quando comparado ao da técnica convencional. CONCLUSÃO: Não se observou vantagem na utilização da cromoendoscopia em relação à técnica randomizada no diagnóstico do esôfago de Barrett.

  12. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO ENTRE JARABE DE AGAVE AZUL (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) Y OTROS JARABES NATURALES

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Mellado-Mojica; Mercedes Gpe. López-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    El jarabe de agave azul ( Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) es la sustancia dulce natural producida por hidrólisis de los fructanos almacenados en la planta de maguey. Este endulzante se ha popularizado por su capacidad prebiótica e índice glucémico bajo respecto a otros jarabes y mieles naturales. Las marcas comerciales, distribuidores, producción y comercialización de estos jarabes han incrementado, por ello es conveniente conocer sus características físicas y químicas y contrastarlas con la...

  13. Adsorção do corante azul de metileno em partículas de argilominerais: análise dos tamanhos das partículas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Antonio Sartori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of cationic dye methylene blue (MB with clay particles in aqueous suspension have been extensively studied. As already known, the number of natural negative charges on the clay modifies significantly the particle sizes dispersed in water and therefore the nature of the interaction with the dye. This work evaluated with UV-Vis spectroscopy method how the clay particle sizes weighted on the adsorption and rearrangement of the dye molecules in aqueous system. The results obtained from light-scattering measurements confirmed that larger particles are found in suspensions containing the high-charged clays as the visible absorption band related to the MB aggregates (570 nm on these suspensions prevailed.

  14. Patent office Governance and Patent System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Pierre; Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  15. Influence of calcium hydroxide on dyes for dentin labeling, anlyzed by means of a new methodology Influência do hidróxido de cálcio sobre corantes na marcação dentinária, analisada por meio de uma nova metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium hydroxide in intracanal dressing on the ability of the dyes rhodamine B and methylene blue to label the dentine. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars had their canals instrumented and were divided into four groups: in two groups, the canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste and the others remained in distilled water. After 15 days, in two groups (with and without dressing, the canals were obturated with sealer containing methylene blue, whereas the others contained rhodamine B. For analysis, the roots were transversally sectioned in their cervical, medium and apical thirds, and the labeling was analyzed. The Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference between the dressing/methylene blue group and the others. Based on these results, it was concluded that calcium hydroxide in intracanal dressing negatively interferes with the labeling ability of methylene blue.Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do curativo intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio sobre a capacidade dos corantes azul de metileno e rhodamine B de marcar a dentina, quando incorporados à massa obturadora, no momento da espatulação. Quarenta pré-molares inferiores humanos extraídos tiveram seus canais instrumentados sendo, então, divididos em quatro grupos. Em dois grupos, os canais foram preenchidos com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e propilenoglicol por 15 dias. Os outros, permaneceram em água destilada. Após a remoção do curativo, todos os canais foram obturados com condensação lateral e cimento de óxido de zinco e eugenol acrescidos de azul de metileno ou rhodamine B. Assim, em dois grupos (com e sem curativo, os canais foram obturados com cimento contendo azul de metileno e os outros, rhodamine B. Decorridos 15 dias, as raízes foram seccionadas transversalmente nos terços cervical, médio e apical, procedendo-se à análise da marcação, com atribuição de escores

  16. Observaciones sobre el Cuaderno azul de Ludwig Wittgenstein

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analiza la primera parte del Cuaderno Azul de L. Wittgenstein, poniendo de presente su concepción de la filosofía como crítica del lenguaje y abordando el problema del significado desde una descripción de su gramática, lo que lleva a Wittgenstein a proponer su metáfora de los "juegos de lenguaje" y a desenmascarar cuatro tendencias perjudiciales para el ejercicio filosófico, todas ellas fundamentadas en el "ansia de generalidad". El autor intenta mostrar la manera c...

  17. Effect of different dye solutions on the evaluation of the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate Efeito de diferentes soluções corantes na avaliação da capacidade seladora do agregado de trióxido mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Tanomaru Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline materials have shown incompatibility with methylene blue dye in leakage experiments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the effect of different dyes on the evaluation of the apical sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate root-end fillings. Fifty-six extracted human canines were submitted to root canal instrumentation and obturation. After apical resection, retrograde cavities were prepared and teeth were randomly divided into four experimental (n = 13 and two control groups (n = 2. The following root-end filling materials were used: groups 1 and 2 - Pro Root MTA (Dentsply, groups 3 and 4 - zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE. Teeth in groups 1 and 3 were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution, while teeth in groups 2 and 4 were immersed in 0.2% rhodamine B in a reduced pressure environment for 48 hours. Teeth were then longitudinally sectioned and leakage was evaluated. Results were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test. Group 1 presented the least leakage (p Tem sido demonstrada a incompatibilidade de materiais alcalinos com a solução corante de azul de metileno utilizada em testes de infiltração marginal. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de diferentes soluções corantes na avaliação do selamento apical proporcionado pelo agregado de trióxido mineral. Cinqüenta e seis caninos humanos extraídos tiveram seus canais radiculares instrumentados e obturados. Após a secção da porção apical, cavidades retrógradas foram preparadas e os dentes divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (n = 13 e dois controles (n = 2. Foram utilizados os seguintes materiais retrobturadores: grupos 1 e 2 - Pro Root MTA (Dentsply; grupos 3 e 4 - cimento de óxido de zinco e eugenol (OZE. Em seguida, os dentes dos grupos 1 e 3 foram imersos em solução de Azul de Metileno a 2% e dos grupos 2 e 4 em solução de Rodamina B a 0,2% por 48 horas em ambiente com vácuo. Decorrido este

  18. Blue toe syndrome Síndrome do dedo azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a man with blue toe syndrome, who developed bilateral foot ischemia and underwent successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated renal artery stenosis. Blue toe syndrome is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to embolization of cholesterol crystals or atherothrombotic debris. Microembolization most often occurs in elderly men who undergo an invasive vascular procedure or have an aneurysm.Os autores relatam o caso de síndrome do dedo azul em um homem que apresentou um quadro de isquemia bilateral dos pés e foi submetido ao reparo bem sucedido de um aneurisma da aorta abdominal e de estenose da artéria renal associada. A síndrome do dedo azul é caracterizada pela isquemia tecidual, secundária à embolização de cristais de colesterol ou aterotrombose. A microembolização ocorre mais freqüentemente em homens idosos que têm um aneurisma ou são submetidos a um procedimento vascular invasivo.

  19. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  20. Adaptabilidade climática de caprinos Saanen e Azul no Meio-Norte do Brasil Climatic adaptability of Saanen and Azul goats in Brazilian Middle-North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.C. Rocha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A adaptabilidade de caprinos de dois grupos genéticos, Saanen e Azul, às condições climáticas do Meio-Norte do Brasil foi avaliada por meio dos testes de Ibéria, Benezra e Rainsby. Nos dois primeiros, foram utilizadas sete fêmeas de cada grupo racial e, no terceiro, quatro fêmeas de cada grupo. Foram realizadas quatro coletas de dados em cada período (chuvoso e seco de 2005. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois períodos. Os valores do coeficiente de tolerância ao calor do teste de Ibéria no período seco diferiram entre os grupos (PThis study was undertaken to evaluate Saanen and Azul goats' adaptability to the Brazilian Middle-North region, based on adaptation indexes (Iberia, Benezra and Rainsby tests. A totall of seven and four females, respectively, of each group were used in two tests and four collections were performed during the rainy and dry periods of 2005 year. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 (2 groups x 2 period factorial treatment combination was used. Significant difference between groups (Saanen = 97.65 and Azul = 94.31 was observed for heat-tolerance coefficient (Iberia during the dry period (P<.05. Significant differences between groups (P<0.05 were also observed for adaptability, coefficient 1 (Benezra for both rainy (Saanen = 5.13 and Azul = 3.26 and dry periods (Saanen = 5.86 and Azul = 2.87. Based on Rainsby test, Azul goats returned to rest temperature in both periods. During the dry period 100 minutes were not enough for Saanen goats return to rest temperature. Azul goats showed higher adaptability to environment conditions of the Brazilian Middle-North region.

  1. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  2. Ação de Micoflora de efluentes agroindustriais sobre diferentes corantes e substratos lignocelulósicos =Action of mycoflora from agri-industrial effluents on different dyes and lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzimas extracelulares de fungos são importantes para sua sobrevivência em ambientes inóspitos, sendo capazes de degradar compostos recalcitrantes. Fungos filamentosos secretam hidrolases e fenoloxidases capazes de degradar complexos de estruturas aromáticas,como de alguns xenobióticos. O propósito deste trabalho foi testar diferentes corantes (Azul de Metileno, Azure B, Verde Malaquita e Cristal Violeta, em substituição ao composto Poly R478, no método de seleção de microrganismos degradadores de fenóis em meio sólido, além de comparar tal atividade de Micoflora isolada de efluentes de indústria sucroalcooleira com a de outros fungos adquiridos em coleção oficial. Os corantes testados revelaram-se ótimos substitutos do Poly R478. O isolado que apresentou atividade descolorante mais intenso do que a do diâmetro de seu crescimento (Cladosporium sp. foi testado, então, em meio líquido frente a dois substratos naturais e um sintético (bagaço de cana, serragem de madeira e azul de metileno. Este removeu altas concentrações de glic��dios redutores, proteínas e fenóis totais, além de reduzir a DQO em meio com serragem de madeira como substrato fenólico natural. Tal fungo, portanto, mostrou-se promissor para compor consórcios visando cometabolismo ebiorremediação de efluentes nos quais há presença de compostos fenólicos ou outros recalcitrantes com estrutura semelhante à de lignina.Extracellular enzymes of fungi are important for survival in inhospitable environments, as they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds. Filamentous fungi secrete hydrolases and phenoloxidases that are capable of degrading complexes of aromatic structures, such as certain xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to test different dyes (methylene blue, Azure B, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet, replacing the compound Poly R478 in the method of selection of phenol decomposer microorganisms in solid medium, and compare this

  3. Ending the Patenting Monopoly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Abramowicz; John F. Duffy

    2009-01-01

    .... This patenting monopoly, which is almost certainly undesirable, is now being eroded. Rising global trade and technological sophistication have increased the number of patent filings in every country...

  4. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  5. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  6. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  7. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  8. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  9. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  10. Are There Enduring Patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  11. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  12. Estabilidade dos corantes Tartrazina e Amarelo Crepusculo em refrigerantes - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i2.1451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Ostroski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a estabilidade dos corantes alimentícios sintéticos tartrazina e amarelo crepúsculo em relação à intensidade de radiação na região do ultravioleta e do visível, bem como a influência do pH e de outros aditivos comumente presentes em produtos alimentícios. Foram realizadas leituras periódicas do espectro de absorção nos comprimentos de onda entre 700 e 190 nm para verificar alterações químicas nos corantes estudados. No caso de refrigerantes em embalagem de PET verificou-se a relação entre luz incidente e luz transmitida pela embalagem, estabelecendo a sua função como filtro a determinadas radiações luminosas. Os dados obtidos com os corantes nas amostras de refrigerantes foram comparados com os dados obtidos com os corantes em solução. Constatou-se que em pH mais ácido há um aumento na velocidade de degradação dos corantes, do mesmo modo que na presença de citratos ou ascorbatos. A presença de benzoatos retarda o processo de degradação dos corantes

  13. Estabilidade dos corantes Tartrazina e Amarelo Crepusculo em refrigerantes = The stability of synthetic food dyes tartrazine and yellow sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Ostroski

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a estabilidade dos corantes alimentícios sintéticos tartrazina e amarelo crepúsculo em relação à intensidade de radiação na região do ultravioleta e do visível, bem como a influência do pH e de outros aditivos comumente presentes em produtos alimentícios. Foram realizadas leituras periódicas do espectro de absorção noscomprimentos de onda entre 700 e 190 nm para verificar alterações químicas nos corantes estudados. No caso de refrigerantes em embalagem de PET verificou-se a relação entre luz incidente e luz transmitida pela embalagem, estabelecendo a sua função como filtro adeterminadas radiações luminosas. Os dados obtidos com os corantes nas amostras de refrigerantes foram comparados com os dados obtidos com os corantes em solução. Constatou-se que em pH mais ácido há um aumento na velocidade de degradação dos corantes, do mesmo modo que na presença de citratos ou ascorbatos. A presença de benzoatos retarda o processo de degradação dos corantes.The stability of synthetic food dyes tartrazine and yellow sunset was studied in relation to the intensity of radiation in the ultraviolet and visible spectra, as well as the influence of the pH and others additives normally presents in some products. Periodic scanning of theabsorption spectrum was accomplished in the wavelengths between 700 nm and 190 nm to verify alterations in this dyes. In the case of soft drinks in PET packing, the relation was verified between incident light and light transmitted by the packing, establishing its function as filter to radiation. The data obtained with the dyes in the samples of soft drinks were compared with standard dyes solutions. In acid media, citrate and ascorbate presence, a major degradation process occurs. In benzoate presence, the dye degradation is lower.

  14. Toxicocinética de um corante têxtil no amphipoda marinho Parhyale hawaiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: O estudo da toxicocinética é importante para avaliar os efeitos adversos de contaminantes para os organismos aquáticos. Corantes têxteis são considerados contaminantes emergentes, por serem potencialmente tóxicos, terem sido encontrados no meio aquático e não há nenhum regulamento que defina as concentrações máximas admissíveis em água para assegurar a proteção da biota aquática e da saúde humana. Pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos dessa classe de contaminantes e utilizar um modelo de org...

  15. Toxicocinética de um corante têxtil no amphipoda marinho Parhyale hawaiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    O estudo da toxicocinética é importante para avaliar os efeitos adversos de contaminantes para os organismos aquáticos. Corantes têxteis são considerados contaminantes emergentes, por serem potencialmente tóxicos, terem sido encontrados no meio aquático e não há nenhum regulamento que defina as concentrações máximas admissíveis em água para assegurar a proteção da biota aquática e da saúde humana. Pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos dessa classe de contaminantes e utilizar um modelo de organismo p...

  16. Património cultural e científico da cidade : cores e corantes dos bordados de Castelo Branco

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Fátima; Pereira, Mariette; Cachapuz,António

    2006-01-01

    Relata-se a implementação de um Projeto de cariz CTS cujo tema central são os bordados de Castelo Branco. Evidenciam-se aspectos que conduzem a um melhor conhecimento do património cultural da cidade, centrando-nos nas cores e nos processos experimentais de obtenção dos corantes antigos e dos atuais.

  17. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  18. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001560.htm Patent ductus arteriosus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus ...

  19. DURABILIDAD DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND BLANCO ADICIONADO CON PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pigmento Azul Ultramar (AU es un aluminosilicato polisulfurado de sodio que reacciona con el aluminato tricálcico (C3A y con el óxido de calcio (CaO del cemento Pórtland blanco en presencia de agua, generando cantidades considerables de etringita a edad temprana y en menor proporción de tobermorita. Esta etringita primaria se presenta en forma de fibras no orientadas mejorando el desempeño mecánico de los morteros, y al mismo tiempo dejando pocas cantidades de C3A disponible para la formación de etringita secundaria. En esta investigación se evalúa la durabilidad a diferentes edades de curado en morteros de cemento Portland blanco sustituidos por 0%, 10% y 20% de AU en peso, mediante pruebas de succión capilar y evaluación del cambio longitudinal de morteros expuestos a una solución de sulfato de sodio con una concentración del 5% (ASTM C1012. Los resultados evidencian una mayor resistencia a compresión y a flexión, una significativa disminución de la expansión y una reducción hasta del 800% de la absorción de agua en morteros con AU. Todo esto debido a la formación de las fases minerales adicionales (etringita primaria y tobermorita, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM.

  20. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  1. Los cuatro pilares del liderazgo en la Estrategia del Océano Azul

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Para desencadenar el potencial y la energía no usados de los empleados, los líderes necesitan un fuerte repertorio de acciones y no solo mejor conciencia y empatía. En este documento Kim y Mauborgne, los autores de la Estrategia del Océano Azul, exploran las cuatro formas en las que el liderazgo en el océano azul fundamentalmente se despega de enfoques de desarrollo convencionales de liderazgo y por qué estas divergencias marcan la diferencia al lograr un cambio rápido y a bajo costo en el fo...

  2. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  3. Influence of blue light spectrum filter on short-wavelength and standard automated perimetries Influência de filtro para o espectro azul da luz na perimetria computadorizada branco-branco e azul-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of a blue light spectrum filter (BLSF, similar in light spectrum transmittance to the intraocular lens Acrysof NaturalTM, on standard automated perimetry (SAP and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP. METHODS: Twenty young individuals (OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de um filtro para o espectro azul da luz, semelhante à lente intra-ocular Acrysof Natural®, nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão (branco-no-branco e de comprimento de onda curto (azul-no-amarelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes jovens sem alterações oculares (20 olhos realizaram seqüência de 4 exames de campo visual: perimetria automatizada padrão e azul-no-amarelo com e sem o filtro para o espectro azul da luz. Os índices de limiar foveal (FT, desvio médio (MD e desvio-padrão (PSD obtidos em todos os exames e a diferença causada pela excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo foram analisados. Variabilidade interindivíduos (desvio-padrão dos pontos testados foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução estatisticamente significante no desvio médio (p<0.001 e no limiar foveal (p<0.001 medidos pela perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz comparado quando realizado sem o filtro. Nenhum outro índice avaliado apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão ou azul-no-amarelo. Foi notado aumento da variabilidade interindivíduos com a excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com e sem o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz, assim como a diferença de sensibilidade entre os hemisférios inferior e superior (hemisfério inferior menos superior, mas não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os exames com e sem o uso do filtro. Quando foram comparados os 4 pontos mais inferiores e os 4 pontos mais superiores, a diferença inferior-superior aumentou

  4. Avaliação biomecânica do cimento ortopédico combinado com antibiótico e azul de metileno Biomechanical evaluation of orthopaedic cement combined with antibiotic and methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Marcatto de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O cimento acrílico é utilizado há anos nas cirurgias ortopédicas, especialmente nas artroplastias do joelho, merecendo atenção também quando utilizado com o acréscimo de antibióticos (para tratamento de infecções ou corantes (para facilitação de uma possível retirada. Neste estudo procurou-se avaliar diferenças mecânicas entre o cimento ortopédico puro e quando misturado com antibiótico e/ou corante. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados cimento acrílico ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker, vancomicina em pó e azul de metileno e as misturas submetidas a testes físicos e mecânicos de acordo com a norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833. Avaliou-se: tempo para a formação de massa, capacidade de intrusão, resistência à compressão, resistência ao dobramento (tensão e temperatura máxima atingida pelas misturas. RESULTADOS: As misturas avaliadas foram aprovadas quanto ao tempo de preparação da mistura, temperatura máxima alcançada, profundidade da intrusão e resistência à compressão. Somente aquela contendo apenas cimento puro foi aprovada no ensaio de flexão. CONCLUSÃO: O acréscimo de vancomicina e/ou azul de metileno ao cimento ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker reduz a resistência da mistura à flexão, sendo reprovada pela norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833.OBJECTIVE: Acrylic cement has been used for years on orthopaedic surgeries, especially on knee arthroplasties, deserving special attention when added to antibiotics (for treatment of deep bone infections or stains (to facilitate its removal. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate potential mechanical differences between the orthopaedic cement itself and when this is added to antibiotic and/or stains. METHODS: Surgical bone cement Simplex®P Stryker, vancomycin and methylene blue were used, and the mixtures were submitted to physical and mechanical tests according the ABNT NBR ISO 5833 rule. The parameters studied here were: time for mass formation

  5. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  6. Avaliação dos resíduos argiloso proveniente da indústria do Alumínio como adsorvente de corantes têxteis

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina da Silva, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    O impacto ambiental provocado pelas indústrias têxteis com a geração de efluentes líquidos se constitui num parâmetro representativo como fator potencialmente poluidor. Um dos maiores problemas ambientais gerados durante o processo de tingimento nas lavanderias industriais é a grande quantidade de efluentes, contendo elevada carga de substâncias tóxicas, tais como os corantes. A remoção de cor dos efluentes é fundamental para o controle ambiental, uma vez que o corante interfer...

  7. Extração de corantes de milho (Zea mays L. Extraction of corn colorants (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Martin Cabajal Gamarra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os corantes naturais foram amplamente utilizados de forma artesanal até antes do surgimento dos corantes sintéticos. O estudo e uso dos corantes naturais voltaram a ter importância nestes últimos anos devido aos questionamentos dos organismos internacionais da saúde e dos consumidores pelo uso indiscriminado dos corantes sintéticos, ligados ao desenvolvimento de doenças degenerativas e ao impacto ambiental. O corante extraído do milho roxo (Zea mays L. tem sido utilizado ao longo da história pela civilização Inca na preparação de alimentos e no tingimento de fibras têxteis. Neste trabalho, os pigmentos do grupo das antocianinas foram extraídos das variedades de milho roxo e do milho vermelho (Z. mays L. e depois foram caracterizados. Três métodos de extração foram utilizados: imersão, lixiviação com algumas modificações e extração supercrítica (ESC. O melhor método para extração foi o da lixiviação que alcançou 88% (m/m de rendimento, em função da massa do corante extraído e da matéria-prima. Também utilizando a lixiviação modificada, foi possível concentrar em 3% os compostos acilados, assim como recuperar 85% dos solventes utilizados. Um indicador de pH foi obtido pela fixação das antocianinas num papel de filtro, com base na estabilidade das antocianinas, ferramenta que pode ser utilizada em laboratórios de ensino de química.Natural colorants were craftly made and widely used before the discovery of the synthetic colorants. The study and the use of natural colorants have become important again in the last few years due to questions raised by the international health organizations and consumers related to the indiscriminate use of synthetic colorants which were linked to the development of degenerative illnesses and environmental impact. The colorant extracted from purple corn (Zea Mays L. was used by the Inca civilization to prepare food and to dye textile fibers. In this work, pigments from the

  8. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  9. Estudos de descoloração de corantes para couro pelo isolado nativo Trametes villosa SC10

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Ortiz-Monsalve

    2015-01-01

    O couro é um produto que tem uma crescente demanda mundial. O Brasil possui o maior rebanho comercial bovino do mundo, sendo um dos principais produtores e exportadores de couro a nível mundial. Assim, esse setor é um dos motores da economia do país. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, essa indústria tem particular importância no desenvolvimento socioeconômico da região. No processo produtivo, a etapa de tingimento é importante para o acabamento do produto, empregando-se uma variedade de corantes...

  10. Consumo de corantes artificiais em balas e chicletes por crianças de seis a nove anos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Paula da Silva; Jacques, Gabriela Ferreira; Nery, Vinicius Vaz Cabral; Abrantes, Shirley de Mello Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Um questionário foi elaborado com o objetivo de identificar as balas e chicletes mais consumidos, suas respectivas marcas e os corantes nestes utilizados, por crianças de 6 a 9 anos, no período de uma semana. Este questionário foi aplicado em escolas particulares, considerando a norma de amostragem por atributos ISO 2859-1 (NBR 5426). Foi escolhido o bairro de Del Castilho no Município do Rio de Janeiro. Das 12 escolas foi feita a amostragem representativa de três escolas, contabilizando 640 ...

  11. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  12. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart problem ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal ...

  13. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    2 Defining indigenous people, traditional knowledge, patents and the concept of biopiracy .... However, under the Plant Patent Act, patent rights were granted only to. 24 ...... Countries like Costa Rica, Brazil, Panama, Thailand or Philippines.

  14. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  15. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  16. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    chosen a different approach to integrate in patent law similar policy considerations. Observing how this issue was debated and solved differently is in itself important, but it also allows questioning whether in future patent reforms serious consideration should not be given to alternative solutions....

  17. Avaliação da exposição aos corantes artificiais presentes em balas e chicletes por crianças entre 3 e 9 anos estudantes de escolas particulares da Tijuca / Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Maria Clara de Oliveira; Abrantes, Shirley de Mello Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Sabe-se que a única função dos corantes alimentares é conferir cor ao alimento não oferecendo nenhum valor nutritivo a este. Estudos vêm demonstrando a ocorrência de reações adversas a curto e longo prazo, devido ao consumo de alimentos que apresentam corantes artificiais. As reações variam desde reações tóxicas no metabolismo desencadeantes de alergias, alterações no comportamento, em geral, e carcinogenicidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de corantes artificiais pr...

  18. Truth and falsity of patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-15

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  19. Drugmakers struggle with Indian patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continue their legal battles for intellectual property protection for their drugs in India after the country's patent office revoked Pfizer's local patent for Sutent (sunitinib malate).

  20. Ação de Micoflora de efluentes agroindustriais sobre diferentes corantes e substratos lignocelulósicos - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6187 Action of mycoflora from agri-industrial effluents on different dyes and lignocellulosic substrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6187

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzimas extracelulares de fungos são importantes para sua sobrevivência em ambientes inóspitos, sendo capazes de degradar compostos recalcitrantes. Fungos filamentosos secretam hidrolases e fenoloxidases capazes de degradar complexos de estruturas aromáticas, como de alguns xenobióticos. O propósito deste trabalho foi testar diferentes corantes (Azul de Metileno, Azure B, Verde Malaquita e Cristal Violeta, em substituição ao composto Poly R478, no método de seleção de microrganismos degradadores de fenóis em meio sólido, além de comparar tal atividade de Micoflora isolada de efluentes de indústria sucroalcooleira com a de outros fungos adquiridos em coleção oficial. Os corantes testados revelaram-se ótimos substitutos do Poly R478. O isolado que apresentou atividade descolorante mais intenso do que a do diâmetro de seu crescimento (Cladosporium sp. foi testado, então, em meio líquido frente a dois substratos naturais e um sintético (bagaço de cana, serragem de madeira e azul de metileno. Este removeu altas concentrações de glicídios redutores, proteínas e fenóis totais, além de reduzir a DQO em meio com serragem de madeira como substrato fenólico natural. Tal fungo, portanto, mostrou-se promissor para compor consórcios visando cometabolismo e biorremediação de efluentes nos quais há presença de compostos fenólicos ou outros recalcitrantes com estrutura semelhante à de lignina.Extracellular enzymes of fungi are important for survival in inhospitable environments, as they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds. Filamentous fungi secrete hydrolases and phenoloxidases that are capable of degrading complexes of aromatic structures, such as certain xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to test different dyes (methylene blue, Azure B, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet, replacing the compound Poly R478 in the method of selection of phenol decomposer microorganisms in solid medium, and compare this activity

  1. Efectos salinos en la reacción de la hidrólisis alcalina del azul de bromofenol

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Toledo, José

    1982-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de una serie de sales (1:1) a altas concentraaciones en la reaccion de la hidrolisis alcalina del azul de bromofenol observandose que existe un efecto salino especifico. Se determino el coeficiente b de jone-dole para el anion divalente del azul de bromofenol en contrandose un marcado caracter hidrofobico para este ion. Por último se han calculado los coeficientes de actividad de los diferentes participantes de la reaccion. Estos coeficientes de actividad in...

  2. Detección de restricciones en la producción de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul mediante percepción remota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ceja Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul se utiliza, principalmente, para la producción del Tequila; una bebida espirituosa. El estado de Jalisco, México, contribuye con el 90% de la producción; esto constituye un importante apoyo a la economía del Estado. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la superficie ocupada por agave azul, que presentó restricciones en su producción en la región Valles, correspondiente a los municipios de Tequila, Amatitán y El Arenal, en el estado de Jalisco, México, por medio de percepción remota. Se utilizó una imagen adquirida por el satélite LANDSAT 5 el 2 de abril de 2011, la cual se procesó para su calibración radiométrica, corrección atmosférica y georreferenciación. La interpretación digital se hizo a través del proceso de clasificación supervisada utilizando la opción de máxima probabilidad. Los campos de entrenamiento se seleccionaron de información de campo y de la base de datos del Consejo Regulador del Tequila (CRT. Los resultados se plasmaron en mapas temáticos; distribución de agave y no agave y distribución de agave con restricciones. El 45% del área ocupada por el cultivo presentó restricciones relacionadas con: aspectos económicos (restricción tipo 1, plagas y enfermedades (restricción tipo 2 y efectos por exceso de humedad del suelo (restricción tipo 3. Para evaluar la precisión de estos datos se aplicó una matriz de error que reportó una precisión general del 73%. Este valor es aceptable considerando la resolución a 30 m del sensor (LANDSAT 5 y la peculiaridad del cultivo. El uso de imágenes LANDSAT por su resolución espectral y radiométrica es aceptable para el estudio del cultivo del agave azul según lo observado en campo y lo expresado por el procesamiento de la imagen.

  3. Adsorção do corante Reativo Azul 19 em solução aquosa por lama vermelha tratada quimicamente com peróxido de hidrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 dye onto activated red mud was investigated. Red mud was treated with hydrogen peroxide (LVQ and heated at both 400 ºC (LVQ400 and 500 ºC (LVQ500. These samples were characterized by pH, specific surface area, point of zero charge and mineralogical composition. Adsorption was found to be significantly dependent on solution pH, with acidic conditions proving to be the most favorable. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm was the most appropriate to describe the phenomenon of dye removal using LVQ, LVQ400 and LVQ500, with maximum adsorption capacity of 384.62, 357.14 and 454.54 mg g-1, respectively.

  4. Optimization study of fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aarón SALAZAR-LEYVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Agave tequilana Weber azul variety is a valuable source of fructans. In this study, a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction yield of fructans from agave pines. A Box Behnken factorial design was applied to evaluate the effects of several conditions such as extraction temperature, water raw material ratio and extraction time on extraction yield. Under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature of 79.1 °C, water raw material ratio of 5.13 mL/g, and extraction time of 1.48 h fructans extraction yield was 83.12%. The chromatographic profile of the agave crude extract presented four peaks, out of which fructans were the most preponderant (~87%. The obtained results suggest that the response surface methodology is adequate to optimize fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety.

  5. ESTABILIZACIÓN DEL PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR EN CEMENTO PÓRTLAND BLANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN GUILLERMO MORALES RENDÓN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon muestras de cemento azul a partir de cemento Pórtland Blanco Tipo III, según Normas Técnicas Colombianas NTC y pigmento Azul Ultramar U-601 adicionado en un 2% en peso del cemento. El cemento se caracterizó químicamente por fluorescencia de rayos X, y físicamente mediante los ensayos típicos según las NTC. Al pigmento y al cemento se les determinaron sus coordenadas cromáticas por espectrofotometría mediante el sistema CIELAB. Se eligieron varios aditivos y adiciones (entre orgánicos, inorgánicos y minerales para ser adicionados al cemento azul en diferentes dosificaciones en peso. Tanto a las muestras de cemento azul sin aditivo como a aquellas con las diferentes dosificaciones de aditivos, se les determinaron sus características físicas de desempeño y coordenadas cromáticas a diferentes edades de curado en agua saturada con cal (1, 3, 7 y 28 días. Adicionalmente se les determinó el color en las mismas edades a especimenes curados a las condiciones ambientales del laboratorio. Se presentó decoloración total en todos aquellos cementos adicionados con aditivos orgánicos, y decoloración parcial en los cementos adicionados con algunos de los aditivos inorgánicos y ciertas adiciones minerales. Tanto los tiempos de fraguado, como las resistencias a la compresión y demás variables de desempeño experimentaron cambios significativos, en algunos casos positivos y en otros negativos, como consecuencia y efecto de las diferentes dosificaciones utilizadas de cada uno de los aditivos.

  6. The dynamics of patent citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of patent citations as a measure of patent "quality" increased dramatically in recent years. I estimate the hazard of patent citation, and find evidence of unobserved heterogeneity. Hazard estimation provides a means to separate patent quality from citation "inflation."

  7. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  8. Patent law for the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan Feng; Liu, Josephine

    2013-12-01

    An exciting discovery in the laboratory may translate to a commercial product. How does the patent system fit into the picture? We first discuss the circumstances under which an invention is granted a patent. What is the purpose of a patent and what are the functions of the patent system? Who can apply for a patent? What makes an invention patentable? A patent does not automatically grant a right to make or sell a product. This is because multiple patents can cover a single pharmaceutical product. Understanding the patent landscape covering a product of interest is key to evaluating the risk of infringing another's exclusivity rights. We use a hypothetical example relating to skin cancer to guide a discussion of patent law.

  9. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Justus Baron; Tim Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical investigation of the effectiveness of...

  10. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  11. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  12. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  13. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation, the gover......This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  14. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  15. Célula solar de SnO2/TiO2 preparada por spray - pirólise ativada com corante orgânico

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Fábio Elias [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho é dedicado à preparação e a caracterização de célula solar nanocristalina do tipo Grätzel ativada com corante orgânico. O presente desenvolvimento envolveu a deposição da camada condutora transparente SnO2, deposição da camada nanoporosa de TiO2, preparação do eletrólito, escolha e preparação do corante e por fim o fechamento e a caracterização da célula. O método de deposição empregado para a obtenção dos filmes foi a técnica spray pirólise, sendo a deposição realizada a temper...

  16. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  17. Eduardo Sánchez Rugeles’ Blue Label/Etiqueta Azul:a border-crossing story

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katie

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza los varios cruces de fronteras en Blue Label/Etiqueta Azul, (Eduardo Sánchez Rugeles, 2010) en el contexto de la política y la sociedad contemporáneas venezolanas, así como dentro del marco más amplio de la globalización. Contrapone el texto de Sánchez Rugeles a “la ética y la estética socialistas” promovidas por las políticas culturales bolivarianas para elucidar cómo la novela refuta tanto el nacionalismo como el socialismo venezolanos, y cómo, de esa manera, rec...

  18. New Lithostratigraphic Unit Records an Ediacaran Glaciation in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: Serra Azul Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Egídio Cavalcante Pinho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new succession of diamictites and siltstones was found above post-Marinoan carbonates from the Araras Group in the northern Paraguay Belt (Brazil, in discontinuous outcrops. This new stratigraphic unit, named Serra Azul Formation in this work, has a variable thickness reaching up to 300 meters. The diamictites were deposited in the first 70 m and present glacial evidences, while the siltstones represent the upper part of the succession and show some sandstone layers towards the top of the succession. This glacial record is the youngest Neoproterozoic glacial event that has been found on South America and probably is related to Gaskiers Glaciation (582 Ma.

  19. Agrosistema sustentable maíz - cubiertas verdes tropicales en Cerro Azul, Misiones

    OpenAIRE

    Giuffré de López Camelo, Lidia L.; G. Piccolo; Heredia, Olga Susana; Pascale Medina, Carla; Bianchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    p.61-65 Los suelos altamente meteorizados de los trópicos presentan deficiencia de nutrientes, especialmente de fósforo. La producción de cultivos anuales de subsistencia en la provincia de Misiones se realiza en pequeñas superficies con agricultura itinerante. Como consecuencia del monocultivo se deteriora la estructura del suelo, se degrada la materia argánica y hay erosión. Se realizó un ensayo en el INTA Cerro Azul, para estudiar la influencia de la consociación de leguminosas tropical...

  20. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  1. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  2. Exportación de arándano azul orgánico a Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Gutierrez, Alan Tito; Gribenow Massone, Fernando Mauricio; Rolando Cruz, Susana Angelica; Zuñiga Perez, Williams Franklin

    2017-01-01

    La primera economía del planeta, Estados Unidos, con una población superior a los 318 millones de habitantes, de la cual el 73 % consume productos orgánicos y cuyo consumo per cápita de arándano azul es de 1.1 kilogramos, es a la vez el mayor importador y consumidor de arándano azul del planeta. Sin embargo, por condiciones climáticas, no genera producción propia entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre, y sus principales abastecedores comparten dicha restricción en gran medida. Las zonas ...

  3. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  4. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  5. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  6. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  7. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  8. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Molecular Microbial and Structural Biology (United States); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano, E-mail: sirano.dhepaganon@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H., E-mail: carrow@uhnresearch.ca [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 28}-Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two {alpha}-helicies.

  9. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  10. Patent monopoly : protecting your ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.B. [Bennett Jones LLB, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A form of intellectual property, patents can be bought and sold, thereby having a lot of financial value. The petroleum industry is a sector very involved with patent protection. At some time, it is expected that most technical companies will be involved in obtaining patent protection or busy defending themselves against a patent suit. In this paper, the author focussed on the procedure to obtain patent protection. Progressing from the basic facts concerning patents, the author then briefly described the necessary steps in the procedure. The author began by distinguishing the three major intellectual properties of use in the petroleum industry, namely patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Words, symbols or designs, including the various combinations of those, which distinguish the services of one company from those of another, are considered trademarks. Creative works, on the other hand, are protected under copyrights from being copied without permission. Inventions are protected by patents. What should be known about inventions was the focus of the next section in the presentation, followed by a section entitled: seeking patent protection: the first steps. The filing of the formal patent applications was discussed, then the emphasis was placed on after filing: the examination. The issued patent, which can be enforced against competitors, was the very last section in the presentation.

  11. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  12. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  13. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  14. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of its PCAS technology, which allows a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) to call in air strikes using a specially configured Android tablet...rankings.aspx McGarry, B. (2015, September 18). JTAC calls in A-10 airstrike with android tablet. Retrieved from http://www.defensetech.org/2015/09/18/jtac...calls-in- a-10-airstrike-with- android -tablet/ 66 Moser, P. (2013). Patents and innovation: evidence from economic history. Journal of Economic

  15. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  16. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  17. Utilização de Saccharomyces cerevisiae imobilizada em bagaço de cana de açúcar para a biossorção e biodegradação do corante acid black 48

    OpenAIRE

    Mitter, Eduardo Kovalski [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Com a revolução industrial ocorreu o crescimento do setor têxtil, o qual utiliza uma grande quantidade de água nos processos de tingimento e uma ampla variedade de corantes sintéticos. Uma pequena concentração destes corantes no meio ambiente já pode gerar uma poluição altamente visível e indesejável, provendo alterações nos ecossistemas aquáticos. Dentre os processos de remoção de corantes, a adsorção, biossorção e biodegradação apresentam-se como as técnicas mais vantajosas. A adsorção cons...

  18. A estratégia Oceano Azul como proposta de valor: o caso dos ginásios/health clubs portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Metaforicamente, Kim e Mauborgne (2005) referem que o mercado é constituído por dois oceanos, o vermelho e o azul. O oceano vermelho representa todas as indústrias que existem hoje. O oceano azul considera todas as indústrias que ainda não existem, representa assim, o mercado não explorado, onde se pode criar a procura e onde existem oportunidades de elevado crescimento e rentabilidade. A esta abordagem Kim e Mauborgne (2005) chamam Estratégia Oceano Azul. Esta tese tem como objetivo geral de...

  19. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  20. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  1. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    FOR TIlE MULTIPURPOSE 4.122,675 10/1978 Polyak ........................... 60/641 X UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 1761 Inventor...contained in Ohio 40"menf .of em W arat thot such use be fro* ffe Pivately owned riht. A 00300 AFSC ar*P7 79c R&LD RECORD (PatentI Abet...., lv PATENT

  2. Determinação de isotermas de adsorção de corante têxtil em carvão ativo, serragem e algas marinhas arribadas

    OpenAIRE

    Érika Tomie Koroishi; Andréia Aline Bonan; Caroline Bonifácio de Andrade; Aracélis Ferreira da Silva; Washington Luiz Felix dos Santos; Classius Ferreira da Silva

    2000-01-01

    Os efluentes de tinturaria constituem um problema ambiental, uma vez que apresentam elevada quantidade de carga orgânica e de cor. Os processos de coagulação e adsorção são os mais utilizados na remoção de corantes têxteis. Neste trabalho foram determinadas as isotermas de adsorção de três materiais adsorventes: carvão ativo de casca de coco, serragem (um material alternativo) e algas marinhas trituradas (uma mistura contendo predominantemente Sargassum sp.). Utilizaram-se soluções do corante...

  3. Descoloração e Mineralização de Corantes Reativos por Processo Fotocatalítico Utilizando ZnO e Radiação UV

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Nunes de Almeida Guerra

    2009-01-01

    As indústrias consomem volumes elevados de água e outras substâncias químicas na síntese dos seus produtos e geram grande quantidade de rejeitos. Entre os mais importantes poluentes encontrados nos efluentes dessas indústrias estão os corantes sintéticos que representam um problema, pois não são facilmente destruídos por tratamentos convencionais. A fotocatálise heterogênea tem sido considerada como uma alternativa efetiva no tratamento de efluentes contendo esses corantes. Neste trabalho, es...

  4. Preparo e avaliação do hidróxido duplo lamelar MgZnAl-Fe calcinado no processo de adsorção – fotodegradação do corante alaranjado de metila

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paloma Viana Ferreira de

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi preparado o HDL magnético calcinado MgZnAl-Fe e caracterizado por Espectroscopia no Infravermelho (IV), Difratometria de Raios- X (DRX), Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV), Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica e Reflectância Difusa. O desempenho fotocatalítico do MgZnAl-Fe foi avaliado utilizando o corante alaranjado de metila (corante do tipo azo) como composto modelo. Estudos fotocatalíticos com o MgZnAl-Fe foram feitos empregando-se uma concentração inicial de 100 m...

  5. Avaliação da exposição aos corantes artificiais por crianças entre 3 e 9 anos em relação ao consumo de balas

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Maria Clara de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sabe-se que a única função dos corantes alimentares é conferir cor ao alimento não oferecendo nenhum valor nutritivo a este. Estudos vêm demonstrando a ocorrência de reações adversas a curto e longo prazo, devido ao consumo de alimentos que apresentam corantes artificiais. As reações variam desde reações tóxicas no metabolismo desencadeantes de alergias, alterações no comportamento, em geral, e carcinogenicidade, esta última observada em longo prazo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avalia...

  6. Avaliação espectroscópica de corantes orgânicos submetidos a raios-X: aplicação em dosimetria de radiação ionizante

    OpenAIRE

    BENEVIDES, Clayton Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Esta tese teve o objetivo de entender como ocorre a degradação de determinados corantes orgânicos fluorescentes quando irradiados e avaliar quantitativamente esta degradação. Os experimentos foram feitos utilizando uma concentração específica para os dois corantes: Rodamina 6G e Fluoresceína em gel de agarose e NaCl. NaCl foi utilizado a fim aumentar a taxa de degradação dos fluoróforos. Uma vez estabelecidos os sistemas químicos, as irradiações foram executadas sob um feixe ...

  7. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  8. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  9. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  10. Síndrome de nevos azules ahulados: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. López-Ugalde

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de nevos azules ahulados (SNAA es un síndrome poco frecuente, que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples malformaciones vasculares en piel y tracto gastrointestinal. También pueden verse afectados otros órganos con diferentes manifestaciones clínicas tales como artralgias, epistaxis, hemoptisis, hematuria, hemotórax, trombocitopenia leve, coagulopatía por consumo y deformaciones óseas, entre otras. Se presenta el caso en un niño de nueve años de edad con SNAA, con manifestaciones clínicas características, tales como lesiones cutáneas puntiformes de color violáceo con tamaño variable y malformaciones vasculares gastrointestinales con sangrado de tubo digestivo.

  11. Aquatic bacterial assemblage structure in Pozas Azules, Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Mexico: Deterministic vs. stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Asuar, Laura; Escalante, Ana Elena; Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Blaz, Jazmín; Peña, Lorena; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of stochastic vs. deterministic processes in the distribution of microbial diversity in four ponds (Pozas Azules) within a temporally stable aquatic system in the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, State of Coahuila, Mexico. A sampling strategy for sites that were geographically delimited and had low environmental variation was applied to avoid obscuring distance effects. Aquatic bacterial diversity was characterized following a culture-independent approach (16S sequencing of clone libraries). The results showed a correlation between bacterial beta diversity (1-Sorensen) and geographic distance (distance decay of similarity), which indicated the influence of stochastic processes related to dispersion in the assembly of the ponds' bacterial communities. Our findings are the first to show the influence of dispersal limitation in the prokaryotic diversity distribution of Cuatro Cienegas Basin. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  12. El control de la limpieza de las arenas por medio del ensayo del azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, the main lines of the investigation work developed at LABEIN on the «Influence of the limy and clayey slimes from calcareous crushed sands on concrete properties» are presented. As a consequence of it, new limits are proposed to consideration regarding the admissible content of slime in crushed sands, reaching a limit higher than 15%, controling the slime nature by means of an equivalent of normal sand and specially by Methylene Blue. The second part of the work is devoted to the development of the methodology for the obtention of Methylene Blue, in sands used in the elaboration of concrete which have a little amount of clay, taking as a base the method applied by French normative, duly adapted and with different expression of the results.Se muestran, en la primera parte del artículo, las líneas fundamentales del trabajo de investigación desarrollado en LABEIN, sobre la «Influencia de los finos calizos y arcillosos de arenas calizas de machaqueo, en las propiedades del hormigón». Como consecuencia del mismo, se proponen nuevos límites a considerar respecto al contenido admisible de finos en las arenas calizas de machaqueo, llegando a un límite superior del 15%, controlando la naturaleza de los finos por medio del equivalente de arena a vista, y, sobre todo, por el Azul de Metileno. En la segunda parte del artículo, se desarrolla la metodología utilizada para obtener el Azul de Metileno, en arenas utilizadas en la confección de hormigón, que poseen poca arcilla, basándose en el método aplicado por la normativa francesa, adaptado convenientemente y con diferente expresión de resultados.

  13. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  14. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension...

  15. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  16. Avaliação, por infiltração de corante, de tecnologias Laser em cirurgias paraendodônticas

    OpenAIRE

    Pozza, Daniel Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Visando ao aprimoramento técnico, os Laseres CO2, Er:Yag e Nd:Yag têm sido utilizados para os procedimentos cirúrgicos periapicais. Esta pesquisa avaliou, in vitro, por meio do teste de infiltração apical, por corante Rodomina B a 1% e morfometria computadorizada do programa Image Tool, 108 caninos humanos permanentes, submetidos a tratamento endodôntico e divididos em nove grupos: A-apicectomia por broca em 90 graus, retrocatividade por ultra-som e retro-obturação com MTA; B-apicectomia por ...

  17. Degradação redutiva de azo-corantes utilizando-se ferro metálico Reductive degradation of azo-dyes by metallic iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lima de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Corantes azo são extensivamente utilizados em processos de tingimento de fibras têxteis, sendo caracterizados por elevada resistência frente a processos aeróbios de biodegradação e, por conseqüência, persistência nos processos convencionais de tratamento de resíduos. Neste trabalho reporta-se a degradação redutiva de corantes azo, utilizando-se ferro metálico. Em condições experimentais otimizadas (pH 7 e 10 g de lã de aço comercial a completa descoloração do corante modelo (preto reativo 5 foi conseguida em um sistema contínuo, operando com tempos de retenção de 6 min. Nestas condições, o ferro solubilizado alcança concentrações compatíveis com os limites impostos pela atual legislação brasileira (12 mg L-1. Trata-se de um resultado bastante promissor, principalmente levando-se em consideração o caráter recalcitrante dos azo corantes e a simplicidade do sistema proposto.Azo dyes are extensively used in textile dying processes and are characterized by extreme resistance to biodegradation and consequently persistence during conventional wastewater treatment processes. In this work the reductive degradation of azo dyes was studied using zero-valent iron. At optimized experimental conditions (pH 7 and 10 g of commercial iron wool complete decolorization of the model dye (reactive black 5 was afforded in a continuous system operating with hydraulic retention time of 6 min. At these conditions the released total soluble iron reaches a concentration compatible with the limits imposed by the current Brazilian legislation (12 mg L-1. That is a very promising result, mainly taking into account the high recalcitrant character of azo dyes and the simplicity of the proposed system.

  18. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  19. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  20. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  1. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  2. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  3. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  4. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  5. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  6. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101 OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Alencar de Araripe Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN and bromophenol blue (BB. The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal spermatozoa (N, head alteration (HA, intermediary piece alteration (IPA, tail alteration (TA, proximal citoplasmic drop (PCD, distal citoplasmic drop (DCD, and detached head (DH. There wasn’t significant difference in the observation of N between media, staining and their interactions after 5 minutes of thermo resistance test. After 120, the N was significantly influenced by media, where the TRIS presented better results. The incubation period of 120 minutes at 37ºC affect the spermatic morphology, increasing the HA percentages. The media based on TRIS promoted better protection from the cryoinjuries on frozen goat spermatozoa. BB staining was efficient on the fresh and post-thaw goat semen evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Bromophenol blue, goat, powder coconut water; TRIS, spermatozoa.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a morfologia de espermatozoides caprinos frescos e congelados em meios à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101 e TRIS, bem como comparar a eficiência dos corantes azul de bromofenol (AB e eosina-nigrosina (EN. Cada ejaculado foi dividido, diluído em ACP-101 e TRIS, congelado e, após trinta dias, descongelado. Analisou-se a morfologia espermática por esfregaços corados por EN e AB. Os parâmetros morfológicos foram: espermatozoides normais (N, alterações de cabeça (AC, de peça intermediária (API, de flagelo (AF, gotas citoplasmáticas proximal (GCP e distal (GCD e cabeça destacada (CD. Não se verificou diferença de N entre

  7. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  8. Avaliação do consumo de corantes artificiais por lactentes, pré-escolares e escolares Evaluation of artificial dye intake by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pinheiro Alves Schumann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o consumo, por 150 crianças de até 10 anos, de pó para gelatina, preparado sólido para refresco e refrigerante. Foi feita aplicação de questionário de freqüência quantitativa e qualitativa com população infantil atendida no ambulatório de pediatria do Hospital Universitário Gafrée Guinle, Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente pelo programa SPSS 8.0. Verificou-se que os alimentos pesquisados são ampla e freqüentemente consumidos, sendo introduzidos na dieta, em muitos dos casos, antes da criança completar 1 ano de idade. Sabe-se que os produtos estudados não são adequados nutricionalmente, pois apresentam, além dos corantes, outros aditivos alimentares e não contêm nenhum nutriente importante para o funcionamento do organismo. Em relação aos corantes presentes nos produtos mencionados pela população estudada, constatou-se que os mais informados na rotulagem destes produtos, no item ingredientes, são amarelo crepúsculo, tartrazina e amaranto. Estimando que o teor dos corantes nos alimentos analisados esteja no limite máximo permitido pela legislação, observou-se que a grande maioria das crianças avaliadas pode estar excedendo a ingestão diária aceitável para o corante amaranto e que cerca de 20% da população pode estar excedendo o consumo recomendado para o amarelo crepúsculo. É importante que os valores máximos permitidos de corantes em alimentos, no Brasil, sejam adequados às recomendações realizadas pelo órgão internacional que avalia a segurança dos aditivos, e que ações educativas sejam realizadas.This study aimed at evaluating the intake of solid jelly powder, solid juice powder and soft drinks by children. The intakes were estimated through the application of a quantitative and qualitative food frequency questionnaire. The study was pursued in the pediatric nutrition ambulatory of Gaffrée Guinle University Hospital in Rio de

  9. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  10. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  11. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the...

  13. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  14. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  15. 77 FR 4887 - DOE Patent Licensing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 781 RIN 1990-AA41 DOE Patent Licensing Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its patent... patents or patent applications vested in the United States of America, as represented by or in the...

  16. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  17. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  18. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  19. "Patent Activity and Technical Change"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Basmann; Michael, McAleer; Daniel, Slottje

    2003-01-01

    As creations of the mind, intellectual property includes industrial property and copyrights. This paper presents an aggregate production function of the generalized Fechner-Thurstone (GFT) form to analyze the impact of an important component of intellectual industrial property, namely patent activity, on technical change in the USA for the period 1947-1981. Patents should alter isoquant maps, and measuring their elasticities is both intuitively and empirically appealing. We define a technolog...

  20. STUDIES OF CHARACTERIZATION AND CONCENTRATION OF COMPACT ITABIRITE OF THE SERRA AZUL COMPLEX, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Vasconcelos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lagoa das Flores Mine is an important iron ore deposit located at the Serra Azul complex in the Northwestern border of the Ferriferous Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, where other important mines also occur, such as Arcelor Mittal, Usiminas, MBL and MMX. Presently 2.2 Mt/year of waste are generated; 70% of this waste is comprised by compact itabirite whose mineral resource is of the order of 370 Mt. The goals are to perform a mineralogical characterization and the development of process routes for this ore type by bench scale testing. The latter was carried out by work index and abrasion index determinations and magnetic concentration, desliming and flotation testing. The ore was composed by quartz, martitic hematite and minor magnetite; the average iron content was 34.3% and the quartz liberation degree was 92% below 0.075 mm. The best processing route are grinding to –0.15 mm, followed by medium and high strength field magnetic concentration, regrinding to –0.053 mm and reverse cationic flotation. Therefore, a final concentrate with 67.8% Fe, 1.84% SiO2 contents and metallic recovery of 83% is obtained.

  1. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  2. TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA COM AZUL DE METILENO SOBRE CEPA DE Staphylococcus aureus RESISTENTE À METICILINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Alves Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus é o agente etiológico de maior importância associado às infecções adquiridas tanto em âmbito comunitário ou hospitalar, devido a sua capacidade de desenvolver resistência às terapias convencionais. A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD surge como alternativa a ser utilizada no controle de cepas resistentes aos antibioticos. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos da TFD com Azul de Metileno (AM sobre cepas de S. aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA. As amostras foram diluídas em PBS estéril de acordo com a escala 0,5 de MacFarland. Os grupos foram compostos com diferentes concentrações de AM, incubados no escuro durante 15 minutos e irradiados por LED Biopdi/Irrad-Led5 em 660nm com fluência de 10 J/cm². Posteriormente, foram semeadas e incubadas à 37ºC por 24 horas. A contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFCs demonstrou que a TFD foi eficaz na menor concentração testada de AM sobre cepas de MRSA.

  3. Universities and Patent Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  4. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  5. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  6. Bioensaios de desenvolvimento inicial de alface (Lactuca Sativa como potencial bioindicador de toxicidade de amostra comercial contendo corante alimentício azorrubina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios biológicos têm sido utilizados, frequentemente, no monitoramento de substâncias potencialmente tóxicas. Neste contexto, avaliou-se o potencial tóxico de amostras comerciais de mistura contendo corante alimentício orgânico-sintético azorrubina (C2OH12N2Na2O7S2 sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa como potencial bioindicador para monitorar a redução de toxicidade das amostras. Os bioensaios foram realizados previamente avaliando-se os efeitos causados à espécie-teste, por meio de exposição das sementes (sem tratamento com fungicida à solução de 2500 ppm de mistura contendo o corante. Também foram analisados resíduos de amostras que foram submetidas a ensaios fotocatalíticos (reações de Fenton e foto-Fenton. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (aleatório, com cinco repetições para cada tratamento. Para avaliar a germinação realizou-se monitoramento diário até 72 horas, após esse período, aferiu-se o comprimento do hipocótilo e radícula de cada plântula. As amostras utilizadas nos ensaios iniciais e após o processo fotocatalítico (duração de 120 min não influenciaram na germinação. Já no desenvolvimento das plântulas houve inibição considerável. Os resultados indicaram que os ensaios biológicos, foram eficazes para indicar a redução da influência do corante alimentício sobre o desenvolvimento das plântulas, além disso, leva-se em conta, que o método é eficaz e barato.

  7. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  8. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  9. Morro Azul Observatory: A New Center for Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Cardoso de Oliveira, Vladimir

    2002-08-01

    In 1999, the Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) started a project to build an observatory and initiate several astronomy related activities in the city of Limeira and region (São Paulo state) with the aim of teaching and popularizing astronomy. After contracting teachers, a technician and an intern, the Morro Azul Observatory was inaugurated in March 2000 as a part of the geosciences department of ISCA Faculdades. This poster describes the development phases of the Observatory, the activities initiated by the Observatory, and assesses the impact of the project. Several issues will be discussed such as the criteria for choosing the site, buildings, instruments, group visits, and particularly the goals that were reached. The Observatory, as described here, serves as a model for other centers with the same purpose in the country. The achievements of this project include the creation of two astronomical disciplines for the geography course and liaisons with other courses such as tourism, pedagogy, social communication and engineering. New activities were initiated, educational materials created, and the Observatory is now part of the regions teaching network and is in contact with other Brazilian and foreign centers. This poster presents the results from report analyses, visitor records, the local media, goal strategy assessment, and the current state of the project. It concludes with an evaluation of the social commitment of the Observatory, its initiatives for the constant renewal and growth of the project, its policy of maintaining the activities and interchange with other national and international astronomy centers, and the future perspectives in terms of its contribution for the research in science education.

  10. BIODEGRADATION OF DYES AND TEXTILE EFFUELTS BY FUNGI = BIODEGRADAÇÃO DE CORANTES E EFLUENTES TÊXTEIS POR FUNGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ramalho Brandão Pereira

    2010-01-01

    in place grow and degrade the existent compositions. = Os resíduos da indústria têxtil se caracterizam por sua baixa degradabilidade, alto potencial mutagênico e carcinogênico, podendo atingir o meio ambiente e a saúde pública. O emprego de fungos, principalmente, basidiomicetos degradadores de lignina, tem sido cada vez mais utilizado devido à produção de enzimas ligninolíticas de baixa especificidade, que podem ser aplicadas na degradação de compostos fenólicos. A triagem de fungos provenientes de ambientes contaminados também é de grande importância para a seleção de microrganismos com potencial degradativo, pois, se os mesmos conseguem proliferar neste ambiente, certamente possuem um sistema enzimático que lhes permita metabolizar as espécies químicas presentes no local. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar fungos da estação de tratamento de efluentes de indústrias têxteis e avaliar a degradação de corantes e efluentes por estes fungos e por fungos com capacidade degradativa conhecida. Os fungos padrões utilizados foram Lentinula edodes e Paraconiothyrium estuarinum. Os corantes em estudo foram Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR, Reactive Yellow 145, Reactive Red 195 e efluente têxtil. A mesma espécie fúngica (Geothricum candidum foi isolada do tanque de aeração de ambas as indústrias têxteis investigadas. Foram feitos testes em meio sólido e líquido, sob diferentes condições de incubação e pH. Foi observada melhor capacidade degradativa nas amostras sob agitação. O fungo isolado da estação de tratamento não degradou o corante RBBR, porém, demonstrou capacidade de degradação do efluente em pH 9, a 35°C e na presença de tampão acetato de sódio. Lentinula edodes degradou todos os corantes e efluentes, e os melhores resultados foram obtidos em pH 5 na presença de tampão. O fungo Paraconiothyrium estuarinum não degradou o corante RBBR, porém, apresentou capacidade degradativa considerável dos corantes Reactive

  11. Efectos de la luz azul y del acetileno sobre la actividad nitrato reductasa de hojas de espinaca (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Muñoz, María de los Ángeles

    1983-01-01

    La nitrato reductasa purificada de hojas de espinaca en presencia de un reductor adecuado se inactiva de forma específica por acetileno. Dicha inactivación afecta solo a su actividad terminal. El sitio de acción del acetileno en la enzima parece estar estrechamente relacionado con el sitio activo para el nitrato. La nitrato reductasa inactivada por acetileno se reactiva específicamente por la luz azul tanto en aerobiosis como en anaerobiosis. El propio FAD de la enzima actúa como fotosensi...

  12. Estratégia do Oceano Azul: Relato de Implantação em um Setor em Crise

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este relato tecnológico apresenta alguns dos elementos facilitadores e dificultadores para se implantar a metodologia Estratégia do Oceano Azul (EOA). A empresa estudada passava por uma situação competitiva intricada, com redução de demanda e excesso de oferta. Com o uso de alguns dos pressupostos da EOA, a empresa redefiniu estratégias competitivas reduzindo sua exposição à rivalidade tipicamente encontrada em setores maduros. O artigo narra a construção da curva de valor, que tomou 540 hora...

  13. Planeamiento estratégico mediante el modelo del Océano Azul, para una cadena de farmacias

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas con énfasis en Gerencia, 2010 El objetivo general del trabajo es desarrollar un plan estratégico para una cadena de farmacias en Costa Rica, aplicando la metodología de la Estrategia del Océano Azul, para participar en nuevos mercados donde la competencia se convierte en un factor sin importancia. La organización investigada se d...

  14. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  15. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  16. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  18. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  19. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  20. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  1. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  2. Biodegradação e toxicidade de corantes têxteis e efluentes da Estação de Tratamento de Águas Residuárias de Americana, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Maria Dellamatrice

    2006-01-01

    As indústrias têxteis da região de Americana geram grande quantidade de efluentes e resíduos sólidos com grande carga de corantes que são naturalmente de difícil degradação. Assim o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de biodegradação dos corantes têxteis RBBR, índigo e preto enxofre, e dos resíduos resultantes da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto da cidade de Americana, SP, (DAE Americana), a qual trata 400 l s-1 de esgoto municipal junto com efluentes de 43 indústrias tê...

  3. Publicaciones periódicas nacionalistas de derecha: las tres etapas de Azul y Blanco (Azul y Blanco 1956-1960, Segunda República 1961-1963, Azul y Blanco -segunda época- 1966-1969)

    OpenAIRE

    Galván, María Valeria

    2012-01-01

    El estudio del semanario Azul y Blanco y el análisis de las dos generaciones de intelectuales nacionalistas que se hicieron cargo de su edición desde 1956 hasta 1969 condujeron a la descripción de un nacionalismo de derecha de un nuevo cuño. Este se vio influenciado principalmente por la proscripción del peronismo, la Revolución Cubana, la nacionalización de la nueva izquierda, la promulgación de la encíclica papal Populorum Progressio y las sucesivas políticas autoritarias y liberales de las...

  4. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  5. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  6. Current challenges in patent information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lupu, Mihai; Kando, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual property in the form of patents plays a vital role in today's increasingly knowledge-based economy. This book assembles state-of-the art research and is intended to illustrate innovative approaches to patent information retrieval.

  7. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  8. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  9. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  10. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting... patent licensing meeting was subsequently held February 16, 2011 at the SAIC Enterprise Bldg...

  11. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  12. Research use of patented inventions: opening remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Labastida, José M.

    2006-01-01

    Opening remarks for the 2006 conference in Madrid on the research use of patented inventions. The conference, which was held at CSIC on 18-19 May 2006, was jointly organised by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (OEPM) and the OECD, with support from the European Patent Office (EPO) through its European Patent Academy. The conference brochure is also included as an attachment to the Opening remarks file.

  13. Nanocompósitos poliméricos de polietileno de alta densidade contendo hidróxidos duplos lamelares intercalados com ânions derivados de corantes azo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Zimmermann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a síntese e caracterização de hidróxidos duplos lamelares (HDL de Zn/Al na razão molar 2:1, os quais foram intercalados com íons cloreto hidratados e ânions derivados dos corantes azo alaranjado de metila (AM e alaranjado II (AII. Após caracterização, os materiais foram utilizados como cargas em polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD e nanocompósitos foram preparados por extrusão e injeção, seguindo a norma ASTM D638-10. Os teores de cargas variaram de 0,1 até 2% (incluindo-se os sais de sódio dos corantes e os nanocompósitos homogêneos foram avaliados em relação as suas propriedades estruturais, térmicas e mecânicas. De modo geral, após a adição das cargas existe somente uma pequena influência na temperatura de fusão e cristalização do PEAD. Para os HDLs contendo o pigmento intercalado com o ânion do corante AM e sais de sódio de ambos os corantes, as propriedades mecânicas apresentaram leve aumento do módulo e tensão de ruptura e diminuição do alongamento em relação ao polímero puro e um comportamento inverso foi observado para o ânion AII, além do HDL contendo ânions cloreto hidratados.

  14. Corantes têxteis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaratini Cláudia C. I.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

  15. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  16. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.10 Patent applications. The information referred to in § 734.3(b)(3)(iv) of this part is: (a) Information contained in a patent application prepared wholly...

  17. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  18. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  20. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  1. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  2. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  3. Avaliação da degradação do corante vermelho bordeaux através de processo fotoquímico Assessment of red dye degradation through photochemical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pochmann da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado o estudo da degradação fotoquímica do corante vermelho bordeaux. O estudo objetivou a avaliação de tratamentos alternativos com vistas à aplicação de tecnologias limpas. Os experimentos de fotodegradação foram realizados através da incidência de radiação UV em um compartimento contendo o corante (solução. O tratamento fotoquímico reduziu em 99% a coloração e a concentração da solução contendo o corante vermelho bordeaux.This paper studied the photochemical degradation of food dye (red dye. The investigation aimed at the assessment of alternative treatments, focusing the use of clean technologies. The photochemical degradation experiments were performed in a compartment with UV radiation (mercury lamp - 250W. The photochemical treatment showed a 99% color and concentration reduction in the dye solution.

  4. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  5. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome Síndrome de "nevo em bolha de borracha azul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleth Rodrigues

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The blue rubber nevus syndrome consists of multiple venous malformations in the skin and gastrointestinal tract associated with intestinal hemorrhage and iron deficiency anemia. Other organs may be involved. The causes of this syndrome are unknown. Its most common presentation is in the form of sporadic cases, but dominant autosomal inheritance has been described. It is a condition that affects both sexes equally, and its occurrence is rare in the black race. We present a case of this syndrome diagnosed in a 11-year-old patient. He had severe anemia and a venous swelling on the trunk. Similar lesions were found in the stomach, bowel, and on his foot. We emphasize the main clinical aspects: intestine, eyes, nasopharynx, parotids, lungs, liver, spleen, heart, brain, pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, skeletal muscles, bladder, and penis lesions, systemic complications that may occur to these patients which are thrombosis and calcification, as well as consumptive coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia that may occur within the nevi.A síndrome do nevo em bolha de borracha azul "blue rubber bled nevus syndrome" é caracterizada por malformações venosas da pele e trato gastrointestinal, associadas a hemorragia intestinal e anemia ferropriva. Outros órgãos podem estar envolvidos. As causas desta síndrome são desconhecidas e sua apresentação mais comum é na forma de casos esporádicos, mas herança autossômica dominante já foi descrita. É uma condição que afeta igualmente ambos os sexos e sua ocorrência é rara na raça negra. Apresentamos um caso desta síndrome diagnosticada em criança de onze anos de idade. Ela apresenta anemia grave e tumoração venosa do tronco. Lesões semelhantes foram encontradas no estômago, intestino e um dos pés. São enfatizados os aspectos clínicos principais - lesões no intestino, olhos, nasofaringe, parótida, pulmões, fígado, baço, coração, cérebro, pleura, peritônio, pericárdio, músculo esquel

  6. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M.E., E-mail: mzabala@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzano, M., E-mail: marisol.manzano@upct.es [Escuela de Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos y de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, P° de Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO{sub 3}-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO{sub 4}–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO{sub 2}, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The

  7. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  8. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  9. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  10. Of patents and patent disputes: The TNFα patent files. Part 1: Humira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the patent strategy underlying the world's best selling drug, AbbVie's Humira®. Despite a non-optimal starting position, AbbVie has established an extensive portfolio to fend off biosimilar competition. This article is the first part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics.

  11. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. Qualidade de sementes de algodão submetidas aos processos de encapsulamento com e sem corante. = Quality of cotton seeds submitted to encapsulation process with and without dye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paula Queiroga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de algodão quando submetidas aos processos de encapsulamento com e sem corante em comparação com as sementes apenas tratadas com fungicidas (carboxin e thiran 200 Sc e inseticida (pirimiphos methyl - testemunha. A betoneira grande (capacidade de 40 L recebeu sementes deslintadas +tratadas para serem submetidas ao processo de encapsulação (coating e finishing com e sem corante, além de uma testemunha não encapsulada, estabelecendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: 1- sementes deslintadas e tratadas com fungicidas (carboxin e thiran 200 Sc e inseticidas (pirimiphos methyl (testemunha; 2- sementes deslintadas, tratadas e encapsuladas (coating e finishing sem corante; e 3- sementes deslintadas, tratadas e encapsuladas com corante. Foi adotado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram percentagem de germinação, comprimento de plântulas e massa de 100 sementes. Observou-se que o processo de recobrimento de sementes de algodão deslintadas,tratadas com fungicidas e inseticida e encapsuladas não ocasiona redução na qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e o uso de corante em sementes encapsuladas não altera a sua qualidade. = This study evaluated the physiological quality of cotton seeds when subjected to encapsulation with and without dye compared with seeds treated only with fungicides (carboxin and thiran 200 Sc and insecticide (pirimiphos methyl - control. The larger mixer (capacity 40 L received delinted seeds + treated to undergo the process of encapsulation (coating and finishing with and without dye, and non-encapsulated served as control. The following treatments were established: 1 - delinted seeds and treated with fungicides (carboxin and 200 thiran Sc and insecticides (pirimiphos methyl (control, 2 - delinted seeds, processed and encapsulated (coating and finishing without dye, and 3 - delinted seeds

  13. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal=Tratamento de soluções de corantes ácidos por adsorção em farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Eduardo Roza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes.Neste trabalho, testou-se o potencial emprego do adsorvente natural à base de farelo de soja, proveniente da extração de óleo vegetal, no tratamento de soluções contendo os corantes ácidos: amarelo Erionyl RXL, marinho Erionyl R e vermelho Erionyl A-3B, empregados no tingimento de fibras poliamídicas. Para tanto, foram realizados estudos de adsorção em diferentes condições de temperatura, concentração de adsorvente, pH e mistura de cores (bicromia e tricromia em soluções de corantes produzidas em laboratório. O farelo de soja mostrou uma ótima capacidade de remoção de cor, principalmente nas soluções de corantes com pH’s 4 e 6 à 60ºC contendo 10 g L-1. Considerando que os valores de eficiência na adsorção ficaram entre 74 e 99%, dependendo do corante e das condições de tratamento, o farelo de soja mostrou-se um material alternativo para a adsorção dos corantes ácidos.

  14. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?.

  15. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  16. Priority given to low energy and operating costs at la Cruz Azul Aguascalientes cement plant; Priorite aux faibles couts d`exploitation et d`energie pour la cimenterie la Cruz Azul d`Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Luna, C.A. [La Cruz Azul (Mexico)

    1998-06-01

    The Mexican cement producer LA CRUZ AZUL decided for their third works located in Aguascalientes to design in co-operation with Krupp Polysius a 3,300 tpd production plant with minimum operating costs. This plant will have an energy consumption of less than 90 kWh per ton of cement and a heat consumption of approx. 700 kCal per kg of clinker, because an increase of energy costs is expected in the long term in Mexico. Main basic technical decisions concern material transport by mechanical conveyors, reuse of all hot gases generated for drying and very high automation level. Full-scale production is scheduled for mid-year 1999. (author)

  17. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    OpenAIRE

    Namdeo R Jadhav; Trupti Powar; Santosh Shinde; Sameer Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have...

  18. Blenda de náilon-6,6/quitosana como adsorvente de corantes ácidos para reutilização das soluções de corantes tratadas em tingimentos de poliamida Nylon 6.6/chitosan blend as adsorbent of acid dyes for the reuse of treated wastewater in polyamide dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete O. Barcellos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A água é usada na indústria têxtil como veículo para os produtos químicos em geral e corantes utilizados no processo de tingimento e beneficiamento de fibras. Neste trabalho estudou-se a reutilização de rejeitos líquidos de tingimentos de tecidos de náilon 6,6 (PA 66, tratados pelo processo de adsorção, com uma blenda de PA 6,6/quitosana (80/20, na forma de flocos. Para a produção de rejeitos líquidos, realizaram-se tingimentos de tecidos de PA 66 com os corantes ácidos Yellow Erionyl RXL, Red Erionyl A-3B e Navy Blue Erionyl R. A eficiência da remoção da cor variou entre 97-98%, com exceção dos rejeitos dos tingimentos com o corante Yellow Erionyl RXL, onde se atingiu apenas eficiências de 65 e 72% para os rejeitos com e sem auxiliares têxteis, respectivamente. A reutilização dos rejeitos tratados estudou-se em tingimentos de tecidos de malha de poliamida 6,6 com os mesmos corantes. Os valores de ΔE (diferença de cor referente a tingimento padrão com água destilada de tingimentos em cores claras e médias, variaram de 0,24 a 1,05 (para os rejeitos de monocromia e 0,71 a 1,07 (para os rejeitos de tricromia, e são compatíveis com os padrões industriais (ΔE Water is used in the textile industry, mainly, as vehicle for chemicals and dyes used in the dyeing and finishing processes of textile fibers. In this work we studied the reuse of wastewater generated in the dyeing of nylon 6.6 (PA6.6 fabrics and treated by adsorption process with nylon 6.6/chitosan (80/20 blend flakes was studied. To produce the wastewater PA 6.6 fabrics were dyed with the acid dyes Yellow Erionyl RXL, Red Erionyl A-3B and Navy Blue Erionyl R. The efficiency in color removal of the adsorption process varied between 97-98%, with exception of the effluents from Yellow Erionyl RXL dyeing, where only efficiencies of 65% (wastewater with auxiliaries and 72% (without auxiliaries were obtained. The reuse of the treated wastewater was studied in dyeing

  19. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  20. Una verdadera "isla en el nuevo sur". Las donaciones condicionadas en el arroyo Azul durante el rosismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Lanteri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del estudio de la política de tierras fiscales implementada por el gobierno de Rosas en la campaña de Buenos Aires, en el presente trabajo nos proponemos enfocar la atención en la modalidad de las donaciones condicionadas, que sólo se hicieron efectivas en un área de la frontera sur, el arroyo Azul, a partir de 1832. De tal forma, comenzaremos estableciendo las particularidades que presentó su proceso colonizador, para luego analizar el impacto local que tuvo la entrega de predios estatales durante el período 1820-1860, con el objeto de establecer con mayor precisión el peso de las donaciones comparado con otras formas de otorgamiento en la ocupación del espacio y en la estructura de la tenencia del recurso en el lugar. Asimismo, en un último apartado estableceremos las características centrales que manifestaron las transacciones entre particulares, para lograr una mayor definición de los procesos abordados.In the context of the study of the policy of fiscal lands implemented by Rosas government in Buenos Aires countryside, this work focuses on the modality known as "conditioned donations", that since 1832 became effective only in an area of the south frontier, the Azul stream. So that, we begin establishing the particularities that the settlement process presented, and then we analyze the local impact that the cessions of fiscal lands had during the period 1820- 1860, in order to find out with more precision the importance of donations compared with other grant forms in space occupation and in the structure of the holding of the resource. Finally, in a last section we establish the central characteristics of transactions among private hands, to attain a more accurate definition of the processes involved.

  1. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene. Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina, at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these levels at each one of the new localities led to their correlation in an integrated profile of Cerro Azul Fm. This formation corresponds to «Epecuén Fm.», at least in Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, and probably also to the upper levels of Arroyo Chasicá Fm. The studied marsupials are representative of almost all major lineages (orders of South American Neogene marsupials. The marmosine didelphid Zygolestes tatei sp. nov. differs from the type species of the genus in its larger size, unreduced third lower premolar, and in the less reduction of the metaconid in the last lower molar. Another marmosine, Thylamys pinei sp. nov., differs from other Marmosini in the twinning of the para- and metaconid in the lower molars, and in the wider talonid of the m4. The Monodelphini marmosines Thylatheridium hudsoni y T. dolgopolae are abundant in several localities of this formation; their study confirms close affinities between this genus and Monodelphis. The didelphines Hyperdidelphys pattersoni and an indeterminate species of Lutreolina are also represented by a few specimens. A mandibular fragment including part of the last molar may represent the oldest record of a Sparassocynidae in central Argentina. The Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae (Sparassodonta are also recorded by a few, fragmentary specimens. Pliolestes venetus sp. nov. (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae differs from the type species of the genus in its smaller size and in the larger, less displaced metaconid in the

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR Y GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES CON ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Dur\\u00E1n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del envejecimie nto acelerado en semillas de varie dades criollas de maíz azul. En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, semillas de cuatro varie dades criollas de maíz azul (Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometie ron a dos tip os de envejecimie nto acelerado: calor húmedo (41°C, 72 horas y 100% h. r. y calor seco (60°C, 48 horas. Se evaluaron: protrusión radicular de 0 a 72 horas de imbibición y, a los sie te días de incubación a 25°C, plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Se obtuvo la caracterización molecular de los tratamie ntos mediante la RA PD y se construyeron los dendogramas respectivos. En plántulas normales provenie ntes de semillas sin envejecimie nto acelerado, las varie dades Oaxaca y Puebla fueron significativamente superiores. El peso seco en las plántulas disminuyó con el deterioro, sie ndo exigua con calor seco. La presencia de plántulas anormales se incrementó con ambos tip os de deterioro en el orden: Oaxaca, Puebla, Cocotitlán y Cuijingo. La diferenciación de los perfiles de bandeo entre semillas testigo y deterioradas ocurrió con la secuencia: Oaxaca (31,6%, Cocotitlán (25,8%, Puebla (19,6% y Cuijingo (18,6%. Estos valores de similitud, a los cuales se ramificaron los perfiles genómicos, se asociaron de manera inversa con el nivel de vigor de las semillas, y directamente con la presencia de anormalidades en las plántulas obtenidas.

  3. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  4. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  5. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  6. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  7. Knowledge transfer and university patents in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Calderón-Martínez; José García-Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of increasing interest as channels for the transfer of knowledge from universities to firms. Design/methodology/approach A review of the international literature on the main factors that explain the production of patents was undertaken. On the basis of this information, a database for 80 Mexican universities was built and a mod...

  8. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  9. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  10. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  11. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  12. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  13. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  14. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  15. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  16. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  17. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of patent information. 314.53 Section... of patent information. (a) Who must submit patent information. This section applies to any applicant...)(2) of this section. (b) Patents for which information must be submitted and patents for...

  18. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  19. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  20. Inventions and Patents: A Practical Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hina; Tidwell, Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and capital-intensive drug development and clinical trials necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, non-obviousness, and usefulness. Recent changes to US patent law limit the scope of patentable material. Products of nature such as nucleic acids and proteins, or steps used to observe natural events, are no longer patent eligible. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions for inventions, inventorship, and patent filing which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  1. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  2. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  3. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  4. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  5. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; D. Kushnir; I. Rafols

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  6. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  7. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  8. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  9. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    insert for high strength. ’The 339130ft.130C;361/390, 391, 399, 415 epoxy-glems bushing is machlied fromo poat stock With 339/30 .1 C;the grain...United States Patent [p91 [I 4,280,135 Siosabers [45] Jul 21, 1981 [541 REMOTE POINTING SYSTEM A’mary Examiner- Joseph A. Orsino, Jr. 176] Inventor...ward looking intruder detection system are eliminated MEASUREMENTS by look-up sensor instrumentation that utilizus mono- (751 Inventor: JOsePh L

  10. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL...

  11. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  12. Valuable Patents for U.S. Businesses: A Catalog of DTRC Patents Available for Licensing by the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Veazey PATENT NO: 4,553,037 DATE OF PATENT Nov. 12, 1985 TITLE: Transverse Waterjet Propulsion with Auxiliary Inlets and Impellers INVENTOR(S): John G...Lee PATENT NO: 4,398,687 DATE OF PATENT: Aug. 16, 1983 DTRC-91 /CT07 19 Valuable Patents, A Catalog TITLE: Mono-Element Combined Supercritical High

  13. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  14. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating pat...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  15. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing.

  16. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  17. Inheritance of resistance to cotton blue disease Herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmério Pupim Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of cotton blue disease resistance by cotton plants. Populations derived from the CD 401 and Delta Opal resistant varieties were evaluated, through a greenhouse test with artificial inoculation by viruliferous aphids. Cotton blue disease resistance is conditioned by one dominant gene, both in CD 401 and Delta Opal varieties.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul. Populações derivadas das variedades resistentes CD 401 e Delta Opal foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio da inoculação de pulgões virulíferos. A resistência à doença-azul do algodoeiro é condicionada por um gene dominante, tanto em 'DC 401' quanto em 'Delta Opal'.

  18. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  19. Acoplamento das micro-ondas ao processo oxidativo avançado UV/H2O2 para a degradação de corantes ácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Paquese Fracca

    2014-01-01

    Os efluentes corados ainda são um problema em estações de tratamento de esgoto. Os corantes normalmente apresentam estruturas complexas e difíceis de serem degradadas por processos convencionais, entrando no meio ambiente aquático e causando impacto visual, mudanças nas características físico-químicas da água, prejudicam a fotossíntese do meio e podem apresentar efeitos ecotóxicos. Para o tratamento de vários tipos de efluentes, os Processos Oxidativos Avançados (POAs) são eficientes, rápidos...

  20. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  1. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  2. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that...... of development. This interpretation restores the credibility of Kitch's prospect theory of patent function and emphasises that the administration of the patent institution should be designed to support the prospect function of patents.......Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  3. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  4. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  5. Estado, tierra y poblamiento en la campaña sur de Buenos Aires durante la época de Rosas. La frontera del arroyo Azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanteri, María Sol

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to contribute to the knowledge of the land policy developed by the provincial State of Buenos Aires in the first half of the nineteenth century, specially during the Rosas government. Throughout the analysis of the micro-regional impact of the central policy in a case study, the frontier of the Azul brook one, it is discussed the historiographical thesis that has traditionally considered the Rosas government as the forger of an agrarian structure of large entailed estate in the south frontier of Buenos Aires. On the contrary, the study of Azul shows the predominance of rural property and production unities of small and medium size, which have coexisted with others of big one.

    Este trabajo trata de contribuir al conocimiento de la política de tierras desarrollada por el Estado provincial de Buenos Aires en la primera mitad del siglo XIX, especialmente durante el gobierno de Rosas. A través del análisis del impacto micro-regional de la política central en un estudio de caso, el de la frontera de Azul, se discute la tesis historiográfica que tradicionalmente consideró al rosismo como el creador de una estructura agraria latifundista en la frontera sur bonaerense. Por el contrario, el estudio de Azul muestra el predominio de unidades de propiedad y de producción rurales de pequeñas-medianas dimensiones que coexistieron con otras de gran tamaño.

  6. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  7. Patent information retrieval: approaching a method and analysing nanotechnology patent collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Sercan; Islam, Nazrul

    2017-01-01

    Many challenges still remain in the processing of explicit technological knowledge documents such as patents. Given the limitations and drawbacks of the existing approaches, this research sets out to develop an improved method for searching patent databases and extracting patent information to increase the efficiency and reliability of nanotechnology patent information retrieval process and to empirically analyse patent collaboration. A tech-mining method was applied and the subsequent analysis was performed using Thomson data analyser software. The findings show that nations such as Korea and Japan are highly collaborative in sharing technological knowledge across academic and corporate organisations within their national boundaries, and China presents, in some cases, a great illustration of effective patent collaboration and co-inventorship. This study also analyses key patent strengths by country, organisation and technology.

  8. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  9. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  10. Patent for Invention of Guilin Rubber Machinery Transla- tional Vulcanizer Awarded the Honorary Title of China Excel- lent Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wenguang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the results of the 13th China Patent Awards were publicized. The patent for invention of "translational vulcanizer" applied by Guilin Rubber Machinery Factory was appraised as China Excellent Patent.

  11. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society.

  12. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise....

  13. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  14. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  15. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons.

  16. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...... containing 421 EPO-patenting firms in Denmark....

  17. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  18. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers....

  19. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms : The effects of patent pools and industry consortia on the interplay between patents and technological standards

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010-13; This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical i...

  20. DETERMINAÇÃO DA EFICÁCIA DE DIFERENTES SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS NA DISSOLUÇÃO DOS CORANTES NATURAIS BIXINA E NORBIXINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO AURÉLIO DA SILVA COUTINHO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Nos últimos anos, os pigmentos naturais de urucum têm sido substancialmente utilizados pelas indústrias de alimentos para dar cor a produtos tais como: massas alimentícias, cereais, produtos de panificação, gelados comestíveis, sobremesas, condimentos, etc. Dentre esses pigmentos destaca-se a bixina, um éster monometílico do ácido dicarbixílico alfa-norbixina pouco solúvel em óleo e anorbixina um caratenóide diácido carboxilico. Em virtude da crescente aplicação industrial  dos corantes naturais, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a solubilidade desses pigmentos em diferentes solventes, por meio de espectrofotometria UV-vis. Foram preparadas soluções sob as mesmas condições, utilizando-se os solventes: acetona, álcool etílico, álcool isopropílico, dimetilsulfóxido e clorofómio. A absorbância foi medida em função do comprimento de onda de cada solução por meio da análise dos espectros de UV-Vis, na região de 800 a 200 nm. Os dados obtidos referentes às análises no UV-Vis confirmaram a maior eficácia do Dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO na dissolução da bixinae  e da acetona para o norbixina  em relação aos outros solventes.

  1. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdeo R Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have been widely designed to increase its bioavailability and for treatment of cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on. The common nanoformulated herbal medicines are Panax ginseng, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Withania somnifera, Gymnema sylvestre, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the like, having a profound future potential.

  2. 辨明Patent Troll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建朋

    2012-01-01

    它,究竟是凶恶的巨怪,还是可爱的精灵? 它,竟究是正当的手段,还是无赖的工具? 长久以来,patent troll便是国外学术圈、实务界探讨的焦点话题之一,如今其又转到了国内,而近来表现的越发激烈。各派对其是否应当存在、存在合法与否等等进行了持续不休的讨论与争吵,

  3. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Kátia M.G.; Dácio R. Matheus; Bononi,Vera L. R.

    2005-01-01

    Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%); 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. c...

  4. Chitosan/Fe spheres on the blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light; Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradacao do corante azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kely V. de; Zamora, Patricio G.P.; Zawadzki, Sonia F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DQ/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: zawadzki@quimica.ufpr.br

    2010-07-15

    The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a long time. The purpose of this study is the use of photo-Fenton processes assisted by artificial or solar light, using immobilized iron on chitosan beads, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, for the anthraquinone type compound Blue QR-19 standard dye degradation in aqueous solutions. The obtained spheres showed a regular size and 4.0 mm diameter. The results showed 90% discoloration of the system within 180 minutes and a 60% total organic carbon (TOC)reduction for the photo-Fenton system using artificial light. For the system using sunlight, the total discoloration was achieved in 120 minutes and the TOC value decreased 70%. Also observed was that iron remained in the polymeric matrix after the treatment, thus allowing reuse. (author)

  5. Síntese e caracterização de nanopartículas de óxido de ferro suportadas em matriz carbonácea: remoção do corante orgânico azul de metileno em água Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon matrix: oxidation of the dye methylene blue in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraísa Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were prepared composites of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials in two different weight proportions (Carbon/Fe 1/1 and 1/2. The physico-chemical properties of the composites were determined by temperature programmed reduction (TPR, adsorption/dessorption of N2, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and pulse titration H2. The XRD and XPS analysis showed a cubic iron oxide phase, identified as maghemite, formed over the carbon surface. The particle size of maghemite showed to be within 10-30 nm. Carbon/Fe 1/2 was the most active in MB removal kinetics and ESI-MS studies showed that MB removal by both composites leads to oxidized intermediates.

  6. Remoção dos corantes azul brilhante, amarelo crepúsculo e amarelo tartrazina de soluções aquosas utilizando carvão ativado, terra ativada, terra diatomácea, quitina e quitosana: estudos de equilíbrio e termodinâmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luiz Dotto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work compared activated carbon, activated earth, diatomaceous earth, chitin and chitosan to removal acid blue 9, food yellow 3 and FD&C yellow nº 5 dyes from aqueous solutions with different pH values (2-10. In the best process condition for each dye, equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures (from 298 to 328 K and Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted with experimental data. In addition, entropy change, Gibbs free energy change and enthalpy change were obtained in order to verify the thermodynamic adsorption behavior.

  7. Estudos de sorção do corante vermelho dianix em filmes de pet através dos processos convencional e CO2 supercrítico - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v25i1.2234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida de Oliveira Barbosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O polímero poli(tereftalato de etileno – PET – tem tido suas propriedades de superfície modificadas, visando às mais diversas aplicações. O dióxido de carbono supercrítico (CO2SC tem um grande potencial para a modificação e o processamento de polímeros sólidos, devido à sua alta difusividade e poder de solvatação. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar a incorporação do corante Vermelho Dianix em filmes de PET modificados e não-modificados com N,N-dimetilacrilamida, nos processos de CO2 SC e em meio aquoso. No processo com CO2SC, o tratamento dos filmes de PET modificados com N,N-dimetilacrilamida aumentou, em média, 1,6 vezes a quantidade de corante incorporado. Já em meio aquoso, a incorporação do corante nos filmes de PET modificados com N,N-dimetilacrilamida aumentou, em média, 2 vezes; no entanto, a quantidade absorvida pelo PET foi menor. A quantidade de corante incorporado em filmes de PET foi determinada por espectrofotometria UV-VIS a 520nm, usando N,N - dimetilformamida como solvente.

  8. A new model for gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  9. Suicidio en azul con negra mancha. Breve historia de un balazo en la pintura de Pablo Picasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy C., Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paris 1901: unrequited love drove Carles Casagemas, a close friend of Pablo Picasso’s youth, to commit suicide by shooting himself in the head. This tragic event was a major blow to Picasso, causing him to dwell upon the subject of death and express his “mourning” through his paintings. The “bullet hole” in his friend’s temple symbolically displaced several areas of the young Picasso’s life and became a “deep vacuum” and “melancholy”, permeating various areas in Picasso’s paintings, and marking the start of his famous blue period.París 1901: por el amor de una mujer, se suicida de un balazo en la cabeza Carles Casagemas, amigo íntimo de juventud de Pablo Picasso. Este trágico suceso producirá un gran dolor en el artista, el cual, lo hará internarse en el tema de la muerte y elaborar su “duelo” apoyado en su pintura. El “hoyo a bala” en la sien de su amigo se desplazará simbólicamente a varios espacios de la vida del joven Picasso y devendrá en “vacío profundo” y “melancolía”, permeando diferentes ámbitos dentro de la pintura de Picasso, dando comienzo a su mentado período azul.

  10. Argyria mimicking a blue nevis: dermoscopy features Argyria imitando um nevo azul: características dermatoscópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Enei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argyria is a rare disease caused by prolonged skin contact with silver. Localized cases have been described regarding the use of topical medications, and trauma with objects containing this metal such as acupuncture needles and jewelry. Clinically, a macule or a patch, round or oval, appears in the infected area, with a characteristic bluey-gray color. To our knowledge this is the first time that this clinical condition has been described through the use of dermoscopy.A argíria é uma doença rara, causada pelo contato prolongado da pele com prata. Foram descritos casos localizados relacionados ao uso de medicamentos tópicos e traumas com objetos que contem esse metal, como agulhas de acupuntura e jóias, por exemplo. Clinicamente, aparecem máculas ou manchas redondas ou ovais na área afetada, com uma característica cor azul-acinzentada. Até onde sabemos esta é a primeira vez que este quadro clínico foi descrito através da dermatoscopia.

  11. Polymorphism and methylation patterns in Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martínez, Miriam; Nava-Cedillo, Alejandro; Guzmán-López, José Alfredo; Escobar-Guzmán, Rocío; Simpson, June

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by AFLP analysis. Low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. Families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. No variation was observed between the original explant and four generations of in vitro cultured plants. Epigenetic variation was also studied by analyzing changes in methylation patterns between mother plants and offspring in each form of asexual reproduction. Offsets and bulbils showed an overall decrease in methylation whereas in vitro cultured plants showed patterns specific to each generation: Generations 1 and 4 showed overall demethylation whereas Generations 2 and 3 showed increased methylation. Analysis of ESTs associated with transposable elements revealed higher proportions of ESTs from Ty1-copia-like, Gypsy and CACTA transposable elements in cDNA libraries obtained from pluripotent tissue suggesting a possible correlation between methylation patterns, expression of transposable element associated genes and somaclonal variation.

  12. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province. We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and together with Bipalium kewense are the only 2 species of exotic terrestrial planarians so far recorded in Argentina.La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea se registra para el centro este de Argentina (provincia de Buenos Aires, en ambientes antropizados. Los ejemplares encontrados presentan las características de la especie registrada en otras regiones, con una superficie dorsal azulada y una hilera medio dorsal amarilla, y ojos formando una hilera alrededor del extremo anterior, agrupados lateralmente. Es la primera vez que se cita dicha especie en la Región Neotropical, y junto a Bipalium kewense son las únicas planarias terrestres exóticas registradas en Argentina.

  13. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  14. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  15. A new species of semiarboreal toad of the Rhinella festae group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Juan C.; Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new semiarboreal species of the Rhinella festae group is described from montane forests of the Cordillera Azul National Park between 1245 and 1280 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Oriental, San Martín region, northern Peru. The new species is morphologically and genetically compared with members of the Rhinella acrolopha group (former genus Rhamphophryne) and members of the R. festae group. The new species is characterized by its large size (female SVL 47.1–58.3 mm, n = 4), eight presacral vertebrae, fusion of the sacrum and coccyx, long protuberant snout, snout directed slightly anteroventral in lateral view, cranial crests moderately developed, absence of occipital crest, presence of tympanic membrane, dorsolateral rows of small conical tubercles extending from parotoid gland to groin, hands and feet with long digits, fingers basally webbed and toes moderately webbed. Phylogenetically it is a member of the R. festae group which is most closely related to R. chavin and R. yanachaga from Peru. Morphologically the new species shares similarities with R. tenrec and R. truebae, members of the R. acrolopha group from Colombia. PMID:28769671

  16. INFLUENCIA DE LA FAMILIA EN EL PROCESO EDUCATIVO DE LOS MENORES DEL BARRIO COSTA AZUL DE SINCELEJO (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elena Espitia Carrascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La familia es la primera institución educativa, su dinámica media el aprendizaje y desarrollo de sus miembros. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de la familia en la educación de los menores del barrio Costa Azul de Sincelejo (Colombia. Se tuvieron en cuenta las características socioeconómicas, culturales y educativas del entorno familiar y la identificación de prácticas, visiones, significados y expectativas con respecto a la educación de sus hijos. El abordaje fue cualitativo, de corte etnográfico, e incluyó técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Los resultados revelaron que los padres atribuyen importancia a la educación desde sus visiones, expectativas y significados, pero carecen de condiciones necesarias para impulsar el proceso; sus prácticas educativas, recursos, hábitos, tiempo, responsabilidades son limitados, lo cual es un obstáculo para el éxito en el aprendizaje de los hijos.

  17. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul , de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada... y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  18. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  19. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  20. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio......It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re...

  1. Patenting in Europe: The Jurisdiction of the CJEU over European Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minn Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will deal with EU competence over patent law, especially in the context of the TRIPS Agreement with reference to the ruling of CJEU in the Daiichi Sankyo case (CJEU case C-414/11 Daiichi Sankyo v DEMO Anonimos. The first part will explain the process of claiming patents at the national as well as the European level in order to understand the complexity of patent law, the second part will deal with the implications of jurisdiction and developments in EU patent regulations, the third part will deal with the effects of EU competence over the TRIPS patent provisions and the forth part will deal with the interpretation of substantive patent law in the light of the Daiichi Sankyo case.

  2. Are life patents ethical? Conflict between Catholic social teaching and agricultural biotechnology's patent regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K D

    2001-09-01

    Patents for genetic material in the industrialized North have expanded significantly over the past twenty years, playing a crucial role in the current configuration of the agricultural biotechnology industries, and raising significant ethical issues. Patents have been claimed for genes, gene sequences, engineered crop species, and the technical processes to engineer them. Most critics have addressed the human and ecosystem health implications of genetically engineered crops, but these broad patents raise economic issues as well. The Catholic social teaching tradition offers guidelines for critiquing the economic implications of this new patent regime. The Catholic principle of the universal destination of goods implies that genes, gene sequences, and engineered crop varieties are ineligible for patent protection, although the processes to engineer these should be eligible. Religious leaders are likely to make a more substantive contribution to debates about agricultural biotechnology by addressing these life patents than by speculating that genetic engineering is "playing God."

  3. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    for the improvement of the European patent system are presented and discussed fully at the end of the report. Below is a simple list of the titles of the options: Insertion of the economic mission of the patent system in the European Patent Convention; Enhancing governance within the European patent system; Improving...

  4. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  5. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  6. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... following methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``Patent and Trademark Resource...

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  8. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for...

  9. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  10. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 41 RIN 0651-AC86 Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is correcting...

  11. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  12. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  13. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of practice to implement...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  15. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  16. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  17. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  18. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities...

  2. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  3. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  4. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  5. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  6. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    that the patent specification should disclose sufficient information to identify the invention with respect to the prior art and therefore make the patent defensible against rival patents in court - they need not enable the making of the invention. Our research design gathers data on how firms use the information...... disclosed in patent specifications and relates this to the predictions of the different types of current theories of patent function. We intend to test and refine theory in one current patent controversy, that concerning patent information usage. [ii] [i] See Cohen, W., A. Goto, et al. (2002). "R...

  7. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  8. Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the Wider Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Hanssen, Anders Braarud; Nielsen, Hanne Marie; Olesen, Ingrid

    2017-08-15

    Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system. As sources of our analyses we will use literature and document studies and a survey with important stakeholders and experts related to Norwegian patenting in the aquacultural biotechnology sector. We will structure the analyses with an ethical matrix, developed for this purpose. Showing the misalignment of the discussions within and outside the patent system, we suggest that an important reason for the ethical controversy still surrounding patenting is that ethical questions keep being framed in a narrow way within the system. Until a richer set of ethical considerations is addressed head-on within the patent system, the patent system will continue to evoke academic and interest group criticism, potentially contributing to a legitimacy crisis of the whole system.

  9. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  10. Commercialization, patenting and genomics: researcher perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Cj; Caulfield, Timothy

    2009-02-19

    The impact of commercialization and patenting pressure on genomics research is still a topic of considerable debate in academic, policy and popular literature. We interviewed genomic researchers to see if their perspectives offered fresh insights. Regional Genome Canada centers provided us with relevant researcher contact information, and in-depth structured interviews were conducted. Researcher perspectives were sharply divided, with both support and concern for commercialization regimes surfacing in interviews. Data withholding and publication delays were commonly reported, but the aggressive enforcement of patents was not. There are parallels to the Stem Cell community in Canada in these respects. Genomic researchers, as individuals directly implicated in the field of controversy, have developed varied and often novel insights which should be incorporated into the ongoing debates surrounding commercialization and patenting. Many researchers continue to raise concerns, particularly in relation to data withholding, thus emphasizing the need for a continued exploration of the complex issues associated with commercialization and patenting.

  11. ACTA Technology Presents EPA with Patent Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA SBIR awardee, ACTA Technology, presented James H. Johnson, Director of the US EPA National Center for Environmental Research, and April Richards, Program Manager of the US EPA's SBIR Program, with a copy of their Red Ribbon patent.

  12. Patent law in dentistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  13. Mining chemical information from open patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessop David M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has been implemented and is discussed. A total of 4444 reactions were extracted from 667 patent documents that comprised 10 weeks' worth of publications from the European Patent Office (EPO, with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra reported as product characterisation data are additionally captured.

  14. Internet patent databases: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González-Albo Manglano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The patent is an essential document in the evaluation of technological investigation that has been used as approximation of innovation. The patent databases on the Internet are one principal source of information for this kind of analysis. However they are many databases and they are very different; reason why the election of one of them in the accomplishment of bibliometric analysis is a crucial aspect. In this sense, this survey studies some of main free –Esp@cenet, PatentScope, national databases and commercial –Derwent Innovatios Index, Chemical Abstracts Plus, Thomson Delphion Intellectual Property Network– patent databases. The results show that commercial systems provide value-added –data revision, analysis tools, etc.–; althought the free ones are going to become trustworthy resources thanks to the improvements and options that are introduced in them.

  15. International patent families: from application strategies to statistical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechezleprêtre, Antoine; Ménière, Yann; Mohnen, Myra

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of international patent families, including their domestic component. We exploit a relatively under-studied feature of patent families, namely the number of patents covering the same invention within a given jurisdiction. Using this information, we highlight common patterns in the structure of international patent families, which reflect both the patenting strategies of innovators and the peculiarities of the different patent systems. While the literature has extensively used family size, i.e. the number of countries in which a given invention is protected, as a measure of patent value, our results suggest that the number of patent filings in the priority country within a patent family as well as the timespan between the first and last filings within a family are other insightful indicators of the value of patented innovations.

  16. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  17. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  18. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  19. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  20. Composicion y variabilidad espacialdel banco de semillas de malezas en un area agricolade azul (Argentina Composition and spatial variation of a weed seed bank on an agricultural area in Azul, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Requesens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No Distrito Azul, zona central da província de Buenos Aires (Argentina, encontram-se ambientes de planície na parte norte e ambientes serranos na parte sul. Esta última, constituí-se numa área predominantemente agrícola, onde a cultura de trigo, principal atividade agrícola, se alterna com culturas de verão como milho, girassol e soja. Com o objetivo de caracterizar globalmente o banco de sementes da área agrícola, foram analisados o conteúdo de sementes, a composição de espécies, a distribuição e variabilidade espacial das espécies que o compõem. A informação básica foi obtida aplicando-se a técnica da emergência em amostras de solo correspondentes a 20 locais alinhados numa faixa de 14 km. A densidade de sementes nos locais de amostragem variou entre 1.173 e 44.000 sem/m2. Na totalidade, foram detectadas 33 espécies. Digitaria sanguinalis foi claramente a espécie dominante, aportando com quase 43 % do banco, seguida de Polygonum aviculare com um aporte de 15 %. As duas espécies, juntamente com Anagallis arvensis e Setaria viridis completam70 % do banco de sementes. A composição específica completa-se com um grupo de 29 espécies, os quais contribuem, cada um delas, com menos de 5%. A distribuição espacial das espécies ao longo da faixa estudada mostrou um grau de agregação variável, sendo encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre o tamanho do banco e a relação variância/média. Demonstrou-se, assim, que as espécies mais abundantes em média, apresentaram grande variabilidade espacial. Nelas, foram observados diferentes padrões de distribuição espacial.Azul, in the center of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina, includes flat environments in the north and hill environments in the south. Last constitutes a predominantly agricultural area where the wheat crop, principal activity, alternates with summer crops as corn, sunflower and soybean. The objetive of the present paper is to

  1. Severallssues in the Practice of Design Patent Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Subject Matter Protected by the Design Patent Right For any legal relation to be viable there must be three elements; the subject,subject matter and content. What the subject matter protected by the design patent right is one of the basic issues of the design patent system in China. However,in the design patent examination, we have found that many parties and even senior patent attorneys have many misconceptions about the issue.

  2. Empirical studies on the private value of Finnish patents

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted fact that innovation is important for economic growth and that a well-designed patent system increases research and development investments. Patents are unfortunately a second best solution. While the benefits of the patent system are increased incentives to innovation, diffusion of new knowledge, and easier commercialization of patented innovations; the drawback of the patent system is the monopolies it creates. Therefore, the fundamental question that has intereste...

  3. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  4. A Patent Analysis on Realistic Media for R&D Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Hyun; Yeon, Seung-Jun

    In this paper, we use patent statistics as the recent status of R&D in international patents. The number of patents was used to compare different countries' share in the overall number of technology patents. Using the degree of patent citations, the influence and technological prowess of patents were examined. Also, implications were drawn from an analysis of patent contents for realistic media.

  5. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  6. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  7. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  8. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  9. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  10. Comparação entre diferentes processos oxidativos avançados para degradação de corante azo Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes for azo dye degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Costa de Amorim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os processos de oxidação avançada (H2O2, UV, UV/H2O2, Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 para descoloração do corante têxtil Reactive Red 195. Também foi investigada a utilização do pó do desempoeiramento da ala de corrida do alto forno como fonte alternativa de ferro na peroxidação catalítica, com e sem radiação UV, para degradação do corante. O efeito das concentrações de H2O2 e corante na cinética de descoloração foram estudados. Os resultados indicaram que a maior eficiência de descoloração foi obtida através do sistema foto-Fenton com o uso do resíduo; entretanto, a utilização do resíduo no sistema Fenton sem irradiação atingiu a mesma eficiência, com tempo de reação aumentado em apenas 15 minutos. A utilização do resíduo siderúrgico aumentou a velocidade de descoloração, mostrando-se bastante promissora como fonte de ferro.This study aimed at comparing various advanced oxidation processes (H2O2, UV, UV/H2O2, Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 for textile dye Reactive Red 195 decolorization. The use of blast furnace dust (BFD was also investigated as an alternative source of iron in catalytic peroxidation with and without UV radiation. The effects of H2O2 and dye concentrations in kinetics of decolorization were studied. Decolorization reactions follow pseudo-first order kinetics. The results indicated greater efficiency of decolorization in the photo-Fenton system with the use of BFD; however, the use of BFD in the Fenton system without irradiation reached the same efficiency with a reaction time only 15 minutes superior. The use of blast furnace dust increased considerably the rates of reactions and is very promising as a source of iron.

  11. El nacionalismo de derecha ante la cuestión peronista: la perspectiva del grupo Azul y Blanco/2da República (1956-1963)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Galvan

    2012-01-01

    El objeto de este artículo es mostrar el modo en que el grupo a cargo de la publicación Azul y Blanco/2da República (representativa del universo político e intelectual nacionalista durante el posperonismo) buscó construir un vínculo con los trabajadores peronistas cada vez más significativo. Las características de este lazo indican una evolución desde un lector modelo difuso pero atento a las preocupaciones del trabajador peronista hacia un lector peronista claramente definido como aliado pol...

  12. Bosque Azul: Animación de Algoritmos para la enseñanza de estructuras arbóreas1

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Fernando; Moroni, Norma; Señas, Perla

    2004-01-01

    Bosque Azul es un software específicamente diseñado y desarrollado para la enseñanza y aprendizaje de los temas relacionados con Árboles Binarios de Búsqueda y con árboles AVL que se estudian en los cursos de Estructuras de Datos y Algoritmos Está específicamente basado en la animación de algoritmos y en la visualización de programas. Permite una exploración vertical de los contenidos, asumiendo el aprendizaje de conceptos simples y elementales que se reflejan en las primeras animaciones p...

  13. Comportamiento electroquímico de colorantes antraquinónicos, azul de metileno, y compuestos afines en solución de solventes no-acuosos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Suárez, Jaime Fernando

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo realizado en esta Tesis doctoral pretende contribuir a la electroquímica orgánica, particularmente, en el campo del comportamiento electroquímico de colorantes en solución de solventes no acuosos. Se estudia por voltamperometría cíclica (VC) el comportamiento de los colorantes azul de metileno, alizarina, purpurina, ácido carmínico, quinalizarina y rojo de alizarina S, y además un precursor para la síntesis de colorantes indigoides, la isatina. El comportamiento electroquímico de l...

  14. Análisis simultáneo de la remoción de azul brillante y rojo 40 mediante espectrofotometría de derivadas

    OpenAIRE

    Yurany Villada; Angelina Hormaza

    2015-01-01

    Los efluentes de industrias como la alimentaria y textil contienen induda - blemente una mezcla de colorantes. No obstante, la evaluación de estos sistemas multicomponentes ha sido poco explorada debido a la comple - jidad para su cuantificación. Como una aproximación más cercana a la contaminación de estos vertimientos, se evaluó la adsorción de la mezcla de colorantes rojo 40 ( R40 ) y azul brillante ( AB ) sobre corteza de coco bajo sistema discontinuo, considerando las variables p H...

  15. Estudio comparativo de la respuesta inmune inducida por dos tipos de vacunas (VLP e inactivada) frente al virus de la lengua azul en el ganado ovino

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Diego Camacho, Ana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    La Lengua azul (LA) es una enfermedad infecciosa, no contagiosa, transmitida por jejenes del género Culicoides que afecta a diferentes especies de rumiantes, tanto domésticos, como silvestres. Los animales que desarrollan la enfermedad son fundamentalmente las ovejas, pudiéndose alcanzar altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. La enfermedad de la LA no afecta al ser humano, pero cobra gran importancia debido a su elevado poder de transmisión y difusión provocando graves consecuencias socioeco...

  16. A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA EMPRESA DE SERVIÇOS NA CIDADE DE CAMPINA GRANDE – PB

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As empresas se utilizam de estratégias e atitudes para chegar a um determinado objetivo, observando os pontos fortes e fracos do ambiente interno e externo da organização. Assim, têm-se a teoria do trade-off (valorXcusto) no qual as empresas sempre optam por um de dois caminhos: agregar valor ao produto para cobrar mais, ou o cobrar menor preço com um produto menos diferenciado. Hoje, emerge no mundo científico um novo paradigma, a estratégia do oceano azul, a qual afirma que é possível as em...

  17. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  18. Patenting human pluripotent cells: balancing commercial, academic and ethical interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, G; Morrison, M

    2010-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the ethics of patenting in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. The current stance of the European Patent Office in citing moral objections to patents on hES cells and the monopolistic scope of the Wisconsin Research Alumni Fund/Geron patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office represent twin obstacles to achieving an ethical balance in patent rights in this field. The particular issues and strategies around granting patents on hES cells can be better understood by placing them in the context of the biotechnology industry and its role in the global bioeconomy. Some possible avenues of redress are considered based on the potential to open up cell pluripotency as new terrain for intellectual property offered by new technological breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent cells. Any changes in patent law should be accompanied by increased collaboration through devices such as patent pools.

  19. Protecting new ideas and inventions in nanomedicine with patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj; Bawa, S R; Maebius, Stephen B; Flynn, Ted; Wei, Chiming

    2005-06-01

    New paradigms are shrinking our world. Tiny is in and patents are essential for success in nanomedicine. In fact, patents are already shaping this nascent and rapidly evolving field. For the past decade a swarm of patent applications pertaining to nanomedicine has been arriving at the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). As companies develop products and processes and begin to seek commercial applications for their inventions, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be vital to their long-term survival. As we enter the "golden era" of medicine, or nanomedicine, in the next decade with the field maturing and the promised breakthroughs accruing, patents will generate licensing revenue, provide leverage in deals and mergers, and reduce the likelihood of infringement. Because development of nanobiotechnology- and nanomedicine-related products is extremely research intensive, without the market exclusivity offered by a US patent, development of these products and their commercial viability in the marketplace will be significantly hampered. In this article, we highlight critical issues relating to patenting nanomedicine products. Effects of the "nanopatent land grab" that is underway in nanomedicine by "patent prospectors" are examined as startups and corporations compete to lock up broad patents in these critical early days. Because nanomedicine is multidisciplinary, patenting presents unique opportunities and poses numerous challenges. Although patents are being sought more actively and enforced more vigorously, the entire patent system is under greater scrutiny and strain, with the PTO continuing to struggle with evaluating nanomedicine-related patent applications.

  20. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  1. Recent survey on nanosuspension: a patent overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R; Patel, Mukesh S; Patel, Kanu R

    2015-01-01

    The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications.

  2. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent “Thicket”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    and entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved......It has been proposed that difficulties in negotiating cross-licenses under multiple, independently-owned and ”overlapping” patents may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter development of technology covered by such patents. The literature alleges these features were present in radio development...... during 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, we re-examine the legal trajectories...

  3. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  4. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  5. Gene patents, patenting life and the impact of court rulings on US stem cell patents and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-03-01

    In June 2013, the US Supreme Court ruled that naturally occurring genes were unpatentable in the case Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. Up until this decision, Myriad Genetics was the only company in the USA that could legally conduct diagnostic testing for BRCA1 and 2, genes that are linked to familial breast and ovarian cancer. The court case and rulings garnered discussion in public about patenting biological materials. This paper will describe the progression of the Myriad Genetics case, similar US rulings and biological intellectual property policies. In addition, it will discuss the impact of the case on biological patents - specifically those for human embryonic stem cells.

  6. Síntese e caracterização de filmes de óxidos metálicos nanoparticulados para aplicação em células solares sensibilizadas por corante (DSCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Leonardo Ferreira de

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram preparados filmes finos e compactos de óxidos nanoparticulados de TiO2, Nb2O5 e WO3 para a aplicação como camada de contato/bloqueio em células solares sensibilizadas por corante (DSCs). Os filmes foram produzidos pela deposição de 30 bicamadas de TiO2(ác)/TiO2(bás), TiO2(ác/Nb2O5(bás) e TiO2(ác)/WO3(bás) utilizando a técnica de automontagem (Layer-by-Layer ou LbL), a partir dos sóis nanoparticulados de TiO2 (pH = 2 e 10), Nb2O5 (pH = 10) e WO3 (pH = 10) sintetizados pelo...

  7. Identificação dos compostos produzidos na degradação do corante Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) pela ação do fungo do ambiente marinho Tinctoporellus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Paulin Garcia Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    No presente trabalho foram estudados os metabólitos gerados no processo de biodegradação do corante Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) pelo fungo Tinctoporellus sp. em meio líquido. Foi investigada a descoloração do meio de fermentação causada por o processo de degradação, monitorando-se a absorbância da solução durante 17 dias por espectrofotometria UV-Vis. Na presença do fungo Tinctoporellus sp. observou-se uma perda de 90% da coloração do meio de crescimento contendo RBBR 90% em um período de...

  8. The impact of patent eligibility on biotech patents: A flow chart for determining patent eligibility and an immune therapy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2015-01-01

    US common law recites a natural law, natural phenomenon or abstract idea as exceptions to the 4 statutory patentable categories to guard against the wholesale preemption of fundamental principles. The very recent evolutions of patent exceptions in the US may increase the difficulty of patenting and may create uncertainty in determining patent eligibility. To solve the thorny problem of eligibility, this study presents a flow chart based on the courts' decisions that can serve as a set of guidelines for determining patent eligibility. A case related to prostate cancer immune therapy is presented for discussion.

  9. The impact of patent eligibility on biotech patents: A flow chart for determining patent eligibility and an immune therapy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2015-01-01

    US common law recites a natural law, natural phenomenon or abstract idea as exceptions to the 4 statutory patentable categories to guard against the wholesale preemption of fundamental principles. The very recent evolutions of patent exceptions in the US may increase the difficulty of patenting and may create uncertainty in determining patent eligibility. To solve the thorny problem of eligibility, this study presents a flow chart based on the courts’ decisions that can serve as a set of guidelines for determining patent eligibility. A case related to prostate cancer immune therapy is presented for discussion. PMID:25714661

  10. Patenting humans: clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2005-01-01

    The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current conflict over the moral status of the early human embryo. In this essay, recent evidence from embryological studies is considered and the unbroken continuity of organismal development initiated at fertilization is asserted as clear and reasonable grounds for moral standing. Within this frame of analysis, it is proposed that through a technique of Altered Nuclear Transfer, non-organismal entities might be created from which embryonic stem cells could be morally procured. Criteria for patenting of such non-organismal entities are considered.

  11. Synthetic Biology in the Biotech Patent Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana García-llerena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intended positive effects of the current patent system in biotechnological research have been widely questioned. As part of this review, it is discussed here one of the foundations of the model. The assumption of the indispensability of patents is examined through the analysis of their expected benefits; namely, that patents are suitable to ensure access to information, access to and use of inventions and, finally, that they should promote both creativity and research. Applied to synthetic biology, in spite of newly discovered techniques and promising products, this approach reveals that this discipline also encounters similar issues. However, it also offers a new vision of intellectual property rights and their effects on research, which is based on a different conception of the commons and its relationship with private ownership of intangible assets in the knowledge economy.

  12. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  14. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  15. Agave azul y el desarrollo sustentable en la cuenca baja del río Ayuquila, Costa Sur de Jalisco (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R.W. Gerritsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber es un cultivo nuevo para la cuenca del río Ayuquila en la Costa Sur de Jalisco, y es importante para su progreso agropecuario. Sin embargo, se observan efectos socioambientales negativos. Desde 2003 se han estudiado las condiciones del cultivo y su expansión, así como alternativas posibles. Los resultados muestran un crecimiento acelerado desde su introducción, a mitad de la década de 1990. Se destaca una concentración de propietarios privados y a través de contratos. Si bien sembrar esta planta puede ser redituable, las tendencias cíclicas de sobreproducción y escasez han originado una falta de incentivos para hacerlo y un deterioro de la capacidad productiva. Se discuten las perspectivas del avance agropecuario basado en el cultivo del agave azul, y se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones para fomentar la sustentabilidad de su sistema de producción comercial.

  16. Levantamento das Cianobactérias Psâmicas em Sedimentos Superficiais Marginais da Lagoa Azul, Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of the Rio de Janeiro State presents a series of lagoons, dune fi elds and strand plains, which are the result of thepaleogeographical evolution during Neogene. The lagoa Azul is situated at 22o56’52”S and 42o04’62”W in the Arraial do Cabo, locatedabout 160 km far the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a natural hypersaline coastal aquatic body which, parallel to Atlantic Ocean. The presentwork focused on the identifi cation of psammic cyanobacteria in the surface sediments of the lagoa Azul. The samples were obtained byusing plastic tubes and were later aconditiones in opaque plastic containers and conserved in a 4% solution of formaldehyde. With thematerial obtained, permanent slides were prepared so as to characterize them phycologically. Qualitative analysis showed the presenceof 14 species and the occurrence of the families Chroococcaceae Nägeli 1849 (5 sp., Phormidiaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988(4 sp., Synechococcaceae Komárek & Anagnostidis 1995 (2 sp., Nostocaceae Kützing 1843 (1 sp., Oscillatoriaceae Gomont 1892(1 sp. and Pseudanabaenaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988 (1 sp.. The incidence of these species is also recorded in other lagoons(Araruama, Pernambuco, Pitanguinha and Vermelha in the northeast of Rio de Janeiro coast, such as the frequency of cyanobacteriais justifi ed by the harsh environment, without predation, with high salinity, elevated temperature and low concentration of oxygen.

  17. Bio-patents, development and society: on the patentability of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the possibility of patenting inventions based on human genes and the need for an effective adaptation of the Patent Law system to enable the patenting of material derived from human genes. Furthermore, to allow for the inclusion of human gene-based inventions in the current patent system, many more amendments are required than those that have already become law during and since the twentieth century. It should be emphasized that one of the main characteristics of Patent Law is this changeability that requires the law to constantly respond to economic needs, advances in science and their resulting challenges in order to protect the product of human ingenuity. Therefore, new adaptations are required. In this context, the present paper adopts the understanding that human genes may serve as a basis for patentable inventions provided that the traditional requirements of novelty, inventiveness, utility and descriptive adequacy are adapted to the specific nature of living human matter. They should also be in line with the principles of legality and morality and not infringe human dignity, personality rights and should fulfill their social and environmental functions. Therefore, a bio-patent has a threefold function: economic, social and environmental. The economic function lies in the exclusive right to exploit an invention; the social function is implicit because there is no reason for the existence of a patent that solely benefits, its owner without society also enjoying its benefits and; the environmental function is that which guarantees that a bio-patent should preserve biodiversity and social diversity.

  18. Analyzing Patents Generated by SBIR Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Intervention Cumulative Knowledge  Creation   Leads to Economic Growth • Endogeneous growth theory  Romer (1990) – Investment in knowledge  creation , human capital...including patents rights to inventions funded by federal research money . To date there has been no systematic analysis of these laws on the propensity to...including patents rights to inventions funded by federal research money . To date there has been no systematic analysis of these laws on the propensity

  19. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  20. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...... profitably....

  1. Recent patents relating to bird flu infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    Bird flu or H5N1 infection is a new emerging zoonosis. With the pandemic in avian species in Asia, it is now under surveillance for a possible new public health threat to human. There are many present researches focusing on several aspects of bird flu. There are some recent patents and patent applications published within a few years. In this article, the recent patients relating to bird flu infection covering the diagnostic and treatment aspects for both avian species and human are reviewed and discussed.

  2. India: Court upholds patent law denying patents for slightly modified versions of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Madhavi

    2007-12-01

    In August 2007, the Madras High Court struck down a petition by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Novartis to declare the anti-evergreening provision in Indian patent law invalid. Evergreening is the practice of effectively extending the patent on a drug by filing a new patent for a marginal modification to that drug, such as a change in its shape, dosing range or color. The Court's decision is critical for global access to essential medicines in the form of affordable generic drugs from India

  3. Understanding Patents: The Role of R&D Funding Sources and the Patent Office

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different sources of R&D funding and patent office attributes on the patenting process. Another important contribution is modeling the effect of a random delay in the ‘pendency’ time as a stochastic process and quantifying its effect on patenting. The empirical estimation is based on four major industries – electronics, chemical and biology, transportation and aeronautics – for the time period 1976-1998. The primary results are: First, the source of R&D fund...

  4. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  5. Building potential patent portfolios: An integrated approach based on topic identification and correlation analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian ZHANG Haiyun XU Shu FANG Zhengyin HU Shuying LI

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper suggests a framework to identify important patents for building potential patent portfolios based on patents owned by different assignees so as to highlight the value of individual patents...

  6. Estudio de la fracción lipídica de los quesos azules artesanales del Principado de Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, L.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available A study concerning the lipidic fraction in relation to esterified fatty acids composition, free fatty acids contents, triglyceride analysis and gross composition characteristics from artisanal blue cheeses made in the Principado de Asturias was carried out. Gas chromatography with capilar column and flow splitter was used for the esterified and free fatty acids analysis and flow splitter with programmed temperature vaporation (PTV for the triglyceridic study. The results obtained for the esterified fatty acids, free fatty acids and triglycerides showed differences in each variety of cheese studied. In Cabrales and Gamonedo cheese were more deepen. Those differences found it could be to the milk and rennet used and the manufacture method of the curd and metabolic activity of the Penicillum roqueforti which it influenced by the ripening conditions (temperature and moisture of the cheeses.

    En este trabajo se ha abordado un estudio de la fracción lipídica, referente a la composición en ácidos grasos esterificados, cuantificación de los ácidos grasos libres, análisis de los triglicéridos, así como las características de composición de la grasa de los quesos azules artesanales comerciales elaborados en el Principado de Asturias. Se ha empleado la cromatografía de gases equipada con columna capilar de sílice fundida e inyección en splitter para el estudio de los ácidos grasos esterificados y ácidos grasos libres, e inyección en splitter con temperatura programable (PTV para la determinación de los triglicéridos. Los resultados obtenidos tanto para los ácidos grasos esterificados, ácidos grasos libres y triglicéridos mostraron diferencias entre cada una de las variedades de queso analizadas siendo más acusada para los quesos Cabrales y Gamonedo. Estos cambios encontrados se deben al tipo de leche y cuajo empleado así como al método de elaboración de la cuajada y la actividad metabólica del

  7. Biodegradación del Colorante Azo Azul Disperso 79 en un Reactor Discontinuo Secuencial Bajo Ambientes Anaerobios/Aerobios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Melgoza-Alemán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biodegradación del colorante mono azo azul disperso 79 (AD79 en un reactor discontinuo secuencial (SBR con biomasa suspendida, combinando ambientes anaerobios/aerobios en un solo tanque, mediante fases de no aireación y aireación respectivamente. El objetivo fue obtener agua para ser reutilizada en el proceso textil o bien para riego agrícola. El colorante AD79 es uno de los colorantes azo que más aplicación tiene en la industria textil y se ha observado que por sí mismo no es tóxico, pero en ambientes reductores se biotransforma a aminas aromáticas que se ha comprobado son carcinogénicas a los microorganismos y al hombre. Los resultados mostraron que el proceso anaerobio/aerobio discontinuo secuenciado fue muy eficiente en la remoción del colorante AD79. La biomasa se aclimató a la degradación de colorante a los 45 días de operación. Los tiempos de reacción disminuyeron de 11 a 4 días, con fases de reacción anaerobia de 9 a 3 días y fases de reacción aerobia de 48 a 24 h. La eficiencia de remoción global del colorante en el reactor fue de 92 %. En la etapa anaerobia la eficiencia de biotransformación a aminas fue de 65 %. La mineralización de las aminas producidas por la ruptura del enlace azo fue de 96 %. Se observó un incrementó de la toxicidad después de la fase reductiva, sin embargo después del tratamiento anaerobio/aerobio secuenciado, la toxicidad fue eliminada a niveles no detectados en el efluente, lo que demostró la eficacia del proceso anaerobio/aerobio para eliminar la toxicidad del agua residual.

  8. The Idea of Patents vs. the Idea of University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that patents are a driving force for innovation through research and development. But the university's involvement in patenting is problematic as well. In particular, it is in tension with the idea of a university itself. If patents entail a restriction on the accessibility of the scientific knowledge that has been patented, and if the main purpose of universities is to produce and disseminate knowledge to the public, then, there is a tension: when universities patent their research innovations, they are making the scientific knowledge they produce less accessible to the public. The paper argues that university patenting contradicts the very idea of a university as an institution whose mission is fundamentally to disseminate the knowledge it produces to the public. The practice of university patenting involves an un-academic attitude thus: by inciting an attitude towards knowledge that is not consistent with the proper attitudes and goals of a university, university patenting hurts university's integrity.

  9. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.

  10. Patent Researches, Their Relevance on the Way of Innovation Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kossko, T.G.; Pavlygo, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Patent investigations in accordance with the world standards, standards of the Russian Federation and Ukraine are considered. Dynamics of patent activity in the National Aca demy of Sciences of Ukraine is given.

  11. Patent Researches, Their Relevance on the Way of Innovation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossko, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patent investigations in accordance with the world standards, standards of the Russian Federation and Ukraine are considered. Dynamics of patent activity in the National Aca demy of Sciences of Ukraine is given.

  12. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  13. Patent Database : A Methodology of Information Retrieval From PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patent document holds wealth of information in itself. A brief detail of Indian patent applicationinformation is published as eighteen month publication by Indian patent Office, in electronic gazetteweekly. To date, a proper database of Indian patents specifically for research determination has not beenavailable, making it complicated for researcher to use this data for measuring any kind of researchactivities in terms of patents in India. To facilitate this, we constructed a comprehensive patent databasewhich incorporates the information presented in the electronic gazette. This database includes informationsuch as technology class, applicant, inventor, country of origin etc., of the patent submitted. We present themethodology for the creation of this database, its basic features along with its accuracy and reliability inthis research paper. Patent based database has been developed and can be used for various innovationresearches and activities.

  14. the possible overlap between plant variety protection and patent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patentability of inventions in all fields of technology, and specifically. * This is a .... David Kaplan, Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in South Africa: A .... food sources in Ethiopia, and the grant of a patent over any gene forming.

  15. DNA Dilemma: A Perspective on Current U.S. Patent and Trademarh Office Philosophy Concerning Life Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.; Faletra, P.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of a solid set of criteria for determining patentability of subject matter - particularly subject matter dealing with life - has recently been of increasing public concern in the United States. Alarm for patent practices related to life systems ranges from patents being granted on biochemical processes and the knowledge of these processes to the patenting of entire organisms. One of the most volatile concerns is the patenting of human genes or parts of genes since this genetic material is the basic informational molecule for all life. Current patent law, legislated in 1952, has been interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to allow broad patents of DNA, biochemical processes, and what are generally considered 'inventions' of life systems. Several issues are addressed in this paper regarding the unsound reasoning underlying both the interpretation and execution of patent law. Lapses in logic provide a gateway for businesses and individuals to take patenting to an illogical and unworkable extreme. Patent Office disorder of this magnitude is unnecessary and has great potential for harming the mission that the patent office was designed to serve. Recently disclosed patent-granting guidelines suggest the United States Patent and Trademark Office is not upholding its Constitutional responsibility of promoting the progress of science.

  16. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Anil V. Parwani; Suryanarayana Vepa; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United State...

  17. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866...

  18. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  19. Patent Disclosure and R&D Competition in Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fpammolli, F.Pammolli; Lmagazzini, L.Magazzini.; Mriccaboni, M.Riccaboni; Marossi, M.A.Rossi

    2009-01-01

    The prominent role played by patents within the pharmaceutical domain is unquestionable. In this paper we take an unusual perspective and focus on a relatively neglected implication of patents: the effect of patent-induced information disclosure (of both successes and failures) on the dynamics of R&D and market competition. The study builds upon the combination of two large datasets, linking the information about patents to firm level data on R&D projects and their outcome. Two case studies i...

  20. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results of...

  1. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Pursuant to the provisions of Part.... Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC AND...-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.204 - Patent and data rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent and data rights. 1214.204 Section... Substantial Investment in the STS Program § 1214.204 Patent and data rights. (a) When accommodating missions... purposes rights to inventions, patents and data resulting from such missions, subject to the...

  3. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  4. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  5. 77 FR 64315 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Provisional Patent...

  6. 48 CFR 970.5227-6 - Patent indemnity-subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5227-6 Patent indemnity—subcontracts. Insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts in accordance with 970.2702-3: Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  7. 77 FR 22298 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Summary: Pursuant to the provisions....S. Patent No. 7,391,877, issued 24 June 2008, entitled ``Spatial Processor for Enhanced Performance... for the patent unless a written objection is received within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  8. 45 CFR 650.5 - Special patent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special patent provisions. 650.5 Section 650.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.5 Special patent provisions. At the request of the prospective awardee or on recommendation...

  9. 36 CFR 9.18 - Surface use and patent restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface use and patent... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.18 Surface use and patent restrictions. (a) The... to any claimant who wishes to take his claim to patent in Olympic National Park, Glacier Bay...

  10. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory... an Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of part 404 of Title 37, Code of... interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent No. 8,051,475, filed on March 27, 2007 and...

  11. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  12. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions... exclusive license in any right, title and interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent... license for the invention described in this patent application will be granted unless a written...

  13. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention...

  14. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  15. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  16. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  17. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  18. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  20. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest....

  1. 10 CFR 603.840 - Negotiating data and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiating data and patent rights. 603.840 Section 603... patent rights. (a) The contracting officer must confer with program officials and assigned intellectual... that would support modification of standard patent and data terms, and should include...

  2. 48 CFR 28.105-2 - Patent infringement bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent infringement bonds... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.105-2 Patent infringement bonds. (a) Contracts providing for patent indemnity may require these bonds only if— (1)...

  3. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR...

  4. Mapping (USPTO) patent data using overlays to Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2012-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and the quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology anal

  5. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting, becau

  6. Figure detection and part label extraction from patent drawing images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The US Patent and Trademark Office, together with the NASA Tournament Lab, launched a contest to develop specialized algorithms to help bring the seven million patents presently in the patent archive into the digital age. The contest was hosted...

  7. Coverage of Indian leather patents in chemical abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi; Amba

    2000-03-01

    Patent information is increasingly becoming important in the current context of international trade and commerce. The printed version of Chemical Abstracts still continues to be used heavily, and it was evaluated as the source of information on Indian patents using leather patents as a case study. The results of the study are given.

  8. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  9. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  10. Patenting Marketing Methods: A Missing Topic in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1998 landmark case that validated the patenting of business methods as intellectual property, a plethora of patents has emerged. Patents for marketing-related processes have been particularly abundant, especially when new marketing processes are tied to a technology component. A review of the marketing literature and textbooks shows an…

  11. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definitions. (1) Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of NASA. (2) Invention means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable under Title 35 of the United States Code. (3) Made when used in relation to any invention means the conception or...

  13. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... USPTO's system for electronic filing of patent correspondence. EFS-Web is accessible via the Internet on....41, 1.48, and 1.53(c)(2) can be filed electronically as well as in paper. The electronic options...

  14. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  15. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sardjono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  16. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  17. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009

  18. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    to Navy suppliers. F. Contact: Darryl Mexic, Esquire Patent Counsel Sughrue, Mion, Zinn , Macpeak & Seas 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC...Bovernack Auoney, Agent. or Firm- Howard P. Terry; Seymour (75) Inventor: D d H. MeMa , Carlisle, Mass. Levine [73] Assignee: Sperry Corporatloin, New York

  19. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  20. Two new patents of Baoxiniao suit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently,Baoxiniao released two patents of suit--cool suit,zero grams of weight suits. "Cool suit" is fashion design,with leisure craft production.Natural fibre blended fabric to retain cool sense of the natural fibre fabric

  1. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  2. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  3. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners’ bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm’s experience in patenting, the number of

  4. Taiwan's Information Security Policy Enhancement: an Analysis of Patent Indicators and Patent Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Wen; Liang-Shiuan, Jr.; Chen, Yi-Chang

    2007-12-01

    Information security policy in Taiwan stems the gap between expectation and reality. For this, the paper presents an analysis of patent indicators and patent document attempt to conclude the overview of the information security technology development. The paper also identifies the leading countries and cutting-edge areas with potential trends. Finally, several practicable and valuable strategies after this work are generalized to achieve the goals of Taiwan information security policy.

  5. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  6. A patent strategy for genomic and research tool patents: are there any differences between the USA, Europe and Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Ihnen J

    2000-12-01

    The patenting of genomics and research tools, and its effects on the development of therapeutics are attracting considerable attention. Regardless of whether one is in favor of patents for this technology, it is not specifically excluded from patenting in most countries. Accordingly, it is imperative that a suitable global patent strategy be developed and followed to maximize both intellectual property rights and returns on R&D investment.

  7. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  8. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  9. Contribution of Latin American Countries to Cancer Research and Patent Generation: Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Bandala, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases. Data from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2014 were searched for documents with specific words in cancer as a ''topic'' and a list of 20 Latin American countries as affiliation country. A total of 12,989 items published and 244 patent applications including "cancer" were retrieved. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Peru were highest contributors in cancer research, while Brazil, Mexico, Cuba and Argentina were highest contributors in cancer patent applications. The analysis of the data from this study provides an overview of research and patent activity in Latin America in the cancer field, which can be useful to help health policy makers and people in academia to shape up cancer research in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...

  11. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  12. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  13. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  14. Estratigrafía, ambientes deposicionales e icnología del Paleozoico inferior en el área de Azul Pampa, provincia de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Such

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Azul Pampa, Cordillera Oriental de Jujuy los depósitos cambro-ordovícicos se encuentran ampliamente representados. La columna estratigráfica se inicia con el Grupo Mesón (Cambrico Inferior - Medio, el cual registra sedimentación en un ambiente marino somero dominado por mareas. Este incluye las Formaciones Lizoite, Campanario y Chalhualmayoc. Las Formaciones Lizoite y Chalhualmayoc contienen depósitos de barras submareales similares a aquellas descriptas anteriormente hacia el sur en la región de la quebrada de Humahuaca y en las áreas circundantes. La Formación Campanario incluye depósitos de canales y planicies intermareales, representando un máximo regresivo para el Grupo Mesón. Sobreyacente al Grupo Mesón se sucede un intervalo cámbrico superior-arenigiano referido previamente como Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. Los estudios integrados, tanto sedimentológicos, paleontológicos como estratigráficos secuenciales, indican que ambas unidades son litológicamente similares y temporalmente equivalentes a la Formación Santa Rosita (Cámbrico Superior - Tremadociano y a la Formación Acoite (Arenigiano, respectivamente, las cuales son ampliamente aceptadas en las áreas adyacentes, por lo que se recomienda el abandono de la nomenclatura Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. El intervalo inferior de la Formación Santa Rosita está representado por depósitos de estuarios dominado por mareas del Miembro Pico de Halcón. El intervalo superior se incluye dentro del Miembro Alfarcito y consiste en depósitos marino someros dominados por el oleaje, variando desde shoreface superior hasta offshore inferior, representando una serie de ciclos transgresivos-regresivos. La Formación Acoite registra un episodio de máximo transgresivo a escala de cuenca y se encuentra dominada por depósitos de plataforma con depósitos subordinados de offshore. Los análisis icnológicos revelan la ausencia o la escasez de

  15. Técnicas de empleo del azul de metileno para la caracterización de finos en materiales de ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Rodríguez González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elempleo del azul de metileno en ingeniería se inició en  Francia  a  finales  de  los  años  ochenta,  con  la finalidad de caracterizar la actividad y naturaleza de los  finos  contenidos  en  las  arenas  y gravas  que  se empleaban  en  la  fabricación  de  concretos; posteriormente  se  desarrollaron  variantes  de  dicho empleo  para determinar  la  presencia  de  arcillas  en los finos de tamaños inferiores a 400 micras, para su empleo en materiales de bases, subbases y mezclascomplemento  al  ensayo  de  equivalente  de  arena,asfálticas.  En Colombia  existe  actualmente  una tendencia al uso del ensayo de azul de metileno para evaluar  las  características  de  las  partículas  finas contaminantes o nocivas en un suelo;  los diferentes procedimientos consisten, básicamente, en medir  la capacidad de adsorción de azul de metileno por una muestra  de  suelo,  capacidad  representada  como  la cantidad  de  colorante  requerido  para  recubrir  las superficies específicas de las moléculas de los finos. En nuestro país su aplicación se ha limitado a ser un dentro  de  las  especificaciones  INVIAS  y  como exigencia en las normas IDU.

  16. El gabinete azul

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfonso Zárate

    2006-01-01

    ... de redes de apoyo, promoción y defensa del voto; Juan Molinar Horcasitas, responsable de investigación y análisis; Ernesto Cordero, quien elabora el programa y la propuesta de gobierno; Germán Martínez Cázares, representante ante el IFE; Arturo Sarukhán Casamitjana, encargado de la propuesta de política internacional, y Javier Lozano, responsa...

  17. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  18. Fermentación de los fructanos del Agave tequilana Weber Azul por Zymomonas mobilis y Saccharomyces cerevisiae en la producción de bioetanol Fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber Azul fructans by Zymomonas mobilis and Sacchamomyces cerevisiae in the production of bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    José L Montañez; Juan C Victoria; Rebeca Flores; María Á Vivar

    2011-01-01

    Fructanos contenidos en las bases de las hojas del agave fueron extraídos y utilizados como fuente de carbono a varias concentraciones para la producción de bioetanol. Se usaron dos microorganismos etanolgénicos: la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDBB-L-331 y la bacteria Zymomona mobilis CDBB-B-603. Las hojas del agave tequilero ( Agave tequilana Weber Azul) constituyen los residuos agrícolas del cultivo y a pesar de su alto contenido de azúcares reductores totales (ART) y a los grandes vo...

  19. Mecanismos de deformación en la transición milonitas/striped gneiss y milonitas/ ultramilonitas en las sierras de Azul, cratón del Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires Deformation mechanisms in the mylonite/striped gneiss and mylonite/ultramylonite transition in Sierras de Azul, Río de la Plata craton, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Frisicale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En el extremo occidental de la megacizalla de Azul se identificaron una serie de rocas miloníticas que presentan un grado de deformación variable e incluyen protomilonitas, milonitas, ribbon mylonites, striped gneisses y ultramilonitas. Se examinaron en forma detallada los mecanismos de deformación actuantes sobre los minerales principales de estas rocas, como feldespatos, cuarzo, anfíboles y piroxenos. El análisis de los mecanismos de deformación permitió realizar una estimación del grado metamórfico alcanzado en este sector de la zona de cizalla. Así se reconocen claramente dos áreas con diferente grado metamórfico, una en la que la deformación se habría producido en facies de anfibolita a granulita (temperaturas superiores a 600° y que se reconoce en los afloramientos del sector norte, cerro Negro y manantiales de Pereda; y una segunda área, que incluye los afloramientos de las estancias La Manuela y La Chiquita, donde la deformación, de menor intensidad, se desarrolló bajo condiciones de facies de esquistos verdes. Asimismo se analizaron los indicadores cinemáticos macro y microscópicos tales como estructuras S-C, granos rígidos fragmentados, porfiroclastos rotados y estructuras del tipo mineral-fish, con la finalidad de determinar el sentido de movimiento de las masas rocosas en esta área particular, y compararlo con los resultados existentes para el resto de la megacizalla de Azul.At the western sector of the Azul Megashear, mylonitic rocks with variable deformation that includes protomylonites, mylonites, ribbon mylonites, striped gneiss and ultramylonites were identified. A detailed examination of deformation mechanisms acting on main minerals like feldspar, quartz, amphibole and pyroxene was done. The analysis of deformation mechanisms allowed to establish the metamorphic degree reached in this sector of the shear zone. Thus, two areas with different metamorphic conditions were recognized. One of them, that involve

  20. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  1. The dual frontier: Patented inventions and prior scientific advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Mohammad; Jones, Benjamin F

    2017-08-11

    The extent to which scientific advances support marketplace inventions is largely unknown. We study 4.8 million U.S. patents and 32 million research articles to determine the minimum citation distance between patented inventions and prior scientific advances. We find that most cited research articles (80%) link forward to a future patent. Similarly, most patents (61%) link backward to a prior research article. Linked papers and patents typically stand 2 to 4 degrees distant from the other domain. Yet, advances directly along the patent-paper boundary are notably more impactful within their own domains. The distance metric further provides a typology of the fields, institutions, and individuals involved in science-to-technology linkages. Overall, the findings are consistent with theories that emphasize substantial and fruitful connections between patenting and prior scientific inquiry. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...... this reluctance and to include measures in the European patent legislation which seek to increase access to patented inventions. Finally the paper presents and discusses three such measures: Compulsory licences, licences of rights, and behavioural rules...... This paper builds on the recommendation in the STOA Report (2007) to improve the European patent system to "Increase Access to Patented Inventions". The paper first provides some background information to the patent system and to the limitations on access to protected technology from "thickets...

  3. An Analysis of the Patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; LI; Qing; CHEN; Bingjiang; XU; Xinxin; REN; Huasun; HUANG; Qiong; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes the application data of patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis in the world and China from the perspectives of time,research field,and the geographical distribution of applicants. It also interprets the patents for invention in China from time,research field,and types of applicants. Based on the study,it shows that although the patent applications fluctuate,the general trend is rising. And the patents are mostly concentrated in plant protection,and agricultural biotechnology. The Chinese applicants of patents for invention largely work in the research institutes,and most of these patents focus on the field of plant protection,agricultural biotechnology,and agro-processing.However,the foreign applicants mainly work in companies,and most of these patents only focus on plant protection. These findings will provide a reference for formulating development policies about natural rubber industry in China.

  4. Time-lapse microscopy patent upheld in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David

    2017-02-01

    A case for revoking Stanford University's European patent 2430454 on time-lapse microscopy was set out in Reproductive BioMedicine Online by Sterckx et al. in 2014, on the grounds that the patent claimed a method of diagnosis that was excluded under a provision of the European Patent Convention. An opposition at the European Patent Office in which this ground was raised has recently concluded with a decision that the patent is not excluded from patentability under European patent law and is to be upheld. An appeal from this decision has been filed, but the possibility of the decision being overturned is, in this author's opinion, very limited. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SECAGEM INTERMITENTE E SEUS EFEITOS NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE TREMOÇO AZUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. AHRENS

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois modelos de secadores comerciais, um intermitente lento, com a temperatura do ar de secagem a 60oC e a 65oC e outro rápido a 50oC, foram testados para a avaliaç��o da redução do grau de umidade de 20 para 13% e sua influência na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tremoço azul (Lupinus angustifolius L.. Foram realizados testes de germinação, envelhecimento artificial e emergência em campo, após a secagem, aos três e seis meses de armazenamento. Os testes de germinação e envelhecimento artificial não detectaram diferenças significativas entre a qualidade das sementes secadas nos secadores e das secadas à sombra. Na semeadura aos seis meses, as emergências em campo foram 81%, 89%, 90% e 83% para os secadores intermitente lento a 60oC, a 65oC, para o intermitente rápido a 50oC e para a secagem à sombra, respectivamente. O secador intermitente rápido, onde as sementes passam rapidamente pela câmara de secagem e permanecem maior período na equalização, reduziu em média 1,1 pontos porcentuais por hora o teor de água das sementes e na secagem intermitente lenta a 65oC e a 60oC obteve-se 2,3 e 2,7 pontos porcentuais por hora, portanto mais eficientes que o primeiro, quando comparadas umidades iniciais/finais semelhantes. Conclui-se que o secador intermitente lento apresenta a velocidade de secagem superior ao rápido e que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tremoço não é afetada pela secagem nos diferentes secadores.Two commercial intermittent dryers, one slow (60oC and 65oC air temperature and another rapid (50oC, were tested to evaluate the water content decrease (20% to 13% and their influence on the physiological quality of Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. The seeds were evaluated through physiological analysis (germination, accelerated ageing and field emergence, stored for 3 and 6 months. After six months the field emergence results were 81%, 89%, 90% and 83% for the slow 60oC, 65oC, rapid (50o

  6. El nacionalismo de derecha ante la cuestión peronista: la perspectiva del grupo Azul y Blanco/2da República (1956-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Galvan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este artículo es mostrar el modo en que el grupo a cargo de la publicación Azul y Blanco/2da República (representativa del universo político e intelectual nacionalista durante el posperonismo buscó construir un vínculo con los trabajadores peronistas cada vez más significativo. Las características de este lazo indican una evolución desde un lector modelo difuso pero atento a las preocupaciones del trabajador peronista hacia un lector peronista claramente definido como aliado político. De esta manera, el semanario nacionalista se erige como prueba de la importancia de la "cuestión peronista" para el nacionalismo como actor político, entre los años 1956-1963

  7. Una epifanía nocturna: La niña de la lámpara azul. Estudio semiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago López Maguiña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este es un nuevo análisis semiótico de uno de los poemas canónicos de laliteratura peruana: «La niña de la lámpara azul» de José María Eguren. Realizadocon el empleo de categorías procedentes de la semiótica tensiva, elanálisis destaca la polisensorialidad que ofrece la aparición luminosa que sedespliega en el poema, que a la vez es una presencia femenina, conectadacon significados de orden erótico, estético, fiduciario y mítico, principalmente.Se observa que el texto constituye un escenario en el que serealiza una puesta en escena cuyas significaciones se abren en un horizonteamplificante que el análisis apenas comienza a mostrar.

  8. Reformas liberales, sociedad rural y derechos de propiedad territorial en la frontera sur bonaerense (2ª mitad del siglo XIX. Las “donaciones condicionadas” de Azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Lanteri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es examinar la revisión oficial de las “donaciones condicionadas” implementadas en el partido de Azul y la respuesta de la sociedad rural durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Mediante un análisis principalmente cualitativo de la legislación, prensa, correspondencia, expedientes de tierras y otras fuentes coetáneas, se aborda el marco legal y el accionar social, considerando los argumentos esgrimidos para la puesta en valor de los derechos y el acceso a la propiedad formal. Así como los rasgos centrales del proceso, caracterizado por una gran interacción, complejidad, disputas y resistencias durante esta etapa de reestructuración hasta el cierre de la frontera. Se plantea que las “reformas liberales” no supusieron un cambio radical en las prácticas sociales y en el acceso al recurso, de raigambre institucional y social anterior

  9. Los lípidos en la nutrición del abulón azul, molusco con potencial de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Durazo Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del tipo y nivel de lípidos en el crecimiento y metabolismo de ácidos grasos en abulón azul. La primera parte del estudio se realizó en una granja comercial, donde se analizaron tres tratamientos de alimentación (alimento formulado, macroalga fresca y la combinación de ambos) sobre parámetros biológicos y composición de ácidos grasos de organismos juveniles en un periodo de 329 días. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos de los abulones sugieren su capacidad para sintetizar ác...

  10. Visibilidad y enunciabilidad en la larga duración de la violencia política: La sombra azul de Sergio Schmucler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciana Vásquez Villanueva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Una historia de vida, eje fundamental de un film, es la discursividad que hemos indagado para percibir sentidos nuevos en la relación cine, memoria y violencia en la zona amplia de los discursos producidos sobre el terrorismo de estado en Argentina. La sombra azul, con guión y dirección de Sergio Schmucler, irrumpe para desbaratar conciencias. Nuestro trabajo, filiado en el Análisis del Discurso, se ha detenido en la indagación de tres dispositivos: las visibilidades, las enunciabilidades y las temporalidades, superpuestas, fragmentarias a veces, otras omnipresentes, deslizadas en la larga duración de una memoria social. Estos dispositivos, elaborados por Foucault para blandir discursividades exasperantes de órdenes impuestos, constituyen un camino privilegiado para llegar, a través de su desgranamiento, a una verdad intolerable forjada en este film. En La sombra azul la larga duración de la violencia de estado, la impunidad de los represores durante la democracia y, fundamentalmente, un sobreviviente —a la tortura, la prisión, el exilio, perteneciente a la fuerza policial de una de las provincias más castigadas por la dictadura— son cincelados, en la heteroglosia, en el diálogo y en el antagonismo, con otras voces. Este sobreviviente, devenido en re-viviente señala cómo un marco ético, capaz de valorar la tragedia humana, lo erige en un don para dotar de verdad, para esclarecer a una sociedad que, en muchos espacios, aún permanece en sombra. Este recorrido discursivo señala cómo, desde la indecibilidad original de un sujeto doliente, irrumpen visibilidades y enunciabilidades capaces de decir verdad y así proseguir con una memoria que nunca cesa.

  11. Petrogenesis, U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Furna Azul Migmatite: partial melting evidence during the San Ignacio Orogeny, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Newton Diego Couto do; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Lima, Gabrielle Aparecida de; Matos, Joao Batista; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: newtongeologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabilimagel@gmail.com, E-mail: lafonjm@ufpa.br, E-mail: prof.jmatos@gmail.com, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2016-11-01

    The Furna Azul Migmatite is a ∼10 km{sup 2} complex located in Pontes e Lacerda city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. It belongs to Paragua Terrane, limit with Rio Alegre Terrane, southeast of San Ignacio Province, in Amazon Craton. It consists of transitional metatexites with amphibolite enclaves and dioritic injections. The rocks were divided in residuum rich and leucosome rich; both have three deformation phases marked by folded stromatic layers affected by spaced foliation and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies, represented by garnet, biotite, sillimanite, and by the clinopyroxene in the enclaves. The metamorphic retrograde to greenschist is marked by formation of chlorite, muscovite and prehnite. Residuum-rich metatexites show higher CaO and Na{sub 2}O contents, separating them from K{sub 2}O, Ba and Rb enriched transitional metatexites. U-Pb on zircon and Sm-Nd whole-rocks dating indicates that the residuum-rich metatexite crystallized at 1436 ± 11 Ma, with a T{sub DM} age of 1.90 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.43)} of -0.54, whereas the dioritic injection crystallized at 1341,7 ± 17 Ma with a T{sub DM} age of 1.47 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.34)} of 3.39. These results indicate that the Furna Azul Migmatite protolith was formed during the San Ignacio Orogeny and was reworked during the same orogeny, as basement for collisional to post-magmatic granites from Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  12. Combustión espontánea de las harinas de pescado azul: Factores de influencia y peligrosidad en el transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, M. J.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal production characteristics and treatment are described, together with a detailed explanation of the international regulations for its maritime transport, as well as of the requirements for its stabilization to avoid its spontaneous combustion. Experience with this kind of transport, as well as Intensive research carried out over several years, has shown that the high fat content in several kinds of fish and the environmental humidity and temperature have a great influence and transform this kind of cargo into dangerous goods. Knowledge of proper stowage and cargo distribution in the holds greatly decreases the dangers during maritime transport. Good transport practice and stabilization of the meal with antioxidants together with the conclusions reached after research, make maritime transport of these cargoes safer.

    Se detallan las características de la fabricación y tratamiento de la harina de pescado azul, junto con un amplio desarrollo de las disposiciones internacionales para su transporte por vía marítima, así como la necesidad de estabilizar la harina de pescado para evitar la combustión espontánea. La experiencia en este transporte, además de las investigaciones realizadas durante varios años, ha puesto de manifiesto que el contenido de grasa en el pescado azul, la humedad y la temperatura, tienen una gran influencia y convierten a estos cargamentos en mercancías peligrosas. El conocimiento de una buena estiba o distribución de la carga dentro de las bodegas reduce considerablemente la peligrosidad en su transporte por mar. Esta práctica en el transporte y su estabilización con antioxidantes, junto con las conclusiones aportadas en la investigación, determinan un viaje más seguro en el transporte de estas mercancías.

  13. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  15. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law....... The article points out that the UPC because of this design will be biased towards technology based values and uniformity at the expense of other values and interests e.g. non-economic public interests, and values associated with diversity. The practical effects of these biases are analysed regarding cases...... involving ordre public and morality and scope of protection. The article shows that the biases will affect the law in all the areas discussed and that if unchecked they will reduce some of the “wriggling room” which the current system has provided. To maintain that room a focused effort by the UPC...

  16. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  17. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  18. Patent ductus arteriosus with Eisenmenger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Sherif; Patton, David J; Balon, Yvonne; Connelly, Michael S; Alvarez, Nanette

    2013-11-01

    Herein we report a 21 year-old woman with a previously documented patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger physiology. She presented with increasing cyanosis and exercise intolerance which could be explained by a new finding of right to left shunting through an interatrial communication. She was started on Bosentan therapy aiming to reduce the pulmonary pressure with consideration for heart-lung transplantation should any further deterioration occur.

  19. A rare association with patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Warrier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent fifth aortic arch (PFAA, also known as congenital double-lumen aortic arch, is a rare developmental anomaly of the aortic arch. A 5-month-old baby who presented with congestive cardiac failure was diagnosed to have a large patent ductus arteriosus with PFAA. Although this arch anomaly had no hemodynamic relevance in this case, preoperative diagnosis prevented surprises "on table."

  20. Recent Patents in Pulmonary Delivery of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animikh; Mandal, Abhirup; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary delivery is a non-invasive form of delivery that holds tremendous therapeutic promise for topical and systemic administration of several macromolecules. Oral administration of macromolecules has several limitations such as low bioavailability, degradation of drug before reaching circulation and insufficient absorption across intestinal membrane. Administration of macromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids via inhalation offers great potential due to the avoidance of first pass metabolism, higher surface area and rapid clinical response. However, delivery of reproducible, uniform and safe doses of inhaled particles remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and particle engineering led to progress in novel pulmonary drug delivery systems. Moreover, significant developments in carriers and delivery devices prevent denaturation of macromolecules and control their release within the lungs. This article reviews the advances in pulmonary drug delivery systems by focusing on the recent patents in delivery of macromolecules. Furthermore, recent patents in gene delivery to the lungs have also been discussed. List of patents included in this review is comprehensive in terms of pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. It includes inventions related to proteins and peptides, DNA therapeutics, siRNA and other genetic materials with therapeutic applications. The diseases targeted by these therapeutic molecules are varied including but not limited to different forms of cancer, respiratory diseases etc.

  1. On Management Crisis, Innovation and Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣莲

    2005-01-01

    There are lots of management crisises in chinese enterprises with development of china' s economy. There exists a bottle neck in the transition from middle-level to international level group for Chinese companies. While the general principles behind wise competition policy are well understood, their application in particular industries and particular cases calls for careful analytical thinking. That thinking often includes economics. Innovation competition policy can be analyzed using the same general principles as other parts of competition policy. It is important to understand innovation competition policy, because several kinds of innovation are important in the modern economy. How could such industries as software, semiconductors, and computers have been so innovative despite historically weak patent protection? We argue that if innovation is both sequential and complementary- as it certainly has been in those industries-competition can increase firms' future profits thus offsetting short-term dissipation of rents. A simple model also shows that in such a dynamic industry, patent protection may reduce overall innovation and social welfare. Standard arguments would predict that R&D intensity and productivity should have increased among patenting firms.

  2. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  3. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  4. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  5. International collaboration in patenting : a case study of contributions of Indian inventors

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, Bharvi

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates international collaboration of Indian inventors in patenting, using United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database from 1976-2004. The result indicates that Indian inventors had 911 patents with the inventors of 28 countries. It examines these patent documents in terms of patent assignees and their countries, type of assignees, areas of patenting, joint ownerships and key players holding these patents. It is observed that Indian inventors have contributed m...

  6. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  7. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  8. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  9. Impact of Global Patent and Regulatory Reform on Patent Strategies for Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Napoleon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  I come to you this morning not as an intellectual property lawyer but as a former general counsel of biotechnology and pharmaceutical related companies, as an attorney with significant exposure to intellectual property issues and as one who has seen first-hand the importance of intellectual property in shaping commercial strategies in biotechnology. With that as a backdrop, I would like to thank you for allowing me the opportunity to share with you today thoughts that I have regarding patents and the impact of patent reform on biotechnology. It has been said that the best way to predict the future is to invent it. However, I believe that the best way to control the future is to patent it.

  10. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  11. "To patent or not to patent? the case of Novartis' cancer drug Glivec in India".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabble, Ravinder; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2014-01-06

    Glivec (imatinib mesylate), produced by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, is prescribed in the case of chronic myeloid leukemia, one of the most common blood cancers in eastern countries. After more than a decade of legal battles surrounding its patentability, the Supreme Court of India gave its final decision on April 1st of 2013, rejecting the appeal of the Swiss giant drug manufacturer. In 2006, the Indian Patent Office first refused Glivec's patent under Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act arguing that it was only a modified version of an existing drug, Imatinib, and therefore that the drug was not innovative. Novartis replied filing legal challenges against the Indian government but the final verdict in April of 2013 ends the battle. Indeed, the Supreme Court stated that even if the bioavailability of the drug was improved, it did not demonstrate enhanced efficacy and that Glivec was not patentable. The research primarily focused on journal, newspaper and magazine articles relevant to the time frame of the lawsuit (from 1994 to 2013) as well as news searches through Google, Factiva, ProQuest, PubMed, and YouTube where press articles from court verdicts were obtained by using the following keywords: "India", "Novartis", "Glivec", "Patent", "Novartis Case", and "Supreme Court of India". The data sources were interpreted and analyzed according to the authors' own prior knowledge and understanding of the exigencies of the TRIPS Agreement. This case illuminates how India is interpreting international law to fit domestic public health needs. The Novartis case arguably sets an important precedent for the global pharmaceutical industry and ideally will help improve access to lifesaving medicines in the developing world by demanding that patient health needs supersede commercial interests. The Supreme Court of India's decision may affect the interpretation of the article of the TRIPS Agreement, which states members shall be free to determine the appropriate method

  12. Commentary on patents: Don`t dismiss Rifkin`s damning of gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, R.

    1995-07-01

    Biotech may have less to fear from Rifkin than from its own inclination to dismiss the fact that the evolution of ethics and patent laws applying to patenting genes has been haphazard. Perhaps it is time for the biotechnology industry to get behind the establishment of an effective forum for opening much-needed dialogue. Perhaps a Senate proposal to establish a bioethics commission, which reportedly has bogged down in partisan politics, is just such a venue for the government and private sector to begin to hash out the ethical and legal dilemmas that are indisputably at the heart of the biotechnology industry, and its future success.

  13. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  14. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  15. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  16. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: United States Air Force, DoD..., Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927,828, Serial No. 11/550,130, issued on... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent...

  17. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology analysis, innovation studies and evolutionary economics, as well as economic geography. The resulting maps can also be relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management, because the US market...

  18. Compulsory licensing, price controls, and access to patented foreign products

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Bond; Kamal Saggi

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by existing multilateral rules regarding intellectual property, we develop a North-South model to highlight the dual roles price controls and compulsory licensing play in determining Southern access to a patented Northern product. The Northern patent-holder chooses whether and how to work its patent in the South (either via entry or voluntarily licensing) while the South determines the price control and whether to issue a compulsory license. The threat of compulsory licensing benefi...

  19. Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and Software Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-07

    Patents, Innovation, and Access to New Pharmaceuticals , p. 852. 34 The Economics of Human Gene Patents, p. 1352. 35 For more information see CRS...Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, March 2003, available at [http://www.findarticles.com]. 28 Henry G. Grabowski, “Patents, Innovation, and Access to New ... Pharmaceuticals ,” Journal of International Economic Law, 2002, p. 851. 29 Iain Cockburn, “The Changing Structure of the Pharmaceutical Industry,” Health

  20. Do patents impede the provision of genetic tests in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John

    2013-06-01

    Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against